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1

Early adverse environments and genetic influences on age at first sex: evidence for gene × environment interaction.  

PubMed

Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on age at first sex. Using a sample of 1,244 pairs of twins and non-twin full siblings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study tested for gene-by-environment interactions (G × E) on age at first sex (AFS). Multivariate interaction models indicated that genetic influences on AFS were suppressed among low-socioeconomic-status (SES) and ethnic-minority compared with higher SES and ethnic-majority youth. Father absence did not uniquely moderate genetic influences on AFS. These results are broadly consistent with previous findings that genetic influences are minimized among individuals whose environments are characterized by elevated risk; however, future research would benefit from samples with larger numbers of individuals at the very low end of the SES spectrum. PMID:24417626

Carlson, Marie D; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K Paige

2014-05-01

2

Diffractive optics in adverse environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation at the Army Research Laboratory is in progress to characterize DOE performance in mil-spec environments. One of the most significant environmental influences is temperature. An analysis of a diffractive lens is presented in which optical performance is described as a function of temperature. In particular, we review the thermal dependence of focal length and diffraction efficiency. It is shown that the change in these parameters is independent of lens shape and relates only to material properties. Thermalized hybrid refractive/diffractive designs are discussed.

Behrmann, Gregory P.

1993-01-01

3

Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N?=?3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Results Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (?2????=?21.41, p?adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR?=?1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR?=?1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Conclusions Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional family environments cannot be ruled out.

2014-01-01

4

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ?3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults.

Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2013-01-01

5

Consequences of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Early Adversity on Behavioral Profile - Pathology or Adaptation?  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on how behavioral profile is shaped by early adversity in individuals with varying serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. In a recent study on 5-HTT knockout mice Heiming et al. (2009) simulated a ‘dangerous environment‘ by confronting pregnant and lactating females with odor cues of unfamiliar males, indicating the risk of infant killing. Growing up in a dangerous environment induced increased anxiety-related behavior and decreased exploratory locomotion in the offspring, the effects being most pronounced in mice lacking 5-HTT expression. We argue that these alterations in behavioral profile represent adaptive maternal effects that help the individuals to cope with adversity. In principle, such effects of adversity on behavioral profile should not automatically be regarded as pathological. Rather and in accordance with modern evolutionary theory they may represent adaptations, although individuals with 5-HTT genotype induced susceptibility to adversity may be at risk of developing pathologies.

Heiming, Rebecca S.; Sachser, Norbert

2010-01-01

6

Noise Spectrum Estimation in Adverse Environments: Improved Minima Controlled  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise spectrum estimation is a fundamental component of speech enhancement and speech recognition systems. In this paper, we present an Improved Minima Con- trolled Recursive Averaging (IMCRA) approach, for noise es- timation in adverse environments involving non-stationary noise, weak speech components, and low input signal-to- noise ratio (SNR). The noise estimate is obtained by av- eraging past spectral power values,

Israel Cohen

7

Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified.

Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

2013-01-01

8

Early Learning Environments That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment

Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

9

General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume?  

PubMed Central

Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

2014-01-01

10

Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging  

PubMed Central

Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity.

Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

2012-01-01

11

Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing.  

PubMed

To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the occipital components P1, N170, and P400 compared to family-reared children. By 42 months, ERP amplitudes and latencies of children placed in foster care were intermediate between the institutionalized and family-reared children, suggesting that foster care may be partially effective in ameliorating adverse neural changes caused by institutionalization. The age at which children were placed into foster care was unrelated to their ERP outcomes at 42 months. Facial emotion processing was similar in all 3 groups of children; specifically, fearful faces elicited larger amplitude and longer latency responses than happy faces for the frontocentral components P250 and Nc. These results have important implications for understanding of the role that experience plays in shaping the developing brain. PMID:19209987

Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

2009-01-01

12

Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.  

PubMed

The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

2014-01-01

13

Adverse Rearing Environments and Neural Development in Children: The Development of Frontal Electroencephalogram (EEG) Asymmetry  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Children raised in institutional settings experience marked deprivation in social and environmental stimulation. This deprivation may disrupt brain development in ways that increase risk for psychopathology. Differential hemispheric activation of the frontal cortex is an established biological substrate of affective style that is associated with internalizing psychopathology. Previous research has never characterized the development of frontal EEG asymmetry in children or evaluated whether adverse rearing environments alter developmental trajectories. METHODS A sample of 136 children (mean age=23 months) residing in institutions in Bucharest, Romania and a sample of community controls (n=72) participated. Half of institutionalized children were randomized to a foster care intervention. Electroencephalogram (EEG) data were acquired at study entry and at ages 30, 42, and 96 months. A structured diagnostic interview of psychiatric disorders was completed at 54 months. RESULTS Children exhibited increases in right relative to left hemisphere frontal activation between the second and fourth years of life, followed by an increase in left relative to right hemisphere activation. Children reared in institutions experienced a prolonged period of increased right hemisphere activation and a blunted rebound in left frontal activation. Foster care placement was associated with improved developmental trajectories, but only among children placed before 24 months. The development trajectory of frontal EEG asymmetry in early childhood predicted internalizing symptoms at 54 months. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to adverse rearing environments can alter brain development, culminating in heightened risk for psychopathology. Interventions delivered early in life have the greatest potential to mitigate the long-term effects of these environments.

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

2011-01-01

14

Early Adverse Events, HPA Activity and Rostral Anterior Cingulate Volume in MDD  

PubMed Central

Background Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. Methods/Results Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. Conclusions These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

Treadway, Michael T.; Grant, Merida M.; Ding, Zhaohua; Hollon, Steven D.; Gore, John C.; Shelton, Richard C.

2009-01-01

15

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants.

16

Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

2009-01-01

17

Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children—currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children—in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes

Margaret C. Moulson; Nathan A. Fox; Charles H. Zeanah; Charles A. Nelson

2009-01-01

18

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

19

Early adversity and mechanisms of plasticity: Integrating affective neuroscience with developmental approaches to psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the effects of early adversity on children's development reflects contemporary emphases on early experience in the behavioral sciences and plasticity in the neurosciences. Over the past decade, powerful new tools and approaches for understanding the neural circuitry involved in emotion have become increasingly available. Yet, research in developmental psychopathology has not reaped the full benefits of affective neuroscience

SETH D. POLLAK

2005-01-01

20

Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor

Chris Murgatroyd; Alexandre V Patchev; Yonghe Wu; Vincenzo Micale; Yvonne Bockmühl; Dieter Fischer; Florian Holsboer; Carsten T Wotjak; Osborne F X Almeida; Dietmar Spengler

2009-01-01

21

Adverse perinatal environment contributes to altered cardiac development and function.  

PubMed

Epidemiological observations report an association between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and cardiovascular diseases. Systemic maternal inflammation is the most common stress during pregnancy, leading to IUGR. We hypothesized that perinatal inflammation and hyperoxygenation induce discernible alterations in cardiomyocyte contractility and calcium signaling, causing early cardiac dysfunction. Pregnant C3H/HeN mice were injected with LPS or saline on embryonic day 16. Newborn mice were placed in 85% O2 or room air (RA) for 14 days. Pups born to LPS-injected dams had reduced birth weight. Echocardiographic measurements revealed that in vivo LV function was compromised in LPS/O2 mice as early as 3 days of life. Isolated cardiomyocytes from LPS/O2 mice at day 14 exhibited decreased sarcomere fractional shortening, along with decreased time-to-90% peak shortening. Calcium transient amplitude was greatest in LPS/O2 mice. SERCA2a mRNA and protein levels were increased and phospholamban mRNA levels were decreased in LPS/O2 mice. Phosphorylation of phospholamban was increased, along with Sorcin mRNA levels in LPS/O2 mice. Combined exposure to perinatal inflammation and hyperoxia resulted in growth restriction, in vivo and in vitro cardiac dysfunction, coinciding with humans and animal models of cardiac dysfunction. Expression of calcium handling proteins during the neonatal period was similar to that observed during fetal stages of development. Our data suggest that perinatal inflammation and hyperoxia exposure alter fetal development, resulting in early cardiac dysfunction. PMID:24610916

Velten, Markus; Gorr, Matthew W; Youtz, Dane J; Velten, Christina; Rogers, Lynette K; Wold, Loren E

2014-05-01

22

Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings. PMID:23397493

Isaksson, Johan; Nilsson, Kent W; Lindblad, Frank

2013-07-01

23

Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research  

PubMed Central

Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms.

McGowan, Patrick O.

2013-01-01

24

Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

25

Influence of parental education, childhood adversities, and current living conditions on daily smoking in early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. Methods: The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N ¼ 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged

Laura Kestila; Seppo Koskinen; Tuija Martelin; Ossi Rahkonen; Tiina Pensola; Sami Pirkola; Kristiina Patja; A. Aromaa

2006-01-01

26

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume.  

PubMed

The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism. PMID:23341118

Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas

2013-03-01

27

Adverse Events Associated With Organizational Factors of General Hospital Inpatient Psychiatric Care Environments  

PubMed Central

Objective Although general hospitals receive nearly 60% of all inpatient psychiatric admissions, little is known about the care environment and related adverse events. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of adverse events and examine the extent to which organizing factors of inpatient psychiatric care environments were associated with the occurrence of these events. The events examined were wrong medication, patient falls with injuries, complaints from patients and families, work-related staff injuries, and verbal abuse directed toward nurses. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from a 1999 nurse survey linked with hospital data. Nurse surveys from 353 psychiatric registered nurses working in 67 Pennsylvania general hospitals provided information on nurse characteristics, organizational factors, and the occurrence of adverse events. Linear regression models and robust clustering methods at the hospital level were used to study the relationship of organizational factors of psychiatric care environments and adverse event outcomes. Results Verbal abuse toward registered nurses (79%), complaints (61%), patient falls with injuries (44%), and work-related injuries (39%) were frequent occurrences. Better management skill was associated with fewer patient falls and fewer work-related injuries to staff. In addition, fewer occurrences of staff injuries were associated with better nurse-physician relationship and lower patient-to-nurse staffing ratios. Conclusions Adverse events are frequent for inpatient psychiatric care in general hospitals, and organizational factors of care environments are associated with adverse event outcomes. Further development of evidence-based quality and safety monitoring of inpatient psychiatric care in general hospitals is imperative.

Kumar, Aparna; Aiken, Linda H.

2010-01-01

28

Adult Shyness: The Interaction of Temperamental Sensitivity and an Adverse Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the relation between adult shyness and sensory-processing sensitivity and posits a new model in which the interaction of sensitivity and adverse childhood environment leads to negative affectivity (with the highly sensitive being more impacted), which in turn leads to shyness. Consistent with this model, two questionnaire studies (Ns = 96 and 213) supported three hypotheses: (a) sensory-processing

Elaine N. Aron; Arthur Aron; Kristin M. Davies

2005-01-01

29

Improving Speech Recognition Accuracy for Small Vocabulary Applications in Adverse Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of improving the accuracy of small vocabulary isolated word speaker dependent speech recognition under adverse conditions such as factory environments is considered. A new approach to solving this problem, by using Output Probability Distributions (OPDs), is presented. OPDs improve the system performance by modelling inter-word relationships, something that a standard maximum likelihood (ML) technique fails to do. The

D. Thambiratnam; S. Sridharan

2000-01-01

30

Review of Adverse Biomedical Effects of Sound in the Military Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a comprehensive review of the adverse effects of sound on man in the military environment. The diversity and complexity of Army systems that overexpose the soldier to noise have caused concern for his health and his capability to perfo...

C. J. Carr K. D. Fisher

1971-01-01

31

Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment could benefit from using Lewin’s force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. In this article, authors describe how they used Lewin’s Model of Change to retrospectively examine recruitment strategies from five cancer control studies conducted in an adverse environment that had resulted from well-known researcher misconduct and rural suspicion of outsiders.

32

Examining the relationships between prenatal methamphetamine exposure, early adversity, and child neurobehavioral disinhibition.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother-infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23067308

Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

2013-09-01

33

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

34

Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence.

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Andersen, Susan L.

2013-01-01

35

Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents  

PubMed Central

During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS.

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

2014-01-01

36

Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: Implications for academic adjustment  

PubMed Central

Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning — inhibitory control — among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Specifically, a go/nogo task was administered when children were eight years old and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were collected. Results revealed that children assigned to care as usual (i.e., institutional care) were less accurate and exhibited slower neural responses compared to children assigned to the foster care intervention and children who had never been institutionalized. However, children in both the care as usual and foster care groups exhibited diminished attention processing of nogo cues as assessed via P300 amplitude. Foster care children also showed differential reactivity between correct and error responses via the error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to children in the care as usual group. Combined, the results highlight perturbations in neural sources of behavioral and attention problems among children experiencing early adversity. Potential implications for academic adjustment in at risk children are discussed.

McDermott, Jennifer M.; Westerlund, Alissa; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.

2011-01-01

37

Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: implications for academic adjustment.  

PubMed

Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning - inhibitory control - among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Specifically, a go/nogo task was administered when children were eight years old and behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures were collected. Results revealed that children assigned to care as usual (i.e. institutional care) were less accurate and exhibited slower neural responses compared to children assigned to the foster care intervention and children who had never been institutionalized. However, children in both the care as usual and foster care groups exhibited diminished attention processing of nogo cues as assessed via P300 amplitude. Foster care children also showed differential reactivity between correct and error responses via the error-related negativity (ERN) as compared to children in the care as usual group. Combined, the results highlight perturbations in neural sources of behavioral and attention problems among children experiencing early adversity. Potential implications for academic adjustment in at risk children are discussed. PMID:22682911

McDermott, Jennifer M; Westerlund, Alissa; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A

2012-02-15

38

Optical systems in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Singapore, Oct. 22-27, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to environmental effects, lasers and laser techniques, field instrumentation, and metrology. Topics discussed include atmospheric effects on laser systems, fungal testing of diode laser collimators, recording and analysis of high-frequency sinusoidal vibrations using computerized TV-holography, solid state lasers for field applications, applications of laser techniques in fluid mechanics, production of laser simulation systems for adverse environments, a microprocessor-based laser range finder, a study on Hadamard transform imaging spectroscopy, the real-time automatic inspection under adverse conditions, laser sensing in the iron-making blast furnace, reconstruction of 3D displacement fields by carrier holography, a passive range and azimuth measuring system, an integrated optics temperature sensor, and integrated optics in optical engineering. (For individual items see A93-17759 to A93-17775)

Tam, Siu-Chung; Silva, Donald E.; Kuok, M. H.

1991-03-01

39

Adverse Outcome of Early Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Secondary to Atrial Fibrillation after Repeated Systemic Thrombolysis  

PubMed Central

Background. Recurrent ischemic stroke is associated with adverse neurological outcome in patients with atrial fibrillation. There is very scarce information regarding the neurological outcome of atrial fibrillation patients undergoing repeated systemic thrombolysis after early recurrent ischemic stroke. Clinical Case and Discussion. We describe a case of a 76-year-old woman with known paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who was admitted because of an acute right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke and who underwent repeated systemic thrombolysis within 110 hours. The patient underwent systemic thrombolysis after the first ischemic stroke with almost complete neurological recovery. On the fourth day after treatment, an acute left middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke was diagnosed and she was treated with full-dose intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. A hemorrhagic transformation of the left middle cerebral artery infarction was noted on follow-up cranial computed tomographic scans. The patient did not recover from the second cerebrovascular event and died 25 days after admission. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case reporting the adverse neurological outcome of a patient with diagnosis of atrial fibrillation undergoing repeated systemic thrombolysis after early recurrent ischemic stroke. Our report represents a contribution to the scarce available evidence suggesting that repeated systemic thrombolysis for recurrent ischemic stroke should be avoided.

Sposato, Luciano A.; Salutto, Valeria; Beratti, Diego E.; Monti, Paula; Riccio, Patricia M.; Mazia, Claudio

2013-01-01

40

Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.  

PubMed

Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with inhalation exposure to fungi, bacteria, and other organic matter, usually in industrial or agricultural settings. Molds growing indoors are believed by some to cause building-related symptoms. Despite a voluminous literature on the subject, the causal association remains weak and unproven, particularly with respect to causation by mycotoxins. One mold in particular, Stachybotrys chartarum, is blamed for a diverse array of maladies when it is found indoors. Despite its well-known ability to produce mycotoxins under appropriate growth conditions, years of intensive study have failed to establish exposure to S. chartarum in home, school, or office environments as a cause of adverse human health effects. Levels of exposure in the indoor environment, dose-response data in animals, and dose-rate considerations suggest that delivery by the inhalation route of a toxic dose of mycotoxins in the indoor environment is highly unlikely at best, even for the hypothetically most vulnerable subpopulations. Mold spores are present in all indoor environments and cannot be eliminated from them. Normal building materials and furnishings provide ample nutrition for many species of molds, but they can grow and amplify indoors only when there is an adequate supply of moisture. Where mold grows indoors there is an inappropriate source of water that must be corrected before remediation of the mold colonization can succeed. Mold growth in the home, school, or office environment should not be tolerated because mold physically destroys the building materials on which it grows, mold growth is unsightly and may produce offensive odors, and mold is likely to sensitize and produce allergic responses in allergic individuals. Except for persons with severely impaired immune systems, indoor mold is not a source of fungal infections. Current scientific evidence does not support the proposition that human health has been adversely affected by inhaled mycotoxins in home, school, or office environments. PMID:12762072

Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

2003-05-01

41

The Combined Effects of Prenatal Drug Exposure and Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

Fisher, Philip A.; Lester, Barry M.; DeGarmo, David S.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

2012-01-01

42

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.  

PubMed

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

43

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

PubMed Central

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joel; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

44

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

45

Elimination of the adverse effects of urea fertilizer on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil  

PubMed Central

The rapidly increasing importance of urea fertilizer in world agriculture has stimulated research to find methods of reducing the problems associated with the use of this fertilizer. One of these problems is that urea has adverse effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil. Because there is evidence that these adverse effects are caused largely, if not entirely, by ammonia produced through hydrolysis of urea fertilizer by soil urease, we explored the possibility that they could be reduced or eliminated by amending urea fertilizer with a small amount of a urease inhibitor. Studies with seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) showed that phenylphosphorodiamidate and N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide were the most effective of 10 urease inhibitors evaluated for reduction of the adverse effect of urea on seed germination. N-(n-butyl)-thiophosphoric triamide was superior to phenylphosphorodiamidate for reducing the adverse effects of urea solutions on seed germination and seedling growth in soil, and it completely eliminated the adverse effect of urea granules on early plant growth in soil. The data reported indicate that the adverse effects of urea fertilizer on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil could be eliminated or markedly reduced by amending the fertilizer with as little as 0.01% (wt/wt) of N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide. Images

Bremner, John M.; Krogmeier, Michael J.

1988-01-01

46

Early Earth's environment: An exobiological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of our knowledge of the physico-chemical conditions that prevailed on the early Earth when Life originated. The early Earth environment was subjected to a very peculiar flux of primordial matter and solar energy. It may have therefore displayed physico-chemical conditions very different from today. The terrestrial geological record can potentially provide a lot of information about these ancient times. Their direct study is strongly influenced by the preservation of the oldest terrains and in particular the survival of volcano-sedimentary supracrustal rocks (ie remnants of the outer part of the Earth's surface), formed by a direct interaction with the hydrosphere, atmosphere and, possibly, primitive biosphere. Their study in recent years helped to clarify the existence of a primitive ocean, to study its physico-chemical conditions, but also to use the elemental and isotopic composition of sediments as a tracer of some key atmospheric chemical processes of biotic or abiotic origin. Studying and understanding the primitive terrestrial environment at the most ancient times the geological record allows us to access, possibly as far back as 4.28 billion years, allow us already to glimpse these unique conditions, certainly limited in time, which constituted nevertheless a prelude to, or even fostered, Life and its evolution on our home planet.

Hébrard, E.

2012-12-01

47

Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits  

PubMed Central

Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience.

Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

2012-01-01

48

Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.  

PubMed

Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

2012-10-16

49

KCTD8 Gene and Brain Growth in Adverse Intrauterine Environment: A Genome-wide Association Study  

PubMed Central

The most dramatic growth of the human brain occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of postnatal life. Genesis of the cerebral cortex involves cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, all of which may be influenced by prenatal environment. Here, we show that variation in KCTD8 (potassium channel tetramerization domain 8) is associated with brain size in female adolescents (rs716890, P = 5.40 × 10?09). Furthermore, we found that the KCTD8 locus interacts with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking vis-à-vis cortical area and cortical folding: In exposed girls only, the KCTD8 locus explains up to 21% of variance. Using head circumference as a proxy of brain size at 7 years of age, we have replicated this gene–environment interaction in an independent sample. We speculate that KCTD8 might modulate adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on brain development via apoptosis triggered by low intracellular levels of potassium, possibly reducing the number of progenitor cells.

Bernard, Manon; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Davey Smith, George; Gillis, Jesse; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Melka, Melkaye G.; Leonard, Gabriel; Pavlidis, Paul; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Schumann, Gunter; Timpson, Nicholas; Toro, Roberto; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka

2012-01-01

50

Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children's Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context  

PubMed Central

This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children.

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

2014-01-01

51

Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.  

PubMed

This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

2014-07-01

52

Autonomic reactivity in relation to attachment and early adversity among foster children.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the quality of relationships with foster caregivers was associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity of children during separation and reunion with their foster caregiver. Moreover, effects of early adversity were examined in relation to attachment and autonomic nervous system reactivity. The sample included 60 children between 26 and 88 months of age, who participated with their primary foster caregivers in the Strange Situation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period were measured as indicators of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity, respectively. Attachment quality (ordered/disordered and secure/insecure attachment), was coded on the basis of children's behavior in the Strange Situation using the Cassidy and Marvin coding system. Children with a background of neglect and those with disordered (disorganized-controlling or insecure-other) attachment showed most sympathetic reactivity during the procedure. Moreover, children with disordered attachment showed less vagal regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases on separation and increases on reunion) than children with ordered attachment. The findings show that the quality of relationships with current caregivers, and to a lesser extent specific experiences of neglect, may have an impact on children's abilities to regulate emotions in the context of environmental stress and challenges. PMID:20102650

Oosterman, Mirjam; De Schipper, J Clasien; Fisher, Philip; Dozier, Mary; Schuengel, Carlo

2010-01-01

53

Adverse effects of chronic circadian desynchronization in animals in a "challenging" environment  

PubMed Central

Continuous disruption of circadian rhythms, as seen in human shift workers, has been associated with the development of a number of adverse mental and physiological conditions. However, scientific evidence linking circadian disruption to overall health, particularly in animal models, is not well documented. In this study, we have demonstrated that exposing C57BL/6J mice to 12-h phase shifts every 5 days for 3 mo had no effect on body weight or intestinal physiology. However, when animals were further challenged with dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis, chronic shifting of the light-dark cycle led to a dramatic increase in the progression of the colitis as indicated by reduced body weight, abnormal intestinal histopathology, and an exacerbated inflammatory response. These data indicate that circadian disruption is an important predisposing factor that may provoke the onset or worsening of various disease states such as inflammatory disorders. This study provides further evidence for continued investigations using animal models of circadian disruption to examine the consequences of circadian disruption on health when organisms are faced with a “challenging” environment.

Preuss, Fabian; Tang, Yueming; Laposky, Aaron D.; Arble, Deanna; Keshavarzian, Ali; Turek, Fred W.

2008-01-01

54

Association of adverse childhood environment and 5-HTTLPR Genotype with late-life depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Neurobiological and clinical studies suggest that childhood maltreatment may result in functional and structural nervous system changes which predispose the individual to depression. This vulnerability appears to be modulated by a polymorphism in the serotonin linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Little is known however, about the persistence of this vulnerability across the life-span although clinical studies of adult populations suggest that gene-environment interaction may diminish with ageing. Method Depressive symptomatology and adverse and protective childhood events were examined in a population of 942 persons aged 65 years and over, taking into account socio-demographic characteristics and proximal competing causes of depression (widowhood, recent life-events, vascular and neurological disorder, and disability). Subjects were diagnosed as depressed if they met one of three criteria: a diagnosis of major depression on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), over 16 on the CES-D or anti-depressant treatment Results Exposure to traumatic events in childhood doubled the risk of late-life depression and increased the risk of repeated episodes. Not all events were found to be pathogenic; significant risk being associated with excessive sharing of parental problems, poverty, mental disorder in parents, excessive punishment, verbal abuse, humiliation and mistreatment by an adult outside the family. Interactions were observed between the 5-HTTLPR ‘L’ allele, poverty and excessive sharing of parental problems. Conclusions Certain types of childhood trauma continue to constitute risk factors for depression in old age, outweighing more proximal causes. Gene-environment vulnerability interaction is linked in older age to the L-carrying genotype, modulating the effects of general environmental conditions rather than aggressive acts on the individual, perhaps due to increased cardiac reactivity.

Ritchie, Karen; Jaussent, Isabelle; Stewart, Robert; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Courtet, Philippe; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Malafosse, Alain

2009-01-01

55

Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

McMurtry, Robert Y.

2011-01-01

56

Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes.  

PubMed

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A

2013-01-01

57

Smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant threat to the fetus. We examined the association between active maternal\\u000a smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy with newborn somatometrics and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm\\u000a delivery, low birth weight, and fetal growth restriction. One thousand four hundred mother–child pairs with extensive questionnaire\\u000a data were followed up until delivery, within the context

Constantine I. Vardavas; Leda Chatzi; Evridiki Patelarou; Estel Plana; Katerina Sarri; Anthony Kafatos; Antonis D. Koutis; Manolis Kogevinas

2010-01-01

58

Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

2011-01-01

59

Community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin: acceptability and early adverse reactions.  

PubMed Central

A study of community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was undertaken in a rain forest area of Liberia to investigate the possible occurrence of serious adverse effects. The total population was 13,704, the microfilarial load was 5.35 mf/mg skin, and the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection was 50% at 9 years of age and over 80% among those aged 15 years and older. Certain groups (like pregnant women and young children) were excluded from treatment. Out of the 7956 people eligible for treatment, 7699 (97%) accepted the ivermectin. Data on possible adverse reactions were collected by four different methods, including systematic house-by-house follow-up visits three days after treatment, biweekly population surveillance, and monitoring of both mobile clinic records and hospital records. No severe adverse reactions were noted, and no deaths could be related to ivermectin treatment; only 1.3% of the persons treated had a moderate adverse reaction of the Mazzotti type, presumably related to the killing of microfilariae. The study showed good acceptance by the population, and that mass treatment campaigns with ivermectin are feasible.

Pacque, M. C.; Dukuly, Z.; Greene, B. M.; Munoz, B.; Keyvan-Larijani, E.; Williams, P. N.; Taylor, H. R.

1989-01-01

60

Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

2013-01-01

61

Persistent Adverse Effects on Health and Reproduction Caused by Exposure of Zebrafish to 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin During Early Development and Gonad Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Little is understood regarding the impacts of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure during early development on the health, survival, and reproductive capability of adults. Here we use zebrafish to determine whether early life stage exposure to TCDD induces toxicity in adult zebrafish and their offspring. Zebrafish were exposed to graded concentrations of TCDD (0–400 pg/ml) via waterborne exposure for 1 h/week from 0 to 7 weeks of age. The heart and swim bladder were identified as being most sensitive to TCDD exposure during early development. Subtle developmental toxic responses collectively impaired survival, and only zebrafish in the 0, 25, and 50 pg TCDD/ml groups survived to adulthood. Surviving fish exhibited TCDD toxicity in craniofacial structures (i.e., operculum and jaw), heart, swim bladder, and ovary. Exposure to 25 pg TCDD/ml impaired egg production (40% of control), fertility (90% of control), and gamete quality. TCDD-treated males contributed more than females to impaired reproductive capacity. Transgenerational effects were also discovered in that offspring from parents exposed to TCDD during early life stages showed a 25% increase in mortality compared with the F1 of dimethyl sulfoxide fish, reduced egg production (30–50% of control) and fertility (96% of control). Thus, adverse effects resulting from TCDD exposure during early life stages for one generation of zebrafish were sufficient to cause adverse health and reproductive effects on a second generation of zebrafish. In the environment, transgenerational effects such as these may contribute to population declines for the most TCDD sensitive fish species.

King Heiden, Tisha C.; Spitsbergen, Jan; Heideman, Warren; Peterson, Richard E.

2009-01-01

62

Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

1989-01-01

63

The effect of patient sex on the incidence of early adverse effects in a population of elderly patients.  

PubMed

Patient sex is known to influence the response to general and regional anaesthesia and recovery after surgery. However, most studies come from analyses carried out on middle-aged patients. As most of the patients admitted to the post-anaesthesia recovery room in our institution are elderly, we took the opportunity to investigate the association between sex and incidence of early adverse events in this older population of patients after major surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing general, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological surgery, admitted to the recovery room of our institution over a 15-month period, were retrospectively studied. The following adverse events were considered in the analysis: shivering, postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension and hypertensive responses, new arrhythmias requiring treatment, acute respiratory failure and desaturation. A total of 1347 patients (mean age 73.3±15.1 years, 61.4% women) were included. Women showed a higher incidence of shivering (relative difference +48%, P=0.0003), postoperative nausea and vomiting (+91%, P<0.0001), hypotension (+32%, P=0.044) and desaturation (+60%, P=0.0030) than men. The incidence of hypertensive response, arrhythmias and acute respiratory failure were not statistically significantly different. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that women have a higher risk of early postoperative adverse events even in a more elderly population. PMID:24967759

Conti, D; Ballo, P; Boccalini, R; Boccherini, A; Cantini, S; Venni, A; Pezzati, S; Gori, S; Franconi, F; Zuppiroli, A; Pedullà, A

2014-07-01

64

Childhood Exposure to Adversity and Risk of Substance-Use Disorder in Two American Indian Populations: The Meditational Role of Early Substance-Use Initiation*  

PubMed Central

Objective: We examined the relationship of childhood exposure to adversity and risk of substance-use disorder in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, exploring both the role of early initiation of substance use in mediating this relationship and variation in risk across types of adversity exposure. Method: The American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project provided data from 2,927 American Indians on the occurrence and age at onset of adversities, substance use, and substance-use-disorder symptoms. Results: The risk of substance-use disorder associated with early adversity was explained partially by early initiation of substance use. Three types of adversity (major childhood events, traumas, and witnessed violence) were associated with early onset of substance use and increased risk of substance-use disorder. Gender and tribe were also related to variation in both early substance use and substance-use disorder. Conclusions: Early exposure to adverse events was associated with early substance use and the subsequent development of substance-use disorders among American Indians. Public health initiatives targeting substance use and substance-use disorders in American Indian communities should include efforts to help children in these communities cope with adversities they encounter.

Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero M.; Turner, R. Jay

2009-01-01

65

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA.

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2012-01-01

66

Early life adversity as a risk factor for visceral pain in later life: importance of sex differences.  

PubMed

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA. PMID:23407595

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2013-01-01

67

THEORETICAL CONSTRAINTS ON EARLY EARTH'S ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract) The only geological evidence for the early Earth is zircon which suggests existence of continental crust and oceans at 4.404 billion years ago. Based on the record of the lunar impact craters, it has been considered that heavy bombardment of small solar system bodies to the Earth-Moon system occurred during the first several hundred million years. There is however

Eiichi Tajika

2008-01-01

68

Club foot, an adverse outcome of early amniocentesis: disruption or deformation? CEMAT. Canadian Early and Mid-Trimester Amniocentesis Trial.  

PubMed

An association between the occurrence of club foot and early amniocentesis has been reported. The largest of these randomised studies was the Canadian Early and Mid-Trimester Amniocentesis Trial. Data describing the neonatal outcome, focusing on this association, are presented. Possible mechanisms for the association and the implications for the development of club foot are discussed. PMID:10544229

Farrell, S A; Summers, A M; Dallaire, L; Singer, J; Johnson, J A; Wilson, R D

1999-11-01

69

Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed.

Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2007-01-01

70

Young Children and the Environment: Early Education for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Young Children and the Environment" is intended for tertiary students in Early Childhood Education and as a reference for child care practitioners and primary school teachers to promote education for sustainability (EfS) from birth to 8 years. The focus is on early education services, including day care centres, kindergartens, preschools,…

Davis, Julie M.

2010-01-01

71

Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches to Natural Environment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

2004-01-01

72

Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches To Natural Environment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

2004-01-01

73

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life  

PubMed Central

The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses.

Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

2012-01-01

74

Robust Endpoint Detection Algorithm Based on the Adaptive Band-Partitioning Spectral Entropy in Adverse Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In speech processing, endpoint detection in noisy environments is difficult, especially in the presence of nonstationary noise. Robust endpoint detection is one of the most important areas of speech processing. Generally, the feature parameters used for endpoint detection are highly sensitive to the environment. Endpoint detection is severely degraded at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) since those feature parameters cannot adequately

Bing-Fei Wu; Kun-Ching Wang

2005-01-01

75

The confluence of adverse early experience and puberty on the cortisol awakening response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between early deprivation\\/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income

Karina Quevedo; Anna E. Johnson; Michelle L. Loman; Theresa L. LaFavor; Megan Gunnar

2012-01-01

76

The effect of audible alarms on anaesthesiologists' response times to adverse events in a simulated anaesthesia environment: a randomised trial.  

PubMed

Alarms are ubiquitous in anaesthetic practice, but their net effect on anaesthesiologists' performance and patient safety is debated. In this study, 27 anaesthesiologists performed two simulation sessions in random order; one session was programmed to include an alarm condition, with a standard, frequent, clearly audible alarm sound. During these sessions, adverse events were simulated and anaesthesiologists' response times to these events were recorded. Perceived workload was assessed with the NASA Task Load Index. Response times to adverse events and perceived workload were similar in both groups. Pooled response times to atrial fibrillation and desaturation were fast, with a median (range [IQR]) of 8 (4-14 [1-41]) s and 9 (6-16 [1-44]) s, respectively. Pooled response times to an ST segment elevation on the ECG and an obstructed intravenous line were significantly slower, with median (IQR[range]) times of 34 (21-76[4-300]) s and 227 (95-399 [2-600]) s, respectively (p < 0.001). This study shows that in a simulated anaesthesia environment, response times to adverse events are similar in the absence or presence of an audible alarm, and that response times to various critical events differ. PMID:24750038

de Man, F R; Erwteman, M; van Groeningen, D; Ziedses des Plantes, P V; Boer, C; Loer, S A; Krage, R

2014-06-01

77

Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans?  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma.

Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

2013-01-01

78

Comparison between DFT and DWT-based speech\\/non-speech detection for adverse environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to evaluate the wavelet\\/frequencybased voice activity detection (VAD) algorithms under harsh conditions. A new frequency-based speech classifier has been developed based on a single subband distance feature in cooperating with adaptive percentile filter. Experimental results in clean, noisy and reverberant environments are provided. Results show that: (i) the group of algorithms exploiting the subband

Tuan V. Pham; Gernot Kubin

2011-01-01

79

Adverse-Effects of the Indoor Environment on Respiratory Health in Primary-School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to various factors from the indoor environment on respiratory health of 470 Dutch primary school children was studied. We investigated which of the factors, such as home dampness, passive smoking, unvented kitchen geysers, or pets, affected children's respiratory health the most, and whether airway sensitivity to these indoors exposures differed between boys and girls. Information on respiratory morbidity and

C. E. J. Cuijpers; G. M. H. Swaen; G. Wesseling; F. Sturmans; E. F. M. Wouters

1995-01-01

80

A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression  

PubMed Central

Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism, and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288), it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e., in the case of early-life abuse or neglect) may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity.

McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Stead, John D.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

2013-01-01

81

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response.  

PubMed

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect. PMID:22383860

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

82

Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries.

Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

2013-01-01

83

Adverse prenatal environment and kidney development: implications for programing of adult disease.  

PubMed

The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis suggests that many adult-onset diseases can be attributed to altered growth and development during early life. Perturbations during gestation can be detrimental and lead to an increased risk of developing renal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive dysfunction in adulthood. The kidney has emerged as being especially vulnerable to insult at almost any stage of development resulting in a reduction in nephron endowment. In both humans and animal models, a reduction in nephron endowment is strongly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. The focus of this review is twofold: i) to determine the importance of specific periods during development on long-term programing and ii) to examine the effects of maternal perturbations on the developing kidney and how this may program adult-onset disease. Recent evidence has suggested that insults occurring around the time of conception also have the capacity to influence long-term health. Although epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in mediating these outcomes, it is unclear as to how these may impact on kidney development. This presents exciting new challenges and areas for research. PMID:24686455

Dorey, Emily S; Pantaleon, Marie; Weir, Kristy A; Moritz, Karen M

2014-06-01

84

Interferometric Tomographic Measurement of an Instataneous Flow Field Under Adverse Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a three-dimensional refractive-index field from multi-directional projection data, has been conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four-bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques. Keywords: interferometry, tomography, phase stepping

Yu, En-Xi; Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Burner, Alpheus W.

1995-01-01

85

Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development  

PubMed Central

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, we outline and illustrate an overall strategy for discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swimbladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, we explored the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge and, in the process, identify important knowledge gaps. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test.

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C.; Embry, Michelle R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Belanger, Scott E.; Leonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

86

Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies.  

PubMed

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test guideline (OECD 210 or OCSPP 850.1400) is the most frequently used bioassay for predicting chronic fish toxicity and supporting aquatic ecological risk assessments around the world. For each chemical, the FELS test requires a minimum of 360 fish and 1 to 3 months from test initiation to termination. Although valuable for predicting fish full life-cycle toxicity, FELS tests are labor and resource intensive and, due to an emphasis on apical endpoints, provide little to no information about chemical mode of action. Therefore, the development and implementation of alternative testing strategies for screening and prioritizing chemicals has the potential to reduce the cost and number of animals required for estimating FELS toxicity and, at the same time, provides insights into mechanisms of toxicity. Using three reference chemicals with well-established yet distinct adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in early life stages of fish, we proposed FELS-specific AOPs as conceptual frameworks for identifying useful chemical screening and prioritization strategies. The reference chemicals selected as case studies were a cardiotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), neurotoxic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos), and narcotic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Using qualitative descriptions for each chemical during early fish development, we developed generalized AOPs and, based on these examples, proposed a three-tiered testing strategy for screening and prioritizing chemicals for FELS testing. Linked with biologically based concentration-response models, a tiered testing strategy may help reduce the reliance on long-term and costly FELS tests required for assessing the hazard of thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. PMID:21750347

Volz, David C; Belanger, Scott; Embry, Michelle; Padilla, Stephanie; Sanderson, Hans; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan; Villeneuve, Daniel

2011-10-01

87

34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

2013-07-01

88

Testing Putative Causal Associations of Risk Factors for Early Intercourse in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE)  

PubMed Central

Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19–47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents’ cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent’s environment should be addressed.

Donahue, Kelly L.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas

2012-01-01

89

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

90

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions.

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

91

Indirect comparisons of adverse events and dropout rates in early Parkinson's disease trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline.  

PubMed

The comparative safety profiles of monotherapeutic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) can provide valuable therapeutic information. The objective of this study was to perform an indirect comparison of Adverse Events (AEs) and Dropout Rates (DRs) among clinical trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline. Outcomes analyzed included DRs, total AEs, and AE categories: Cognitive (CG), Gastrointestinal (GI), and Sleep/Fatigue (SF). The odds-ratio (OR) and Credible Interval (CrI) of outcomes between products using placebo as common comparator was calculated using indirect meta-analytical methods. AEs incidences for subjects receiving rasagiline were not significantly different from placebo, whereas DRs were significantly lower than for placebo (OR = 0.55; 95% CrI = 0.34-0.88). Patients receiving pramipexole or ropinirole had higher incidence of all AEs and DRs than patients taking rasagiline, except for the nonsignificant incidence of CG for ropinirole vs. rasagiline (1.76; 0.69-4.70). The incidence of GI (2.11; 1.13-4.06) and SF (2.75; 1.42-5.47) was significantly higher for ropinirole than for pramipexole, whereas the incidence of CG was significantly lower for ropinirole than for pramipexole (0.22; 0.07-0.69). Findings suggest that subjects with early PD treated with rasagiline have fewer AEs and DRs than those treated with pramipexole or ropinirole. GI and SF AEs were highest for subjects treated with ropinirole, while individuals treated with pramipexole exhibited the highest incidence of cognitive AEs. PMID:22304415

Zagmutt, Francisco J; Tarrants, Marcy L

2012-07-01

92

Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.  

PubMed

The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water. PMID:21461648

Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

2011-10-01

93

Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

94

Investigating alternatives to the fish early-life stage test: a strategy for discovering and annotating adverse outcome pathways for early fish development.  

PubMed

The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. PMID:24115264

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

95

Aggressive Early Crystalloid Resuscitation adversely affects Outcomes in Adult Blunt Trauma Patients: An Analysis of the Glue Grant Database  

PubMed Central

Background Evidence suggests that aggressive crystalloid resuscitation is associated with significant morbidity in various clinical settings. We wanted to assess whether aggressive early crystalloid resuscitation adversely affects outcomes in adult blunt trauma patients. Methods Data were derived from the Glue Grant database. Our primary outcome measure was all-cause in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included days on mechanical ventilation; intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS); inflammatory - (acute lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome [ALI/ARDS], multiple organ failure [MOF]) and resuscitation-related morbidity (abdominal and extremity compartment syndromes, acute renal failure) and nosocomial infections (ventilator associated pneumonia [VAP], bloodstream [BSI], urinary tract [UTI] and surgical site infections [SSI]). Results In our sample of 1,754 patients, in-hospital mortality was not affected, but ventilator days (p<0.001), as well as ICU (p=0.009) and hospital (p=0.002) LOS correlated strongly with the amount of crystalloids infused in the first 24 hours post-injury. Amount of crystalloid resuscitation was also associated with development of ARDS (p<0.001), MOF (p<0.001), bloodstream (p=0.001) and SSI (p<0.001), as well as abdominal (p<0.001) and extremity compartment syndromes (p=0.028) in a dose-dependent fashion, when age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) severity of injury and acute physiologic derangement, comorbidities, and colloid & blood product transfusions were controlled for. Conclusion Crystalloid resuscitation is associated with a substantial increase in morbidity, as well as ICU and hospital LOS in adult blunt trauma patients. Level of Evidence 2b

Kasotakis, George; Sideris, Antonis; Yang, Yuchiao; de Moya, Marc; Alam, Hasan; King, David R; Tompkins, Ronald; Velmahos, George

2014-01-01

96

Pure siliceous ooze, a diagenetic environment for early chert formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of marine opal-CT nodules or layers as early diagenetic deposits has been documented only in Antarctic deep-sea sediments. In contrast, porcellanites and cherts in land sections and Deep Sea Drilling Project and Ocean Drilling Program drill sites are usually found in sediment sections of Miocene age and older. During R.V. Polarstem cruises ANT-IX/3 and 4, young porcellanites were recovered for the first time in contact with their host sediment in two cores from the Atlantic sector of the southern ocean. Chemical and mineralogical studies of these deposits and their surrounding sediments have increased knowledge about very early chert formation. In both cores the porcellanites are embedded in sediments rich in opal-A with extremely low levels of detrital minerals, an environment that seems conducive to a rapid transformation of biogenic silica into porcellanites.

Bohrmann, Gerhard; Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Hubberten, Hans; Kuhn, Gerhard

1994-03-01

97

A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

2003-01-01

98

How do interactions between early caregiving environment and genes influence health and behavior?  

PubMed

To promote optimal health and behavioral outcomes in children, nurses have long supported parents in providing the best possible care and nurturance to their offspring. A growing body of neuroscience research argues convincingly for the combined influences of genes and early caregiving on producing an individual's unique health and behavioral phenotype. In this article, we systematically review studies that demonstrate the relationship between qualities of early caregiving and genetic propensity to health and behavioral outcomes. From an initial set of 255 articles, 24 articles met our inclusion criteria. The outcomes fall into four distinct groups: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response to stress, externalizing behavior, internalizing behavior, and disorganized attachment. In the articles, authors examined genes that code for the 5-hydroxy tryptamine (serotonin) transporter genes linked polymorphic region [5-HTTLPR] serotonin transporter promoter, D4 dopamine receptor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and monoamine oxidase A promoter. The reviewed studies suggest that the effect of the early rearing environment on gene expression relates mainly to HPA response to stress, whereas interactions between genes and caregiving mainly relate to behavior and attachment. Findings have implications for nurses focused on advocacy, prevention, and intervention to support the healthy development of children in families faced with adversity. PMID:23099559

Letourneau, Nicole; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Bernier, Francois P; Joschko, Justin

2014-01-01

99

Chromium in the environment: an evaluation of exposure of the UK general population and possible adverse health effects.  

PubMed

Chromium in the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), has long been recognized as a carcinogen and there is concern as to the effects of continuous low-level exposure to chromium both occupationally and environmentally. This review summarizes the available exposure data and known health effects and evaluates the potential risk to human health in the United Kingdom. Chromium emissions to the environment in the United Kingdom are predominantly derived from fuel combustion, waste incineration, and industrial processes. The less toxic trivalent form of chromium [Cr(III)] is dominant in most environmental compartments, and any Cr(VI), the more toxic form, that is emitted to the environment can be reduced to Cr(III). Food is a major source of exposure to chromium, and estimated daily oral intakes for infants (1 yr), children (11 yr), and adults are 33-45, 123-171, and 246-343 micrograms/person/d, respectively. Soil ingestion, particularly common in young children, can contribute to oral intake. Inhalation is a minor route of exposure for the general population. Average daily inhalation intakes in infants can range from 0.004 microgram/d for rural infants to 0.14 microgram/d for urban infants who are passively exposed to tobacco smoke, whereas adults who live in industrialized areas and smoke may take up between 2 and 12 micrograms/d. The most serious health effect associated with Cr(VI) is lung cancer, which has been associated with some occupational exposure scenarios, whereas Cr(III) is an essential nutrient with a broad safety range and low toxicity. The human body has effective detoxification mechanisms that can reduce ingested or inhaled Cr(VI) to Cr(III). In conclusion, there is no clear evidence to relate exposure to environmental levels of chromium with adverse health effects in either the general UK population or subgroups exposed to chromium around industrialized or contaminated sites. It can be expected that an improved understanding of the relevance of possible long-term accumulation of Cr(III) in the body may facilitate a more complete assessment, in the future, of the health risks in the general population associated with environmental exposure to chromium. PMID:10911983

Rowbotham, A L; Levy, L S; Shuker, L K

2000-01-01

100

Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

2010-01-01

101

A protective genetic variant for adverse environments? The role of childhood traumas and serotonin transporter gene on resilience and depressive severity in a high-risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic aspects may influence the effect of early adverse events on psychological well being in adulthood. In particular, a common polymorphism within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR short\\/long) has been associated to the risk for stress-induced psychopathology. In the present study we investigated the role of childhood traumas and 5-HTTLPR on measures of psychological resilience and depression in a sample

V. Carli; L. Mandelli; L. Zaninotto; A. Roy; L. Recchia; L. Stoppia; V. Gatta; M. Sarchiapone; A. Serretti

2011-01-01

102

CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2013-08-20

103

Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. PMID:24931559

Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

2014-07-01

104

Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.  

PubMed

Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted. PMID:23978575

Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J

2013-11-01

105

Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters  

PubMed Central

Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes.

Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppanen, Jouni K.; Schonauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

2012-01-01

106

Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

2013-01-01

107

Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = ?1.714 (?3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (?0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure.

Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

2013-01-01

108

Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.  

PubMed

Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86-42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26-37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations. PMID:22496540

Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

2012-06-01

109

Do the Fibroblasts Contained in Early Passage MSC Population Adversely Affect the Characteristics of Stem Cell Population Obtained from Human Placenta?  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained from various human tissues by harvesting plastic adherent fibroblast-like cell population. For potential use in regeneration medicine, early passage MSC population is preferred to avoid cell senescence. The early passage adherent cell population contains MSCs as well as fibroblasts, however, the significance of the contained fibroblasts has not been well investigated. Thus, we investigated the stem cell characteristics of the early passage MSC population with and without fibroblasts depletion. Methods and Results: We obtained adherent cell populations from full term placenta at passage 2?3 and divided them into two subpopulations: fibroblasts depleted (popFD) and non-depleted population (popFND) using magnetic cell sorting method. The two subpopulations were compared in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation for adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. The percentage of fibroblasts contained in the early passage MSC population was 5.3% (2.9?8.4). Both the popFD and popFND was spindle shaped from early passages and maintained long term culture up to 20?22 passages. CFU-F assay showed no difference between the subpopulations. Overall, tri-lineage differentiation showed a tendency of better differentiation potential of popFND than popFD. Conclusions: We confirmed that fibroblasts are contained in early population of placenta-derived MSCs obtained by current method. This study revealed that the contained fibroblasts in early passage MSC population do not adversely affect the properties of MSCs in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation.

Ha, Jun-Woo; Kim, Jin-A; Ha, Chul-Won

2012-01-01

110

Online Learning Environments: What Early Childhood Teacher Education Students Say  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As online environments gain an increasing presence in higher education for both on-campus students and distance learners, there is a need to examine how effective these environments are for student learning. Online environments require essentially different teaching and learning strategies from those used in the traditional face-to-face contexts…

Heirdsfield, Ann; Davis, Julie; Lennox, Sandra; Walker, Sue; Zhang, Weihong

2007-01-01

111

Relationships Among Musical Home Environment, Parental Involvement, Demographic Characteristics, and Early Childhood Music Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the musical home environment of preschool children aged 3 to 5 years enrolled in an early childhood music class. This study also examined how the musical home environment was affected by demographic characteristics, parental musical experience, and early childhood music instruction. Parents and primary caregivers (N = 103) of preschool children enrolled

Adrienne M Wills

2011-01-01

112

CONTENT AND CONSTRUCT VALIDITY OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT RATING SCALE (ECPERS)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Childhood Physical Environment Rating Scale (ECPERS) has been designed to assess the quality of the physical environment of early childhood educational facilities. The purpose of the current research was to examine the content and construct validity of the scale. With regard to content validity, the vast majority of items (93%) in the scale were found to be important

Takemi Sugiyama; Gary T Moore

113

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

2012-01-01

114

Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

LeVota, Sheryl

2010-01-01

115

Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

2009-01-01

116

Online Learning Environments: What Early Childhood Teacher Education Students Say  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online environments gain an increasing presence in higher education for both on-campus students and distance learners, there is a need to examine how effective these environments are for student learning. Online environments require essentially different teaching and learning strategies from those used in the traditional face-to-face contexts (for on-campus students) or with print-based material (for distance learners). This article

Ann Heirdsfield; Julie Davis; Sandra Lennox; Sue Walker; Weihong Zhang

2007-01-01

117

Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty: Does Early Clinical Outcome Justify the Chance of an Adverse Local Tissue Reaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larger diameter metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing hips offer the possibility of low wear and reduced risk of dislocation. We reviewed\\u000a the first 126 patients (131 hips) who had a large-head (36-mm) MOM bearing surface to report the early clinical outcome and\\u000a especially to determine the occurrence of dislocation and wear-related concerns. The minimum followup was 5 years (mean, 5.6 years;\\u000a range, 5–7 years). We

Charles A. Engh Jr; Henry Ho

2010-01-01

118

CHROMIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT: AN EVALUATION OF EXPOSURE OF THE UK GENERAL POPULATION AND POSSIBLE ADVERSE HEALTH EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chromium in the hexavalent form, Cr(VI), has long been recognized as a carcinogen and there is concern as to the effects of continuous low-level exposure to chromium both occupationally and environmentally. This review summarizes the available exposure data and known health effects and evaluates the potential risk to human health in the United Kingdom. Chromium emissions to the environment in

2000-01-01

119

Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional studies on the combined effects of genetics and the environment on individual variation in disease susceptibility primarily focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence toxicant uptake and metabolism. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are also influenced by the environment, and play an important role

Dana C. Dolinoy; Jennifer R. Weidman; Randy L. Jirtle

2007-01-01

120

Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored.

Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

2013-01-01

121

Early gallbladder carcinoma has a favorable outcome but Rokitansky-Aschoff sinus involvement is an adverse prognostic factor.  

PubMed

The general impression about gallbladder carcinomas is that they are uniformly fatal; however, for the early forms, an entirely different picture indicating a very good prognosis is evolving from the high-incidence regions. We subjected 190 early gallbladder carcinomas (EGBC), defined as carcinomas confined to and above the tunica muscularis (AJCC's Tis, T1a, and T1b), and identified in cholecystectomy specimens sampled entirely according to an established protocol, to detailed analysis. Average patient age was 57.9 years (29-95). In more than half of the cases (114/190; 60%), the tumor was inapparent by gross examination. In 81 cases (42.6%), carcinomatous epithelium abutted the muscularis, whereas 57.4 % (n = 109) were qualified as intramucosal with no overt contiguity with muscularis.Intraepithelial extension into Rokitansky–Aschoff sinuses (RAS) was found in 34 cases (17.8 %). At the time of data analysis, 171 patients (90 %) [corrected] were alive. Overall actuarial survival was 92.3 % at 5 years and 90.4 % at 10 years. The 5- and 10-year actuarial survival rates of the intramucosal group (93.2 and 92.1%, respectively) were not statistically different from that of the muscle-abutting group (89.7% and 88.2% ; p = 0.334). Patients with RAS involvement had a significantly shorter survival than those without (p < 0.001). Of the 33 patients with RAS involvement, 13 (39%) died of disease, whereas only 6 of the 154 patients (4%) without RAS involvement died of disease. Disease-related mortality in these cases occurred relatively late (median 48 months). EGBC has a very good prognosis with a 90% 10-year survival rate. It is seen on average in patients almost a decade younger than those with advanced cancers. RAS involvement is an independent prognostic factor, and additional surgery may have to be considered for such cases. Occasional recurrences are encountered several years later, which suggests a field-effect phenomenon and warrants long-term follow-up. PMID:24022828

Roa, Juan C; Tapia, Oscar; Manterola, Carlos; Villaseca, Miguel; Guzman, Pablo; Araya, Juan Carlos; Bagci, Pelin; Saka, Burcu; Adsay, Volkan

2013-11-01

122

Challenges in Early Childhood Environments: Voices from the Field.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocating for young children is a primary focus of professionals in early childhood education (ECE). The complex nature of the EC profession requires comprehensive and multidimensional professional development opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify current challenges faced by ECE professionals. The intent was to gather…

Johnson, Celia E.; Lee, Hwa; Templeton, Rosalyn Anstine

123

Early stages of biofilm succession in a lentic freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial events of biofilms development and succession were studied in a freshwater environment at Kalpakkam, East Coast of India. Biofilms were developed by suspending Perspex (Plexiglass) panels for 15 days at bimonthly intervals from January 1996 to January 1997. Changes in biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density, chlorophyll a concentration and species composition were monitored. The biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density

R. Sekar; V. P. Venugopalan; K. Nandakumar; K. V. K. Nair; V. N. R. Rao

2004-01-01

124

An Early Look at COQUALMO in the JPL Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will describe the initial efforts to validate and calibrate the COQALMO model within the JPL environment. The risk to JPL software projects precipitated by higher than expected defect densities late in the software lifecycle impact spacecraWmissions in several ways. Among them are risks of missing \\

John D. Powell

125

Diet-induced obesity may affect the uterine immune environment in early-mid pregnancy, reducing NK-cell activity and potentially compromising uterine vascularization.  

PubMed

Objectives:To investigate the effect of obesity in early-mid pregnancy on crucial pregnancy hormones and the uterine immune environment.Background:Obesity impacts reproductive ability, adversely affecting conception and leading to complications in pregnancy. Obesity is often regarded as a stress state and an immune disease, both of which may contribute to pregnancy failure. We previously demonstrated that stress in early pregnancy greatly alters progesterone secretion. As progesterone is an immunomodulator, altered progesterone secretion may adversely modify the maternal immune system. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that obesity during pregnancy adversely alters the uterine immune environment.Methods:An obese mouse model was created by feeding C57/BL6 mice on a high-fat (HF)/sugar diet for 12 weeks before pregnancy. Control mice were fed on lower-fat/sugar chow. Mice were mated, and on day 7.5 of pregnancy plasma progesterone and prolactin were measured by immunoassay. Cells from the uterus-draining inguinal lymph nodes were collected for analysis of the uterine immune response by flow cytometry.Results:Diet-induced obesity increased the secretion of progesterone and altered a number of uterine natural killer (NK)- and T-cell responses. These included a marked reduction in the percentage of leucocyte-derived NK cells and reduced expression of interferon-? (IFN-?) in the NK cells compared with control mice.Conclusions:Maternal obesity, induced by an HF diet, may lead to a reduction in the expression of IFN-? in NK cells. NK-cell-derived IFN-? is reported to be involved in supporting uterine spiral artery remodelling. Thus, obesity in early pregnancy may compromise vascularization by reducing the expression of IFN-?-positive NK cells. Furthermore, the expression of uterine CD8(+) cells was reduced in the HF diet-fed mice, suggesting obesity may adversely alter the maternal immune adaptation that is essential for effective pregnancy. PMID:24080794

Parker, V J; Solano, M E; Arck, P C; Douglas, A J

2014-06-01

126

Issues in Early Intervention: The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Service Delivery in Natural Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family-centered philosophy and practice has been a central component of early intervention for infants and toddlers that is related to natural environment service provision. Family-centered practices have been widely accepted in the provision of early intervention services since the 1960s. Research indicates that families are essential to the…

Sylva, Judith A.

2005-01-01

127

Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

2012-01-01

128

Strength-Based Factors for Successful Adaptation to an Early College High School Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an early college high school setting, students are subject to varying academic, social and contextual demands of a higher educational environment. In a strength-based study of 136 diverse early college high school students, this research explored the relationship of internal and external developmental assets to adaptive functioning of…

Abernethy, Catherine

2010-01-01

129

ECERS-E: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Curricular Extension to ECERS-R  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third edition of the ECERS-E, formerly called "Assessing Quality in the Early Years: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS-E)." The ECERS-E is an instrument for measuring quality in literacy, numeracy, science and diversity as observable in pre-school in relation to child cognitive and social/behavioural developmental…

Sylva, Kathy; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

2010-01-01

130

Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.  

PubMed

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A; Corteen, Nicole L; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

2013-12-11

131

Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry.

Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

132

Early stages of biofilm succession in a lentic freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Initial events of biofilms development and succession were studied in a freshwater environment at Kalpakkam, East Coast of\\u000a India. Biofilms were developed by suspending Perspex (Plexiglass) panels for 15 days at bimonthly intervals from January 1996\\u000a to January 1997. Changes in biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density, chlorophyll a concentration and species composition\\u000a were monitored. The biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density

R. Sekar; V. P. Venugopalan; K. Nandakumar; K. V. K. Nair; V. N. R. Rao

133

A Comparison of Two Types of Early Intervention Environments Serving Toddler-Age Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison was made of the quality of 24 inclusive childcare classroom environments serving toddler-age children with and without disabilities and 25 segregated early intervention classroom environments serving children with disabilities only. The Infant Toddler Environmental Rating Scale documented that the inclusive classrooms scored higher on…

Bruder, Mary Beth; Brand, Marie

1995-01-01

134

Therapy in Natural Environments: The Means or End Goal for Early Intervention?.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how providing early intervention in natural environments reinforces family-centered care, discusses benefits for all parties when therapy is provided within daily routines and settings, describes a decision-making process for embedding natural environments within intervention, and concludes by identifying challenges and…

Hanft, Barbara E.; Pilkington, Kristine Ovland

2000-01-01

135

Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…

Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

2013-01-01

136

The environment of early Mars and the missing carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented in which the aqueous conditions needed to generate phyllosilicate minerals in the absence of carbonates found in the ancient Noachian crust are maintained by an early CO2-rich atmosphere, that, together with iron (II) oxidation, would prevent carbonate formation at the surface. After cessation of the internal magnetic dynamo, a CO2-rich primordial atmosphere was stripped by interactions with the solar wind and surface conditions evolved from humid to arid, with ground waters partially dissolving subsurface carbonate and sulfide minerals to produce acid-sulfate evaporitic deposits in areas with upwelling ground water. In a subsequent geochemical state (Late Noachian to Hesperian), surface and subsurface acidic solutions were neutralized in the subsurface through interaction with basaltic crust, allowing the precipitation of secondary carbonates. This model suggests that, in the early Noachian, the surface waters of Mars maintained acidity because of a drop in temperature. This would have favored increased dissolution of CO2 and a reduction in atmospheric pressure. In this scenario, physicochemical conditions precluded the formation of surface carbonates, but induced the precipitation of carbonates in the subsurface.

Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Hill, Andrew C.; Gómez-Ortíz, David; Ballesteros, Olga Prieto; Romanek, Christopher S.; Amils, Ricardo

2011-10-01

137

The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil assemblage is at treeline and higher on Isla Navarino (55°S) at the southern tip of South America. By mid-Miocene, the upland tundra biota was less diverse, most notably in the number of angiosperm taxa. Based on the autecology and geographic distributions of the descendants of the fossil biota which survive in the subantarctic islands, South America and Tasmania, there was a decline of mean summer temperatures from c. 6°C to c. 4°C from the early to the mid-Miocene. During the early Miocene, the MST of the TAM was c.19°C warmer than today. A paleotemperature estimate based on leaf waxes from a Ross Sea core is for a MST 11°C warmer than today which seems low considering it is based on a near sea-level vegetation. A recent paper utilizing a salt-hydration process to provide adequate moisture to support a Miocene tundra biota is based on erroneous data. The Miocene climate was wet with an annual precipitation of at least 3000 mm. A recent report of the possible survival of vegetation in the Taylor Valley until the Pliocene, based on the discovery of 5 Ma wood-like forms in a DVDP core, is improbable. Even if wood can be definitively identified from the Pliocene deposits it is likely to be reworked Miocene wood from uplands in the TAM (e.g. Friis Hills). Research supported by NSF OPP 0739693.

Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

2012-12-01

138

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high salt, low water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.

Litchfield, Carol D.

1998-07-01

139

Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

140

Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes Within a High-Risk Sample  

PubMed Central

The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed or teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group.

Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

2009-01-01

141

The early life social environment and DNA methylation: DNA methylation mediating the long-term impact of social environments early in life.  

PubMed

Although epidemiological data provides evidence that there is an interaction between genetics (nature) and the social and physical environments (nurture) in human development; the main open question remains the mechanism. The pattern of distribution of methyl groups in DNA is different from cell-type to cell type and is conferring cell specific identity on DNA during cellular differentiation and organogenesis. This is an innate and highly programmed process. However, recent data suggests that DNA methylation is not only involved in cellular differentiation but that it is also involved in modulation of genome function in response to signals from the physical, biological and social environments. We propose that modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental cues early in life serves as a mechanism of life-long genome "adaptation" that molecularly embeds the early experiences of a child ("nurture") in the genome ("nature"). There is an emerging line of data supporting this hypothesis in rodents, non-human primates and humans that will be reviewed here. However, several critical questions remain including the identification of mechanisms that transmit the signals from the social environment to the DNA methylation/demethylation enzymes. PMID:21772123

Szyf, Moshe

2011-08-01

142

Providing Early Intervention within Natural Environments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the state of current practice in early intervention in Finland and to compare them to American data. Professional women (N = 52), representing child care, elementary school, healthcare, and social work, completed the Families in Natural Environments Scale of Service Evaluation, a 34-item questionnaire…

Rantala, Anja; Uotinen, Sanna; McWilliam, R. A.

2009-01-01

143

The Influence of Early Language and Communication Environments on the Development of Language in Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seventy-two deaf Ss (10- to 19-years-old) were tested, employing the Test of Syntactic Ability (TSA), the language sub-tests of the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), and analyses of written language samples, in a study of the influence of early language and communication environment on their later syntactic language ability. Ss were divided into…

Brasel, Kenneth E.; Quigley, Stephen P.

144

A Longitudinal Assessment of the Home Literacy Environment and Early Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal assessment concentrated on the relation between the home literacy environment (HLE) and early language acquisition during infancy and toddlerhood. In study 1, after controlling for socio-economic status, a broadly defined HLE predicted language comprehension in 50 infants. In study 2, 27 children returned for further analyses.…

Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.; Friend, Margaret

2011-01-01

145

Simple tool to evaluate energy demand and indoor environment in the early stages of building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simplified building simulation tool to evaluate energy demand and thermal indoor environment in the early stages of building design is presented. Simulation is performed based on few input data describing the building design, HVAC systems and control strategies. Hourly values for energy demand and indoor temperature are calculated based on hourly weather data. Calculation of the solar energy transmitted

Toke Rammer Nielsen

2005-01-01

146

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars.  

PubMed

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high-salt, low-water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life. PMID:11543079

Litchfield, C D

1998-07-01

147

Topical meeting on optics in adverse environments: summaries of papers presented at the Optics in Adverse Environments Topical Meeting held in Albuquerque, New Mexico on 11-12 February 1987. Technical Digest series. Volume 8. Final report, 1 January-31 October 1987  

SciTech Connect

Summaries are presented of the following papers: Environmental Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope; Ultralightweight Optics in a Cryogenic Environment; Learjet Observatory Operations in The Tropics; Advanced Optics Fabrication Trends; Materials for Space Optics; Optical Fabrication Using Ion-Beam Figuring; Optics for the Free-Electron-Laser; All-Metal Resonator Design for Visible/Near IR Free-Electron-Laser Oscillators; Cooled Optics for High-Powered Laser Applications; Impinged-Droplet Evaporative Cooling for Optical mirrors Subjected to High Thermal Flux Loads; Radiation Effects in Optical Components; Gamma Radiation-Induced Absorptions in Calcium Fluoride; Variation of the Index of Refraction in Glasses Exposed to Ionizing Radiation; Radiation Damage to Dielectric Mirrors; Effect of Surface Pitting on Scattered Light in Transparent Domes; High-Damage-Threshold Optical Coatings; Fluorine Resistance of Dielectric Coatings for Excimer-Laser Optics; Porous Halide Antireflective Coatings for Adverse Environments; Auger Analysis of Elemental Depth Profiles Correlated with Multipulse Laser Damage of GaAs Surfaces; and Compressive Coatings on Optical Components for Improving Mechanical Durability and Increasing Strength.

Quinn, J.W.

1987-10-31

148

Quantitative trait loci for early plant vigour of maize grown in chilly environments.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is particularly sensitive to chilling in the early growth stages. The objective of this study was to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for early plant vigour of maize grown under cool and moderately warm conditions in Central Europe. A population of 720 doubled haploid (DH) lines was derived from a cross between two dent inbred lines contrasting in early vigour and were genotyped with 188 SSR markers. The DH lines per se and their testcrosses with a flint line were evaluated in field experiments across 11 environments in 2001 and 2002. Plants were harvested after six to eight leaves had been fully developed to assess fresh matter yield as a criterion of early vigour. Seven QTL were detected for line performance and ten QTL for testcross performance, explaining 64 and 49% of the genetic variance. Six out of seven QTL detected in the lines per se were also significant in their testcrosses. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed, but no relationship existed between the size of the QTL effects and the mean temperature in the individual environment. The correlation between fresh matter yield and days to silking was non-significant, indicating that differences in early plant vigour were not simply caused by maturity differences. For three additional chilling-related traits, leaf chlorosis, leaf purpling, and frost damage seven, six, and five QTL were detected, respectively. Three QTL for leaf chlorosis, two for leaf purpling, and two for frost damage co-localized with QTL for fresh matter yield. Results are considered as a reliable basis for further genetic, molecular, and physiological investigations. PMID:17340099

Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Schmidt, Walter; Möller, Evelyn M; Röber, Frank K; Knaak, Carsten; Ernst, Karin; Westhoff, Peter; Geiger, Hartwig H

2007-04-01

149

Early Campanian coastal progradational systems and their coal-forming environments, Wyoming to New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Ammonite zones (Baculites obtusus-Scaphites hippocrepis) in the marine facies associated with the Mesaverde Formation in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming, Star Point Sandstone and Blackhawk Formation in the Wasatch Plateau, Utah, and the Point Lookout Sandstone, Menefee Formation, and Crevasse Canyon Formation in the Gallup coalfield, New Mexico, indicate that these formations were deposited during early Campanian time (80-84 Ma). The coal-forming environments of these early Campanian formations were located landward of wave-reworked coastal sand complexes of progradational systems along the western margin of the Cretaceous seaway from Wyoming to New Mexico. The Mesaverde coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plain and coeval interdeltaic strandplain environments. The Star Point-Blackhawk coals accumulated in swamps of the lower delta plains of laterally shifting, prograding deltas and associated barrier ridge plains. The Point Lookout, Menefee, and Crevasse canyon coals formed in swamps of the lower delta plain and infilled lagoons behind barrier islands. Although the common coal-forming environments of these progradational systems are back barrier and delta plain, the former setting was the more conducive for accumulation of thick, laterally extensive coals. Economic coal deposits formed in swamps built on abandoned back-barrier platforms that were free of detrital influx and marine influence. Delta-plain coals tend to be lenticular and laterally discontinuous and thus uneconomic. The early Campanian coal-forming coastal-plain environments are analogous to modern peat-forming environments along the coast of Belize, Central America. Deltaic sediments deposited along the Belize coast by short-headed streams are reworked by waves into coastal barrier systems.

Marley, W.E.; Flores, R.M.; Ethridge, F.G.; Cavaroc, V.V.

1985-05-01

150

Pathways linking the early environment to long-term health and lifespan.  

PubMed

The intrauterine environment is a major contributor to normal physiological growth and development of an individual. Disturbances at this critical time can affect the long-term health of the offspring. Low birth weight individuals have strong correlations with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later-life. These observations led to the Thrifty Phenotype Hypothesis which suggested that these associations arose because of the response of a growing fetus to a suboptimal environment such as poor nutrition. Animal models have shown that environmentally induced intrauterine growth restriction increases the risk of a variety of diseases later in life. These detrimental features are also observed in high birth weight offspring from mothers who were obese or consumed a high fat diet during gestation. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have elucidated several potential candidates for the long-term effects of the early environment on the function and metabolism of a cell. These include: (1) Epigenetic alterations (e.g. DNA methylation and histone modifications), which regulate specific gene expression and can be influenced by the environment, both during gestation and early postnatal life and (2) Oxidative stress that changes the balance between reactive oxygen species generation (e.g. through mitochondrial dysfunction) and antioxidant defense capacity. This has permanent effects on cellular ageing such as regulation of telomere length. Further understanding of these processes will help in the development of therapeutic strategies to increase healthspan and reduced the burden of age-associated diseases. PMID:21147148

Barnes, S K; Ozanne, S E

2011-07-01

151

Gene-environment interactions and intermediate phenotypes: early trauma and depression.  

PubMed

This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

Hornung, Orla P; Heim, Christine M

2014-01-01

152

Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation) have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

2010-01-01

153

Central stellar populations of early-type galaxies in low-density environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the pilot study of Kuntschner et al., we have investigated the properties of a volume- and magnitude-limited (cz < 10000kms-1, bJ < 16) sample of early-type galaxies that were carefully selected from the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) two-degree field galaxy redshift survey (2dFGRS) to have no more than one and five companions within 1 and 2Mpc, respectively. We used images from the Digital Sky Survey (DSS) to confirm the E/S0 morphologies. We augmented this sample with field galaxies from Colbert et al. selected as having no neighbour within 1Mpc and +/-1000kms-1. We present spectroscopic observations of 22 galaxies from the combined sample, from which central velocity dispersions and the Lick stellar population indices were measured. After carefully correcting the spectra for nebular emission, we derived luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities and ?-element abundance ratios. We compare these isolated galaxies with samples of early-type galaxies in the Virgo and Coma clusters, and also with the previous sample of galaxies in low-density regions of Kuntschner et al. We find that galaxies in low-density environments are younger and have a greater spread of ages compared to cluster galaxies. They also show a wider range of metallicities at a given velocity dispersion than cluster galaxies, which display only supersolar metallicities. On average cluster, as well as, isolated galaxies show non-solar abundance ratios in ? elements, suggesting that, independent of galactic environment, star formation occurred on short time-scales. However, the abundance ratios for our low-density environment sample galaxies do not scale with the stellar velocity dispersion as observed in clusters. In fact we detect a large spread at a given velocity dispersion even reaching solar abundance ratios. The metallicity of isolated early-type galaxies is found to correlate weakly with ?. We reason that early-type galaxies in low-density environments experienced merging-induced star formation episodes over a longer and more recent period of time compared to a cluster environment, and speculate that a considerable fraction of their stars formed out of low-metallicity halo gaseous material during the slow growth of a stellar disc between merging events.

Collobert, Maela; Sarzi, Marc; Davies, Roger L.; Kuntschner, Harald; Colless, Matthew

2006-08-01

154

Composition and depositional environment of concretionary strata of early Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) age, Johnson County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unusual, concretion-bearing mudrocks of early Late Cretaceous age, which were deposited in an early Cenomanian epeiric sea, have been recognized at outcrops in eastern Wyoming and in adjoining areas of Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Colorado. In Johnson County, Wyo., on the western flank of the Powder River Basin, these strata are in the lower part of the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier Formation. At a core hole in south-central Johnson County, they are informally named Unit 2. These strata are about 34 m (110 ft) thick and consist mainly of medium- to dark-gray, noncalcareous, silty shale and clayey or sandy siltstone; and light-gray to grayish-red bentonite. The shale and siltstone are either bioturbated or interlaminated; the laminae are discontinuous, parallel, and even or wavy. Several ichnogenera of deposit feeders are common in the unit but filter feeders are sparse. The unit also contains marine and continental palynomorphs and, near the top, a few arenaceous foraminifers. No invertebrate macrofossils have been found in these rocks. Unit 2 conformably overlies lower Cenomanian shale in the lowermost Belle Fourche Member, informally named Unit 3, and is conformably overlain by lower and middle Cenomanian shale, siltstone, and sandstone within the member, which are informally named Unit 1. The mineral and chemical composition of the three Cenomanian units is comparable and similar to that of shale and siltstone in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, except that these units contain more SiO2 and less CaO, carbonate carbon, and manganese. Silica is generally more abundant and CaO is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. The composition of Unit 2 contrasts significantly with that of the underlying and overlying units. Unit 2 contains no pyrite and dolomite and much less sulfur than Units 1 and 3. Sulfate is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. Unit 2 also includes sideritic and calcitic concretions, whereas Units 1 and 3 contain neither concretions nor siderite and only sparse calcite. Carbon-sulfur-iron chemistry for the concretions suggests that sulfate availability was the limiting factor in pyrite formation and sulfide incorporation in Unit 2. Isotopic compositions of the carbon and oxygen in siderite and calcite from several concretions are variable and suggest cementation during early diagenesis in a variety of microenvironments. The isotopic composition of these carbonate minerals differs from that of Upper Cretaceous marine limestones. When considered in conjunction with the proportions of sulfur, organic carbon, and iron in Unit 2, major-element and micropaleontological data suggest that the composition of the original pore waters and of overlying waters in the late early Cenomanian sea was brackish to fresh. The mudrocks of Units 3 and 2, and a lower part of Unit 1, accumulated on a shelf at low to moderate rates of sedimentation in association with variable but generally weak current action. In Unit 2 and laterally equivalent rocks of the region, the sideritic and calcitic concretions probably indicate the extent of a body of brackish to fresh and oxygen-deficient water. Rates of precipitation in this region during the mid-Cretaceous could have been unusually high and the precipitation probably was seasonal. The organic matter in Unit 2 is humic-rich and would have been derived from continental environments. If the epeiric sea was brackish to fresh in the region of eastern Wyoming and contiguous areas, meteoric runoff from the adjoining lowlands must have been periodically large and the seaway north of the region probably was constricted. Seasonal changes in salinity might have been accompanied by changes in water temperature and oxygen content. The lower part of the Frontier Formation (Units 3, 2, and 1) in Wyoming records an intermittently and easterly prograding shoreline during late early and early middle Cenomanian time. Laterally equivalent strata in Nebraska

Merewether, E. A.; Gautier, Donald L.

2000-01-01

155

EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

Suzuki, Akihiro [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-02-10

156

Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy.

Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Ohlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

2010-01-01

157

The Regulatory Environment in Long Day Care: A "Double-Edged Sword" for Early Childhood Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While early childhood professionals in NSW are accountable to a substantial collection of regulatory requirements, little research has explored the outcomes of this regulatory environment, both intended and otherwise. This paper presents findings from a NSW study and shows how early childhood professionals working in long day care centres perceive…

Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Goodfellow, Joy

2006-01-01

158

Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

159

Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

2008-01-01

160

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

161

Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

Lee, Sunyoung

162

The role of environment on the formation of early-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of environment on galaxy formation poses one of the best constraints on the interplay between mass assembly and star formation in galaxies. We present here a detailed study of the stellar populations of a volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), across a range of environments - defined as the mass of the host dark matter halo, according to the groups catalogue of Yang et al. The stellar populations are explored through the SDSS spectra, via projection on to a set of two spectral vectors determined from principal component analysis. This method has been found to highlight differences not seen when using standard, model-dependent comparisons of photo-spectroscopic data. We find the velocity dispersion of the galaxy to be the main driver behind the different star formation histories of early-type galaxies. However, environmental effects are seen to play a role (although minor). Our principal components allow us to distinguish between the effects of environment as a change in average age (mapping the time lapse of assembly) or the presence of recent star formation (reflecting environment-related interactions). Galaxies populating the lowest mass haloes have stellar populations on average ~1 Gyr younger than the rest of the sample. The fraction of galaxies with small amounts of recent star formation is also seen to be truncated when occupying haloes more massive than MH >~ 3 × 1013Msolar. The sample is split into satellite and central galaxies for a further analysis of environment. Small but measurable differences are found between these two subsamples. For an unbiased comparison, we have to restrict this analysis to a range of halo masses over which a significant number of central and satellite galaxies can be found. Over this mass range, satellites are younger than central galaxies of the same stellar mass. The younger satellite galaxies in MH ~ 6 × 1012Msolar haloes have stellar populations consistent with the central galaxies found in the lowest mass haloes of our sample (i.e. MH ~ 1012Msolar). This result is indicative of galaxies in lower mass haloes being accreted into larger haloes.

Rogers, Ben; Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Bernardi, Mariangela; Lahav, Ofer; Kaviraj, Sugata

2010-06-01

163

Vaccine Adverse Events  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Print this page Share this page ... About the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Vaccine Adverse Events The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System ( ...

164

Early developmental responses to seedling environment modulate later plasticity to light spectral quality.  

PubMed

Correlations between developmentally plastic traits may constrain the joint evolution of traits. In plants, both seedling de-etiolation and shade avoidance elongation responses to crowding and foliage shade are mediated by partially overlapping developmental pathways, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic constraints. To test for such constraints, we exposed inbred lines of Impatiens capensis to factorial combinations of leaf litter (which affects de-etiolation) and simulated foliage shade (which affects phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance). Increased elongation of hypocotyls caused by leaf litter phenotypically enhanced subsequent elongation of the first internode in response to low red:far red (R:FR). Trait expression was correlated across litter and shade conditions, suggesting that phenotypic effects of early plasticity on later plasticity may affect variation in elongation traits available to selection in different light environments. PMID:22479538

von Wettberg, Eric J B; Stinchcombe, John R; Schmitt, Johanna

2012-01-01

165

Early Developmental Responses to Seedling Environment Modulate Later Plasticity to Light Spectral Quality  

PubMed Central

Correlations between developmentally plastic traits may constrain the joint evolution of traits. In plants, both seedling de-etiolation and shade avoidance elongation responses to crowding and foliage shade are mediated by partially overlapping developmental pathways, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic constraints. To test for such constraints, we exposed inbred lines of Impatiens capensis to factorial combinations of leaf litter (which affects de-etiolation) and simulated foliage shade (which affects phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance). Increased elongation of hypocotyls caused by leaf litter phenotypically enhanced subsequent elongation of the first internode in response to low red?far red (R?FR). Trait expression was correlated across litter and shade conditions, suggesting that phenotypic effects of early plasticity on later plasticity may affect variation in elongation traits available to selection in different light environments.

von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Stinchcombe, John R.; Schmitt, Johanna

2012-01-01

166

Association of increased heat shock protein 70 levels in the lymphocyte with high risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy: a nested case-control study.  

PubMed

Studies suggest that heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 in particular, may play a role in embryogenesis and reproduction. As the first trimester is the critical period of human fetal development, we tested whether there is an association between Hsp70 expression in lymphocytes and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) during that period. We measured lymphocyte Hsp70 levels by immunoblot in 55 pregnant women with APOs and 110 well-matched controls selected from 778 pregnant women in a nested case-control study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between lymphocyte Hsp70 levels and risk of developing APOs. Our data showed that Hsp70 levels in women with APOs, especially those younger than 29 years old, were significantly higher than controls (193 vs 135 units, P < 0.001) and that the elevated Hsp70 levels were associated with a significantly increased risk of APOs (adjusted OR = 1.014; 95% CI = 1.008-1.020, P < 0.001). Our results also showed that the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 78%, 60%, 50%, and 85%, respectively, among these pregnant women. Adjusted ORs and 95% CI for the association between a Hsp70 value > 153 IOD and APOs were statistically significant (OR = 8.78, 95% CI = 2.79-27.64, P < 0.001). These results suggest that Hsp70 may play a role in the etiology of APOs. However, the underlying mechanisms for the elevation of Hsp70 in women with APOs and whether Hsp70 can be applied as a clinical indicator of APOs warrant further investigations. PMID:17915555

Tan, Hao; Xu, Yusong; Xu, Juan; Wang, Feng; Nie, Shaofa; Yang, Miao; Yuan, Jing; Tanguay, Robert M; Wu, Tangchun

2007-01-01

167

Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

2002-01-01

168

Line-strength indices and velocity dispersions for 148 early-type galaxies in different environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived high quality line-strength indices and velocity dispersions for a sample of 148 early-type galaxies in different environments. The wavelength region covered by the observations (lambda =~ 4600 to 6600 Å) includes the Lick/IDS indices H?, Mg1, Mg2, Mgb, Fe5015, Fe5270, Fe5335, Fe5406, Fe5709, Fe5782, NaD, TiO1 and TiO2. The data are intended to address possible differences of the stellar populations of early-type galaxies in low- and high-density environments. This paper describes the sample properties, explains the data reduction and presents the complete list of all the measurements. Most galaxies of the sample (85%) had no previous measurements of any Lick/IDS indices and for 30% of the galaxies we present first-time determinations of their velocity dispersions. Special care is taken to identify galaxies with emission lines. We found that 62 per cent of the galaxies in the sample have emission lines, as measured by the equivalent width of the [OIII] 5007Å line, EW[OIII] > 0.3 Å. Tables 5 and 6 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ cgi-bin/qcat?J/ A+A/395/431. They are also available via ftp at ftp.mpe.mpg.de in the directory people/dthomas/Beuing02 or via WWW at ftp://ftp.mpe.mpg.de/people/dthomas/Beuing02.

Beuing, J.; Bender, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Thomas, D.; Maraston, C.

2002-11-01

169

Adipose tissue in offspring of Lepr(db/+) mice: early-life environment vs. genotype.  

PubMed

Gravidas with obesity and diabetes ("diabesity") may transmit this syndrome to their children through genetic and nongenetic mechanisms. Here, we used the Lepr(db/+) diabese mouse to examine the magnitude of these transmission modes, focusing on adipose tissue (AT). We compared the following six groups: wild-type (+/+) offspring from +/+ or db/+ dams (different early life environment) and db/+ offspring from db/+ dams, fed a standard or high-fat diet. Weight gain (0-8 wk) was higher in +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ mothers, and even higher in db/+ vs. +/+ offspring from db/+ mothers. In addition, we observed a stepwise increase in AT and adipocyte size in +/+ from +/+ mice, +/+ from db/+ mice, and db/+ mice at 8 wk. Differences in weight and adiposity between +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams were more pronounced in males than in females. Leptin and apelin mRNA levels in white and brown AT were higher in +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams; however, leptin, apelin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression were boosted more robustly in db/+ offspring. The high-fat diet amplified AT differences between db/+ vs. +/+ offspring from db/+ dams, but not between +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams. Moreover, db/+ but not +/+ offspring from db/+ mothers were insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinemic after a glucose challenge. In conclusion, the genetic transmission of the diabesity phenotype clearly prevailed, but the early-life diabesity environment had discernible effects on postnatal weight gain as well as on adipocyte size and adipokine expression at a postpubertal age. PMID:16954332

Lambin, Suzan; van Bree, Rita; Caluwaerts, Silvia; Vercruysse, Lisbeth; Vergote, Ignace; Verhaeghe, Johan

2007-01-01

170

Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use.

Inoue, Kenji

2014-01-01

171

Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central part of the Dinarides in Croatia, the Early Triassic depositional sequence was investigated by means of litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy at locality Plavno (ca. 1.000m thick). Conodont and ?13C-isotope analysis were a powerfull tool to determine stage and substage boundaries. The succession begins with the second conodont zone of the Griesbachian Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica with low ?13C-values and a steadily increase towards the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. Around that boundary a minor, short, negative excursion occurs. In the Dienerian the ?13C-values increase with a steepening of the slope towards the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. Around that boundary a maximum of +5o in shallow water carbonate occurs followed by a steep and continuous drop to low, often negative values in the Smithian. Just before the Smithian-Spathian boundary a steep rise to a second maximum is documented. It is followed by decline in the Spathian and a gentle increase to a rounded peak at the Spathian-Anisian boundary. In lithological sense Plavno succession has threefold division: 1) carbonates representing the oldest Early Triassic strata (early Griesbachian); 2) dominantly red clastics (shales, siltstones and sandstones) with intercalation of oncoid/ooid or bioclast rich grainstones (uppermost Griesbachian, Dienerian and Smithian) and 3) dominantly grey carbonaceous lime mudstones, marls and calcisiltites with ammonoids representing Spathian strata. In the oldest strata (Griesbachian) in macrocrystalline subhedral dolomites rare microspheres and foraminifers Earlandia and Cornuspira point to the stressful conditions related to the end Permian mass extinction. In the uppermost Griesbachian and Dienerian strata, within dominantly clastic deposition, rare coarse oncoliths with typical microbial cortices occur. Their presence fits to the interpretation of biotical-induced precipitation related to PTB extinction and can suggest still stressful condition. The Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

Aljinovi?, Dunja; Smir?i?, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

2014-05-01

172

Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.  

PubMed

The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2-14 to 3?h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25004389

van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

2014-01-01

173

Early Developing Pig Embryos Mediate Their Own Environment in the Maternal Tract  

PubMed Central

The maternal tract plays a critical role in the success of early embryonic development providing an optimal environment for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Preparation of this environment requires an intimate dialogue between the embryo and her mother. However, many intriguing aspects remain unknown in this unique communication system. To advance our understanding of the process by which a blastocyst is accepted by the endometrium and better address the clinical challenges of infertility and pregnancy failure, it is imperative to decipher this complex molecular dialogue. The objective of the present work is to define the local response of the maternal tract towards the embryo during the earliest stages of pregnancy. We used a novel in vivo experimental model that eliminated genetic variability and individual differences, followed by Affymetrix microarray to identify the signals involved in this embryo-maternal dialogue. Using laparoscopic insemination one oviduct of a sow was inseminated with spermatozoa and the contralateral oviduct was injected with diluent. This model allowed us to obtain samples from the oviduct and the tip of the uterine horn containing either embryos or oocytes from the same sow. Microarray analysis showed that most of the transcripts differentially expressed were down-regulated in the uterine horn in response to blastocysts when compared to oocytes. Many of the transcripts altered in response to the embryo in the uterine horn were related to the immune system. We used an in silico mathematical model to demonstrate the role of the embryo as a modulator of the immune system. This model revealed that relatively modest changes induced by the presence of the embryo could modulate the maternal immune response. These findings suggested that the presence of the embryo might regulate the immune system in the maternal tract to allow the refractory uterus to tolerate the embryo and support its development.

Alminana, Carmen; Heath, Paul R.; Wilkinson, Stephen; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Cuello, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A.; Vazquez, Jose L.; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A.; Fazeli, Alireza

2012-01-01

174

Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  

PubMed

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

175

Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative.

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

176

Deep-water environments for the putative Early Archean life: Chert units depositional facies, Warrawoona Group, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this work is to find and interpret evidence for the depositional conditions of the greenstone-belt facies that possibly hosted primitive life forms. That information is critical to any attempt to assess the habitability of Early Earth's environments, as well as their potential for fossil preservation. Chert members of the Duffer Fm and the Apex chert, which

G. Dromart; N. Coltice; N. Flament; N. Olivier; P. Rey

2008-01-01

177

Are Natural Environments Worth It? Using a Cost-Benefit Framework To Evaluate Early Intervention Policies in Community Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The utility of cost-benefit analysis in program evaluation is illustrated using hypothetical examples of the consequences of natural environments service provision. Areas for further research related to cost and benefit implications are presented. Early intervention programs can use the cost-benefit framework to evaluate the social impact of…

Keilty, Bonnie

2001-01-01

178

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. 717...SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded....

2009-07-01

179

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded. 717...SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...Provisions § 717.12 Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded....

2010-07-01

180

Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved O 2, NO 3-, NO 2-, and SO 4- were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several parameters of potential importance to the cycling of these metals: bottom water O 2 concentration; sediment redox conditions; cycling of metal oxide carrier phases and the relative contribution of biogenic and terrigenous material to the detrital metal flux. At 10 ?M oxygen and above the sequence of terminal electron acceptor utilization was typical of pelagic sediments, differing only in scale. Under these conditions the recycling of Mn oxides resulted in an enriched layer near the interface. At bottom water 0 2 concentrations < 5 ?M Mn oxides are not recycled. Under these conditions Fe oxides and SO 42- are important oxidants. The depth of the zone of manganese oxidation with respect to the interface affects the efficiency of metal scavenging by manganese oxides. Trapping and recycling of Ni and Co with Mn oxides results in remobilization from reducing sediments and enrichment in oxic sediments. Scavenging of these metals is favored by a deep oxic zone in the sediments. In contrast, Cr, V, and Mo appear to be transported to the sediments as reduced species and are released from the sediments by oxidation. The source of the reduced species is assumed to be biogenic material. The accumulation of these metals is favored by reducing conditions in the sediments. Cu is enriched in the sediments by transport with detrital biogenic material, followed by adsorption onto sediment solids. Cu is released at the interface and rapidly removed onto the solids at all sites except the one pelagic site, at the base of the slope. The magnitude of Cu released in the slowly accumulating pelagic sediment exceeds the Cu binding capacity of the solids, resulting in pore water Cu concentrations in excess of 100 nM. In general, metal cycling associated with the early diagenesis of sediments was observed to decouple transport processes from burial processes for the transition metals measured in this study.

Shaw, Timothy J.; Gieskes, Joris M.; Jahnke, Richard A.

1990-05-01

181

From Toumai to Lucy: climate and orographic forcing on Environment and Early Human  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract will present a summary of several studies we conducted at LSCE to understand through modeling simulations how the climate and topography variations may drive the evolution/migration of Early Humans. Tectonics and orbital forcing are major forcing factors on environment which act at different time scales. African Uplift spans over Millions of years whereas at low latitudes precession cycles will produce drastic hydrologic variations at the pluri millennial time scale. Therefore, in a first step it is necessary to investigate the impact of long term topographic changes on climate and vegetation. The long term forcing of the African uplift has been first tested and investigated through a set of numerical experiments using different heights for the Rift. We pointed out that this issue was the key factor to explain the dryness of the East part of the Rift associated with the disappearance of the forests when the rift was uplifted during the late Pliocene. Prior to this, much more water penetrates from the Indian Ocean over East Africa and forests can sustain. Therefore, this pattern of Dry East of the Rift and Wet west of the Rift is driven by the uplift and consistent with the evolution of vegetation. On the other side, the Mega Lake Chad (MLC) region was not really sensitive to this topographic change but much more to orbital forcing. Two species of early hominids (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 3,6 Ma, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Toumai, 7 Ma) were found in this region, associated with other vertebrate fossil remains, which seem to be associated to the presence of the Mega Lake Chad. It is thus crucial to understand how it is possible to produce and sustain such a large lake (350 000 km2) at these latitudes. Through a second series of simulations, we demonstrated that during the Pliocene, occurrences of such megalake episodes were possible (similarly as during most recent Holocene) and may be sustained during half a precession cycle (10 kyr) allowing a vegetation that enabled hominin settings (Australopithecus) Therefore the orbital parameters, mainly the precession cycle, drives the hydrologic cycle, shifting the ITCZ and the Monsoon to produce oscillations between arid and wet phases. This second mechanism is responsible for the establishment of periodically favorable conditions that enable a large lake in the Chad area which may last several thousand years. To go a step further, we need to downscale our model results from 50 to 10 km. We need this spatial resolution to better catch the topography and to better compare climate and vegetation outputs to multiproxies.

Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Jost, Anne

2014-05-01

182

Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

183

Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

Kartal, Hulya

2007-01-01

184

Childhood Victimization; Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect have both immediate and long-term effects. Different types of abuse have a range of consequences for a childs later physical and psychological well-being, cognitive development, and behavior. But there i...

C. S. Widom

2000-01-01

185

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high salt, low water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and

Carol D. Litchfield

1998-01-01

186

Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shinji [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori [Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi (Japan); Nomura, Kuninori [Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Imai, Takashi, E-mail: imait@nirs.go.jp [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2011-11-15

187

Experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in the adult central nervous system: evidence from enriched-environment studies.  

PubMed

Here I discuss evidence from our group's work that implicates the immediate early genes NGFI-A and arc as possible regulators of neuronal plasticity. The enriched environment (EE) paradigm has been demonstrated to induce neural plasticity in both developing and mature mammals. Others and we have recently demonstrated that adult rats placed within an enriched environment underwent central nervous system-wide increases in the expression levels for the IEGs NGFI-A and arc. The relationships between the altered expression profiles for both genes in response to an EE exposure, and their putative role in orchestrating network restructuring in response to enhanced environmental complexity are discussed. PMID:14754658

Pinaud, Raphael

2004-03-01

188

Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?  

PubMed Central

Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult.

Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2014-01-01

189

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. II. Kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper is a companion of two others dedicated one to the measurement of the line-strength indices \\cite[(Longhetti et al. 1997a)]{Lo7a} and the second to trace back the star formation history of a sample of early-type galaxies by comparing observed indices to the predictions of new spectro-photometric models \\cite[(Longhetti et al. 1997b).]{Lo7b} The sample of 51 early-type galaxies in low density environments is composed of two sub-sets of galaxies: 21 shell galaxies from the \\cite[Malin & Carter (1983)]{Ma3} catalogue (one of which shows double nucleous and has been considered as two separate objects) and 30 members of isolated interacting pairs from the \\cite[Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995)]{Re5} catalogue. Most of the objects show fine structures. The paper collects nuclear kinematic data together with the velocity and velocity dispersion curves of the stellar and gaseous components as a function of the distance from the galaxies centres. The galaxies heliocentric systemic velocity compares within -1+/- 32 km s(-1) with RC3 data, while their central velocity dispersion compares within 9+/- 9 km s(-1) , 10+/- 27 km s(-1) and 2+/- 33 km s(-1) with \\cite[Gonzalez (1993),]{Go3} \\cite[Davies et al. (1987)]{Da7} and \\cite[Carter et al. (1988)]{Ca8} respectively. The detailed comparison between our velocity and velocity dispersion curves and those from several authors is discussed. 9 out of 22 shell galaxies nuclei show emission lines, 4 of which, using data in the literature, have line ratios characteristic of LINERs. 10 members of pairs out of 30 show emission lines. RR 331a has a Seyfert like nucleus, while for the remaining galaxies the ([O III] lambda 5007)/H? ratio is characteristic of low ionization regions. In a small fraction of the objects the emission component is detectable outside the central value. None of the objects in the sample shows counter-rotation of the gaseous versus the stellar component. The two components appear associated, although, in two cases there is evidence that gas and stars lie on different planes. This latter phenomenon could be associated to accretion events. Emission lines in the central part of the RR 331a show a secondary component in the emission lines profile. E 2400100 has two nuclei embedded in the main body of the galaxy. The U-shape profile of the stellar velocity profile shows the ongoing interaction of the two nuclei. V/sigma profile of shell galaxies is, finally, discussed in relation to the hypothesis of the accretion/merging origin of these galaxies. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile. Data and and kinematical profiles are available at CDS.

Longhetti, M.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.

1998-06-01

190

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

191

Numerical Mantle Convection Models of Crustal Formation in an Oceanic Environment in the Early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of basaltic crust in the early Earth by partial melting of mantle rocks, subject to investigation in this study, is thought to be a first step in the creation of proto-continents (consisting largely of felsic material), since partial melting of basaltic material was probably an important source for these more evolved rocks. In the early Archean the earth's

P. van Thienen; A. P. van den Berg; N. J. Vlaar

2001-01-01

192

Financing Early Care and Education: Funding and Policy Choices in a Changing Fiscal Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of an increasingly challenging fiscal climate, state lawmakers are faced with making tough financial decisions regarding their early childhood systems. This document describes and examines various funding sources used when making decisions about possible early childhood initiatives combined with policy choices that may be considered in…

Clothier, Steffanie; Clemens, Beth; Poppe, Julie

193

The Regulatory Environment: A Source of Job (Dis)Satisfaction for Early Childhood Professionals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article extends current understandings of sources of job (dis)satisfaction for childcare staff by investigating the hypothesis that early childhood professionals' satisfaction with regulatory requirements is a predictor of job satisfaction. Findings show that for early childhood professionals in New South Wales, Australia, satisfaction with…

Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Robertson, Greg; Goodfellow, Joy

2008-01-01

194

Manchester asthma and allergy study: Low-allergen environment can be achieved and maintained during pregnancy and in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early exposure to dust mite allergens may be critical for primary sensitization. Reducing exposure may offer a realistic chance for primary prevention of sensitization and asthma, but it is essential to implement measures that can achieve and maintain the low-allergen environment.Objective: Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of mite allergen avoidance measures in achieving and maintaining a low-allergen

Adnan Custovic; Bridget M. Simpson; Angela Simpson; Claire Hallam; Mark Craven; Martin Brutsche; Ashley Woodcock

2000-01-01

195

Parent training, home environment, and early childhood development: A long?term follow?up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families and children who participated in a primary prevention experiment called Home Oriented Preschool Education (HOPE) were assessed during a follow?up study approximately ten years following the experiment. Home environment and social class were assessed for families, and children's ability and achievement test scores and grade point averages were obtained from school records. Home environment was shown to be only

Edward E. Gotts

1987-01-01

196

The effects of early and adult social environment on zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because early social experience can have a profound effect on later mate and social choices, the availability of options and\\u000a decisions made early in development can have major effects on adult behavior. Herein, we use strain differences among zebrafish,\\u000a Danio rerio, as an experimental tool to test the effects of social experience on behavior. By manipulating the strain composition of

Jason A. Moretz; Emília P. Martins; Barrie D. Robison

2007-01-01

197

Genes, environments, and developmental GEWIS: Methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse  

PubMed Central

The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the NIDA-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative (GEDI) our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used whose common characteristics include (1) general population samples including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already-collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables.

Costello, E. J.; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E.; Angold, A.; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H.; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

2013-01-01

198

Molecular mechanisms of adverse drug reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Other than alkylating agents used in cancer chemotherapy, most drugs that cause adverse reactions require metabolism to structures that can react with constituents of our cellular environment to form products that initiate a chain of chemical and biochemical events leading to cellular damage. The mechanisms of formation of reactive metabolites that can cause cellular injury, the nature of the

Sidney D. Nelson

2001-01-01

199

Galaxy Evolution in Overdense Environments at High Redshift: Passive Early-type Galaxies in a Cluster at z ~ 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of ~0.7 Mpc2 around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z ~ 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of ~2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

2013-08-01

200

GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Renzini, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Cimatti, A. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chary, R.-R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-08-01

201

Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes  

PubMed Central

During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field.

Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

2012-01-01

202

Children's cortisol patterns and the quality of the early learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool?aged children. Cortisol was measured during one day across five time points. The quality of learning

Nina Sajaniemi; Eira Suhonen; Elina Kontu; Pekka Rantanen; Harri Lindholm; Sirpa Hyttinen; Ari Hirvonen

2011-01-01

203

The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In…

Budros, Art

2005-01-01

204

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents

S L Anzman; B Y Rollins; L L Birch

2010-01-01

205

The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised as a Tool to Improve Child Care Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of interest in this study were the factors that lead to quality child care centers. The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) was examined for its utility as an effective training device to enlighten directors and classroom teachers of what constitutes quality classrooms. An experimental design was employed for this study.…

Warash, Bobbie G.; Markstrom, Carol A.; Lucci, Brittani

2005-01-01

206

Allergic Sensitization and Disease in Mother-Child Pairs from Germany: Role of Early Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early childhood influences are important for the development of the allergic phenotype. In East Germany, tremendous lifestyle changes took place after 1990 and it can be hypothesized that the allergic phenotypes in mothers and their children are less similar than in West Germany. This was investigated in our study done in mothers and their 6-year-old children from East and

C. Cramer; U. Ranft; J. Ring; M. Möhrenschlager; H. Behrendt; H. Oppermann; M. Wilhelm; U. Krämer

2007-01-01

207

Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2012-01-01

208

Early Education Quality: Higher Teacher Qualifications for Better Living Environments. A Review of the Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Driven in part by research findings in early childhood development, the academic, business, and policy communities now recognize that high-quality preschool programs are an important way to help children reach their full potential. Although some current research suggests that teacher preparation at the four-year college degree level is the best…

Whitebook, Marcy

209

Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes,\\u000a the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have\\u000a a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded\\u000a in some cases. Only the most

Bo Abrahamsen

2010-01-01

210

Adverse events reported by postmenopausal women in controlled trials with raloxifene 1 1 David A. Cox, PhD, contributed to interpretation and presentation of the results and prepared early drafts of the manuscript  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the incidence of adverse events in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene compared with placebo, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or unopposed estrogen.Methods: Common treatment groups were pooled across eight randomized, parallel clinical trials (6–30 months’ duration) of raloxifene to create the following three databases: placebo-controlled, HRT-controlled, and estrogen-controlled databases. Incidence and severity of all treatment-emergent adverse events, defined

Graham C Davies; William J Huster; Yili Lu; Leo Plouffe; Mark Lakshmanan

1999-01-01

211

Early environments drive diversity and floristic composition in Mediterranean old fields: Insights from a long-term experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While many studies have explored how previous and current environmental conditions affect the performance of individual organisms, their relative importance as drivers of current diversity and composition of communities is virtually unknown. We evaluated the response of herbaceous communities to previous (experienced during early establishment) and current environmental conditions by comparing their composition and diversity in an abandoned Mediterranean cropland planted with Quercus ilex subsp. ballota L. seedlings. These seedlings received different experimental treatments (summer irrigation and artificial shading) during the first three years after planting, and were interrupted from then on. We tested two complementary hypotheses: (i) the previous environments experienced by the herbaceous communities during their establishment have a long-term carry-over effect on diversity and composition of species assemblages and (ii) these communities are influenced by their current environment, particularly by the woody layer and the soil conditions. Overall, we observed an important contribution of initial environmental conditions in determining the current diversity and composition of herbaceous communities. Amelioration of environmental conditions, particularly water stress, during community establishment resulted in a decrease in alpha and beta diversity, possibly as a consequence of decreasing environmental heterogeneity. Previous environments accounted for 26.3% of the explained variance in current community composition. Annuals, legumes and forbs also responded significantly to previous environments, which explained 27.9%, 36.2% and 30.1%, respectively, of the variance in their composition. Our results suggest that those species present at a particular site early in succession pre-empt the site and influence vegetation dynamics on that site for a long time. This study provides important insights for understanding the mechanisms underlying the ecological effects of issues like cropland reforestation and woody vegetation encroachment.

Cayuela, Luis; Rey Benayas, José María; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián

2008-11-01

212

Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

213

Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

2011-01-01

214

A composite study of early summer squall lines and their environment over West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Composites of synoptic reports and wind observations in a coordinate system moving with the squall lines over the WAMEX area in June 1979 allow us to show the average structure of the airflow, the moisture and temperature fields in the synoptic scale environment of West African continental squall lines.

G. Tetzlaff; M. Peters

1988-01-01

215

Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

2013-01-01

216

The Unique Contribution of Home Literacy Environment to Differences in Early Literacy Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric utility of a home literacy environment measure is evaluated and its unique contribution to predicting literacy skills is examined. The scale is derived from information provided by parents of kindergarten children about the amount of reading materials in the home, and the frequency of library visits, adult literacy?related behaviors, adult?child reading, and television viewing. Measures of language, reading,

Elizabeth A. Griffin; Frederick J. Morrison

1997-01-01

217

Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts

H. H. Yavuz; S. Oercen

1988-01-01

218

Why Use the Online Environment with Face-to-Face Students? Insights from Early Adopters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study illustrates the convergence of two teaching and learning media, face-to-face and online, as reflective lecturers seek to address the limitations of a single medium. Innovative university lecturers at a large Western Australia university were interviewed about their use of online environments with face-to-face students. The interview…

Bunker, Alison; Vardi, Iris

219

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

220

Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cuttings recovered from two deep exploratory wells in the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, include fossiliferous marine deposits that offer an uncommon opportunity to study paleoenvironments from the deep subsurface in Hawaii and interpret the paleogeography and geologic history of Kauai. These deposits indicate that two marine incursions gave rise to protected shallow-water, low-energy embayments in the southern part of the Lihue Basin in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. During the first marine incursion, the embayment was initially zoned, with a variable-salinity environment nearshore and a normal-marine reef environment offshore. The offshore reef environment eventually evolved to a nearshore, variable-salinity environment as the outer part of the embayment shallowed. During the second marine incursion, the embayment had normal-marine to hypersaline conditions, which constitute a significant departure from the variable-salinity environment present during the first marine incursion. Large streams draining the southern Lihue Basin are a likely source of the freshwater that caused the salinity fluctuations evident in the fossils from the first marine incursion. Subsequent volcanic eruptions produced lava flows that buried the embayment and probably diverted much of the stream flow in the southern Lihue Basin northward, to its present point of discharge north of Kalepa Ridge. As a result, the embayment that formed during the second marine incursion received less freshwater, and a normal-marine to hypersaline environment developed. The shallow-water marine deposits, currently buried between 86 m and 185 m below present sea level, have implications for regional tectonics and global eustasy. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Izuka, S. K.; Resig, J. M.

2008-01-01

221

The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

1993-01-01

222

Stable reprogramming of brain transcription profiles by the early social environment in a cooperatively breeding fish  

PubMed Central

Adult social behaviour can be persistently modified by early-life social experience. In rodents, such effects are induced by tactile maternal stimulation resulting in neuroendocrine modifications of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis involved in stress responsiveness. Whether similar long-term alterations can occur in the hypothalamic–pituitary–interrenal (HPI) axis of poikilothermic vertebrates is unknown. We compared the expression of four genes of the HPI axis in adults of the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, which had been exposed to two early-life social treatments 1.5 years prior to brain sampling. Fish reared with parents and siblings had less brain expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and of the functional homologue of the mammalian glucocorticoid receptor (GR1) than individuals reared with same-age siblings only. Expression of the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) did not differ between treatments, but the MR/GR1 expression ratio was markedly higher in fish reared with parents and siblings. Thus, we show here that early social experience can alter the programming of the stress axis in poikilothermic vertebrates, suggesting that this mechanism is deeply conserved within vertebrates. Moreover, we show for the first time that reprogramming of the stress axis of a vertebrate can be induced without tactile stimulation by parents.

Taborsky, Barbara; Tschirren, Linda; Meunier, Clemence; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2013-01-01

223

Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [?/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [?/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

224

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments.

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

225

Adverse reactions to vaccines.  

PubMed

(The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense.) Immunization healthcare is becoming increasingly complex as the number and types of vaccines have continued to expand. Like all prescription drugs, vaccines may be associated with adverse events. The majority of these reactions are self-limited and not associated with prolonged disability. The media, Internet and public advocacy groups have focused on potentially serious vaccine-associated adverse events with questions raised about causal linkages to increasing frequencies of diseases such as autism and asthma. Despite a lack of evidence of a causal relationship to a variety of vaccine safety concerns, including extensive reviews by the Institute of Medicine, questions regarding vaccine safety continue to threaten the success of immunization programs. Risk communication arid individual risk assessment is further challenged by the public health success of vaccine programs creating the perception that certain vaccines are no longer necessary or justified because of the rare reaction risk. There is a need for improved understanding of true vaccine contraindications and precautions as well as host factors and disease threat in order to develop a patient specific balanced risk communication intervention. When they occur, vaccine related adverse events must be treated, documented and reported through the VAERS system. The increasing complexity of vaccination health care has led the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to identify Vaccine Safety Assessment and Evaluation as a potential new specialty. PMID:12721397

Martin, Bryan L; Nelson, Michael R; Hershey, Joyce N; Engler, Renata J M

2003-06-01

226

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-05-01

227

[Adverse reactions to vaccines].  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to vaccines are highly varied, ranging from mild local reactions to fatal outcomes. In the last few years many adverse reactions have been attributed to vaccines, often without justification. In agreement with the World Health Organization, these reactions can be classified as follows, depending on the cause: vaccination-induced reactions (due to an effect of the vaccine itself or to an idiosyncrasy); reactions due to errors in storage, manipulation and/or administration; and coincidental reactions (no causal relationship with the vaccine). Hypersensitivity reactions fall into six categories, depending on the causative agent: reactions due to some component of the infectious agent or one of its products; reactions due to adjuvants: aluminium hydroxide; reactions due to stabilizers: gelatin; reactions due to preservatives: thiomersal; reactions due to antibiotics: neomycin; and reactions due to a biological culture medium: chicken embryo cells. Allergic children should not be excluded from the normal vaccine calendar. Immunologically, allergic individuals are more susceptible to infection and to microbial and viral diseases, which often play an aggravating role. Rubella, whooping cough, and influenza usually exacerbate respiratory allergies. Non-vaccination carries a marked risk of contracting serious diseases such as poliomyelitis, tetanus, and diphtheria, etc. In a not too distant future, the techniques of genetic recombination and monoclonal antibody production will allow the creation of vaccines from organisms that cannot be cultivated in the laboratory or that produce small quantities of antigen. These techniques will also lead to identification of the antigens with the greatest immunogenic power and, consequently, to extremely pure vaccines. The adverse reactions to vaccines referred to our service account for between 0.59 % and 1.27 % of first visits in the last three years. We recorded a total of 48 adverse reactions to vaccines. Of these, 44 were attributed to the tetanus vaccine (92 %), 2 to the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (4 %) and 2 to the meningitis A and C vaccine (4 %). Clinical features consisted of urticaria (11 cases), urticaria with angioedema (7 cases), pseudo-shock (5 cases), fever and urticaria (4 cases), local reactions (4 cases), persistent crying with exanthema (3 cases), giant local reactions with angioedema of the limb (3 cases), anaphylaxis (3 cases), fever > 39.5 C (2 cases), bronchospasm (1 case), and severe atopic dermatitis (1 case).A regimen of hyposensitization to tetanus toxoid was required in 20 patients (45 %); in three, this could not be completed due to generalized urticaria but all the patients presented protective titers with diluted vaccine. PMID:12783762

Eseverri, J L; Ranea, S; Marin, A

2003-01-01

228

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the early childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years. To do this, we exploit variation in the living conditions experienced by Yemenite children after being airlifted to Israel in 1949. We find that children who were placed in a more modern environment (i.e. with better sanitary

M. Daniele Paserman

2011-01-01

229

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the early childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years. To do this, we exploit variation in the living conditions experienced by Yemenite children after being airlifted to Israel in 1949. We find that children who were placed in a more modern environment (i.e. with better sanitary

M. Daniele Paserman; Eric Gould; Victor Lavy

2010-01-01

230

The early nutritional environment of mice determines the capacity for adipose tissue expansion by modulating genes of caveolae structure.  

PubMed

While the phenomenon linking the early nutritional environment to disease susceptibility exists in many mammalian species, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that nutritional programming is a variable quantitative state of gene expression, fixed by the state of energy balance in the neonate, that waxes and wanes in the adult animal in response to changes in energy balance. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment, based upon global gene expression, to identify networks of genes in which expression patterns in inguinal fat of mice have been altered by the nutritional environment during early post-natal development. The effects of over- and under-nutrition on adiposity and gene expression phenotypes were assessed at 5, 10, 21 days of age and in adult C57Bl/6J mice fed chow followed by high fat diet for 8 weeks. Under-nutrition severely suppressed plasma insulin and leptin during lactation and diet-induced obesity in adult mice, whereas over-nourished mice were phenotypically indistinguishable from those on a control diet. Food intake was not affected by under- or over-nutrition. Microarray gene expression data revealed a major class of genes encoding proteins of the caveolae and cytoskeleton, including Cav1, Cav2, Ptrf (Cavin1), Ldlr, Vldlr and Mest, that were highly associated with adipose tissue expansion in 10 day-old mice during the dynamic phase of inguinal fat development and in adult animals exposed to an obesogenic environment. In conclusion gene expression profiles, fat mass and adipocyte size in 10 day old mice predicted similar phenotypes in adult mice with variable diet-induced obesity. These results are supported by phenotypes of KO mice and suggest that when an animal enters a state of positive energy balance adipose tissue expansion is initiated by coordinate changes in mRNA levels for proteins required for modulating the structure of the caveolae to maximize the capacity of the adipocyte for lipid storage. PMID:20574519

Kozak, Leslie P; Newman, Susan; Chao, Pei-Min; Mendoza, Tamra; Koza, Robert A

2010-01-01

231

Predictors of early leaving from the cotton spinning mill environment in newly hired workers  

PubMed Central

Objective This longitudinal study aimed to identify the predictors of leaving during the first year of employment from the cotton spinning mill environment in newly hired workers. Methods One hundred and ninety eight consecutively appointed new employees were investigated by questionnaire, lung function test, and skin test. They were examined before employment and at the end of the 1st week, and the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after starting work and when possible before leaving their job. 572 personal dust sampling and 191 endotoxin measurements were performed to assess the environmental exposure. For the univariate analysis ?2, Student t tests, ANOVA, and Kruskall Wallis tests were used. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify factors associated with leaving the job. Results Fifty three per cent of workers left the mill environment during their first working year. Work related lower respiratory tract symptoms reported at the third month were associated with an increase rate of leaving the industry compared to those remaining in the industry (25% v 4.8%; p<0.005). Having respiratory symptoms at the first month of work predicted those leaving the industry at some point in the next 11?months. According to the Cox model, increasing age and having work related lower respiratory tract symptoms were found to be predictors for leaving job at the first working year. Atopic status, dust and endotoxin levels, and lung function changes were not consistently predictive of workers who left the industry in the follow up period. Conclusion This study demonstrated that work related respiratory symptoms can predict workers likely to leave the cotton mill environment during the first year of employment, but atopy or acute lung function changes do not.

Bakirci, N; Kalaca, S; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A C; Tumerdem, N; Cali, S; Oldham, L; Francis, H; Niven, R McL

2006-01-01

232

Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion. PMID:19156442

Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

2009-04-01

233

A Model for the Early Identification of Sources of Airborne Pathogens in an Outdoor Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Source identification in areas with outbreaks of airborne pathogens is often time-consuming and expensive. We developed a model to identify the most likely location of sources of airborne pathogens. Methods As a case study, we retrospectively analyzed three Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands in 2009, each with suspected exposure from a single large dairy goat farm. Model input consisted only of case residential addresses, day of first clinical symptoms, and human population density data. We defined a spatial grid and fitted an exponentially declining function to the incidence-distance data of each grid point. For any grid point with a fit significant at the 95% confidence level, we calculated a measure of risk. For validation, we used results from abortion notifications, voluntary (2008) and mandatory (2009) bulk tank milk sampling at large (i.e. >50 goats and/or sheep) dairy farms, and non-systematic vaginal swab sampling at large and small dairy and non-dairy goat/sheep farms. In addition, we performed a two-source simulation study. Results Hotspots – areas most likely to contain the actual source – were identified at early outbreak stages, based on the earliest 2–10% of the case notifications. Distances between the hotspots and suspected goat farms varied from 300–1500 m. In regional likelihood rankings including all large dairy farms, the suspected goat farms consistently ranked first. The two-source simulation study showed that detection of sources is most clear if the distance between the sources is either relatively small or relatively large. Conclusions Our model identifies the most likely location of sources in an airborne pathogen outbreak area, even at early stages. It can help to reduce the number of potential sources to be investigated by microbial testing and to allow rapid implementation of interventions to limit the number of human infections and to reduce the risk of source-to-source transmission.

van Leuken, Jeroen P. G.; Havelaar, Arie H.; van der Hoek, Wim; Ladbury, Georgia A. F.; Hackert, Volker H.; Swart, Arno N.

2013-01-01

234

Deep-water environments for the putative Early Archean life: Chert units depositional facies, Warrawoona Group, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal objective of this work is to find and interpret evidence for the depositional conditions of the greenstone-belt facies that possibly hosted primitive life forms. That information is critical to any attempt to assess the habitability of Early Earth's environments, as well as their potential for fossil preservation. Chert members of the Duffer Fm and the Apex chert, which bears fossil-like filaments (3.465 Ga), are exposed in the vicinity of Marble Bar. The Marble Bar Chert is made up of dm-scale sequences of interbedded red, white and black finely crystalline silica. Sticky beds consist of flow-oriented clasts (i.e., large, angular, elongated, light-colored clasts showing load-structures, and regularly-inclined and vertically- oriented imbrications) interpreted here as gravity flows of early-lithified sediments. The Chinaman Pool Chert Mb is incised by a deep scour upon which sandstone beds with chert interlayers onlap. This unit includes coarse mafic sands, and conglomerates with chert lithoclasts and felsic pebbles. Locally, m-scale growth faults localize sand-filled channels. The depositional architectures and facies of this upper unit are indicative of a deep-water fan depositional system. This interpretation conflicts with the current view that chert units derived from hydrothermalism overprint of original shallow deposits, and that hydrothermalism hampered microfossil preservation. Alternatively, we suggest that deep-water environments and early lithification of siliceous sediments may have favored life preservation. Earth's oldest stromatolites (3.49-3.47 Ga) of the Dresser Fm are exposed in the North Pole Dome area. Autochtonous stromatolites consist of banded microstructures with iron-rich, wavy and wrinkle laminae, and form regular domes. The stromatolite layers cap a sandstone bed at the top of which asymmetric ripples show steeply-inclined sets of laminae that typically represent overturned ripples at uppermost turbiditic flow deposits. The stromatolitic domes are sealed by finely-banded cherts. A large block of rocks yields a variety of stromatolitic morphotypes including cuspate swales, domes and flat-topped individual columns that cap large intraclasts. Stromatolite occurrences are here interbedded with sea-floor and early diagenetic barite precipitates. Tilted beds and short disharmonic folds are indicative of slumping and suggest the block was transported down the depositional slope. Stromatolite forms of the North Pole Dome share much analogy with the pelagic stromatolites of condensed sequences of the Phanerozoic (i.e., omission surfaces and hard substrates related to minimal regular sediment input and/or irregular massive inputs in distal and deep marine environments). It seems that life could have originated in fairly distal and deep subaqueous environments. How far and how deep cannot be specified at this stage. The potential of such depositional environments to support and preserve microbial life will be discussed.

Dromart, G.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N.; Olivier, N.; Rey, P.

2008-12-01

235

Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces Following Early Deprivation  

PubMed Central

A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo task. PI children showed heightened activity of the amygdala, a region that supports emotional learning and reactivity to emotional stimuli, and corresponding decreases in cortical regions that support perceptual and cognitive functions. Amygdala activity was associated with decreased eye-contact as measured by eye-tracking methods and during a live dyadic interaction. The association between early rearing environment and subsequent eye-contact was mediated by amygdala activity. These data support the hypothesis that early adversity alters human brain development in a way that can persist into childhood, and they offer insight into the socio-emotional disturbances in human behavior following early adversity.

Tottenham, N.; Hare, T.A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J.; Casey, B.J.

2010-01-01

236

A Wicked Problem: Early Childhood Safety in the Dynamic, Interactive Environment of Home  

PubMed Central

Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents’ perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both “upstream” and “downstream” causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The “wicked problems” model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on ‘tame solutions’ that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured.

Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

2013-01-01

237

Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention.

2014-01-01

238

A wicked problem: early childhood safety in the dynamic, interactive environment of home.  

PubMed

Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents' perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both "upstream" and "downstream" causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The "wicked problems" model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on 'tame solutions' that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453

Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

2013-05-01

239

ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner.

2013-01-01

240

Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major rivers during early-middle Miocene. The younger Los Chorros sediments show Sr and Nd values comparable to those nowadays found in the Solimões region, indicating an Andean source existed already during early-middle Miocene times. Lipid biomarkers were identified and quantified and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter for whole samples were determined to identify the sources of organic matter. Ratio's between typically terrestrial and aquatic GDGTs indicate shifts between more terrestrial settings and more aquatic settings. Intervals which suggest a more aquatic setting often contain marine palynomorphs and thus could result from a marine incursion at the time. Changes in the overall composition of biomarker lipids at each site reflects the diversity and dynamic features of the wetland. Differences in both provenance and biomarker composition between the two sites demonstrate the diversity within the basin. This diversity could either be geographical diversity since the two sites are located about 380 km from each other. Or, considering the differences in age between the two sites of 2-5 Myrs, it could also reflect the fast changing environmental conditions as a result of Andean uplift. Hoorn, C. et al (2010). The Development of the Amazonian Mega-Wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia). In: C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh (eds) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 123- 142. Marshall, L.G., Lundberg, J.G. (1996) Miocene deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin. Science 273, 123-124.

van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2014-05-01

241

Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.  

PubMed

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

2014-07-01

242

Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

2013-01-01

243

Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia  

SciTech Connect

The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts of the Tethys Sea and Indian-Pacific Oceans. The clastic lower part of the succession is characterized by sheet flow and braided-stream deposits of an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex. Marine carbonates overlie these deposits, but in some places a transgressive lag deposit lies between the unconformity surface and the carbonates. The lag deposit unit corresponds to the Gastropoda biozone, including Ostrea, Terebralia, and Pecten. Four carbonate facies are recognized: (1) Clayey limestones with ahermatypic corals, ostracods, macrofossils, and foraminifers. This facies corresponds to the Textularia-Rotalia biozone. (2) Packstones and grainstones with abundant nearshore and some offshore foraminifers, corresponding to the Miliolidae biozone. (3) Packstones and wackestones with offshore foraminifers. This facies includes the Miogypsina irregularis-Miogypsina intermedia biozone. (4) Boundstones and very poorly sorted reef-talus conglomerates including hermatypic corals, foraminifers, and binding foraminifers. This facies is the coral biozone. These sediments define the northern extent of the Tethys Sea in the investigated area during the Burdigalian. They were deposited in a shallow carbonate platform at the southern margin of the Anatolian mainland, which had a steep coast characterized by an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex.

Yavuz, H.H.; Oercen, S.

1988-08-01

244

Ion Composition in Saturn's Plasma Environment: Early Results from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to Cassini s arrival at Saturn, most of what was known about the composition of the plasma in Saturn s environment was derived from limited measurements by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 in 1979-1981[1-3]. The measurements reported here were made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) [4] during the first two Cassini orbits, including the closest approach to Saturn and the rings during the tour, and a close flyby of Titan. The CAPS instrument resolves ion energy/charge from 1 V to 50 kV and ion mass/charge from 1 to approx.100 amu/e, and it measures electron energy from 1 eV to 28 keV. Initial composition measurements of Saturn s magnetosphere show that protons dominate outside approx.8 R(sub s), while inside this radius the plasma is dominated by a mix of water-derived ions and N(+). Over the A and B rings a plasma layer is observed composed of O2(+) and O(+) . The close passage near Titan shows a rich network of both positive and negative molecular ions. We report preliminary analysis of these and other composition findings.

Reisenfeld, D. B.; Baragiola, R. A.; Crary, F. J.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Shappirio, M. D.

2005-01-01

245

Siderite in the Ivishak sandstone, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Is it an indicator of an early burial environment  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic, elemental, and isotope data suggest that siderite in the Ivishalk Sandstone is not entirely an early diagenetic phase. Previous workers have used siderite cement in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone as an example of early diagenetic siderite from a fresh-water depositional environment. Abundant and ubiquitous siderite cement includes: porefilling, siderite replacement of framework chert grains, and wheat seed morphologies that include a later diagenetic phase. Petrographic data show that some siderite cement follows compaction. Burial history curves indicate that the Ivishalk was not buried to more than 2,000 ft. before it was uplifted and exposed in the Cretaceous. It was subsequently buried to its present burial depths of 8,000-1 0,000 ft. A siderite phase following compaction is probably post-Triassic in age. Elemental and isotopic analyses indicate distinct generations of siderite cement. Siderite compositions fall into a non-marine field with high Fe and low Mg and Ca concentrations. Zoned siderite shows lower Fe concentrations. Siderite cement in mudstones contain higher Fe concentrations than in sandstones and conglomerates. The isotopic compositions of siderite varies widely with [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of -1 3.7 to +1 7.4 PDB and -8.8 to 0.0 PDB, respectively. The [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of siderite is more enriched in the mudstones (0.0 to +1 7.4 and -5.0 to 0.0, respectively) than in the sand- stones and conglomerates (-1 3.7 to -1.6 and -8.8 to -5.0, respectively). Siderite in mudstones document precipitation under methanogenic conditions, whereas siderite in sandstones and conglomerates record precipitation in the suboxic environment.

Harun, N.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

246

Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.  

PubMed

Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

2014-01-01

247

Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-? (ESR1)  

PubMed Central

Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation.

Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

2010-01-01

248

Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the significance of worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-Stage over the last three decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local vs. global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area, the so-called Gutland. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7 ‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global T-CIE with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6 ‰) that is expressed by four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses. With the ongoing effort of high-resolution studies of the Meso-Cenozoic eras, further CIEs are likely to be found, but it has to be remembered that their (global) significance can only be determined via an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical, micropalaeontological and geochemical approach.

Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

2014-04-01

249

Stable isotope and trace element proxy data from aragonite cements of stressed reef environments (early Messinian, Mediterranean Region)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Messinian coral reefs of the Mediterranean area are among the classical examples of Neogene reefs in the world and, according to the ecology of their biota, do not exhibit compelling evidence for significant salinity stress prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Because of excellent outcrop conditions and preservation, these reefs have become prototypes of Neogene reefs worldwide. Here we present stable oxygen isotope (IRMS) and trace element data (LA-ICP-MS) from marine aragonite cement in biogenic frameworks of some Mediterranean reefs. The reworking of the cements by intraformational breccias clearly supports petrographic evidence of "syndepositional" precipitation. Reported values of 18O/16O translate into peak sea surface salinity of 50 to 60 permil, which is a lethal value for most members of the reef community. Therefore, additional proxies have been evaluated to constrain the environment in which the cements formed. 13C/12C signatures are fully within the range of marine cement, however, systematic excursions exist on outcrop-scaple over the geological sections which may suggest episodic influx of terrestrial organic matter brought in by rivers or episodic upwelling of deep water masses with CO2 enriched in 12C. Intra-cement 13C/12C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca measured along transects exhibits co-variant changes which are incompatible with temperature effects and more plausibly document the mixing of different fluids, or the evolution of the pore fluids upon continuing precipitation. Although the final cause underlying the discrepant aspect of biological and various inorganic proxy data remains not yet fully understood, this study shows that evaluation of one single proxy may lead to more misleading than helpful concepts of palaeoenvironments and environment change.

Brachert, Thomas; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Reuter, Markus; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Vescogni, Alessandro

2010-05-01

250

A New Approach to Predicting the Thermal Environment in Buildings at the Early Design Stage. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 2/74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that existing computer programs for thermal predictions do not produce suitable information for architects, particularly at the early stages of design. It reviews the important building features that determine the thermal environment and the need for heating and cooling plant. Graphical design aids are proposed, with examples to…

Milbank, N. O.

251

Measurement of quality in preschool child care classrooms: An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the early childhood environment rating scale-revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) with a large sample (1313 classrooms). We explored both the seven subscales and the possibility of fewer distinct aspects of quality being measured by the scale. The large sample size allowed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to be performed.

Deborah J. Cassidy; Linda L. Hestenes; Archana Hegde; Stephen Hestenes; Sharon Mims

2005-01-01

252

Using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale as a Measure To Make Cross-National Evaluations of Quality: Advantages and Limitations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report explores the extent to which the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) (Harms and Clifford, 1980) remains a valid instrument when used to make cross-national comparisons of quality, and the advantages and disadvantages of using ECERS for this purpose. ECERS was developed to be used by a trained observer to rate the…

Calder, Pamela

253

Childhood adversity and inflammatory processes in youth: A prospective study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Retrospective studies show that childhood adversity is associated with systemic inflammation in adulthood. Few prospective studies have examined whether childhood adversity influences inflammation in an observable manner during childhood or adolescence and if these effects are sustained over time. Methods Using longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined associations between acute adverse events at seven time points prior to age 8 and inflammation at ages 10 and 15. Inflammatory markers at age 10 included interleukin-6 (IL-6; N = 4655) and C-reactive protein (CRP; N = 4647), and CRP was measured again at age 15 (N = 3286). We further evaluated whether body mass index (BMI), depression, or cigarette smoking mediated associations between adverse events and inflammation. Results Adverse events in middle childhood (occurring between ages 6 to 8), as well as cumulative adversity from birth to 8 years, were associated with higher levels of IL-6 and CRP at age 10. Adverse events reported in early childhood (1.5 years) or middle childhood, and cumulative adversity from birth through 8 years predicted increased levels of CRP at age 15, and these associations persisted after adjustment for CRP at age 10. Some, but not all, of these associations were mediated by BMI. Conclusions This study documents that exposure to adverse events prior to age 8 is associated with elevated inflammation at age 10 and in mid-adolescence. These findings provide prospective evidence for a biological mechanism by which early experiences may shape long-term health. Future studies with earlier assessments of inflammation are necessary in order to elucidate potential sensitive periods and mechanisms that link childhood adversity to later disease vulnerability.

Slopen, Natalie; Kubzansky, Laura D.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Koenen, Karestan C.

2012-01-01

254

Moving Upstream: Evaluating Adverse Upstream Endpoints for Improved Risk Assessment and Decision-Making  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and ...

255

Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study  

PubMed Central

Background Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities.

2012-01-01

256

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Environments for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Families in Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's identities and sense of self are inextricably tied to their families. The experience of being welcome or unwelcome, visible or invisible begins in early childhood. The goal of early childhood professionals is to ensure that all children and their families are welcomed in early childhood settings and provided with quality care and…

Burt, Tracy; Gelnaw, Aimee; Lesser, Lee Klinger

2010-01-01

257

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

258

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. I. Nuclear line-strength indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the first of a series \\cite[(Longhetti et al. 1997a,b)]{lon97} dedicated to the study of the star formation history in early-type galaxies which show fine structures and/or signatures of interaction. It presents nuclear line-strength indices for a sample composed of 21 shell galaxies, from the \\cite[Malin & Carter (1983)]{mal83} southern survey, and 30 members of isolated interacting pairs, from the \\cite[Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995)]{red95} catalogue, located in low density environments. The spectral range covers 3700 Angstroms < lambda < 5700 Angstroms at 2.1 Angstroms FWHM resolution. We measure 16 red (lambda > 4200 Angstroms) indices defined by the Lick Group. Measures have been transformed into the Lick-IDS ``standard'' system. The procedure has been tested on a set of 5 elliptical galaxies selected from the \\cite[Gonzalez (1993)]{gon93} sample. We derive also three blue (lambda < 4200) indices, namely Delta (4000 Angstroms) defined by \\cite[Hamilton (1985)]{ham85}, H+K(CaII) and Hdelta /FeI defined by \\cite[Rose (1984, 1985)]{ros84}. Blue indices are correlated to the age of the last starburst occurred in a galaxy \\cite[(Leonardi & Rose 1996)]{leo96}. The determination of these indices, the estimate of the measurement errors and the correction for the galaxies velocity dispersions are discussed in detail. In the Appendix A we present the indices for a set of hot stars (T> 10000 K) which may be used for extending W92 fitting functions toward high temperatures. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile. Tables 1-8 are also available in electronic form at CDS and Tables 9-15 are only available in electronic form at CDS: via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Longhetti, M.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.

1998-06-01

259

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

260

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2011-07-01

261

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2012-07-01

262

Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

1991-07-31

263

Do Maternal Stress and Home Environment Mediate the Relation between Early Income-to-Need and 54-Months Attentional Abilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Ecological Systems Theory and stage sequential modelling procedures for detecting mediation, this study examined how early developmental contexts impact preschoolers' performances on a measure of sustained attention and impulse control. Data from 1273 European-American and African-American participants in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care…

Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Khurshid, Ayesha; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

2007-01-01

264

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

265

Post-Institutionalization: The Effects of Early Deprivation on Development of Romanian Adoptees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounts of childhood adversity and extreme deprivation are not new to psychological literature. Intensive case studies of children raised in isolation or extreme deprivation have provided developmental psychologists a better understanding of the effects of early environment on later development (see Curtiss, 1977, for a detailed account of the developmental sequelae of Genie, a girl rescued from 13 years of

Samantha L. Wilson

2003-01-01

266

Early origins of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and a significant challenge for adult physicians. However, there is a misconception that COPD is a disease of only adult smokers. There is a growing body of evidence to support the hypothesis that chronic respiratory diseases such as COPD have their origins in early life. In particular, adverse maternal factors will interact with the environment in a susceptible host promoting altered lung growth and development antenatally and in early childhood. Subsequent lung injury and further gene-environment interactions may result in permanent lung injury manifest by airway obstruction predisposing to COPD. This review will discuss the currently available data regarding risk factors in early life and their role in determining the COPD phenotype. PMID:22265926

Narang, Indra; Bush, Andrew

2012-04-01

267

Early Life History Variation among Hatchery and Wild-Origin Lake Trout Reared in a Hatchery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatcheries play a key role in augmenting populations for conservation, harvest, or both, although rapid domestication and adaptation to hatchery conditions may lead to fish that are maladapted to natural environments. Three processes may lead to domestication: (1) negative selection against fish adapted to wild environments, (2) positive selection for fish that thrive in artificial conditions, or (3) relaxation of

Jenni L. McDermid; William N. Sloan; Chris C. Wilson; Brian J. Shuter

2010-01-01

268

Interaction of early environment, gender and genes of monoamine neurotransmission in the aetiology of depression in a large population-based Finnish birth cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives Depression is a worldwide leading cause of morbidity and disability. Genetic studies have recently begun to elucidate its molecular aetiology. The authors investigated candidate genes of monoamine neurotransmission and early environmental risk factors for depressiveness in the genetically isolated population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (12?058 live births). Design The authors ascertained and subdivided the study sample (n=5225) based on measures of early development and of social environment, and examined candidate genes of monoamine neurotransmission, many of which have shown prior evidence of a gene–environment interaction for affective disorders, namely SLC6A4, TPH2, COMT, MAOA and the dopamine receptor genes DRD1–DRD5. Results and conclusion The authors observed no major genetic effects of the analysed variants on depressiveness. However, when measures of early development and of social environment were considered, some evidence of interaction was observed. Allelic variants of COMT interacted with high early developmental risk (p=0.005 for rs2239393 and p=0.02 for rs4680) so that the association with depression was detected only in individuals at high developmental risk group (p=0.0046 and ?=0.056 for rs5993883–rs2239393–rs4680 risk haplotype CGG including Val158), particularly in males (p=0.0053 and ?=0.083 for the haplotype CGG). Rs4274224 from DRD2 interacted with gender (p=0.017) showing a significant association with depressiveness in males (p=0.0006 and ?=0.0023; p=0.00005 and ?=0.069 for rs4648318–rs4274224 haplotype GG). The results support the role of genes of monoamine neurotransmission in the aetiology of depression conditional on environmental risk and sex, but not direct major effects of monoaminergic genes in this unselected population.

Nyman, Emma S; Sulkava, Sonja; Soronen, Pia; Miettunen, Jouko; Loukola, Anu; Leppa, Virpi; Joukamaa, Matti; Maki, Pirjo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Freimer, Nelson; Peltonen, Leena; Veijola, Juha

2011-01-01

269

Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ? m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show conductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Conclusions: Results from the Pima County TEM survey were in good agreement with control data from the four USGS test wells located around the field area. This survey also achieved very acceptable 500+ m depths of investigation. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

Jernsletten, J. A.

2005-05-01

270

Infarct Restraint to Limit Adverse Ventricular Remodeling  

PubMed Central

The left ventricular response to a myocardial infarction is a complex biomechanical process that is only beginning to be understood. Infarct expansion (stretching) is an immediate and progressive phenomenon that is known to initiate and sustain the ventricular dilatation and global loss of contractile function that leads to symptomatic heart failure. Limitation of infarct expansion has, therefore, been identified as a potential therapeutic goal that could reduce the morbidity and cost associated with adverse infarction-induced ventricular remodeling and the symptomatic heart failure that results from it. This review will present experimental work that demonstrates the central importance of infarct expansion to the remodeling process as well as proof-of-concept studies that establish the efficacy of early mechanical infarct restraint for limiting ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Ventricular restraint with polymeric mesh materials (wraps) placed early after MI will be discussed. Data supporting the use of injected acellular biomaterials to alter infarct material properties (stiffness) and geometry (thickness) will also be presented. This approach has been shown to be effective in our laboratory and others in limiting post-infarction remodeling and represents a potential means for limiting infarct expansion early after MI via minimally invasive catheter-based technology.

Gorman, Robert C.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Burdick, Jason A.; Gorman, Joseph H.

2011-01-01

271

Early biomarkers identified in a rat model of a healthier phenotype based on early postnatal dietary intervention may predict the response to an obesogenic environment in adulthood.  

PubMed

Moderate maternal calorie restriction during lactation in rats provides certain protection against obesity in adult offspring. Hence, we used this model with 20% calorie restriction to identify early changes at the gene expression level in key tissues involved in energy homeostasis, as well as to assess whether they are maintained in adulthood, to consider them as potential biomarkers of metabolic health. Offspring of control and 20% calorie-restricted dams during lactation (CR) were followed. Animals were studied at weaning and at 6 months old under normal-fat (NF) diet and after being moved to a high-fat (HF) diet for the last 2 months. Adult CR animals showed lower body weight, decreased hepatic lipids and improved circulating parameters vs. controls. At weaning, CR pups, in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT), displayed lower messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipogenesis-related genes and higher mRNA levels of genes related with lipolysis and insulin signaling vs. controls. CR animals also showed lower hepatic mRNA levels of the lipogenesis-related gene sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c) and higher mRNA levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 isoform a, adipose triglyceride lipase and long-form leptin receptor (ObRb). Some of these changes were sustained in adulthood under HF diet, and mRNA levels of IRS1 (rWAT) and of ObRb and SREBP1c (liver) in adult animals correlated with hepatic lipids and circulating parameters. In conclusion, the protective effects of moderate calorie restriction during lactation on offspring metabolic health are reflected in early changes at gene expression level in key tissues. Among them, transcript levels of IRS1 (rWAT) and of ObRb and SREBP1c (liver) emerge as particularly interesting as potential transcript-based biomarkers of metabolic health. PMID:24445046

Torrens, Juana M; Konieczna, Jadwiga; Palou, Mariona; Sánchez, Juana; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

2014-02-01

272

The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global attention has always been focussed on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a ‘clean’ image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment.

S. A. Abbasi; Naseema Abbasi

2000-01-01

273

Tenure Insecurity, Adverse Selection, and Liquidity in Rural Land Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of land market activity is developed for settings where there is uncertainty and private information about the security of land tenure. Land sellers match with buyers in a competitive search environment, and an illiquid land market emerges as a screening mechanism. As a consequence, adverse selection and an insecure system of property rights stifle land market transactions. The

Derek Stacey

2011-01-01

274

[Adverse drug reactions on hair].  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions on the hair are common side effects. The spectrum of loss of hair reaches from diffuse telogen effluvium up to circumscribed or diffuse alopecia on the scalp, sometimes also including other body areas. Other side effects observed are the stimulation of hair growth with hypertrichosis and induction or worsening of hirsutism, as well as changes of the structure or color of the hair. In most cases--other than those treated with cytostatics, androgens, or hormonal contraceptives with some androgenic effect--it is rather difficult to determine the time of onset and primary cause, since the diffuse types often start subclinically, and other factors may play an additional part. As a rule, adverse drug reactions are reversible provided the causative drug is avoided. PMID:2087842

Gollnick, H; Blume, U; Orfanos, C E

1990-12-01

275

Adverse reactions to food additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are thousands of additives used by the food industry for a variety of purposes in the foods we eat. However, only a\\u000a small number have been implicated in causing adverse reactions in humans. Although there are reported cases of individuals\\u000a who have reactions to single additives, most of the medical literature involves patients with asthma or chronic idiopathic\\u000a urticaria\\/angioedema

Ronald A. Simon

2003-01-01

276

[Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].  

PubMed

The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

277

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A; Baram, Tallie Z

2013-01-01

278

Visualizing Early-Stage Breast Cancer Tumors in a Mammographic Environment Through a 3-Dimensional Mathematical Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to the insidious and deadly nature of breast cancer and the less-than-perfect detection ability of mammography, we develop a mathematical model as a foundation to the long-term goal of improving early breast cancer detection. By using modeling...

C. B. Bassham

1999-01-01

279

Early Childhood Education in Iceland: A Response to the Welfare System, the Natural Environment, the Cultural Heritage and Foreign Influences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses early childhood education in Iceland and its in relation to the country's cultural heritage, the family welfare system, and legislation and influences from abroad. Because Iceland has been isolated for centuries from the rest of the world, the country has developed its own culture and maintained its native language. The need…

Einarsdottir, Johanna

280

Development and Evaluation of a Program To Teach Naturalistic Early Intervention Strategies in Inclusive Environments. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This final report describes the development and evaluation of a project that was funded by the U.S. Department of Education to develop, evaluate, revise, and disseminate a video-assisted, competency-referenced curriculum to teach naturalistic intervention strategies in inclusive, early intervention settings. The project, called Strategies for…

Rule, Sarah

281

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in\\u000apoor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages,\\u000ametallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta,\\u000aMgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population\\u000a(SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial\\u000asubsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive

F. Annibali; R. Grutzbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2010-01-01

282

Influence of Early Water Deficit on Seed Yield and Quality of Faba Bean under Arid Environment of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under limited water resources of arid and semi-arid environment, the great challenge of developing agriculture is to increasing water use efficiency. For that field traits in Complete Randomize Block Design were carried out in Agriculture Research Station, Faculty of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Derab, near Riyadh, King Saud University. The experiments included six water irrigation schedules viz., 2000, 3000, 4000,

N. A. Al-Suhaibani

283

Lateglacial and early-Holocene environments of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region of the Russian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen and radiocarbon data from Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region suggest that the hypo thetical Panarctic Ice Sheet (Denton and Hughes, 1981) never existed in this area, at least during the last 16 000 years. Lateglacial tundra environments were slightly cooler and drier than the present ones, but there were also warmer intervals such as the Allerød, which

Leonid Serebryanny; Andrei Andreev; Evgeniya Malyasova; Pavel Tarasov; Fedor Romanenko

1998-01-01

284

The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

2012-01-01

285

The environment of early humans in Southern Caucasus - High-resolution reconstruction of climate and vegetation in Armenia at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Caucasus is the area of earliest human occupation in Eurasia, proven by findings of Homo fossils in Georgia with an age of ca. 1.8 Ma. The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Lake sediments from Sisian Formation, Vorotan River Basin, southern Armenia, provide detailed information on environmental changes during late Early Pleistocene. Based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric dating, the exposed part of the succession covers a stratigraphic age from ca. 1.3 to 0.9 Ma and includes the Jaramillo subchron. Due to the precise age control high-resolution pollen analysis was conducted at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal spanning from 1.12 to 1.035 Ma (MIS 33 - MIS 30) with a mean resolution of ca. 250 years per samples. Results document a clear vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic changes with open vegetation during the less pronounced cycles MIS 33/34, the expansion of broadleaved deciduous forests during the very warm and humid MIS 31, and the expansion of needleleaved forests during the long, cool and humid MIS 30. Furthermore, the age of the numerous macro floral assemblages could be constrained to warm and humid parts of the climatic phases, most of them connected to MIS 31 confirming the dominance of mosaic vegetation at that time. Plant species compositions show strong relations to Euxinian and Hycanian forests occurring today at the coasts of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, respectively, which must have been expanded considerably during warmer and more humid periods of the Early Pleistocene. Climate quantifications show substantially warmer and 50-100% more humid conditions for most pronounced interglacials. Based on those results we extrapolate the distribution of forests and mosaic landscapes in Southern Caucasus for different climatic phases during Early Pleistocene as a prerequisite for the reconstruction of early human environments in this region.

Bruch, Angela; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Scharrer, Steffen; Teodoridis, Vasilis

2014-05-01

286

Effect of Two Different Methods of Initiating Atomoxetine on the Adverse Event Profile of Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods for initiating atomoxetine in terms of the incidence of early adverse events. Method: Data on atomoxetine treatment-emergent adverse events in youths, ages 6 to 18 years, were analyzed from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute-phase studies. Two studies involve…

Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao; Feldman, Peter D.

2007-01-01

287

Survivability of meteor burst communication under adverse operating conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is a study of the survivability and reliability issues associated with operating meteor burst communication systems under adverse conditions. Meteor burst communication relies on the phenomenon of reflecting radio waves off the ionized trails left by meteors as they enter the atmosphere and disintegrate. The systems' rapid deployment capability, mobility, and operating characteristics make it ideal for disaster and emergency communications. Adverse conditions such as ionospheric disturbances, polar region anomalies, sun-spot activity, the nuclear EMP environment and others are discussed.

Gates, Mark A.

1992-03-01

288

Chlorhexidine: uses and adverse reactions.  

PubMed

Chlorhexidine is increasingly being used not only as an antiseptic to prevent hospital infections and an adjuvant in oral hygiene but also as a preservative in personal care products. As exposure to the agent becomes more widespread, reports of adverse reactions to it are increasing. Complications range from mild irritant contact dermatitis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Allergic contact dermatitis in some cases precedes anaphylaxis. It is imperative that physicians be aware of the many possible sources of contact with this antiseptic and be alert to recognize the potentially debilitating and catastrophic reactions that may occur because of chlorhexidine sensitization. PMID:23665831

Silvestri, Dianne L; McEnery-Stonelake, Melissa

2013-01-01

289

Experimental Approaches to Systematic Discovery and Development of Reproductive Adverse Outcome Pathways in Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that portray causal and predictive linkages between key events at multiple scales of biological organization that connect molecular initiating events and early cellular perturbations (e.g., initiation of toxicity pathways)...

290

When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.  

PubMed

Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G?×?E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G?×?E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in resilience to stress. Therefore, deeper insight into the role of epigenetic regulation in the process of neurodevelopmental programmes is likely to result in early diagnosis of affective spectrum disorders and will contribute to the design of innovative treatments targeting neural pathways that foster resilience. PMID:21225411

Lesch, Klaus-Peter

2011-01-01

291

The early-mid Pliocene Marine Environment from McMurdo Sound Antarctica as recorded in the ANDRILL AND-1B Core.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A productive open-marine environment is recorded within the early-mid Pliocene diatomites of the ANDRILL AND-1B core. This is in stark contrast with the current sub-shelf environment present at the site with only transported diatoms from the Ross Sea present in surface sediments. Biosiliceous sedimentation in the Ross Sea today is dominated by species highly associated with the modern sea-ice environment; the species observed in the AND-1B diatomites indicate open-water production with often low numbers of sea ice associated species. One diatomite interval of particular interest is 80m in length with continuous deposition preserved in the upper 60m. This whole diatomite unit is subdivided by several debris flows of mixed sedimentological origin but with abundant volcanic clasts; several of which are thought to have significant losses of time associated with them. Sedimentation rates change throughout this unit, indicated by the presence of both bioturbation and laminations. Species indicative of a near-shore open-marine setting with cooler waters and local sea-ice influence is observed at the base, while the diatomite above contains several species in high abundance that today are only observed in such numbers far to the north of this site. The lowest samples in the upper 60m interval have species indicating cool environmental conditions and the presence of local sea ice. These are followed by several distinct intervals reflecting changes in the local marine environment that persisted for extended periods of time represented in 10-20m of diatomite each. The relative proportions of species known to be associated with sea ice, those associated with open water near sea ice and those negatively correlated with sea ice fluctuate within this upper 60m and record a dynamic and varying marine environment.

Winter, D. M.; Sjunneskog, C.; Scherer, R.; Riesselman, C.

2008-12-01

292

Children's Recovery after Early Adversity: Lessons from Intercountry Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on children who have been internationally adopted provides many strong examples of resilience. This paper discusses what counts as resilience in intercountry adoption and includes new data from the first study in this area conducted in Ireland. As with studies conducted in other jurisdictions, the Irish data indicate a remarkable capacity…

Greene, Sheila; Kelly, Ruth; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Greg; Borska, Zofia; Murphy, Sile; Daly, Aoife

2008-01-01

293

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used

Nicole P. Lindsey; Betsy A. Schroeder; Elaine R. Miller; M. Miles Braun; Alison F. Hinckley; Nina Marano; Barbara A. Slade; Elizabeth D. Barnett; Gary W. Brunette; Katherine Horan; J. Erin Staples; Phyllis E. Kozarsky; Edward B. Hayes

2008-01-01

294

Adverse Selection and the Opaqueness of Insurers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract While adverse selection problems between insureds and insurers are well known to insurance researchers, few explore adverse selection in the insurance industry from a capital markets perspective. This study examines adverse selection in the quoted prices of insurers' common stocks with a particular focus on the opacity of both asset portfolios and underwriting liabilities. We find that more opaque

Tao Zhang; Larry A. Cox; Robert A. Van Ness

2009-01-01

295

Predisposing Factors in Adverse Reactions to Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predisposing factors were sought in 118 patients who developed adverse drug reactions in hospital. Significantly more patients of 60 years and over, and more women than men, developed adverse drug reactions. Patients with reactions had more drugs before the development of the reaction than patients who did not develop reactions. A previous adverse drug reaction and a history of allergic

Natalie Hurwitz

1969-01-01

296

[Adverse reaction induced by licorice preparations: clinical analysis of 93 cases].  

PubMed

Licorice is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinic. The products,what contain licorice or licorice extract, has early been involved in the field of cosmetics except for the field of pharmaceuticals and food. Consequently, the reporting on adverse reactions induced by licorice preparations are more frequent. Based on the clinical data of licorice preparations adverse reactions, we described the characteristics of the licorice-related adverse reactions, and proposed specific measures to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, provided a reference for the rational use of licorice preparations. PMID:24494570

Mao, Min; Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Jin; Chang, Zhang-Fu

2013-11-01

297

Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

2002-01-01

298

VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

299

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C. [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

2005-04-26

300

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C.

2005-04-01

301

Large-vocabulary speech recognition under adverse acoustic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report our recent work on noise-robust large-vocabulary speech recognition. Three key innovations are developed and evaluated in this work: 1) a new model learning paradigm that comprises a noise-insertion process followed by noise reduction; 2) a noise adaptive training algorithm that integrates noise reduction into probabilistic multi-style system training; and 3) a new algorithm (SPLICE) for noise reduction that

Li Deng; Alex Acero; Mike Plumpe; Xuedong Huang

2000-01-01

302

Multiple sulfur isotopes in Paleoarchean barites identify an important role for microbial sulfate reduction in the early marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedded barites from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa and Swaziland) preserve a comprehensive record of atmospheric, oceanic and microbial processes involved in the formation and evolution of the Paleoarchean (3.6-3.2 Ga) oceanic sulfate reservoir. Here, we report multiple sulfur isotopic compositions from four of these barite occurrences. Relatively constant mass-independent signatures (?36S/?33S = - 1.0 ± 0.2) within deposits support an important role for atmospheric photolysis in the production of oxidized sulfur, whereas 34S enrichments relative to the inferred composition of photolytic sulfate suggest drawdown of 34S by microbial sulfate reduction. Strong compositional overlap with barites from India and Western Australia indicates the presence of a large-scale and well-mixed marine sulfate pool. Covariation between ?34S and ?33S within individual deposits also suggests a role for processes occurring in semi-closed basins fed by this global reservoir. Based on modeling results, we interpret variations in ?34S by local microbial sulfate reduction and correlations with ?33S by weak inputs of sulfur from magmatic sources, microbial sulfide oxidation or sulfur disproportionation. This agrees with the early occurrence of sulfate reducers in the geological record as inferred from published microscopic pyrite data, and identifies their role as important in both global oceans and local basins in the Paleoarchean.

Roerdink, Desiree L.; Mason, Paul R. D.; Farquhar, James; Reimer, Thomas

2012-05-01

303

A study of early corrosion behaviors of FeCrAl alloys in liquid lead-bismuth eutectic environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead and lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy have been increasingly receiving attention as heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) for future nuclear energy systems. The compatibility of structural materials and components with lead-bismuth eutectic liquid at high temperature is one of key issues for the commercialization of lead fast reactors. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of iron-based alumina-forming alloys (Kanthal-AF®, PM2000, MA956) were investigated by exposing to stagnant LBE environments at 500 °C and 550 °C for up to 500 h. After exposures, the thickness and chemistry of the oxide layer on the specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the oxide characteristics and the corrosion resistance were compared. In this study, it was shown that the corrosion resistance of FeCrAl ODS steels (PM2000, MA956) are superior to that of FeCrAl ferritic steel (Kanthal-AF®) in higher temperature LBE.

Lim, Jun; Nam, Hyo On; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyun

2010-12-01

304

No Evidence for a Dependence of the Mass-Size Relation of Early-type Galaxies on Environment in the Local Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early-type galaxy (ETG) mass-size relation has largely been studied to understand how these galaxies assembled their mass. One key observational result of the last years is that massive galaxies increased their size by a factor of a few at fixed stellar mass from z ~ 2. Hierarchical models favor minor mergers as a plausible driver of this size growth. Some of these models predict a significant environmental dependence in the sense that galaxies residing in more massive halos tend to be larger than galaxies in lower mass halos, at fixed stellar mass and redshift. At present, observational results of this environmental dependence are contradictory. In this paper we revisit this issue in the local universe, by investigating how the sizes of massive ETGs depend on a large-scale environment using an updated and accurate sample of ETGs in different environments—field, group, and clusters—from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Our analysis does not show any significant environmental dependence of the sizes of central and satellite ETGs at fixed stellar mass at z ~ 0. The size-mass relation of early-type galaxies at z ~ 0 seems to be universal, i.e., independent of the mass of the host halo and of the position of the galaxy in that halo (central or satellite). The result is robust to different galaxy selections based on star formation, morphology, or central density. Considering our observational errors and the size of the sample, any size ratio larger than 30%-40% between massive galaxies (log(M */M ?) > 11) living in clusters and in the field can be ruled out at 3? level.

Huertas-Company, M.; Shankar, F.; Mei, S.; Bernardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Meert, A.; Vikram, V.

2013-12-01

305

Early diagenetic production and sediment-water exchange of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence at wavelengths characteristic of humic substances (excitation 350 nm, emission 450 nm) have been used in this study to approximate concentrations of fluorescent dissolved organic material (FDOM). In situ regulated and unregulated benthic chambers, sediment cores, and laboratory tank incubations were used to study early diagenesis of FDOM in coastal marine sediments of the Gullmar Fjord, western Sweden. In the regulated in situ chambers, pH and oxygen were kept at relatively stable levels, while in the unregulated in situ chambers, pH and oxygen were left to decrease as a result of biological activity. FDOM porewater distributions and correlation between FDOM and parameters indicating mineralization showed that FDOM was formed in the sediment and should flux across the sediment-water interface. A substantial flux of FDOM was also observed during winter and spring conditions and during anoxic conditions fall. However, no flux was observed during oxic conditions fall. Modeling indicated that oxygen penetration depth was deeper during winter than during fall, i.e., the oxygen penetration depth increased during fall towards winter values. We suggest that as FeOOH was formed when oxygen penetration depths increased, FROM was sorbed to newly formed FeOOH, inhibiting FDOM flux over the sediment-water interface. In addition, at onset of anoxic conditions in the sediment surface layer in fall incubations, FDOM flux from sediment to overlying water increased substantially. Increases in anoxic FDOM fluxes were accompanied by increases in Fe and phosphate fluxes. We suggest that reductively dissolved FeOOH released sorbed FDOM. FDOM released from FeOOH by anoxic conditions was not resorbed when oxic conditions were resumed. This could be an effect of higher pH in overlying water as compared with porewater, inhibiting FeOOH sorption of FDOM.

Skoog, Annelie; Hall, Per O. J.; Hulth, Stefan; Paxéus, Nicklas; Van Der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Westerlund, Stig

1996-10-01

306

Early detection of production deficit hot spots in semi-arid environment using FAPAR time series and a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timely information on vegetation development at regional scale is needed in arid and semiarid African regions where rainfall variability leads to high inter-annual fluctuations in crop and pasture productivity, as well as to high risk of food crisis in the presence of severe drought events. The present study aims at developing and testing an automatic procedure to estimate the probability of experiencing a seasonal biomass production deficit solely on the basis of historical and near real-time remote sensing observations. The method is based on the extraction of vegetation phenology from SPOT-VEGTATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and the subsequent computation of seasonally cumulated FAPAR as a proxy for vegetation gross primary production. Within season forecasts of the overall seasonal performance, expressed in terms of probability of experiencing a critical deficit, are based on a statistical approach taking into account two factors: i) the similarity between the current FAPAR profile and past profiles observable in the 15 years FAPAR time series; ii) the uncertainty of past predictions of season outcome as derived using jack-knifing technique. The method is applicable at the regional to continental scale and can be updated regularly during the season (whenever a new satellite observation is made available) to provide a synoptic view of the hot spots of likely production deficit. The specific objective of the procedure described here is to deliver to the food security analyst, as early as possible within the season, only the relevant information (e.g., masking out areas without active vegetation at the time of analysis), expressed through a reliable and easily interpretable measure of impending risk. Evaluation of method performance and examples of application in the Sahel region are discussed.

Meroni, M.; Fasbender, D.; Kayitakire, F.; Pini, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Verstraete, M. M.

2013-12-01

307

Isotopic composition and speciation of sulfur in the Miocene Monterey Formation: Reevaluation of sulfur reactions during early diagenesis in marine environments  

SciTech Connect

The timing and pathways of early diagenetic sulfur transfer from dissolved species in pore waters to solid inorganic and organic compounds in sediments have been studied in the Miocene Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin (onshore), California. Correlation between concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), in addition to concentrations of titanium, aluminum, total iron, and reactive iron, have been used to infer organic matter reactivity, redox conditions, and relative rates of clastic and biogenic input for each lithofacies. Isotopic compositions of six sulfur species (acid-volatile, disulfide, kerogen, bitumen, sulfate, and elemental) have provided information regarding relative timing of sulfur incorporation, sulfate diffusivity in the upper centimeters of the sediments, and the sources of sulfur for individual species. Consistent ordering of isotopic values for sulfur species (disulfide < acid-volatile sulfide {le} kerogen) indicates that pyrite precipitated nearest to the sediment-water interface under mildly reducing conditions and with little or no decrease in sulfate concentration relative to seawater. Enrichment of {sup 34}S in acid-volatile sulfide and kerogen sulfur resulted from formation of these species at greater depths or in restricted micro-environments under more reducing conditions and with low concentrations of porewater sulfate. The formation of acid-volatile sulfide after pyrite but during early diagenesis is significant because it implies more strongly reducing conditions than are generally recognized in deep-water marine sediments.

Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1992-02-01

308

Early Childhood Intervention. Rationale, Timing and Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief review of the economic rationale for investing in early childhood. It discusses the optimal timing of intervention, with reference to recent work in developmental neuroscience, and asks how early is early? It motivates the need for early intervention by providing an overview of the impact of adverse factors during the antenatal and early childhood period

Orla Doyle; Colm Harmon; James J. Heckman; Richard E. Tremblay

2007-01-01

309

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

2011-04-01

310

The morphology, environment and interstellar medium of early-type galaxies as a means for studying the evolution of galaxies outside of clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this thesis is to study the properties of isolated early-type galaxies with the hope of learning about their formation and evolution. With this goal in mind, B and I optical, and Ks near infrared images of 4 different samples of early-type galaxies in contrasting galactic density environments have been secured with the Steward Observatory 90 inch and 61 inch telescopes. The 4 early-type galaxy samples consist of: a sample extracted from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies of Karachentseva, a sample of isolated galaxies previously studied by Fasano and Bonoli, a sample of galaxies from the Hickson Compact Groups Catalog, and a sample of galaxies with detected ISM's. This data set is used to examine whether differences in the galactic environment are related to differences in key properties of early-type galaxies. Multi-color surface photometry analysis is performed on the 4 samples, and the results are used in several contexts. For most of the galaxies in the Karachentseva sample surface photometry is reported for the first time. Likewise, Ks data for most of the objects in this thesis have never been reported. The light profile of the galaxies are fitted with Sersic profile functions. In agreement with other investigations, it is found that the Sersic parameter, n is primarily dependent on the galaxy size, and does not seem to be strongly dependent on properties such as environment or ISM content. The (B - I) color index, ellipticity, position angle, and third and fourth-order Fourier coefficients are derived from the surface photometry. It is confirmed that the third-order coefficients signal the presence of dust, and that the coefficient of the cos(4theta) gives structural information of the galaxies. Furthermore, the subtraction of model ellipticals has revealed peculiarities in the morphology, such as disks, spiral arms, dust lanes, multiple nuclei, etc. The largest and most relevant sample in this investigation consists of 39 galaxies, and it contains ˜25% of the galaxies classified as ellipticals in the Karachentseva catalog. Only approximately one half of the galaxies classified as ellipticals in that catalog appear to be correctly classified, a result which may imply a reduction of the percentage of ellipticals in the Karachentseva catalog to ˜6% of the total population of Isolated Galaxies. A significant number of merger candidates has also been found among the isolated galaxies. It is argued that the fraction of merger candidates to isolated ellipticals can be used to constrain models for the evolution of compact groups into isolated galaxies. The results of CO(1-0) millimetric wavelength observations taken at the NRAO 12 M telescope, as well as submillimeter continuum emission from dust at the SMT are also presented.

Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar

311

Medically serious adverse effects of newer antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although safer than tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the newer antidepressants may be associated\\u000a with certain medically serious adverse effects, of which cardiovascular adverse effects, seizures, abnormal bleeding, hyponatremia,\\u000a and agranulocytosis are discussed in this review. Data regarding the incidence and risk factors are summarized, and strategies\\u000a for reducing the risk of these adverse effects and managing them are

Rajnish Mago; Rajeev Mahajan; Michael E. Thase

2008-01-01

312

Postdischarge Adverse Events in the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common types of adverse events identified in the United States and Canadian studies within 3 to 4 weeks after hospital discharge were due to medications (66%Y72%), procedures (7%Y17%), therapeutic errors (16%), nosocomial infections (5%Y11%), pressure ulcers (7%), diag- nostic errors (6%), and falls (2%Y4%). 3,4 In these studies, approximately one-third of these adverse events were preventable (an adverse

Dennis Tsilimingras; Kenneth Brummel-Smith; Robert G. Brooks

2009-01-01

313

iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined. PMID:23420567

Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

2012-12-01

314

Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) on the relationship between antidepressants and suicide. We obtain point estimates and 95 per cent confidence (posterior) intervals for the rate multiplier for each drug (e.g. antidepressants), which can be used to determine whether a particular drug has an increased risk of association with a particular AE (e.g. suicide). Confidence (posterior) intervals that do not include 1.0 provide evidence for either significant protective or harmful associations of the drug and the adverse effect. We also examine EB, parametric Bayes, and semiparametric Bayes estimators of the rate multipliers and associated confidence (posterior) intervals. Results of our analysis of the FDA AERS data revealed that newer antidepressants are associated with lower rates of suicide adverse event reports compared with older antidepressants. We recommend improvements to the existing AERS system, which are likely to improve its public health value as an early warning system.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M.; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J. John

2008-01-01

315

Adverse Drug Events in Ambulatory Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Adverse events related to drugs occur frequently among inpatients, and many of these events are preventable. However, few data are available on adverse drug events among outpatients. We conducted a study to determine the rates, types, severity, and preventabil- ity of such events among outpatients and to identify preventive strategies. methods We performed a prospective cohort study, including a

Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Joshua Borus; Andrew C. Seger; Josh Peterson; Elisabeth Burdick; Diane L. Seger; Kirstin Shu; Frank Federico; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

2003-01-01

316

Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ? 9-10), acidic (pH ? 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s(-1) as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. PMID:24947006

Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K; Poulikakos, Dimos

2014-07-10

317

Adversity and inflammation among adolescents: a possible pathway to long-term health risk.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that childhood adversity programs an inflammatory phenotype characterized by higher levels of systemic inflammation and increased health risk in later life. If this is the case, one might expect associations of early childhood adversity with elevated levels of circulating inflammatory molecules in adolescence. To date, evidence for this association is mixed. This issue of Psychosomatic Medicine includes two studies by Pietras and Goodman and Low et al. that extend the existing literature and provide initial evidence that coping styles and perceived social standing may buffer against the impact of adversity on inflammation among adolescents. The current commentary considers these interesting findings in the context of the existing literature and discusses a critical need for longitudinal studies examining whether individual risk and resilience factors moderate the long-term health effects of childhood adversity, possibly via early programming of inflammatory pathways. PMID:23723363

Marsland, Anna L

2013-06-01

318

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole.

Reason, J

1995-01-01

319

Disorders of sexual development and abnormal early development in domestic food-producing mammals: the role of chromosome abnormalities, environment and stress factors.  

PubMed

The management of disorders of sexual development (DSD) in humans and domestic animals has been the subject of intense interest for decades. The association between abnormal chromosome constitutions and DSDs in domestic animals has been recorded since the beginnings of conventional cytogenetic analysis. Deviated karyotypes consisting of abnormal sex chromosome sets and/or the coexistence of cells with different sex chromosome constitutions in an individual seem to be the main causes of anomalies of sex determination and sex differentiation. In recent years, a growing interest has developed around the environmental insults, such as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC) and heat stressors, which affect fertility, early embryonic development and, in some instances, directly the sex ratio and/or the development of 1 specific sex versus the other. A variety of chemical compounds present in the environment at low doses has been shown to have major effects on the reproductive functions in human and domestic animals following prolonged exposure. In this review, we present an overview of congenital/chromosomal factors that are responsible for the DSDs and link them and the lack of proper embryonic development to environmental factors that are becoming a major global concern. PMID:22024933

Favetta, L A; Villagómez, D A F; Iannuzzi, L; Di Meo, G; Webb, A; Crain, S; King, W A

2012-01-01

320

Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.  

PubMed

Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology. PMID:23893545

Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

2013-08-01

321

The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H I in early-type galaxies as a function of environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the ATLAS3D H I survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H I down to 5 × 106-5 × 107 M? within the survey volume. We detect ˜40 per cent of all ETGs outside the Virgo galaxy cluster and ˜10 per cent of all ETGs inside it. This demonstrates that it is common for non-cluster ETGs to host H I. The morphology of the detected gas varies in a continuous way from regular, settled H I discs and rings to unsettled gas distributions (including tidal or accretion tails) and systems of clouds scattered around the galaxy. The majority of the detections consist of H I discs or rings (1/4 of all ETGs outside Virgo) so that if H I is detected in an ETG it is most likely distributed on a settled configuration. These systems come in two main types: small discs [? M?], which are confined within the stellar body and share the same kinematics of the stars; and large discs/rings [M(H I) up to 5 × 109 M?], which extend to tens of kpc from the host galaxy and are in half of the cases kinematically decoupled from the stars. Neutral hydrogen seems to provide material for star formation in ETGs. Galaxies containing H I within ˜1Re exhibit signatures of on-going star formation in ˜70 per cent of the cases, approximately five times more frequently than galaxies without central H I. The interstellar medium (ISM) in the centre of these galaxies is dominated by molecular gas, and in ETGs with a small gas disc the conversion of H I into H2 is as efficient as in spirals. The ETG H I mass function is characterized by M*˜ 2 × 109 M? and by a slope ?˜-0.7. Compared to spirals, ETGs host much less H I as a family. However, a significant fraction of all ETGs are as H I-rich as spiral galaxies. The main difference between ETGs and spirals is that the former lack the high-column-density H I typical of the bright stellar disc of the latter. The ETG H I properties vary with environment density in a more continuous way than suggested by the known Virgo versus non-Virgo dichotomy. We find an envelope of decreasing M(H I) and M(H I)/LK with increasing environment density. The gas-richest galaxies live in the poorest environments (as found also with CO observations), where the detection rate of star formation signatures is higher. Galaxies in the centre of Virgo have the lowest H I content, while galaxies at the outskirts of Virgo represent a transition region and can contain significant amounts of H I, indicating that at least a fraction of them has joined the cluster only recently after pre-processing in groups. Finally, we find an H I morphology-density relation such that at low environment density (measured on a local scale) the detected H I is mostly distributed on large, regular discs and rings, while more disturbed H I morphologies dominate environment densities typical of rich groups. This confirms the importance of processes occurring on a galaxy-group scale for the evolution of ETGs.

Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

2012-05-01

322

Reducing adverse effects of proton pump inhibitors.  

PubMed

Proton pump inhibitors effectively treat gastroesophageal reflux disease, erosive esophagitis, duodenal ulcers, and pathologic hypersecretory conditions. Proton pump inhibitors cause few adverse effects with short-term use; however, long-term use has been scrutinized for appropriateness, drug-drug interactions, and the potential for adverse effects (e.g., hip fractures, cardiac events, iron deficiency, Clostridium difficile infection, pneumonia). Adults 65 years and older are more vulnerable to these adverse effects because of the higher prevalence of chronic diseases in this population. Proton pump inhibitors administered for stress ulcer prophylaxis should be discontinued after the patient is discharged from the intensive care unit unless other indications exist. PMID:22962914

Ament, Paul W; Dicola, Daniel B; James, Mary E

2012-07-01

323

Adverse drug reactions induced by valproic acid.  

PubMed

Valproic acid is a widely-used first-generation antiepileptic drug, prescribed predominantly in epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. VPA has good efficacy and pharmacoeconomic profiles, as well as a relatively favorable safety profile. However, adverse drug reactions have been reported in relation with valproic acid use, either as monotherapy or polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs or antipsychotic drugs. This systematic review discusses valproic acid adverse drug reactions, in terms of hepatotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, hyperammonemic encephalopathy, hypersensitivity syndrome reactions, neurological toxicity, metabolic and endocrine adverse events, and teratogenicity. PMID:23792104

Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

2013-10-01

324

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity  

MedlinePLUS

... Childhood Adversity as a Risk Factor for Adult CFS It is a well-established fact that experiences ... reported in studies of survivors of childhood abuse. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness that can sometimes ...

325

RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

326

Adverse Event Reporting For Medical Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adverse event reporting enables FDA to take corrective action on problem devices and to prevent injury and death by alerting the public when potentially hazardous devices are discovered. Within FDA, the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) is...

2009-01-01

327

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-07-01

328

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-04-01

329

Annual Adverse Drug Experience Report: 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has long conducted a program to minitor adverse drug experiences (ADEs) for approved drugs. Begun in 1969, this computerized database has accumulated over 753,000 reports. The paper presents a descriptive overview...

J. R. Swann P. F. Reinstein

1992-01-01

330

Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application  

EPA Science Inventory

A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

331

Microbial ooids and cortoids from the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone, Nevada, USA: Evidence for an Early Triassic microbial bloom in shallow depositional environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Triassic sedimentary rocks contain a variety of unusual facies and fabrics, with microbialites being a distinctive component of many carbonates deposited following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Coated grains are common in shallow water facies from the upper Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone (Moenkopi Formation) in southern Nevada, and were investigated in order to determine their origin. Petrographic analysis reveals that the majority of the coated grains found within the Virgin Limestone are micritic ooids with a concentric fabric, or with a homogenous fabric composed of dense, often cloudy micrite. In addition, asymmetric ooids, aggregate grains, and distorted ooids are also locally common in some oolitic units; low-Mg calcite ooids and bimineralic ooids composed of low-Mg calcite and dense, cloudy micrite are less commonly found, but are also documented from the Virgin Limestone. Cortoids (i.e., grains that are coated with constructive micrite envelopes) are a minor component of oolitic grainstones and packstones (typically 10-15% of the grains), although they may also comprise entire beds. The cortoids are coated with micrite similar to that which comprises the ooid cortices, and may be finely laminated or dense and cloudy in nature. The micrite ooids and constructive micrite envelopes are interpreted as microbial in origin based on the finely laminated or cloudy, dense nature of the micrite, as well as coatings that are uneven, or often of greater thickness on one side of elongate nuclei, such as bivalve shells or phylliod algae blades. The origin of the low-Mg calcite ooids and layers is less certain, but may also be microbial. The results of this study suggest that a microbial bloom occurred in shallow water environments, which was the result of 3 factors: (1) the unusual chemistry of Early Triassic oceans; (2) runoff of nutrient-rich waters, which enhanced microbialite growth; and, (3) wave agitation and warm waters that led to CO2 degassing and further supersaturation of shallow waters with respect to calcium carbonate.

Woods, Adam D.

2013-06-01

332

SPIDER - VI. The central dark matter content of luminous early-type galaxies: Benchmark correlations with mass, structural parameters and environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse the central dark-matter (DM) content of ˜4500 massive (M? ? 1010 M?), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), with high-quality ugrizY JHK photometry and optical spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). We estimate the 'central' fraction of DM within the K-band effective radius, Reff, using spherically symmetric isotropic galaxy models. We discuss the role of systematics in stellar mass estimates, dynamical modelling, and velocity dispersion anisotropy. The main results of the present work are the following: (1) DM fractions increase systematically with both structural parameters (i.e. Reff and Sérsic index, n) and mass proxies (central velocity dispersion, stellar and dynamical mass), as in previous studies, and decrease with central stellar density. (2) All correlations involving DM fractions are caused by two fundamental ones with galaxy effective radius and central velocity dispersion. These correlations are independent of each other, so that ETGs populate a central-DM plane (DMP), i.e. a correlation among fraction of total-to-stellar mass, effective radius, and velocity dispersion, whose scatter along the total-to-stellar mass axis amounts to ˜0.15 dex. (3) In general, under the assumption of an isothermal or a constant M/L profile for the total mass distribution, a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF) is favoured with respect to a bottom-heavier Salpeter IMF, as the latter produces negative (i.e. unphysical) DM fractions for more than 50 per cent of the galaxies in our sample. For a Chabrier IMF, the DM estimates agree with ? cold dark matter toy-galaxy models based on contracted DM-halo density profiles. We also find agreement with predictions from hydrodynamical simulations. (4) The central DM content of ETGs does not depend significantly on the environment where galaxies reside, with group and field ETGs having similar DM trends.

Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

2012-09-01

333

Finding the Genetic Determinants of Adverse Reactions to Radiotherapy.  

PubMed

Individual variation in radiosensitivity is thought to be at least partly determined by genetic factors. The remaining difference between individuals is caused by comorbidities, variation in treatment, body habitus and stochastic factors. Evidence for the heritability of radiosensitivity comes from rare genetic disorders and from cell-based studies. To what extent common and rare genetic variants might explain the genetic component of radiosensitivity has not been fully elucidated. If the genetic variants accounting for this heritability were to be determined, they could be incorporated into any future predictive statistical model of adverse reactions to radiotherapy. With the evolution of DNA sequencing and bioinformatics, radiogenomics has emerged as a new research field with the aim of finding the genetic determinants of adverse reactions to radiotherapy. Similar to the investigation of other complex genetic disease traits, early studies in radiogenomics involved candidate gene association studies - many plagued by false associations caused by low sample sizes and problematic experimental design. More recently, some promising genetic associations (e.g. with tumour necrosis factor) have emerged from large multi-institutional cohorts with built-in replication. At the same time, several small- to medium-sized genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been or are about to be published. These studies will probably lead to an increasing number of genetic polymorphisms that may predict adverse reactions to radiotherapy. The future of the field is to create large patient cohorts for multiple cancer types, to validate the genetic loci and build reliable predictive models. For example, the REQUITE project involves multiple groups in Europe and North America. For further discovery studies, larger GWAS will be necessary to include rare sequence variants through next generation sequencing. Ultimately, radiogenomics seeks to predict which cancer patients will show radiosensitivity or radioresistance, so oncologists and surgeons can alter treatment accordingly to lower adverse reactions or increase the efficacy of radiotherapy. PMID:24702740

Rattay, T; Talbot, C J

2014-05-01

334

Macrophages are involved in hexachlorobenzene-induced adverse immune effects  

SciTech Connect

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. T cells play an important role but do not account for all adverse effects induced by HCB. Macrophages are probably also important and the relationship between macrophages and T cells was further investigated. To eliminate macrophages clodronate-liposomes were used. Furthermore, a kinetic study was performed to obtain insight in the early phase of the HCB-induced immune response. Also, experiments were performed to detect specific memory T cells. Therefore, an adoptive transfer study was performed. Our results indicate that macrophages are indeed involved in HCB-induced skin lesions, lung eosinophilia, and elevation of IgM against ssDNA. Kinetics showed that both skin and lung lesions appeared early after exposure. Moreover, immune effects could not be adaptively transferred. Thus, both macrophages and T cells are involved in HCB-induced immune effects but HCB exposure does not lead to specific T cell sensitization. Presumably, HCB exposure induces macrophage activation, thereby generating adjuvant signals that polyclonally stimulate T cells. Together, these events may lead to the observed immunopathology in BN rats.

Ezendam, Janine [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Janine.Ezendam@rivm.nl; Kosterman, Kevin [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Henneke [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleumink, Rob [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hassing, Ine [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooijen, Nico van [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Free University, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Joseph G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands); Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.150, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Pieters, Raymond [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

335

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, February 1, 2002, Volume 51, Number RR-1. Community Interventions to Promote Healthy Social Environments: Early Childhood Development and Family Housing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sociocultural environment exerts a fundamental influence on health. Interventions to improve education, housing, employment, and access to health care contribute to healthy and safe environments and improved community health. The Task Force on Communi...

2002-01-01

336

Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

337

Mechanisms underlying adverse reactions to vaccines.  

PubMed

A broad spectrum of adverse events is reported following human vaccination but such reactions are considered to be relatively rare. A variety of mechanisms has been proposed to account for such adverse events. These most commonly relate to the actual process of vaccination and range from the vagal reaction associated with anxiety about needle injection, to use of an inappropriate site of administration, or infection of the healthcare worker by accidental injection during needle-capping. Other adverse events directly associated with the vaccine include reversion to virulence of attenuated vaccine strains of organisms, or contamination of the vaccine product. Adverse events may involve immune-mediated phenomena triggered by exposure to the microbial or other components of vaccines. These include: classical IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions, and immune-complex type III hypersensitivity (Arthus) reactions. Such reactions may be localized or systemic in nature. A variety of autoimmune reactions has been suggested to be triggered by vaccination, but in general the evidence for such associations remains largely anecdotal. Finally, many reported adverse events are simply chance instances of infection or disease onset around the time of vaccination and are not causally associated with administration of vaccine. PMID:17559869

Siegrist, C-A

2007-07-01

338

Adversity among drug users: relationship to impulsivity.  

PubMed

Illicit substance users experience adverse life events, but few studies have examined the role of impulsivity in these events. The present investigation sought to establish a link between negative life experiences and a trait measure of impulsivity and demonstrate that this association remains even accounting for potential confounds. Participants were 330 heroin and cocaine users recruited from the community for a health service research study. Participants completed a structured interview that assessed topics including drug and alcohol use, impulsivity, and negative life events. This group of drug users reported high rates of adverse life events in the 6 months prior to the assessment. No specific substance abuse/dependence diagnosis or combination of diagnoses was associated with adversity. Number of substance-related diagnoses was associated with adverse life events, but not when adjusting for impulsivity. Experience of these events was significantly associated with impulsivity (p<.001), above and beyond the shared relation with demographic variables, substance abuse and dependence, and number of substance-related diagnoses. These findings document the high frequencies of recent adverse life events among illicit drug users and indicate that trait impulsivity is associated with increased risk of these life events. PMID:15769559

Hayaki, Jumi; Stein, Michael D; Lassor, Joanna A; Herman, Debra S; Anderson, Bradley J

2005-04-01

339

Early neglect is associated with alterations in white matter integrity and cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests that early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. To test this idea, properties of white matter and neurocognitive performance were assessed in children who suffered early neglect and those raised in typical environments (n = 63, Mage  = 11.75 years). As predicted, prefrontal white matter microstructure was affected, consistent with more diffuse organization, in children that suffered early neglect and this was related to neurocognitive deficits. Such findings underscore how early adversity may affect the PFC and explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. PMID:23480812

Hanson, Jamie L; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

2013-01-01

340

Late Glacial and early Holocene environment in the middle Lahn river valley (Hessen, central-west Germany) and the local impact of early Mesolithic people—pollen and macrofossil evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Glacial to early Holocene river valley landscape of the middle Lahntal in Hessen, central-west Germany, is reconstructed by means of pollen and macrofossil analyses. AMS 14C dating combined with pollen, macrofossil and geomorphological mapping provide a detailed chronology of the floodplain sediments of the river Lahn. Archaeological evidence for early Mesolithic settlements in the middle Lahntal is backed

Johanna A. A. Bos; Ralf Urz

2003-01-01

341

Adverse drug reaction cards carried by patients.  

PubMed

Five hundred patients were asked whether they were allergic to any medicines. The description given of any stated reaction was assessed to see whether an important adverse drug reaction was likely to have occurred. The patients' records were also examined for collaborative evidence. Poor documentation often made it difficult to confirm the patient's claim of drug sensitivity. A total of 89 patients may have suffered from important adverse reactions to 113 drugs. Full documentation of adverse reactions is important, but only eight patients carried any information to warn others of their sensitivities. Patients should be asked about any drug sensitivities and, if appropriate, given written confirmation of them. A quick, simple method of doing this would be to provide patients' with a plastic card, similar to a credit card, with instructions and details of the reaction written on it with an indelible pen. PMID:3084023

Hannaford, P C

1986-04-26

342

Identifying Adverse Drug Events by Relational Learning  

PubMed Central

The pharmaceutical industry, consumer protection groups, users of medications and government oversight agencies are all strongly interested in identifying adverse reactions to drugs. While a clinical trial of a drug may use only a thousand patients, once a drug is released on the market it may be taken by millions of patients. As a result, in many cases adverse drug events (ADEs) are observed in the broader population that were not identified during clinical trials. Therefore, there is a need for continued, post-marketing surveillance of drugs to identify previously-unanticipated ADEs. This paper casts this problem as a reverse machine learning task, related to relational subgroup discovery and provides an initial evaluation of this approach based on experiments with an actual EMR/EHR and known adverse drug events.

Page, David; Costa, Vitor Santos; Natarajan, Sriraam; Barnard, Aubrey; Peissig, Peggy; Caldwell, Michael

2013-01-01

343

Cardiovascular adverse effects of newer antidepressants.  

PubMed

Newer antidepressants that are more selective in their neurotransmitter effects include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others (agomelatine, bupropion, mirtazapine, reboxetine, vilazodone, vortioxetine). This article systematically reviews data from a variety of sources regarding the potential adverse effects of these medications on various cardiovascular parameters. Potential biochemical mechanisms by which these antidepressants may adversely affect the cardiovascular system are also discussed. Antidepressants that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk (SNRIs, reboxetine), lower risk (SSRIs), and without current evidence of cardiovascular risk (agomelatine, mirtazapine, vilazodone, vortioxetine) are identified. The FDA's recommendations regarding citalopram are organized and summarized, and situations with higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects are identified. PMID:24738823

Mago, Rajnish; Tripathi, Neeta; Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-05-01

344

A Summary of Adverse Reactions Reported to FDA. Volume I. Drug to Adverse Reaction. Volume II. Adverse Reaction to Drug.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary reflects cases of adverse drug reactions reported to FDA which have an occurrence of two or more relative relationships of probable or definite for the period covered by the report. These reports were received through the FDA Voluntary Report...

1980-01-01

345

Rotigotine adverse effects affecting patient's sexual partner.  

PubMed

Somnolence is one of the most common adverse effects of a dopaminergic agonist, rotigotine. We report putative adverse effects experienced by a spouse of a man treated with this compound because of advanced Parkinson disease. We propose the exposure to rotigotine through the seminal fluid because protected sexual intercourse eliminated her postcoital symptoms. This previously unrecognized mechanism may be more common and associated with other psychoactive compounds penetrating the blood-testis barrier, and it may account for otherwise unexplained postcoital somnolence or fatigue. PMID:20124785

Hedera, Peter

2010-01-01

346

Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

Gazelle, Heidi

2006-01-01

347

Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: a case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current focus on identifying genes which predispose to psychiatric illness sharpens the need to identify environmental factors which interact with genetic predisposition and thus contribute to the multifactorial causation of these disorders. One such factor may be early parental loss (EPL). The putative relationship between early environmental stressors such as parental loss and psychopathology in adult life has intrigued

O Agid; B Shapira; J Zislin; M Ritsner; B Hanin; H Murad; T Troudart; M Bloch; U Heresco-Levy; B Lerer

1999-01-01

348

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes.

Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2011-01-01

349

Borderline personality, nightmares, and adverse life events in the risk for eating disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several scattered lines of evidence suggest that there is a triad of relationships between early adverse life events, borderline personality structure, and susceptibility to nightmares; and, further, that these associations might throw light on the aetiology of the eating disorders. These possibilities were examined in three studies of non-clinical samples of female subjects who completed scales of borderline personality, trauma,

Gordon Claridge; Caroline Davis; Margaret Bellhouse; Simone Kaptein

1998-01-01

350

Reexploration for bleeding is a risk factor for adverse outcomes after cardiac operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although previous studies have included early reexploration for bleeding as a risk factor in analyzing adverse outcomes after cardiac operations, reexploration for bleeding has not been systematically examined as a multivariate risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Furthermore, multivariate predictors of the need for reexploration have not been identified. Accordingly, we performed a retrospective analysis

Michael J. Moulton; Lawrence L. Creswell; Mary E. Mackey; James L. Cox; Michael Rosenbloom

1996-01-01

351

A Potential Causal Association Mining Algorithm for Screening Adverse Drug Reactions in Postmarketing Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of unknown adverse drug reac- tions (ADRs) in postmarketing surveillance saves lives and pre- vents harmful consequences. We propose a novel data mining approach to signaling potential ADRs from electronic health databases. More specifically, we introduce potential causal as- sociation rules (PCARs) to represent the potential causal rela- tionship between a drug and ICD-9 (CDC. (2010). International Classification

Yanqing Ji; Hao Ying; Peter Dews; Ayman Mansour; John Tran; Richard E. Miller; R. Michael Massanari

2011-01-01

352

Major adverse reactions to yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccines—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast-derived recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccines usage became widely accepted since the early 1990s. Severe adverse events have been reported infrequently in adults and rarely in infants and children given hepatitis B vaccine in the ten years which have passed since the introduction of the vaccine. Some of the data were summarized in previous review articles. Our review of the

I. Grotto; Y. Mandel; M. Ephros; I. Ashkenazi; J. Shemer

1998-01-01

353

Reporter Sex and Newspaper Coverage of the Adverse Health Effects of Hormone Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women have used hormone therapy (HT) to relieve menopausal symptoms for decades. Major studies published in JAMA in July 2002 demonstrated adverse health effects from hormone therapy, and the National Institutes of Health halted the Women's Health Initiative clinical trial several years early. We conducted a content analysis of 10 U.S. newspapers in July and August 2002 to examine the

David E. Nelson; Nancy Signorielli

2007-01-01

354

Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience  

PubMed Central

Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages.

Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

2012-01-01

355

Intracellular bacteria and adverse pregnancy outcomes.  

PubMed

This review considers the role of intracellular bacteria in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirths, and preterm labour. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetric conditions. For example, Listeria monocytogenes and Coxiella burnetti are intracellular bacteria that have a predilection for the fetomaternal unit and may induce fatal disease in the mother and/or fetus. Both are important foodborne or zoonotic pathogens in pregnancy. Preventive measures, diagnostic tools and treatment will be reviewed. Moreover, we will also address the importance in adverse pregnancy outcomes of other intracellular bacteria, including Brucella abortus and various members of the order Chlamydiales. Indeed, there is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections may also result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Moreover, newly discovered Chlamydia-like organisms have recently emerged as new pathogens of both animals and humans. For example, Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium isolated from aborted bovine fetuses, has also been implicated in human miscarriages. Future research should help us to better understand the pathophysiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by intracellular bacteria and to determine the precise mode of transmission of newly identified bacteria, such as Waddlia and Parachlamydia. These emerging pathogens may represent the tip of the iceberg of a large number of as yet unknown intracellular pathogenic agents. PMID:21884294

Baud, D; Greub, G

2011-09-01

356

Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children.

Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

2014-01-01

357

Adverse events in surgical patients in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the adverse event (AE) rate for surgical patients in Australia. Design. A two-stage retrospective medical record review was conducted to determine the occurrence of AEs in hospital admissions. Medical records were screened for 18 criteria and positive records were reviewed by two medical officers using a structured questionnaire. Setting. Admissions in 1992 to 28 randomly selected hospitals

A. K. KABLE; R. W. GIBBERD; A. D. SPIGELMAN

2002-01-01

358

Annual Adverse Drug Reaction Report: 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review provides a descriptive overview of the adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports received by the US Food and Drug Administration during 1989. As well as general information, the ADR reports are profiled by types of reports, outcomes, body systems, de...

D. E. Knapp Z. A. Perry A. L. Britt

1990-01-01

359

Adverse ocular effects associated with niacin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a retrospective survey of patients taking medication for hyperlipidaemia, those taking niacin (nicotinic acid) were more likely (p < 0.05) to report sicca syndromes, blurred vision, eyelid oedema, and macular oedema compared with those who never took niacin. Additionally, 7% of those taking niacin discontinued the drug owing to adverse ocular side effects, while none of the other lipid

F W Fraunfelder; F T Fraunfelder; D R Illingworth

1995-01-01

360

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES AND REPEAT INDUCED ABORTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. Study Design In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (M=35.2±5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2+ abortions versus 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between ages 0-12 were summed. Results Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.15-5.71; OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.29-5.82; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.21-2.09) and versus 1 abortion (OR=5.83, 95% CI=1.71-19.89; OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.03-4.81; OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.81). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.14-2.69) but not versus 1 abortion (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.79-1.70). Conclusions Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion.

BLEIL, Maria E.; ADLER, Nancy E.; PASCH, Lauri A.; STERNFELD, Barbara; REIJO-PERA, Renee A.; CEDARS, Marcelle I.

2010-01-01

361

Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.  

PubMed

This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

Ehlert, Ulrike

2013-09-01

362

Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices  

PubMed Central

Problem The NHS is perceived to have a poor record of learning from incidents. Despite efforts of the Medical Devices Agency, which issues safety warnings, adverse incidents with medical devices continue to occur, some of which result in serious injury or death through device failures, user errors, and organisational problems. Design Introduction of feedback notes on a supportive investigation that seeks to determine latent factors, immediate triggers, causes, and positive actions taken by staff that minimised adverse consequences. Background and setting Medical physics department providing equipment management services in a major NHS teaching trust. Key measures for improvement Reduction in repetitions of adverse incidents and improved staff competency in using devices. Strategy for change A feedback note was developed to describe the incident and generic details of the equipment, summarise the investigation (focusing on latent causes and immediate triggers), and describe lessons to be learnt and positive actions by staff. Effects of change Feedback notes have been used in teaching sessions and given to ward link nurses. Despite being new, the positive supportive approach has encouraged an open reporting culture. Lessons learnt Adverse incidents are typically caused by alignment of different factors, but good practice can prevent errors becoming incidents. Careful analysis of incidents reveals both the multifactorial causes and the good practices that can help minimise repetitions.

Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

2002-01-01

363

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: You can enter up to 10 e-mail addresses (separate with commas): * Send to: * Your e-mail: E-mail a copy to myself The information used on this

364

Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings from the 1958 British birth cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To analyse whether Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) are associated with an increased risk of cancer. Methods The National child development study (NCDS) is a prospective birth cohort study with data collected over 50 years. The NCDS included all live births during one week in 1958 (n?=?18558) in Great Britain. Self-reported cancer incidence was based on 444 participants reporting having had cancer at some point and 5694 reporting never having cancer. ACE was measured using reports of: 1) child in care, 2) physical neglect, 3) child’s or family’s contact with the prison service, 4) parental separation due to divorce, death or other, 5) family experience of mental illness & 6) family experience of substance abuse. The resulting variable had three categories, no ACEs/ one ACE/ 2?+?ACEs and was used to test for a relationship with cancer. Information on socioeconomic characteristics, pregnancy and birth were extracted as potential confounders. Information on adult health behaviours, socioeconomic environment, psychological state and age at first pregnancy were added to the models. Multivariate models were run using multiply-imputed data to account for missing data in the cohort. Results The odds of having a cancer before 50 y among women increased twofold for those who had 2+ ACEs versus those with no ACEs, after adjusting for adult factors and early life confounders (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.42-3.21, p?early on in life. This is potentially important in furthering our understanding of cancer aetiology, and consequently in redirecting scientific research and developing appropriate prevention policies.

2013-01-01

365

Management of sorafenib-related adverse events: a clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is being evaluated in phase II and III clinical trials, which include treatment as a single agent (locally advanced/metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer [DTC]), as part of multimodality care (HCC), and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents (metastatic breast cancer). Sorafenib-related adverse events (AEs) that commonly occur across these tumor types include hand-foot skin reaction (HSFR), rash, upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) distress (ie, diarrhea), fatigue, and hypertension. These commonly range from grade 1 to 3, per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), and often occur early in treatment. The goal for the management of these AEs is to prevent, treat, and/or minimize their effects, thereby enabling patients to remain on treatment and improve their quality of life. Proactive management, along with ongoing patient education (before and during sorafenib treatment), can help to effectively manage symptoms, often without the need for sorafenib dose modification or drug holidays. Effective management techniques for common sorafenib-related AEs, as well other important disease sequelae not directly related to treatment, are presented. Recommendations and observations are based on physician/author experience and recommendations from published literature. PMID:24576654

Brose, Marcia S; Frenette, Catherine T; Keefe, Stephen M; Stein, Stacey M

2014-02-01

366

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. IV. What do we learn from nuclear line-strength indices?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we analyze the line-strength indices in the Lick-system measured by Longhetti et al. (1998a, b) for a sample of 51 early-type galaxies located in low density environments (LDE) and showing signatures of fine structures and/or interactions. The sample contains 21 shell-galaxies and 30 members of interacting pairs. Firstly we perform a preliminary comparison between three different sources of calibrations of the line strength indices, namely Buzzoni et al. (1992, 1994), Worthey (1992), Worthey et al. (1994) and Idiart et al. (1995), derived from stars with different effective temperature, gravity, and metallicity. Looking at the three indices in common, i.e. Mg2, Fe5270, and H? , the calibrations by Buzzoni et al. (1992, 1994), Worthey (1992) and Worthey et al. (1994) lead to mutually consistent results. The calibration of H? by Idiart et al. (1995) can be compared with the previous ones only for a limited range of ages, in which good agreement is found. Mg2 and Mgb indices predicted by the Idiart's et al. (1995) fitting functions result to be systematically lower than those obtained from using Worthey (1992) calibrations. Secondly, we discuss the properties of the galaxies in our sample by comparing them both with theoretical Single Stellar Populations (SSPs) and the normal galaxies of the González (1993: G93) sample. The analysis is performed by means of several diagnostic planes. In the sigma , Mg2, Fe5270 and Fe5335 space, normal, shell- and pair-galaxies have a different behavior. First of all, normal and pair-galaxies follow the universal sigma vs. Mg2 relation, whereas shell-galaxies lie above it; secondly the Fe versus Mg2 relation of normal, shell- and pair-galaxies is flatter than the theoretical expectation. This fact hints for enhancement of alpha -elements with respect to solar partition in galaxies with strong Fe indices and/or high velocity dispersion, mass and luminosity in turn. In the sigma vs. H? plane normal galaxies seem to follow a nice relation suggesting that objects with shallow gravitational potential have strong H? values (youth signature?), whereas shell- and pair-galaxies scatter all over the plane. A group of galaxies with deep gravitational potential and strong H? is found. Is this a signature of recent star formation? In the H? vs. [MgFe] plane, which is perhaps best suited to infer the age of the stellar populations, the peculiar galaxies in our sample show nearly the same distribution of the normal galaxies in the G93 sample. There is however a number of peculiar galaxies with much stronger H? . Does this mean that the scatter in the H? vs. [MgFe] plane, of normal, shell- and pair-galaxies has a common origin, perhaps a secondary episode of star formation? We suggest that, owing to their apparent youth, shell- and pair-galaxies should have experienced at least one interaction event after their formation. The explanation comes natural for shell- and pair-galaxies where the signatures of interactions are evident. It is more intrigued in normal galaxies (perhaps other causes may concur). Noteworthy, the distribution in the H? vs. [MgFe] plane of normal, shell- and pair-galaxies is confined within a narrow strip that runs significantly steeper than the path followed by aging SSPs. This feature is explained as due to metal enrichment always accompanying star formation. Shell-galaxies encompass the whole range of ages inferred from the H? vs. [MgFe] plane, indicating that among them recent and old interaction/acquisition events are equally probable. If shells are formed at the same time at which the rejuvenating event took place, shells ought to be long lasting phenomena. [MgFe] = sqrt { x Mgb}, = (Fe5270 + Fe5335)/2 }

Longhetti, M.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.; Rampazzo, R.

2000-01-01

367

Automatic Adverse Drug Events Detection Using Letters to the Editor  

PubMed Central

We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research.

Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M.

2012-01-01

368

Violent crime exposure classification and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the reproductive and public health literature. When crime has been used in research, it has been variably defined, resulting in non-comparable associations across studies. METHODS: Using geocoded linked birth record, crime and census data in multilevel

Lynne C Messer; Jay S Kaufman; Nancy Dole; Amy Herring; Barbara A Laraia

2006-01-01

369

Adverse Environmental Health Effects of Ultra-low Relative Humidity Indoor Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse Environmental Health Effects of Ultra-low Relative Humidity Indoor Air: Mikiya SATO, et al. Department of Hygiene and Public Health, Teikyo University School of Medicine— In Japan, relative humidity (RH) shows the lowest achievement rate among the various general air quality standards for work environment. It has been mainly contributed by airtight design of modern buildings and occurrence of dry

Mikiya Sato; Shingo Fukayo; Eiji Yano

2003-01-01

370

On the Likelihood of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Causing Adverse Marine Ecological Effects  

EPA Science Inventory

This brief article discusses the ecological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)in the marine environment. Based on new research and a review of the scientific literature, the paper concludes that SWNTs are unlikely to cause adverse ecological effects in the marine ...

371

Adverse Events in Affiliated Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Due to the complexity of the hospital environment, its structure faces with multiple hazards. The risks whether by providing the care and whether by hospital environment endanger patients, relatives and care providers. Therefore, a more accurate reporting and analysis of the report by focusing on access to preventative methods is essential. In this study, hospitals' adverse event that has sent by affiliated hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences to deputy for treatment has studied.

Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Siamian, Hasan; Nezhad, Ayyob Barzegar; Asghari, Zoleleykha; Kabirzadeh, Azar

2014-01-01

372

Commentary: Childhood exposure to environmental adversity and the well-being of people with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

People with intellectual disabilities have poorer health than their non-disabled peers. They are also more likely to be exposed to a wide range of environmental adversities in childhood. Research undertaken in the general population has demonstrated that exposure to environmental adversity in childhood can have an adverse impact on health and well-being across the life course. Recently, research in this area has added new breadth and depth to our understanding of: (1) the extent to which cumulative exposure to environmental adversities across the life course, but especially in early childhood, can reduce health and well-being; (2) the social, psychological and biological mediating pathways through which environmental adversities may impair health; (3) the processes associated with resilience and vulnerability in the face of exposure to adversity; and (4) the social significance of these effects in accounting for the magnitude of the inequalities in health that are apparent both between and within populations. This new knowledge is making a significant contribution to the development of social policies that seek to combine health gain with the reduction in health inequalities. This paper attempts to apply this knowledge to research aimed at understanding and improving the health and well-being of people with intellectual disabilities. PMID:22676228

Emerson, E

2013-07-01

373

Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers.  

PubMed

In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when the patient does not remember which product was injected, and treatment is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used fillers, their most frequent adverse reactions as well as the characteristic histopathologic findings that allow the identification of the injected filler agent. In conclusion, histopathologic study remains as the gold standard technique to identify the responsible filler. PMID:21167403

Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise; Zimmermann, Ute S; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo

2011-01-01

374

Glaucoma-related Adverse Events in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) : One Year Results  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the incidence of glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). To evaluate risk factors for the development of a glaucoma-related adverse event in IATS in the first year of follow-up. Methods 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with (IOL) or without IOL implantation (CL). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created and used in the IATS. Results Ten patients (9%) developed glaucoma and 4 patients (4%) were glaucoma suspects for a total of 14 patients (12%) with a glaucoma-related adverse event in the treated eye through the first year of follow-up. Five CL patients (9%) and 9 IOL patients (16%) developed a glaucoma-related adverse event. The odds of developing a glaucoma-related adverse event was 3.1 times higher for a child with persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), and 1.6 times higher for each month of age younger at cataract surgery. Conclusions Modern surgical techniques do not eliminate the early development of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery with or without an intraocular lens. Younger patients with or without PFV seem more likely to develop a glaucoma-related adverse event in the first year of follow-up.Vigilance for the early development of glaucoma is needed following congenital cataract surgery, especially when surgery is performed during early infancy or with PFV. Five year follow-up data for the IATS will likely reveal more glaucoma-related adverse events.

Beck, AD; Freedman, SF; Lynn, MJ; Bothun, ED; Neely, D; Lambert, SR

2012-01-01

375

Adverse events among children in Canadian hospitals: the Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited data are available on adverse events among children admitted to hospital. The Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study was done to describe the epidemiology of adverse events among children in hospital in Canada. Methods: We performed a 2-stage medical record review at 8 academic pediatric centres and 14 community hospitals in Canada. We reviewed charts from patients admitted from April 2008 through March 2009, evenly distributed across 4 age groups (0 to 28 d; 29 to 365 d; > 1 to 5 yr and > 5 to 18 yr). In stage 1, nurses and health records personnel who had received training in the use of the Canadian Paediatric Trigger Tool reviewed medical records to detect triggers for possible adverse events. In stage 2, physicians reviewed the charts identified as having triggers and described the adverse events. Results: A total of 3669 children were admitted to hospital during the study period. The weighted rate of adverse events was 9.2%. Adverse events were more frequent in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65–5.39). The incidence of preventable adverse events was not significantly different between types of hospital, but nonpreventable adverse events were more common in academic pediatric centres (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.08–9.27). Surgical events predominated overall and occurred more frequently in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (37.2% v. 21.5%, relative risk [RR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.1), whereas events associated with diagnostic errors were significantly less frequent (11.1% v. 23.1%, RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Interpretation: More children have adverse events in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals; however, adverse events in the former are less likely to be preventable. There are many opportunities to reduce harm affecting children in hospital in Canada, particularly related to surgery, intensive care and diagnostic error.

Matlow, Anne G.; Baker, G. Ross; Flintoft, Virginia; Cochrane, Douglas; Coffey, Maitreya; Cohen, Eyal; Cronin, Catherine M.G.; Damignani, Rita; Dube, Robert; Galbraith, Roger; Hartfield, Dawn; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri

2012-01-01

376

Pharmacogenetics of Idiosyncratic Adverse Drug Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion\\u000a of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented\\u000a capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock\\u000a to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of

Munir Pirmohamed

377

Overcoming Adversity in Adolescence: Narratives of Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our overarching goal is to understand the unfolding of resilient development. Our person-based approach is based on a follow-back design, enabling us to examine previously recorded adolescent clinical and adult attachment interviews of now-competent young adults who experienced significant adversity during their adolescent years.In their adolescent years, these young adults encountered three serious misfortunes. Between 13 and 16 years old

Stuart T. Hauser; Joseph P. Allen

2007-01-01

378

An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

2004-01-01

379

Mechanisms of Adverse Drug Reactions to Biologics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologics encompass a broad range of therapeutics that include proteins and other products derived from living systems. Although\\u000a the multiplicity of target organs often seen with new chemical entities is generally not seen with biologics, they can produce\\u000a significant adverse reactions. Examples include IL-12 and an anti-CD28 antibody that resulted in patient deaths and\\/or long\\u000a stays in intensive care units.

Janet B. Clarke

380

Parental nurturing and adverse effects of redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that if parental nurturing is a dominating force in human capital formation then income redistribution\\u000a may not promote economic growth. In particular, if, consistently with empirical evidence, parental human capital complements\\u000a investment in a child’s education and yields increasing returns in the intergenerational production of human capital, income\\u000a redistribution may have an adverse impact on the growth

Debasis Bandyopadhyay; Xueli Tang

2011-01-01

381

Genetic susceptibility to adverse drug reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major clinical problem. Genetic factors can determine individual susceptibility to both dose-dependent and dose-independent ADRs. Determinants of susceptibility include kinetic factors, such as gene polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 enzymes, and dynamic factors, such as polymorphisms in drug targets. The relative importance of these factors will depend on the nature of the ADR; however, it

Munir Pirmohamed; B. Kevin Park

2001-01-01

382

Serious Adverse Events After Cataract Surgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose Over the past several decades there have been many advances in the equipment, instrumentation and techniques of performing cataract surgery. This review will address the impact of these advances on the safety profile of cataract surgery. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated a decline in the risk of serious postoperative adverse events (endophthalmitis, suprachoroidal hemorrhage, retinal detachment) following cataract surgery. Factors that increase the risk of serious complications from cataract surgery include patient-related factors (male sex, concomitant diabetic retinopathy, same day cataract surgery combined with another intraocular surgery, tamsulosin use) and surgeon-related factors (low surgical volume, limited experience, operating on patients who are most prone to adverse events). Summary Cataract surgery continues to be a very safe surgical procedure with few patients experiencing serious sight-threatening adverse events. Studies in the literature have helped surgeons identify patients who are at high risk for surgical complications and to develop strategies to limit surgical complications when operating on these patients. As multifocal intraocular lenses, femtosecond laser technology, and other surgical innovations continue to gain popularity, it will be interesting in the coming years to determine whether there will be a continued reduction in complications of cataract surgery.

Stein, Joshua D.

2013-01-01

383

Cutaneous Adverse Events during Vemurafenib Therapy.  

PubMed

Background:Vemurafenib, an oral agent that selectively targets the BRAF V600E mutation, has recently emerged as the mainstay of treatment in patients with BRAF-positive stage IV melanoma. A spectrum of cutaneous adverse events has been associated with vemurafenib, ranging from benign rashes to malignant side effects such as keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.Objective:In this article, we review clinical data regarding the frequency and severity of the common dermatologic side effects associated with vemurafenib; case series and noncontrolled studies evaluating the safety of vemurafenib therapy are used to further characterize these adverse events.Conclusion:Benign vemurafenib-induced side effects generally tend not to be severe or life threatening, with most patients managed by dose interruptions, dose reductions, or topical therapies. Squamous cell carcinomas and keratoacanthomas associated with vemurafenib therapy are easily treated by simple excision of the lesion without discontinuation of vemurafenib. Thus, awareness of potential adverse events coupled with routine dermatologic assessment and timely management will allow for optimal therapeutic benefit in patients receiving vemurafenib therapy. PMID:25008438

Chandrakumar, Shivani Felicia; Yeung, Jensen

2014-01-01

384

Sturdy positioning with high sensitivity GPS sensors under adverse conditions.  

PubMed

High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver's position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

2010-01-01

385

Sturdy Positioning with High Sensitivity GPS Sensors Under Adverse Conditions  

PubMed Central

High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver’s position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver.

Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

2010-01-01

386

The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible, and it is never too late. From a research perspective,

Charles H. Zeanah

2009-01-01

387

The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

Zeanah, Charles H.

2009-01-01

388

Persistent organic pollutants and adverse health effects in humans.  

PubMed

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are synthetic chemicals that have an intrinsic resistance to natural degradation processes, and are therefore environmentally persistent. The introduction of POPs into the environment from anthropogenic activities resulted in their widespread dispersal and accumulation in soils and water bodies, as well as in human and ecological food chains, where they are known to induce toxic effects. Due to their ubiquity in the environment and lipophilic properties, there is mounting concern over the potential risks of human exposure to POPs. This has led to the establishment of monitoring programs worldwide to determine prevailing levels of POPs in the population and to investigate the adverse health risks associated with background exposure. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding residual levels of POPs in human adipose tissue worldwide, and highlights research data for POPs in the environment and human maternal adipose tissue in Singapore. Although concentrations are comparable to those observed elsewhere, longer term monitoring of a larger cross section of the population is warranted in order to establish temporal trends and potential risks to human health. PMID:16982537

Li, Qing Qing; Loganath, Annamalai; Chong, Yap Seng; Tan, Jing; Obbard, Jeffrey Philip

2006-11-01

389

Isotopic composition and speciation of sulfur in the Miocene Monterey Formation: Reevaluation of sulfur reactions during early diagenesis in marine environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The timing and pathways of early diagenetic sulfur transfer from dissolved species in pore waters to solid inorganic and organic compounds in sediments have been studied in the Miocene Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin (onshore), California. Correlation between concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), in addition to concentrations of titanium, aluminum, total iron, and reactive iron,

Doreen A. Zaback; Lisa M. Pratt

1992-01-01

390

Space and place as a source of belonging and participation in urban environments: considering the role of early childhood education and care settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of spatial and place research when exploring concepts of belonging, participation and citizenship in relation to young children and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in urban societies. Particular attention is paid to the position of marginalised children and those most at risk of discrimination, who experience barriers to accessing

Margaret Kernan

2010-01-01

391

Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Niño, an Early Child Development Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Niño, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at least half the child's life.

Shannon Peairson; Ann M. Berghout Austin; Cyle Nielsen de Aquino; Elizabeth Urbieta de Burró

2008-01-01

392

The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have been associated with adolescent well-being, but the majority of studies were cross-sectional, and the time window over which the neighbourhood may impact on development is unknown. Therefore, the contribution of the neighbourhood environment to adolescents' quality of life and the course of these effects during the period of transition from childhood to

Marjan Drukker; Charles Kaplan; Josien Schneiders; Frans JM Feron; Jim van Os

2006-01-01

393

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949-1951 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The Yemenites, who lacked any

ERIC D. GOULD; VICTOR LAVY; M. DANIELE PASERMAN

2008-01-01

394

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The Yemenites, who lacked any

Eric D. Gould; Victor Lavy; Daniele Paserman

2009-01-01

395

Constellations of Support and Impediment: Understanding Early Implementation Dynamics in the Research and Development of an Online Multimodal Writing and Peer Review Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors trace teachers' experiences while participating in an educational technology development and research project focused on the creation and use of an online writing and peer review environment. They follow teachers from their initial expectations of the program, to their response to professional development training…

Olmanson, Justin; Abrams, Sandra Schamroth

2013-01-01

396

Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 2: Examples  

PubMed Central

To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR ? and dual ?/? agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR ? agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions.

Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E.

2010-01-01

397

Successful drug development despite adverse preclinical findings part 2: examples.  

PubMed

To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR ? and dual ?/? agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR ? agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions. PMID:22272032

Ettlin, Robert A; Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E

2010-12-01

398

Adverse effects of noise on hearing.  

PubMed

Excessive exposure to noise causes cells in the inner ear to degenerate and eventually can lead to permanent hearing loss. Although it has long been known that exposure to work-place noise can damage hearing, concern has recently been raised about hearing loss from excessive noise in recreational activities. The most effective way to decrease the incidence of noise-induced hearing loss is to educate people about the adverse health effects of excessive noise and to teach them how to protect their hearing. PMID:8465717

Bahadori, R S; Bohne, B A

1993-04-01

399

[Injectable fillers: adverse reactions and their management].  

PubMed

Injectable fillers are one of the corner stones of aesthetic medicine. In general they are safe to use. However, adverse reactions may occur. These reactions may be acute, subacute or delayed, e.g. after decades. It is important to know these reactions and to be prepared so that they can be adequately treated, in view of the clinical symptoms, the injected material and if applicable other diseases/treatments that might trigger these reactions. Last but not least, all reactions should be reported either to specialized registries or regulatory agencies. Only then we are able to learn more about these reactions and their best possible treatment. PMID:23407758

Rzany, B; Bachmann, F; Nast, A

2013-02-01

400

The ambiguity of adverse drug reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three clinical pharmacologists independently evaluated 500 untoward clinical events reported by physicians as adverse drug reactions (ADRs). They often disagreed with the reporting physicians and with each other. They judged 14.4–28.2% of the events to be definite, 26.4–38.0% probable, 21.4–31.0% possible and 15.8–28.2% unlikely ADRs. In their opinion 19.1–32.4% of the drugs blamed were definitely, 29.8–34.4% probably, 24.9–36.7% possibly and

J. Koch-Weser; E. M. Sellers; R. Zacest

1977-01-01

401

[Novel oral anticancer drugs: a review of adverse drug reactions, interactions and patient adherence].  

PubMed

Each aspect of oncological care is widely affected by the spread of oral anticancer agents, which raises several questions in terms of safe medication use and patient adherence. Over the past decade targeted therapies have appeared in clinical practice and revolutionized the pharmacological treatment of malignancies. Regular patient - doctor visits and proper patient education is crucial in order to comply with the therapy previously agreed upon with the oncologist, to increase patient adherence, to detect and to treat adverse effects in early stages. Since the information on the new medicines in Hungarian language is sparse it is the intention of the authors to give an overview of the basic knowledge, patient safety issues, adverse effects and interactions. Official drug information summaries and data on pharmacokinetics, interactions and adverse effects from the literature are reviewed as the basis for this overview. PMID:22217686

Bartal, Alexandra; Mátrai, Zoltán; Szucs, Attila; Belinszkaja, Galina; Langmár, Zoltán; Rosta, András

2012-01-15

402

Diversity and intensity of adverse events in the treatment of hypertension with barnidipine.  

PubMed

Calcium antagonists (CaAs) are divided into three structural classes, typically represented by verapamil, diltiazem and nifedipine. As a group, the principal (type I) adverse effects of these drugs relate to the pharmacological action of calcium channel blockade, namely vasodilation, and include dizziness, flushing, palpitations and peripheral oedema. The clinical safety of the new dihydropyridine CaA, barnidipine, has been assessed in more than 12 clinical trials, including 2041 patients who have been treated with one or more doses of barnidipine (dose of up to 50 mg). Adverse events with barnidipine are of mild to moderate intensity, most commonly of type I, occurring in the early phase of treatment. The incidence of serious adverse events and the rate of withdrawals are low. Hence, barnidipine is likely to be well tolerated in general clinical use. PMID:9660524

van der Velden, J W; Beudeker, H J; Nishi, M

1998-01-01

403

Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies.

Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G.

2012-01-01

404

Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers’ prenatal adverse experiences may program their children’s physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions.

Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-01-01

405

Veterinary Medicines and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Veterinary medicines may be emitted either directly or indirectly into the environment, following its use. As veterinary medicines\\u000a are biologically active compounds, there is a concern that their occurrence in the environment may have an adverse impact\\u000a on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This chapter reviews the major sources by which veterinary medicines enter the environment,\\u000a the fate, behaviour and occurrence

Alistair B. A. Boxall

406

Genetic and epigenetic associations of MAOA and NR3C1 with depression and childhood adversities.  

PubMed

Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) harbours a polymorphic upstream variable-number tandem repeat (u-VNTR). The MAOA-L allele of the u-VNTR leads to decreased gene expression levels in vitro and has been found to increase the risk of conduct disorder in males with childhood adversities. Early-life adversities have been associated with hypermethylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1). In this study, we first performed a genetic association analysis of the MAOA u-VNTR using individuals with depression (n = 392) and controls (n = 1276). Next, DNA methylation analyses of MAOA and NR3C1 were performed using saliva samples of depressed and control subgroups. Adult MAOA-L females with childhood adversities were found to have a higher risk of developing depression (p = 0.006) and overall MAOA methylation levels were decreased in depressed females compared to controls (mean depressed, 42% vs. mean controls, 44%; p = 0.04). One specific childhood adversity [early parental death (EPD)] was ass