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Sample records for adverse early environment

  1. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on

  2. Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

    2014-01-01

    Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

  3. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. PMID:19939573

  4. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Janczak, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  5. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens. PMID:26664932

  6. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  7. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations.

  8. Growth patterns in adverse environments.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noël

    2007-01-01

    The triple-logistic pattern of human growth in linear dimensions is probably one of the most recognizable models within human biology. The fact that postnatal somatic growth occurs in three phases (infancy, childhood, adolescence) creates opportunities for the individual expression of this genetically directed, but environmentally modified, phenomenon. The impact of the environment works to alter the duration and intensity of critical stages within the total process resulting in individual patterns that can differ radically from the general pattern. However, the constancy of the general pattern is so fixed that its presence in children is taken as a reflection of good health. Departures from that pattern are recognized as reflecting ill health. While the cessation of growth in response to an acute attack is uniformly dramatic, the gradual response to chronic adverse stimuli is less easily predicted and interpreted. For example, in chronic scenarios the loss of centile position that precedes the eventual establishment of normal increments can be viewed as either a poor or a good growth response, as either maladaptive or adaptive, as either poor health or good health. This article reviews such growth patterns in urban South African children exploring the relationship between environment and growth outcome. PMID:17636526

  9. Diffractive optics in adverse environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrmann, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation at the Army Research Laboratory is in progress to characterize DOE performance in mil-spec environments. One of the most significant environmental influences is temperature. An analysis of a diffractive lens is presented in which optical performance is described as a function of temperature. In particular, we review the thermal dependence of focal length and diffraction efficiency. It is shown that the change in these parameters is independent of lens shape and relates only to material properties. Thermalized hybrid refractive/diffractive designs are discussed.

  10. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25721541

  11. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of

  12. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  13. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Megan V; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A

    2016-04-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers' delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  14. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  15. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  16. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  17. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-03-28

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy. PMID:26666968

  18. Operating safely in adverse weather environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickle, J. W.; Hall, A. W.

    1983-01-01

    NASA has undertaken three research programs since 1974 that are concerned with the gathering of flight data under adverse and potentially severe weather conditions, such as wind shear, wind turbulence, icing, hail, rain, and lightning. All six conditions may be present in a given storm formation. Attention is presently given to the B-57B, DHC-6, and F-106B research aircraft employed by these flight data gathering efforts, and the accumulated experience with prediction, remote sensing and weather system penetration methods is discussed. Research results are compared with airliner data for 1970-1975. Evidence is found for two electrically active charge centers in thunderstorms, one of which lies at altitudes whose temperature is near the freezing level, and another at higher altitudes, in the temperature range from -25 to -35 C.

  19. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  20. Early Life Adversity and Adult Biological Risk Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Esther M.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Gruenewald, Tara; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. Methods We analyzed data on 1,180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e. on welfare, perceived low income, less-educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Results Childhood socioeconomic adversity was associated with increased AL (B=0.094, SE=0.041) and physical abuse (B=0.263, SE=0.091), with non-significant associations for parental divorce and death. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative allostatic load to the point of non-significance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. Conclusions The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable adjusted analysis. PMID:25650548

  1. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  2. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres.

    PubMed

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications-a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  3. Duration of Early Adversity and Structural Brain Development in Post-Institutionalized Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Hunt, Ruskin H.; Cowell, Raquel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 1214 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  4. Nature and nurture predispose to violent behavior: serotonergic genes and adverse childhood environment.

    PubMed

    Reif, Andreas; Rösler, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Marc; Eujen, Andrea; Kissling, Christian; Wenzler, Denise; Jacob, Christian P; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Thome, Johannes; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Retz, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the development of violence and to test for gene-environment interactions relating to adverse childhood environment. A cohort of 184 adult male volunteers referred for forensic assessment participated in the study. Each individual was assigned to either a violent or a nonviolent group. Logistic regression was performed and the best-fitting model, with a predictive power of 74%, revealed independent effects of adverse childhood environment and MAOA genotype. High environmental adversity during childhood was associated significantly with violent behavior. Forty-five percent of violent, but only 30% of nonviolent individuals carried the low-activity, short MAOA allele. Most interestingly, an interaction effect between childhood environment and 5HTT genotype on violent behavior was found in that high adversity during childhood impacted only the later-life violence if the short promoter alleles were present. These findings indicate complex interactions between genetic variation of the serotonergic circuitry and environmental factors arguing against simplistic, mono-causal explanations of violent behavior. PMID:17342170

  5. Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J; Novak, Matthew F X; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

  6. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  7. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment

    PubMed Central

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  8. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  9. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156

  10. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

  11. Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the occipital components P1, N170, and P400 compared to family-reared children. By 42 months, ERP amplitudes and latencies of children placed in foster care were intermediate between the institutionalized and family-reared children, suggesting that foster care may be partially effective in ameliorating adverse neural changes caused by institutionalization. The age at which children were placed into foster care was unrelated to their ERP outcomes at 42 months. Facial emotion processing was similar in all 3 groups of children; specifically, fearful faces elicited larger amplitude and longer latency responses than happy faces for the frontocentral components P250 and Nc. These results have important implications for understanding of the role that experience plays in shaping the developing brain. PMID:19209987

  12. Early identification of adverse drug reactions from search log data.

    PubMed

    White, Ryen W; Wang, Sheng; Pant, Apurv; Harpaz, Rave; Shukla, Pushpraj; Sun, Walter; DuMouchel, William; Horvitz, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The timely and accurate identification of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) following drug approval is a persistent and serious public health challenge. Aggregated data drawn from anonymized logs of Web searchers has been shown to be a useful source of evidence for detecting ADRs. However, prior studies have been based on the analysis of established ADRs, the existence of which may already be known publically. Awareness of these ADRs can inject existing knowledge about the known ADRs into online content and online behavior, and thus raise questions about the ability of the behavioral log-based methods to detect new ADRs. In contrast to previous studies, we investigate the use of search logs for the early detection of known ADRs. We use a large set of recently labeled ADRs and negative controls to evaluate the ability of search logs to accurately detect ADRs in advance of their publication. We leverage the Internet Archive to estimate when evidence of an ADR first appeared in the public domain and adjust the index date in a backdated analysis. Our results demonstrate how search logs can be used to detect new ADRs, the central challenge in pharmacovigilance. PMID:26610385

  13. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  14. Epigenetic programming of neurodegenerative diseases by an adverse environment.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Olena; Kovalchuk, Igor; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2012-03-20

    Experience and environment can critically influence the risk and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, readily respond to experience and environmental factors. Here we propose that epigenetic regulation of gene expression and environmental modulation thereof may play a key role in the onset and course of common neurological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. For example, epigenetic mechanisms may mediate long-term responses to adverse experience, such as stress, to affect disease susceptibility and the course of neurodegenerative events. This review introduces the epigenetic components and their possible role in mediating neuropathological processes in response to stress. We argue that epigenetic modifications will affect neurodegenerative events through altered gene function. The study of epigenetic states in neurodegenerative diseases presents an opportunity to gain new insights into risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms. Moreover, research into epigenetic regulation of disease may revolutionize health care by opening new avenues of personalized, preventive and curative medicine. PMID:22330722

  15. The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farley, Thomas A; Mason, Karen; Rice, Janet; Habel, Joanna D; Scribner, Richard; Cohen, Deborah A

    2006-05-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants. We analysed data from 105 111 births in 1015 census tracts in Louisiana during 1997-98, merging it with data from other existing sources on neighbourhood socio-economic status, neighbourhood physical deterioration, and neighbourhood density of retail outlets selling tobacco, alcohol and foods. After controlling for individual-level sociodemographic factors, tract-level median household income was positively associated with both birthweight-for-gestational-age and gestational age at birth. Neighbourhood physical deterioration was associated with these birth outcomes in ecological analyses but only inconsistently associated with them after controlling for individual-level factors. Neither gestational age nor birthweight-for-gestational-age was associated with the neighbourhood density of alcohol outlets, tobacco outlets, fast-food restaurants or grocery supermarkets. We conclude that measures of neighbourhood economic conditions are associated with both fetal growth and the length of gestation independent of individual-level factors, but that readily available measures of neighbourhood retail outlets are not. Additional studies are needed to better understand the nature of environmental influences on birth outcomes. PMID:16629693

  16. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume☆

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life. PMID:25061568

  17. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  18. Early childhood adversity and later hypertension: Data from the World Mental Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Dan J.; Scott, Kate; Haro Abad, Josep M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Iwata, Noboru; Posada-Villa, José; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Ormel, Johan; Kessler, Ronald C.; Von Korff, Michael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although many studies have indicated that psychosocial factors contribute to hypertension, and that early childhood adversity is associated with long-term adverse mental and physical health sequelae, the association between early adversity and later hypertension is not well studied. METHOD Data from 10 countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WHM) Surveys (N = 18,630) were analyzed to assess the relationship between childhood adversity and adult-onset hypertension, as ascertained by self-report. The potentially mediating effect of early-onset depression-anxiety disorders, as assessed by the WHM Survey version of the International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), on the relationship between early adversity and hypertension was also examined. RESULTS Two or more early childhood adversities, as well as early-onset depression-anxiety, were significantly associated with hypertension. A range of specific childhood adversities, as well as early-onset social phobia and panic/agoraphobia, were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariate analyses, the presence of 3 or more childhood adversities was associated with hypertension, even when early-onset depression-anxiety or current depression-anxiety was included in the model. CONCLUSIONS Although caution is required in the interpretation of self-report data on adult-onset hypertension, the results of this study further strengthen the evidence base regarding the role of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension. PMID:20196979

  19. Adverse drug reactions from birth to early childhood.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Waldhauser, L K

    1997-02-01

    Neonates and older infants are a diverse group of children, quite different from their older counterparts. Adverse drug reactions may have profound immediate, delayed, and long-term implications for their neurologic and somatic development. The intrauterine, neonatal, and infancy periods are the only stages in life in which one is exposed to and affected by drugs administered to another person, the mother. In addition, because of the fragility of the neonate and the complexity of their illnesses, their pharmacotherapy is frequently complicated with misadventure and adverse drug reactions that are unavoidable or difficult to assess. Because of their differences in morphology and disease process and treatments, infants and children experience a different range of adverse drug reactions. These reactions are not necessarily predictable from the adult experience. Despite the advances made in the field of pediatric adverse drug reactions and the lessons learned through the misfortunes involving children, children continue to suffer. Sixty years after the Elixir of Sulfanilamide-Massengill disaster, children continue to be given medications with diethylene glycol in developing countries. Pediatricians, pharmacologists, and others must continue to be vigilant and active in preventing, monitoring, and treating adverse drug reactions in children. Learning from mistakes of the past will improve the health of children by preventing mistakes in the future. PMID:9057785

  20. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype--early life adversity interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gustafsson, Per A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Agnafors, Sara; Aho, Nikolas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health. PMID:26424511

  1. Early origins of inflammation: an examination of prenatal and childhood social adversity in a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Slopen, Natalie; Loucks, Eric B.; Appleton, Allison A.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Non, Amy L.; Buka, Stephen; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children exposed to social adversity carry a greater risk of poor physical and mental health into adulthood. This increased risk is thought to be due, in part, to inflammatory processes associated with early adversity that contribute to the etiology of many adult illnesses. The current study asks whether aspects of the prenatal social environment are associated with levels of inflammation in adulthood, and whether prenatal and childhood adversity both contribute to adult inflammation. Methods We examined associations of prenatal and childhood adversity assessed through direct interviews of participants in the Collaborative Perinatal Project between 1959–1974 with blood levels of C-reactive protein in 355 offspring interviewed in adulthood (mean age=42.2 years). Linear and quantile regression models were used to estimate the effects of prenatal adversity and childhood adversity on adult inflammation, adjusting for age, sex, and race and other potential confounders. Results In separate linear regression models, high levels of prenatal and childhood adversity were associated with higher CRP in adulthood. When prenatal and childhood adversity were analyzed together, our results support the presence of an effect of prenatal adversity on (log) CRP level in adulthood (β=0.73, 95% CI: 0.26, 1.20) that is independent of childhood adversity and potential confounding factors including maternal health conditions reported during pregnancy. Supplemental analyses revealed similar findings using quantile regression models and logistic regression models that used a clinically-relevant CRP threshold (>3 mg/L). In a fully-adjusted model that included childhood adversity, high prenatal adversity was associated with a 3-fold elevated odds (95% CI: 1.15, 8.02) of having a CRP level in adulthood that indicates high risk of cardiovascular disease. Conclusions Social adversity during the prenatal period is a risk factor for elevated inflammation in adulthood independent of adversities during childhood. This evidence is consistent with studies demonstrating that adverse exposures in the maternal environment during gestation have lasting effects on development of the immune system. If these results reflect causal associations, they suggest that interventions to improve the social and environmental conditions of pregnancy would promote health over the life course. It remains necessary to identify the mechanisms that link maternal conditions during pregnancy to the development of fetal immune and other systems involved in adaptation to environmental stressors. PMID:25462912

  2. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  3. Early adversity, hypocortisolism, and behavior problems at school entry: A study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Koss, Kalsea J; Mliner, Shanna B; Donzella, Bonny; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is influenced by early life adversity; however, less is known about the potential for recovery following marked improvements in care. The present study examined longitudinal changes in children's cortisol reactivity in the laboratory (4 assessments over 2 years) after adoption. Post-institutionalized (N=65) and post-foster care children (N=49) demonstrated blunted reactivity relative to non-adopted peers (N=53). Furthermore, post-institutionalized children exhibited no evidence of expected adaptation to repeated sessions in the 2 years following adoption. As evidenced by blunted cortisol reactivity, flatter diurnal slope, and lower home morning cortisol, we found support for hypocortisolism among children experiencing adverse early care. Hypocortisolism served as a mediator between adversity and teacher-reported attention and externalizing problems during kindergarten. Early adversity appears to contribute to the down-regulation of the HPA axis under both basal and stress conditions. PMID:26773398

  4. Early adversity disrupts the adult use of aversive prediction errors to reduce fear in uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristina M.; DiLeo, Alyssa; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity increases anxiety in adult rodents and primates, and increases the risk for developing post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in humans. We hypothesized that early adversity impairs the use of learning signals -negative, aversive prediction errors–to reduce fear in uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, we gave adolescent rats a battery of adverse experiences then assessed adult performance in probabilistic Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. Rats were confronted with three cues associated with different probabilities of foot shock: one cue never predicted shock, another cue predicted shock with uncertainty, and a final cue always predicted shock. Control rats initially acquired fear to all cues, but rapidly reduced fear to the non-predictive and uncertain cues. Early adversity rats were slower to reduce fear to the non-predictive cue and never fully reduced fear to the uncertain cue. In extinction, all cues were presented in the absence of shock. Fear to the uncertain cue in discrimination, but not early adversity itself, predicted the reduction of fear in extinction. These results demonstrate early adversity impairs the use of negative aversive prediction errors to reduce fear, especially in situations of uncertainty. PMID:26379520

  5. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  6. Early Childhood Adversities and Trajectories of Psychiatric Problems in Adoptees: Evidence for Long Lasting Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 international adoptees was followed (955 males and 1029 females;…

  7. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  8. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in

  9. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn

  10. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  11. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  12. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  13. A novel BDNF polymorphism affects plasma protein levels in interaction with early adversity in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Cirulli, Francesca; Reif, Andreas; Herterich, Sabine; Lesch, K. Peter; Berry, Alessandra; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Barr, Christina S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Alleva, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Summary Early stressful events can increase vulnerability for psychopathology, although knowledge on the effectors is still limited. In this report we describe the characterization of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in rhesus macaques, which results in a Val to Met transition in the pro-BDNF domain, similar to a well described variant in the human gene. Further, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral levels of BDNF, which is involved in the response to stress and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression, might be differentially affected in a non-human primate model of early adverse rearing in a genotype-dependent manner. Males and females rhesus macaques reared either with their mothers (MR), in peer-only groups (PR), or in a “surrogate/peer-reared” (SPR) condition with limited peer interactions, were used as experimental subjects. BDNF levels were determined at baseline on postnatal days (PND) 14, 30 and 60 by means of specific ELISA procedure. Data indicate that BDNF levels were increased as a result of peer-rearing and that this increase was moderated by the presence of the SNP. Overall these data indicate that a SNP, which results in a Val to Met transition in the pro-BDNF domain, is present in rhesus macaques and is able to affect BDNF peripheral levels, thus making this primate model a fundamental tool to study gene by environment interactions involving the BDNF gene. PMID:21145664

  14. The association of childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders with adult onset chronic physical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Kate M.; Von Korff, Michael; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Benjet, Corina; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Tachimori, Hisateru; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context The physical health consequences of childhood psychosocial adversities may be as substantial as the mental health consequences but whether this is the case remains unclear because much prior research has involved unrepresentative samples and a selective focus on particular adversities or physical outcomes. The association between early onset mental disorders and subsequent poor physical health in adulthood has not been investigated. Objective To investigate whether childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders are independently associated with increased risk of a range of adult onset chronic physical conditions in culturally diverse samples spanning the full adult age range. Design Cross-sectional community surveys of adults in ten countries. Setting General population. Participants Adults (>= 18 years; n = 18,303), with diagnostic assessment and determination of age of onset of DSM-IV mental disorders; assessment of childhood familial adversities; and age of diagnosis/onset of chronic physical conditions. Main Outcome Measures Risk (hazard ratios) of adult onset (> age 20) heart disease, asthma, diabetes, arthritis, chronic spinal pain, and chronic headache as a function of specific childhood adversities and early onset (< age 21) DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders, with mutual adjustment. Results A history of three or more childhood adversities was independently associated with onset of all six physical conditions (hazard ratios from 1.44–2.19). Controlling for current mental disorder made little difference to these associations. Early onset mental disorders were independently associated with onset of five physical conditions (hazard ratios from 1.43–1.66). Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that childhood adversities and early onset mental disorders have independent, broad spectrum effects that increase risks of diverse chronic physical conditions in later life. They require confirmation in a prospective design. The long time course of these associations has theoretical and research implications. PMID:21810647

  15. Early adversity contributes to chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in adolescent male rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Mao, Yu; Feng, Xiao-Li; Zheng, Na; Lü, Long-Bao; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Qin, Dong-Dong; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2016-06-01

    Chronic stress is an important cause for depression. However, not everyone who is exposed to chronic stress will develop depression. Our previous studies demonstrated that early adversity can cause lasting changes in adolescent rhesus monkeys, but depressive symptoms have not been observed. Compared to adults, it is still unknown that whether adolescent rhesus monkeys experiencing early adversity are more likely to develop depressive symptoms. In this study, we investigated the long term relationship between early adversity, chronic stress and adolescent depression for the first time. Eight male rhesus monkeys were reared in maternal separation (MS) or mother-reared (MR) conditions. All of them went through unpredictable chronic stress for two months at their age four. The stressors included space restriction, intimidation, long illumination and fasting. Behavioral and physiological data were collected during the experiment. The results showed that, compared with the MR group, the locomotor activity of MS group was significantly decreased after one month of chronic stress while huddling up and stereotypical behaviors were significantly increased. Moreover, this trend continued and even worsened at the second month. Significantly higher hair cortisol levels and lower body weight were observed in MS group after two months of stress. These results indicate that early adversity is one of the environmental factors which can increase the susceptibility of depression when experiencing chronic stress in the later life. This will further clarify the important roles of early environmental factors in the development of adolescent depression and children rearing conditions should receive more attention. PMID:27025444

  16. Social consequences of early socioeconomic adversity and youth BMI trajectories: gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of adolescent BMI trajectories on socioeconomic continuity over the early life course using a nationally representative sample of 11,075 respondents. This study considered both the initial severity as well as change over time in BMI as psycho-physiological mediators. Consistent with the life course pathway model and the cumulative advantage and disadvantage principle, the results suggested that early socioeconomic adversity is associated with youth BMI trajectories over time, which in turn, impair young adult socioeconomic attainment. The results also revealed important gender and racial/ethnic differences in the hypothesized associations. These findings elucidate how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on social attainment in young adulthood. Further, the findings suggest that effective obesity intervention and prevention programs should focus not only on the severity of obesity but also on growth in BMI over the early years. PMID:24971847

  17. Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Patrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms. PMID:24133457

  18. Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

    Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

  19. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

  20. Depression among Black Bisexual Men with Early and Later Life Adversities

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Hector F.; Williams, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a six-session health intervention, and at baseline reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination (R2 = .25, F3, 112 = 12.67, p < .001) and chronic stress (R2 = .17, F3, 112 = 7.41, p < .001). Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination (b = −.154, t(111) = −2.82, p < .01) and chronic stress (b = −.019, t(111) = −3.759, p < .01). Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

  1. Depression among Black bisexual men with early and later life adversities.

    PubMed

    Allen, Vincent C; Myers, Hector F; Williams, John K

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R² = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p < .001, and chronic stress, R² = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p < .001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = -.154, t(111) = -2.82, p < .01, and chronic stress, b = -.019, t(111) = -3.759, p < .01. Men's early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW's early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

  2. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  3. Cortisol reactivity to social stress as a mediator of early adversity on risk and adaptive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; LaGasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  4. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  5. Effects of early adversity on young children's diurnal cortisol rhythms and externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Kristin; Zwerling, Jordana; Dozier, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is associated with biological and behavioral dysregulation in early childhood. We examined whether early adversity (i.e., poverty and involvement with child protective services [CPS]) had an indirect effect on externalizing behavior through HPA axis dysregulation, specifically blunted diurnal cortisol patterns. Participants included 94 children between the ages of 3.94 and 6.52 years old, who had a history of CPS involvement (n = 53) or no history of CPS involvement (n = 41). Cortisol samples were collected at wake-up and bedtime across 3 days, and parent-reported externalizing behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist. Results showed that history of CPS involvement and poverty were associated with blunted cortisol patterns, which in turn led to elevated externalizing behavior. The indirect effect of CPS involvement on externalizing behavior through blunted cortisol was significant, whereas the indirect effect of poverty on externalizing behavior was nonsignificant. Findings add to our understanding of neurobiological mechanisms linking early adversity to psychopathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 935-947, 2015. PMID:26289841

  6. The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome

    PubMed Central

    Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

  7. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D' Amato, Francesca R; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice's respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders. PMID:27121911

  8. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D’ Amato, Francesca R.; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice’s respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders. PMID:27121911

  9. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  10. Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Thelma; Clifford, Richard M.; Cryer, Debby

    The ECERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Designed for use in preschool, kindergarten, and child care classrooms serving children 2-and-a-half through 5 years of age, the ECERS-R can be used by program directors for supervision and program

  11. Rational therapy for diabetes: early recognition of adverse effects and avoidance of disruptive false alarms.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Corresponding to the uncontrolled diabetes pandemic, significant effort has been invested in developing new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, all medicines have possible adverse effects. Recently, a trend of 'scrutinizing' novel hypoglycaemic drug side effects based on scant scientific data has emerged. With recent publications highlighting possible dangers of rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, exenatide and, most recently, pioglitazone, it seems that all means are valid and that every database is suitable, even if specifically defined as inadequate for the purpose of data analysis. The use of such data may lead authors to draw erroneous conclusions that may be granted unwarranted impact upon publication in leading scientific journals and eventually lead patients and misinformed physicians to wrongly change beneficial medication regimes. Adherence to strict scientific methodology, ongoing large clinical trials and creating adjudicated patient databases may facilitate early recognition of adverse effects while avoiding disruptive false alarms. PMID:22173845

  12. [Adverse birth outcomes of maternal smoking during pregnancy and genetic polymorphisms: exploiting gene-environment interaction].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Seiko; Kishi, Reiko

    2009-09-01

    It has been recognized that metabolic enzymes mediating genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls might be related to adverse human health. Recent studies, including the Hokkaido Study of Environmental and Children's Health, have shown that metabolic enzymes mediating genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals including tobacco smoke might be related to adverse birth outcomes. Certain maternal genetic polymorphisms in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-metabolizing enzymes have been shown to enhance the association between maternal smoking and infant birth weight in both Caucasians and Japanese. For maternal genetic polymorphisms encoding the N-nitrosamine-metabolizing enzymes, we found that infant birth weight, birth length and birth head circumference were significantly smaller among infants of smokers than among those of nonsmokers and quitters. The adverse effects of maternal smoking on infant birth size may be modified by maternal genetic polymorphisms. Further study is required to clarify the potential association between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive function in childhood, becauae it has been reported that a small birth length or a small head circumference at birth might affect neurobehavioral development during early childhood. It is necessary to elucidate additive impacts of genetic factors on adverse effects of various chemicals commonly encountered in our daily lives, follow up the development of children, and carry out longitudinal observation. PMID:19797843

  13. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

  14. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  15. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P; Champagne, Frances A

    2015-06-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  16. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Herbstman, Julie B.; Tang, Deliang; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the risk for psychopathology in later life. The underlying mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting consequences for gene expression and behavior. This evidence is primarily derived from animal studies, with limited study in humans due to inaccessibility of the target brain tissue. In humans, although there is evidence for DNA methylation changes in the peripheral blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers in the blood can predict epigenetic changes occurring in the brain. We used in utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure as a model environmental exposure shown to disrupt neurodevelopment and exert long-term effects on behavior in animals and humans. We show that prenatal BPA induces lasting DNA methylation changes in the transcriptionally relevant region of the Bdnf gene in the hippocampus and blood of BALB/c mice and that these changes are consistent with BDNF changes in the cord blood of humans exposed to high maternal BPA levels in utero. Our data suggest that BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may be used as a predictor of brain BDNF DNA methylation and gene expression as well as behavioral vulnerability induced by early-life environmental exposure. Because BDNF expression and DNA methylation are altered in several psychiatric disorders that are associated with early-life adversity, including depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism, BDNF DNA methylation in the blood may represent a novel biomarker for the early detection of psychopathology. PMID:25385582

  17. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  18. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children. PMID:26455263

  19. EFFECTS OF EARLY AND RECENT ADVERSE EXPERIENCES ON ADRENAL RESPONSE TO PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS IN DEPRESSED ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Uma; Hammen, Constance; Ortiz, Luis R.; Chen, Li-Ann; Poland, Russell E.

    2008-01-01

    Background As observed in depressed adults, there is considerable variability in the degree and direction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysfunction in depressed adolescents. The variability in HPA findings may be attributed to experiential factors. Methods A modified version of a standard psychosocial stressor used in adults, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), was administered to 30 adolescents with major depressive disorder and 25 healthy adolescent volunteers. Cortisol concentrations were measured in saliva samples collected before and after the stressor. Information also was gathered on early and recent adverse experiences with standard interviews. Results Participants from both groups had increased cortisol secretion in response to TSST. Compared with controls, depressed subjects showed more elevated and prolonged cortisol secretion in response to TSST. The combination of early-life adversity and high levels of chronic stress during adolescence was the most powerful predictor of enhanced adrenal response to the TSST. Conclusions These results support previous findings on the role of experiential factors on HPA response to stress and in the development of mood disorders. Dissection of the heterogeneous pathophysiology of adolescent depression will assist in developing more specific interventions for different subgroups of patients. PMID:18597740

  20. Early adversity, elevated stress physiology, accelerated sexual maturation, and poor health in females.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L; Boyce, W Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for increased probability of reproducing before dying via a process of accelerated reproductive maturation. Using data from 73 females, we test the following propositions using path analysis: (a) greater exposure to prenatal stress predicts greater maternal depression and negative parenting in infancy, (b) which predicts elevated basal cortisol at 4.5 years, (c) which predicts accelerated adrenarcheal development, (d) which predicts more physical and mental health problems at age 18. Results prove generally consistent with these propositions, including a direct link from cortisol to mental health problems. DOoHaD investigators should consider including early sexual maturation as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health later in life in females. PMID:25915592

  1. Development of a Virtual Learning Environment addressing adverse events in nursing.

    PubMed

    Xelegati, Rosicler; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The authors have developed a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) addressing the management of adverse events to promote continuing education for nurses, including the following themes: pressure ulcer, medication errors, phlebitis, fall, and loss of nasogastroenteral probes. The pedagogical framework was grounded on the information processing theory and this applied study used the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) model to develop the program. The environment was developed with HTML language through Microsoft Office Word 2003®. The authors developed evaluation exercises in each module through the Hot Potatoes program, version 6.0 for Windows. The conclusion is that the methodology utilized was appropriate for achieving the proposed objectives. In the future, the authors will assess the developed product and verify the possibility of using it in nursing services. PMID:22030583

  2. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  3. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  4. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

  5. Early environments and the ecology of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation, early environments moderate responses to inflammatory stimuli later in life, with implications for the association between inflammation and chronic diseases. Attention to the eco-logics of inflammation may point to promising directions for future research, enriching our understanding of this important physiological system and informing approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:23045646

  6. Early Socioeconomic Adversity and Young Adult Physical Illness: The Role of Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Kwon, Josephine A.; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the psycho-physiological inter and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood/adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Methods Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) as well as the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psycho-physiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psych-physiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results Results provide evidence for (a) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (b) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults Conclusions These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; further, this information suggests effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). PMID:24856408

  7. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Function Predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Early Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hamid, Magdy; Bakhoum, Sameh Wg; Sharaf, Yasser; Sabry, Dina; El-Gengehe, Ahmed T; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are mobilized from the bone marrow and increase in the early phase after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of CECs and indices of endothelial dysfunction in patients with STEMI. In 78 patients with acute STEMI, characterization of CD34+/VEGFR2+CECs, and indices of endothelial damage/dysfunction such as brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were determined. Blood samples for CECs assessment and quantification were obtained within 24 hours of admission and FMD was assessed during the index hospitalization. At 30 days follow up, the primary composite end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) consisting of all-cause mortality, recurrent nonfatal MI, or heart failure and the secondary endpoint of early adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling were analyzed. The 17 patients (22%) who developed MACE had significantly higher CEC level (P = 0.004), von Willebrand factor (vWF) level (P = 0.028), and significantly lower FMD (P = 0.006) compared to the remaining patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that CECs level and LV ejection fraction were independent predictors of MACE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CEC level, FMD, and the logistic model with both markers were 0.73, 0.75, and 0.82, respectively, for prediction of the MACE. The 16 patients who developed the secondary endpoint had significantly higher CEC level compared to remaining patients (P = 0.038). In conclusion, increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial dysfunction predicted the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with STEMI. (J Interven Cardiol 2016;29:89-98). PMID:26864952

  8. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Function predict Major Adverse Cardiac Events and Early Adverse Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Magdy, Abdel Hamid; Bakhoum, Sameh; Sharaf, Yasser; Sabry, Dina; El-Gengehe, Ahmed T; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) are mobilized from the bone marrow and increase in the early phase after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of CECs and indices of endothelial dysfunction in patients with STEMI. In 78 patients with acute STEMI, characterization of CD34+/VEGFR2+ CECs, and indices of endothelial damage/dysfunction such as brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) were determined. Blood samples for CECs assessment and quantification were obtained within 24 hours of admission and FMD was assessed during the index hospitalization. At 30 days follow up, the primary composite end point of major cardiac adverse events (MACE) consisting of all-cause mortality, recurrent non-fatal MI, or heart failure and the secondary endpoint of early adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling were analyzed. The 17 patients (22%) who developed MACE had significantly higher CEC level (P = 0.004), vWF level (P =0.028), and significantly lower FMD (P = 0.006) compared to the remaining patients. Logistic regression analysis showed that CECs level and LV ejection fraction were independent predictors of MACE. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) for CEC level, FMD, and the logistic model with both markers were 0.73, 0.75, and 0.82 respectively for prediction of the MACE. The 16 patients who developed the secondary endpoint had significantly higher CEC level compared to remaining patients (p =0.038). In conclusion, increased circulating endothelial cells and endothelial dysfunction predicted the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events and adverse cardiac remodeling in patients with STEMI. PMID:26864952

  9. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  10. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Krogh, Carmen ME

    2014-01-01

    Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  11. Environment and Climate of Early Human Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Naomi E.

    2015-05-01

    Evaluating the relationships between climate, the environment, and human traits is a key part of human origins research because changes in Earth's atmosphere, oceans, landscapes, and ecosystems over the past 10 Myr shaped the selection pressures experienced by early humans. In Africa, these relationships have been influenced by a combination of high-latitude ice distributions, sea surface temperatures, and low-latitude orbital forcing that resulted in large oscillations in vegetation and moisture availability that were modulated by local basin dynamics. The importance of both climate and tectonics in shaping African landscapes means that integrated views of the ecological, environmental, and tectonic histories of a region are necessary in order to understand the relationships between climate and human evolution.

  12. Altered fetal skeletal muscle nutrient metabolism following an adverse in utero environment and the modulation of later life insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F; Regnault, Timothy R H

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

  13. Altered Fetal Skeletal Muscle Nutrient Metabolism Following an Adverse In Utero Environment and the Modulation of Later Life Insulin Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F.; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

  14. The health care work environment and adverse health and safety consequences for nurses.

    PubMed

    Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Lipscomb, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Nurses' working conditions are inextricably linked to the quality of care that is provided to patients and patients' safety. These same working conditions are associated with health and safety outcomes for nurses and other health care providers. This chapter describes aspects of the nursing work environment that have been linked to hazards and adverse exposures for nurses, as well as the most common health and safety outcomes of nursing work. We include studies from 2000 to the present by nurse researchers, studies of nurses as subjects, and studies of workers under similar working conditions that could translate to nurses' work environment. We explore a number of work organization factors including shift work and extended work hours, safety climate and culture, teamwork, and communication. We also describe environmental hazards, including chemical hazards (e.g., waste anesthetics, hazardous drugs, cleaning compounds) and airborne and bloodborne pathogen exposure. Nurses' health and safety outcomes include physical (e.g., musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal, slips, trips and falls, physical assault) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., burnout, work-family conflict). Finally, we present recommendations for future research to further protect nurses and all health care workers from a range of hazardous working conditions. PMID:21639028

  15. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  16. 5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

  17. Early adverse experience increases emotional reactivity in juvenile rhesus macaques: relation to amygdala volume.

    PubMed

    Howell, Brittany R; Grand, Alison P; McCormack, Kai M; Shi, Yundi; LaPrarie, Jamie L; Maestripieri, Dario; Styner, Martin A; Sanchez, Mar M

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys' behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. PMID:25196846

  18. Early Adverse Experience Increases Emotional Reactivity in Juvenile Rhesus Macaques: Relation to Amygdala Volume

    PubMed Central

    Howell, B.R.; Grand, A. P.; McCormack, K. M.; Shi, Y.; LaPrarie, J.; Maestripieri, D.; Styner, M. A.; Sanchez, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys’ behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. PMID:25196846

  19. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  20. Geneenvironment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the geneenvironment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  1. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without

  2. Self-Focused and Other-Focused Resiliency: Plausible Mechanisms Linking Early Family Adversity to Health Problems in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sulamunn R. M.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Heron, Kristin E.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Participants: Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures

  3. Self-Focused and Other-Focused Resiliency: Plausible Mechanisms Linking Early Family Adversity to Health Problems in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Sulamunn R. M.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Heron, Kristin E.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Participants: Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures…

  4. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  5. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  6. [Maternal effect obscures adaptation to adverse environments and hinders divergence in Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Markov, A V; Ivnitsky, S B; Kornilova, M B; Naimark, E B; Shirokova, N G; Perfilieva, K S

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to contrasting environments can facilitate ecological divergence and sympatric speciation. Factors that influence the probability and tempo of these processes are poorly known. We performed an evolutionary experiment on Drosophila melanogaster in order to attain better understanding of adaptation dynamics and to model the initial steps of sympatric speciation. In our experiment, several populations are being cultured either on standard rich medium (RM) or on nutrient-deficient starch-based medium (SM). After 10 generations, experimental populations demonstrated unexpected changes in their fitness: on the starch medium, flies grown on RM (FRM) outcompeted those that were cultured on SM (FSM), while on the rich medium, FRM were outcompeted by FSM. That is, experimental populations demonstrated higher fitness on the foreign medium, but were outcompeted by the aliens on the one they had been accustomed to. To explain the paradox, we hypothesize that the observed low fitness of FSM on SM was due to maternal effect, or the "effect of starving mother". The FSM flies are probably better adapted to SM, but the phenotypic outcome of their adaptations is obscured because the females grown on the poor medium invest less in their offspring (for instance, they may produce nutrient-deficient eggs). Larvae hatched from such eggs develop successfully on the rich medium RM, but experience delayed growth and/or lower survival rate on the nutrient-deficient medium SM. To test the hypothesis, we measured the fitness of the flies FSM after culturing them for one generation on RM, in order to remove the assumed maternal effect. As expected, this time FSM demonstrated higher fitness on SM compared to control flies (FRM) and to FSM before the removal of the maternal effect. The results support the idea that non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and maternal effects can mask adaptation to adverse environments and prohibit ecological divergence and speciation by allowing the migrants from favourable habitats to outcompete resident individuals in adverse ecotopes despite the possible presence of specific adaptations in the latter. PMID:26852569

  7. Space-time clusters of adverse health events as a means of early detection of departure from planned containment

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of rare health events offer a novel means for assessing community health impacts from excursions of hazardous contaminants into the ambient environment. Clusters of these infrequent, adverse health occurrences provide sentinel phenomena to epidemiologists for the purpose of formulating preventive strategies and decision rules. The goal of early identification and interpretation of these case clusters has led to the development of a variety of statistical methods. This presentation provides an overview of these techniques, many of which assume infectious disease processes that may reasonably be translated as a common source exposure. Population-based disease registries are substantial sources of data for conducting studies of small area case clusters near contaminated waste sites. The strategy of population surveillance has found initial acceptance as a means of directing environmental health actions and providing a safeguard for public health. The methods discussed are possible choices for analyses directed to cancer or birth defect data in order to identify possible case clusters of rare events. Suggestions are offered for interpreting case clusters of disease and a model, semiquantitative decision process is proposed for use in determining public health action or policy. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Early Adverse Events as Predictors of One-Year Mortality during Mechanical Circulatory Support

    PubMed Central

    Genovese, Elizabeth A.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J.; Simon, Marc A.; Bhama, Jay K.; Bermudez, Christian A.; Lockard, Kathleen L; Winowich, Steve; Kormos, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ventricular assist devices (VADs) provide effective treatment for end-stage heart failure, however most patients experience ≥1 major adverse event (AE) while on VAD support. Although early, non-fatal AEs may increase the risk of later mortality during VAD support, this relationship has not been established. Therefore, we sought to determine the impact of AEs occurring during the first 60 days of VAD support on one-year mortality. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using prospectively collected data from a single-site database for patients aged ≥18 years receiving left- or biventricular support during 1996-2008, who survived >60 days on VAD support. Fourteen major classes of AEs occurring during this 60-day period were examined. One-year survival rates of patients with and without each major AE were compared. Results There were 163 patients included; the mean age was 49.5 years, 80% were male, 87% were European American, 72% had left ventricular support, and 83% were bridge to transplant. The occurrence of renal failure, respiratory failure, bleeding events, and reoperations during the first 60 days after implantation significantly increased the risk of one-year mortality. Controlling for gender, age, VAD type, and intention to treat, renal failure was the only major AE significantly associated with later mortality (hazard ratio=2.96, p=0.023). Conclusions Specific AEs (renal, respiratory and bleeding events, and reoperations) significantly decrease longer-term survival, with renal failure conferring a 3-fold increased risk of one-year mortality. Peri-operative management should focus on strategies to mitigate risk for renal failure in order to maximize later outcomes. PMID:20580265

  9. Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    An optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses was developed. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

  10. Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    We have developed and used an optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per/sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. We have also measured the sensitivity of the optical pins to slowly-moving projectiles and found that a 200 m/sec projectile impacting the microballoon sensor produces a flash having a risetime less than 100 ns and a pulse duration (FWHM) of less than 300 ns. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

  11. INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24115264

  12. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

  13. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  14. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings

  15. Sepsis After Cardiac Surgery Early in Infancy and Adverse 4.5-Year Neurocognitive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Naveen; Joffe, Ari R; Doughty, Paul; Vatanpour, Shabnam; Dinu, Irina; Alton, Gwen; Acton, Bryan; Robertson, Charlene M T

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether sepsis is associated with neurocognitive outcomes 4.5 years after congenital heart disease surgery in early infancy. Methods and Results A secondary analysis from a prospective inception cohort included all children having congenital heart disease surgery done at ≤6 weeks of age with cardiopulmonary bypass at the Western Canadian referral center from 1996 to 2009. Follow-up at the referral center determined the primary outcomes at 4.5 years with full-scale, performance, and verbal intelligence quotients on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Perioperative variables were collected prospectively, and confirmation of blood culture–positive sepsis was done retrospectively. Multiple linear regression models for neurocognitive outcomes and multiple Cox proportional hazards regression for mortality were determined. Sepsis occurred in 97 of 502 patients (19%) overall and in 76 of 396 survivors (19%) with 4.5-year follow-up. By 4.5 years, there were 91 (18%) deaths, and 396 of 411 survivors (96%) had follow-up completed. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with worse scores on all neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression; the association between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and full-scale intelligence quotient had a regression coefficient of −13.6 (95% CI −21.3 to −5.9; P =0.001). Sepsis perioperatively was associated with performance and verbal intelligence quotients, with a trend for full-scale intelligence quotient (P =0.058) on multivariable regression. The regression coefficient for sepsis was strongest for performance intelligence quotient (−5.31; 95% CI −9.84 to −0.78; P =0.022). Sepsis was not but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was associated with mortality by 4.5 years. Conclusions Perioperative sepsis and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes on multivariable regression. Quality improvement to prevent sepsis has the potential to improve long-term neurocognitive outcomes in infants after surgery for congenital heart disease. PMID:26251282

  16. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity

  17. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

  18. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  19. A mechanistic look at the effects of adversity early in life on cardiovascular disease risk during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Loria, A. S.; Ho, D. H.; Pollock, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (Mat-Sep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) Mat-Sep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood. PMID:24330084

  20. Third World adversity: African infant precocity and the role of environment.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, Letten F

    2002-01-01

    The war against illiteracy has not been won. The number of illiterates approaches a billion. Most reside in Third World countries--former colonies--where they are caught in a poverty trap of disease, low agricultural production and environmental adversity requiring technology beyond their means. I argue against the commonly held view that this is mainly attributable to the four hundred years of traffic in men. According to the late K.O. Dike, middle men along the African coast barred foreign merchants from the hinterland, and because of this the social, political structure and sovereignty of the African states remained fundamentally unchanged during the period 1400-1807, whereas a few decades after colonisation the socio-political system collapsed and was replaced by a small rich elite and many poor, while resources were taken out of Africa. Present poverty and underdevelopment represent as great a challenge as the trade in slaves. As did the African Middle-Men of that time, African leaders now must unite in an ambitious and confident Pan-African Union demonstrating strength. Western countries should focus on reducing poverty and improving nutrition. This also makes terrorism and legal and illegal migration less likely. Education is important, but the West should not limit its effort to fighting illiteracy but should also support the establishment of institutions for higher education. Africa possessed optimal conditions and an enriched environment for human evolution. African Infant Precocity is a persistent example. The human brain, like other brains, consists 60% of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (Marine-Fat), the rest being water. A sufficient amount is required to secure optimal brain growth. It normalizes brain function, and prevents sudden cardiac and infant death, which have been increasing in Western societies. Humans are unique in having a mismatch between the need for brain food--marine fat--and our common high protein diet. Nowhere is the neglect of the brain greater than in pregnancy when protein is the only major nutrient considered. Declining levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids have been observed in human milk. Deficient intake could, if not corrected, gradually impair brain function as has been seen in animal experiments. PMID:12418799

  1. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  2. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal

  3. Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

  4. Sexual dichotomy of an interaction between early adversity and the serotonin transporter gene promoter variant in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Christina S.; Newman, Timothy K.; Schwandt, Melanie; Shannon, Courtney; Dvoskin, Rachel L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; Taubman, Julie; Thompson, Bill; Champoux, Maribeth; Lesch, Klaus Peter; Goldman, David; Suomi, Stephen J.; Higley, J. Dee

    2004-01-01

    A polymorphism in the human serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) is associated with anxiety and increased risk for developing depression in the face of adversity. Here, we report that among infant rhesus macaques, an orthologous polymorphism (rh5-HTTLPR) interacts with adversity in the form of peer rearing to influence adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to stress and, further, that this interaction is sexually dichotomous. ACTH responses to separation are higher in l/s than in l/l males. In females, however, it is only among those with a history of adversity that the s allele is associated with increased ACTH responses to stress. Of interest, peer-reared animals, in particular females carrying the s allele, also exhibit lower cortisol responses to stress, a pattern that has been recognized in association with certain stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. By extension, our findings suggest the intriguing possibility that human females carrying the 5-HTTLPR s allele could be more vulnerable to the effects of early adversity. This interactive effect may underlie the increased incidence of certain stress-related disorders in women. PMID:15302939

  5. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends…

  6. The Early Sun: Evolution and Dynamic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.

    2005-12-01

    An overview is given of the astrophysical processes that govern the formation and early evolution of solar-like stars, specifically aimed at meteoriticists. After a discussion of the various types of protostars and young stars and of the collapse process, the importance of binary and multiple star formation is emphasized. The frequency and properties of young binaries as derived from observations are summarized. Theoretical work demonstrates how newborn multiple stars are unstable and decay on short time scales to stable configurations, often ejecting lower-mass members through dynamical interactions. Observations of phenomena like Herbig-Haro jets and FU Orionis eruptions find a natural explanation within a scenario involving the evolution of small multiple systems and the resulting formation of close binaries. It is emphasized that the vast majority of stars in our Galaxy are formed in clusters, but that most of these clusters dissolve soon after the remaining gas has been dispersed and the gravitational potential that held the cluster together therefore is weakened. Thus, while most stars are born in clusters, only a small fraction will remain in clusters lasting hundreds of millions of years. The likelihood that the early Sun was a member of a temporary cluster at birth and perhaps even a member of a small multiple system is stressed. Possible relic evidence that the Sun was part of a cluster of a few thousand stars includes the solar obliquity, the detection of traces of 60Fe in ordinary chondrites, the sharp edge of the Kuiper belt, and the discovery of distant large objects in eccentric orbits like Sedna. The meteoritic record must be examined with the possibility in mind that the early Sun may well have been a member of a long gone cluster and that the early solar nebula may have been affected by close passages of sibling stars.

  7. Childhood Exposure to Adversity and Risk of Substance-Use Disorder in Two American Indian Populations: The Meditational Role of Early Substance-Use Initiation*

    PubMed Central

    Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero M.; Turner, R. Jay

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We examined the relationship of childhood exposure to adversity and risk of substance-use disorder in two culturally distinct American Indian reservation communities, exploring both the role of early initiation of substance use in mediating this relationship and variation in risk across types of adversity exposure. Method: The American Indian Service Utilization, Psychiatric Epidemiology, Risk and Protective Factors Project provided data from 2,927 American Indians on the occurrence and age at onset of adversities, substance use, and substance-use-disorder symptoms. Results: The risk of substance-use disorder associated with early adversity was explained partially by early initiation of substance use. Three types of adversity (major childhood events, traumas, and witnessed violence) were associated with early onset of substance use and increased risk of substance-use disorder. Gender and tribe were also related to variation in both early substance use and substance-use disorder. Conclusions: Early exposure to adverse events was associated with early substance use and the subsequent development of substance-use disorders among American Indians. Public health initiatives targeting substance use and substance-use disorders in American Indian communities should include efforts to help children in these communities cope with adversities they encounter. PMID:19895776

  8. Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2015-12-19

    Recent molecular clock studies date the origin of Metazoa to 750-800 million years ago (Ma), roughly coinciding with evidence from geochemical proxies that oxygen levels rose from less than 0.1% present atmospheric level (PAL) to perhaps 1-3% PAL O2. A younger origin of Metazoa would require greatly increased substitution rates across many clades and many genes; while not impossible, this is less parsimonious. Yet the first fossil evidence for metazoans (the Doushantuo embryos) about 600 Ma is followed by the Ediacaran fossils after 580 Ma, the earliest undisputed bilaterians at 555 Ma, and an increase in the size and morphologic complexity of bilaterians around 542 Ma. This temporal framework suggests a missing 150-200 Myr of early metazoan history that encompasses many apparent novelties in the early evolution of the nervous system. This span includes two major glaciations, and complex marine geochemical changes including major changes in redox and other environmental changes. One possible resolution is that animals of these still unknown Cryogenian and early Ediacaran ecosystems were relatively simple, with highly conserved developmental genes involved in cell-type specification and simple patterning. In this model, complex nervous systems are a convergent phenomenon in bilaterian clades which occurred close to the time that larger metazoans appeared in the fossil record. PMID:26554036

  9. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  10. Family history, early adversity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: Mediation of the vulnerability to mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Watson, Stuart; Owen, Bruce M; Gallagher, Peter; Hearn, Andrea J; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol

    2007-01-01

    The effect of early-life vulnerability factors on the subsequent pathophysiology of severe mood disorders has yet to be fully elucidated. This study examines the relationship between early adverse life experience, family history and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) scores, family history data and the cortisol response to the dexamethasone/corticotrophin releasing hormone (dex/CRH) test were examined in 40 patients with severe mood disorder. Normative data for the CTQ was also obtained. The study demonstrated that mood disorder patients reporting high levels of childhood emotional neglect (n = 26) had an HPA axis response which did not differ from controls, whereas patients reporting low levels (n = 19) had an enhanced response (p = 0.011). A positive family history of mood disorder further enhanced this response. These data suggest that early adverse life events and genetic susceptibility have dissociable effects on glucocorticoid receptor-mediated negative feedback of the HPA axis in adult patients with severe mood disorders. PMID:19300594

  11. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  12. Causal effects of the early caregiving environment on development of stress response systems in children

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Tibu, Florin; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in stress response system functioning are thought to be a central mechanism by which exposure to adverse early-life environments influences human development. Although early-life adversity results in hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in rodents, evidence from human studies is inconsistent. We present results from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project examining whether randomized placement into a family caregiving environment alters development of the autonomic nervous system and HPA axis in children exposed to early-life deprivation associated with institutional rearing. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, and neuroendocrine data were collected during laboratory-based challenge tasks from children (mean age = 12.9 y) raised in deprived institutional settings in Romania randomized to a high-quality foster care intervention (n = 48) or to remain in care as usual (n = 43) and a sample of typically developing Romanian children (n = 47). Children who remained in institutional care exhibited significantly blunted SNS and HPA axis responses to psychosocial stress compared with children randomized to foster care, whose stress responses approximated those of typically developing children. Intervention effects were evident for cortisol and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity only among children placed in foster care before age 24 and 18 months, respectively, providing experimental evidence of a sensitive period in humans during which the environment is particularly likely to alter stress response system development. We provide evidence for a causal link between the early caregiving environment and stress response system reactivity in humans with effects that differ markedly from those observed in rodent models. PMID:25902515

  13. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Supplee, Lauren H; Unikel, Emily B; Shaw, Daniel S

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children's early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

  14. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

  15. Are Natural Environments Unnatural? A Survey of Early Intervention Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racicot, Lina; Shelley-Sireci, Lynn

    A survey of 116 early intervention service providers for young children with disabilities examined their experiences and perceptions of providing services in natural environments such as the home, day-care center, restaurants, play grounds, etc. A questionnaire, "The Natural Environment Questionnaire," was developed which included questions with…

  16. Equifinality, multifinality, and the rediscovery of the importance of early experiences: pathways from early adversity to psychiatric and (functional) somatic disorders.

    PubMed

    Luyten, Patrick; Vliegen, Nicole; Van Houdenhove, Boudewijn; Blatt, Sidney J

    2008-01-01

    Most current mainstream research, diagnostic assessment, and treatment strategies focus on specific psychiatric disorders--on diagnoses that are based on manifest symptoms within a categorical, atheoretical approach. This disorder-centered approach has been antithetical to psychoanalytic views, which are fundamentally person centered, focusing on the dynamics of individual lives. Growing realization of the high comorbidity among psychiatric disorders has led to the need to include developmental considerations and hierarchical models in the classification and treatment of psychopathology. In addition, this realization has led to a renewed interest in the principles of equifinality and multifinality--that a given end state can be the result of different developmental paths and that similar developmental factors may lead to dissimilar outcomes. In this chapter these developments are illustrated by research on the impact of early adversity, a central domain in psychoanalytic thought. Findings from various strands of research in the neurosciences and genetic research, in particular, suggest that early adversity leads to vulnerability for a wide variety of both psychiatric and (functional) somatic disorders. These findings have contributed to the rediscovery of the importance of early experiences more generally and to the need for a broad developmental perspective. In this context, we also discuss the danger of reductionism associated with the growing influence and popularity of affective neuroscience and genetics as well as the vital role a psychoanalytic perspective might play in countering this reductionism by reestablishing the importance of meaning and meaning making in understanding and treating patients with a history of early adversity. In particular, we focus on the importance of narrative and mental representations in the development of the capacity for mentalization in these patients. PMID:19449788

  17. Radiation Therapy Overcomes Adverse Prognostic Role of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression on Reed-Sternberg Cells in Early Hodgkin Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mestre, Francisco; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Rodriguez, Jose; Ramos, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Fernando; Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Casasus, Marta; Nicolau, Cristina; Bento, Leyre; Herraez, Ines; Lopez-Perezagua, Paloma; Daumal, Jaime; Besalduch, Joan

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze the role of radiation therapy (RT) on the adverse prognostic influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells, in the setting of early Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with ABVD (adriamycin, vinblastine, bleomycin, dacarbazine). Methods and Materials: In the present study we retrospectively investigated the prognostic value of COX-2 expression in a large (n=143), uniformly treated early HL population from the Spanish Network of HL using tissue microarrays. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done, including the most recognized clinical variables and the potential role of administration of adjuvant RT. Results: Median age was 31 years; the expression of COX-2 defined a subgroup with significantly worse prognosis. Considering COX-2{sup +} patients, those who received RT had significantly better 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) (80% vs 54% if no RT; P=.008). In contrast, COX-2{sup −} patients only had a modest, nonsignificant benefit from RT in terms of 5-year PFS (90% vs 79%; P=.13). When we compared the outcome of patients receiving RT considering the expression of COX-2 on RS cells, we found a nonsignificant 10% difference in terms of PFS between COX-2{sup +} and COX-2{sup −} patients (P=.09), whereas the difference between the 2 groups was important (25%) in patients not receiving RT (P=.04). Conclusions: Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression is an adverse independent prognostic factor in early HL. Radiation therapy overcomes the worse prognosis associated with COX-2 expression on RS cells, acting in a chemotherapy-independent way. Cyclooxygenase-2 RS cell expression may be useful for determining patient candidates with early HL to receive consolidation with RT.

  18. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted

  19. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  20. The lasting impact of early-life adversity on individuals and their descendants: potential mechanisms and hope for intervention.

    PubMed

    Cowan, C S M; Callaghan, B L; Kan, J M; Richardson, R

    2016-01-01

    The adverse effects of early-life stress are pervasive, with well-established mental and physical health consequences for exposed individuals. The impact of early adverse experiences is also highly persistent, with documented increases in risk for mental illness across the life span that are accompanied by stable alterations in neural function and hormonal responses to stress. Here, we review some of these 'stress phenotypes', with a focus on intermediary factors that may signal risk for long-term mental health outcomes, such as altered development of the fear regulation system. Intriguingly, recent research suggests that such stress phenotypes may persist even beyond the life span of the individuals, with consequences for their offspring and grand-offspring. Phenotypic characteristics may be transmitted to future generations via either the matriline or the patriline, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we highlight behavioral and epigenetic factors that may contribute to this multigenerational transmission and discuss the potential of various treatment approaches that may halt the cycle of stress phenotypes. PMID:26482536

  1. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span. PMID:22201148

  2. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (≥10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  3. Serotonin deficiency alters susceptibility to the long-term consequences of adverse early life experience

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Benjamin D.; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Tran, Ha L.; Iyer, Akshita; Wetsel, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Brain 5-HT deficiency has long been implicated in psychiatric disease, but the effects of 5-HT deficiency on stress susceptibility remain largely unknown. Early life stress (ELS) has been suggested to contribute to adult psychopathology, but efforts to study the long-term consequences of ELS have been limited by a lack of appropriate preclinical models. Here, we evaluated the effects of 5-HT deficiency on several long-term cellular, molecular, and behavioral responses of mice to a new model of ELS that combines early-life maternal separation (MS) of pups and postpartum learned helplessness (LH) training in dams. Our data demonstrate that this paradigm (LH/MS) induces depressive-like behavior and impairs pup retrieval in dams. In addition, we show that brain 5-HT deficiency exacerbates anxiety-like behavior induced by LH/MS and blunts the effects of LH/MS on acoustic startle responses in adult offspring. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear, following LH/MS, 5-HT-deficient animals had significantly less mRNA expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the amygdala than wild-type animals. In addition, 5-HT-deficient mice exhibited reduced mRNA levels of the 5-HT2a receptor and p11 in the hippocampus regardless of stress. LH/MS decreased the number of doublecortin+ immature neurons in the hippocampus in both wild-type (WT) and 5-HT-deficient animals. Our data emphasize the importance of complex interactions between genetic factors and early life experience in mediating long-term changes in emotional behavior. These findings may have important implications for our understanding of the combinatorial roles of 5-HT deficiency, ELS, and postpartum depression on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602134

  4. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross-alpha coupling was estimated in this group compared to the other two groups at 96 months, suggesting impaired suppression of alpha-theta and alpha-delta activity, which has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Age at foster care placement had a significant positive modulatory effect on alpha and beta trajectories and their mutual coupling, although by 96 months these trajectories remained distinct from those of never-institutionalized children. Overall, these findings suggest that early psychosocial neglect may profoundly impact neural maturation, particularly the evolution of neural oscillations and their interactions across a broad frequency range. These differences may result in widespread deficits across multiple cognitive domains. PMID:26351990

  5. Identifying Predictors of Early Growth Response and Adverse Radiation Effects of Vestibular Schwannomas to Radiosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Larjani, Soroush; Monsalves, Eric; Pebdani, Houman; Krischek, Boris; Gentili, Fred; Cusimano, Michael; Laperriere, Normand; Hayhurst, Caroline; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether pre-treatment growth rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS) predict response to radiosurgery. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all VS patients treated with 12Gy prescription dose between September 2005 and June 2011 at our institution using the Leksell Model 4C Gamma Knife Unit was conducted. Patients who had a minimum of 12-months clinical and radiological assessment before and after radiosurgery were included in this study. Tumor growth rates were calculated using specific growth rate (SGR). Tumor volumes were measured on FIESTA-MRI scans using ITK-SNAP v2.2. Results Following radiosurgery, twenty-seven (42.9%) patients showed a significant decrease in volume after one year, twenty-nine (46.0%) stabilized, and seven (11.1%) continued to grow. There was no correlation between VS pre-treatment SGRs with post-treatment SGRs (p = 0.34), and incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE). The reduction in tumors' SGRs after radiosurgery was proportional to pre-treatment SGRs, although this correlation was not statistically significant (p = 0.19). Analysis of risk factors revealed a positive correlation between post-treatment SGRs and incidence of non-auditory complications, most of which were attributed to ARE (p = 0.047). Conclusion Pre-treatment growth rate of VS does not predict tumor response to radiosurgery or incidence of ARE. VS with higher SGRs post-radiosurgery are more likely to experience ARE. PMID:25337892

  6. Skeletal adverse effects with aromatase inhibitors in early breast cancer: evidence to date and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Servitja, Sonia; Martos, Tamara; Rodriguez Sanz, Maria; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Garrigos, Laia; Nogues, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are routinely used in the adjuvant treatment of women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. Patients who receive AIs have an increased risk of bone loss and arthralgia compared with those treated with tamoxifen. In addition to the effects of AIs, the population of women with early breast cancer has a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency. In our experience 88% of patients had concentrations lower than 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D supplementation should be adapted to the baseline concentration. Another relevant finding in our research program was the close relationship between 25(OH)D levels and intensity of AI-related arthralgia (AIrA). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25(OH)D may prevent development of AIrA. We also demonstrate that AIrA is genetically determined: single nucleotide polymorphisms located in genes encoding key factors for the metabolism of estrogens and vitamin D (CYP17A1, VDR, and CYP27B1) are associated with self-reported arthralgia during AI therapy. We recommend establishing an individualized protocol of bone-health surveillance based on baseline and evolutionary clinical variables. PMID:26327926

  7. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect. PMID:22383860

  8. Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

  9. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Stead, John D.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2013-01-01

    Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism, and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288), it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e., in the case of early-life abuse or neglect) may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity. PMID:23898235

  10. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  11. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women’s health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in DNA repair capacity eventually causes the emergence of mutations such as Med12 in myometrial stem cells converting them into fibroid tumor-forming stem cells, and thereby leads to the development of UFs. Advancing our understanding of the mechanistic role epigenetic regulation of stem cells plays in mediating risk and tumorigenesis will help in pointing the way toward the development of novel therapeutic options. PMID:26973527

  12. Early Life Adverse Environmental Exposures Increase the Risk of Uterine Fibroid Development: Role of Epigenetic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Diamond, Michael P; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    Uterine Fibroids [UF(s), AKA: leiomyoma] are the most important benign neoplastic threat to women's health. They are the most common cause of hysterectomy imposing untold personal consequences and 100s of billions of healthcare dollars, worldwide. Currently, there is no long term effective FDA-approved medical treatment available, and surgery is the mainstay. The etiology of UFs is not fully understood. In this regard, we and others have recently reported that somatic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional mediator subunit Med12 are found to occur at a high frequency (∼85%) in UFs. UFs likely originate when a Med12 mutation occurs in a myometrial stem cell converting it into a tumor-forming stem cell leading to a clonal fibroid lesion. Although the molecular attributes underlying the mechanistic formation of UFs is largely unknown, a growing body of literature implicates unfavorable early life environmental exposures as potentially important contributors. Early life exposure to EDCs during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life. Neonatal exposure to the EDCs such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and genistein during reproductive tract development has been shown to increase the incidence, multiplicity and overall size of UFs in the Eker rat model, concomitantly reprogramming estrogen-responsive gene expression. Importantly, EDC exposure represses enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2) and reduces levels of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repressive mark through Estrogen receptor/Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases/Protein kinase B non-genomic signaling in the developing uterus. Considering the fact that distinct Mediator Complex Subunit 12 (Med12) mutations are detected in different fibroid lesions in the same uterus, the emergence of each Med12 mutation is likely an independent event in an altered myometrial stem cell. It is therefore possible that a chronic reduction in DNA repair capacity eventually causes the emergence of mutations such as Med12 in myometrial stem cells converting them into fibroid tumor-forming stem cells, and thereby leads to the development of UFs. Advancing our understanding of the mechanistic role epigenetic regulation of stem cells plays in mediating risk and tumorigenesis will help in pointing the way toward the development of novel therapeutic options. PMID:26973527

  13. Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

  14. Early Local Recurrence Presents Adverse Effect on Outcomes of Primary Breast Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qun-Chao; Mei, Xin; Feng, Yan; Ma, Jin-Li; Yang, Zhao-Zhi; Shao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Xiao-Li; Guo, Xiao-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary breast sarcomas (PBSs) are spectrum heterogeneous sarcomas in breast and the optimal treatment for them is still under discussion. Our study was to investigate clinical characteristics and identify potential prognostic factors for this rare malignancy. The authors retrospectively reviewed 38 patients with PBSs between October 2000 and February 2014 in FuDan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Local control rate and overall survival (OS) were determined by Kaplan–Meier actuarial method. Univariate analysis and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to identify potential prognostic factors. With median follow-up of 40.19 months, 14 patients (14/38) were found with local recurrence. Extensive operation like mastectomy was not superior to local resection (P = 0.167). Three-year recurrence-free survival and OS rate were 61.9% and 89%, respectively. Larger tumor size and local recurrence were indicated as unfavorable prognostic factors in univariate analysis. Cox model identified narrow interval of recurrence free survival as an unfavorable factor (P = 0.048). Surgery remains crucial treatment for PBSs. Mastectomy, however, is not routinely necessary if clear margin could be achieved by local excision. Early recurrence indicates a poor OS. PMID:26735546

  15. Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    PubMed

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods of development can have adverse effects on adult health behaviors, and genetic vulnerabilities may enhance these stress effects. We carried out an exploratory examination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of 252 healthy young adults for the impact of early-life adversity (ELA) in relation to the G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9296158, of the FKBP5 gene. FKBP5 is a molecular cochaperone that contributes to the functional status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to the quality of corticosteroid signaling. FKBP5 expression is upregulated by cortisol exposure during stressful episodes, with greater upregulation seen in A-allele carriers. As such, FKBP5 expression and GR function may be environmentally sensitive in A-allele carriers and therefore suitable for the study of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Compared with FKBP5, GG homozygotes (N=118), A-allele carriers (N = 132) without psychiatric morbidity had progressively worse performance on the Stroop color-word task with increasing levels of ELA exposure (Genotype × ELA, F=5.14, P=0.007), indicating a G × E interaction on working memory in early adulthood. In addition, heart rate response to mental stress was diminished overall in AA/AG-allele carriers (F=5.15, P=0.024). Diminished working memory and attenuated autonomic responses to stress are both associated with risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. The present data suggest that FKBP5 in the GR pathway may be a point of vulnerability to ELA, as seen in this group of non-traumatized young adults. FKBP5 is accordingly a potential target for more extensive studies of the impact of ELA on health and health behaviors in adulthood. PMID:26632991

  16. Exposure to socioeconomic adversity in early life and risk of depression at 18 years: The mediating role of locus of control

    PubMed Central

    Culpin, Iryna; Stapinski, Lexine; Miles, Ömür Budanur; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have linked exposure to early socioeconomic adversity to depression, but the mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Locus of control (LoC), an individual's control-related beliefs, has been implicated as a possible mechanism, however, longitudinal evidence to support this is lacking. Methods The study sample comprised 8803 participants from a UK cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Indicators of early socioeconomic adversity were collected from the antenatal period to 5 years and modelled as a latent factor. Depression was assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) at 18 years. LoC was assessed with the Nowicki–Strickland Internal–External (CNSIE) scale at 16 years. Results Using structural equation modelling, we found that 34% of the total estimated association between early socioeconomic adversity and depression at 18 years was explained by external LoC at 16 years. There was weak evidence of a direct pathway from early socioeconomic adversity to depression after accounting for the indirect effect via external locus of control. Socioeconomic adversity was associated with more external LoC, which, in turn, was associated with depression. Limitations Attrition may have led to an underestimation of the direct and indirect effect sizes in the complete case analysis. Conclusions Results suggest that external LoC in adolescence is one of the factors mediating the link between early adversity and depression at 18 years. Cognitive interventions that seek to modify maladaptive control beliefs in adolescence may be effective in reducing risk of depression following early life adversity. PMID:26047304

  17. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  18. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  19. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  20. Atrazine and malathion shorten the maturation process of Xenopus laevis oocytes and have an adverse effect on early embryo development.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qichao; Lee, Jessica; Lin, Yu-Huey; Jing, Guihua; Tsai, L Jillianne; Chen, Andrew; Hetrick, Lindsay; Jocoy, Dylan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-04-01

    The use of pesticides has a negative impact on the environment. Amphibians have long been regarded as indicator species to pollutants due to their permeable skin and sensitivity to the environment. Studies have shown that population declines of some amphibians are directly linked with exposure to agricultural contaminants. In the past, much of the studies have focused on the toxic effect of contaminants on larvae (tadpoles), juvenile and adult frogs. However, due to the nature of their life cycle, amphibian eggs and early embryos are especially susceptible to the contaminants, and any alteration during the early reproductive stages may have a profound effect on the health and population of amphibians. In this study, we analyzed the effect of atrazine and malathion, two commonly used pesticides, on Xenopus laevis oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. We found that both atrazine and malathion shortened the frog oocyte maturation process and resulted in reduced Emi2 levels at cytostatic factor-mediated metaphase arrest, and a high level of Emi2 is critically important for oocyte maturation. Furthermore, frog embryos fertilized under the influence of atrazine and/or malathion displayed a higher rate of abnormal division that eventually led to embryo death during early embryogenesis. PMID:26686575

  1. The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children?

    PubMed

    Berens, Anne E; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-07-25

    It has been more than 80 years since researchers in child psychiatry first documented developmental delays among children separated from family environments and placed in orphanages or other institutions. Informed by such findings, global conventions, including the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, assert a child's right to care within a family-like environment that offers individualised support. Nevertheless, an estimated 8 million children are presently growing up in congregate care institutions. Common reasons for institutionalisation include orphaning, abandonment due to poverty, abuse in families of origin, disability, and mental illness. Although the practice remains widespread, a robust body of scientific work suggests that institutionalisation in early childhood can incur developmental damage across diverse domains. Specific deficits have been documented in areas including physical growth, cognitive function, neurodevelopment, and social-psychological health. Effects seem most pronounced when children have least access to individualised caregiving, and when deprivation coincides with early developmental sensitive periods. Offering hope, early interventions that place institutionalised children into families have afforded substantial recovery. The strength of scientific evidence imparts urgency to efforts to achieve deinstitutionalisation in global child protection sectors, and to intervene early for individual children experiencing deprivation. PMID:25638660

  2. Early Adverse Life Events and Resting State Neural Networks in Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain: Evidence for Sex Differences

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Arpana; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Labus, Jennifer; Tillisch, Kirsten; Braun, Adam; Hong, Jui-Yang; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early adverse life (EAL) events and sex have been identified as vulnerability factors for the development of several stress-sensitive disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to identify disease and sex-based differences in resting state (RS) connectivity associated with EALs in individuals with IBS. Method A history of EALs before age 18 was assessed using the early trauma inventory. RS functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify patterns of intrinsic brain oscillations in the form of RS networks in 168 people (58 IBS, 28 females; and 110 healthy controls, 72 females). Partial Least Squares, a multivariate analysis technique was used to identify disease and sex differences and possible correlations between EALs and functional connectivity in six identified RS networks. Results Associations between EALs and RS networks were observed. While a history of EALs was associated with altered connectivity in the salience/executive control network to a similar extent in male and female IBS patients (Bootstrap ratio [BSR]=3.28-5.61; p=.046), male IBS patients demonstrated additional EAL-related alterations in the cerebellar network (BSR=3.92-6.79; p=.022). Conclusion This cross sectional study identified correlations between RS networks and EALs in individuals with IBS. These results suggest that exposure to EALs before age 18 can shape adult RS in both male and female patients in the salience/executive control network, a brain network that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of central pain amplification. PMID:25003944

  3. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Sackler Symposium: Early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits - a cross-species analysis

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Bridget L.; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from 4 different research laboratories, using 3 different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behaviour with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. PMID:25290865

  4. The international society for developmental psychobiology Sackler symposium: early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits--a cross-species analysis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Bridget L; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2014-12-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from four different research laboratories, using three different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behavior with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. PMID:25290865

  5. Impact of Early Environment on Children's Mental Health: Lessons From DNA Methylation Studies With Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Julian; Tremblay, Richard E; Szyf, Moshe; Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology. PMID:26608878

  6. Fiber optics reliability: Benign and adverse environments IV; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Jose, CA, Sept. 18-20, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwell, Roger A.; Paul, Dilip K.

    The present conference discusses topics in fiber-optic (FO) cable and network reliability in adverse environments, the fatigue and damage of laser light-sources, damage to optical fibers, radiation effects on optical materials and components, FO characteristics measurement, FO sensor reliability, and test and measurement methods for FO systems. Attention is given to the cyclic fatigue behavior of silica fiber, post-mortem analyses of FO cables, the aging behavior of low strength fused silica fibers, neutron irradiation results on optical fibers operating at 1.3 and 1.55 microns, mechanical testing and reliability of fusion splices, the reliability of FO position sensors, and high impact shock test results for FO components.

  7. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  8. Using Simcyp to project human oral pharmacokinetic variability in early drug research to mitigate mechanism-based adverse events.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Christopher L; Scialis, Renato J; Rong, Haojing; Obach, R Scott

    2012-03-01

    Positive allosteric modulators ('potentiators') of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) have been shown to display a mechanism-based exposure-response continuum in preclinical species with procognitive electrophysiological and behavioral effects ('efficacy') at low exposures and motor coordination disruptions at progressively higher exposures. Due to the dose-capping nature of such motor coordination deficits, an exposure threshold-mediated adverse event (C(AE) ), the adequacy of separation between the maximal total plasma compound concentration (C(max) ) at a predicted clinically efficacious oral dose and this adverse event (AE) was explored in early drug research with three AMPAR potentiators considered potential candidates for clinical trials. In vitro metabolism studies in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes demonstrated the metabolic clearance for each compound was predominately due to cytochromes P450 (CYP). Thus, for each compound's anticipated clinically efficacious dose, human C(max) variability following oral administration was assessed using Simcyp software, which combines its virtual human populations database using extensive demographic, physiological and genomic information with routinely collected compound-specific in vitro biochemical data to simulate and predict drug disposition. Using a combination of experimentally determined recombinant human CYP intrinsic clearances for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, human binding factors, expected fraction absorbed and estimated steady-state volume of distribution, Simcyp simulations demonstrated that two of the three potentiators had acceptable projected C(max) variability (i.e. the 95th percentile C(max) did not breach C(AE) ). This evaluation aided in the selection of compounds for preclinical progression, and represents a novel application of pharmacologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) software approaches to predict interpatient variability. PMID:22213407

  9. Inflammatory Biomarker C-Reactive Protein and Radiotherapy-Induced Early Adverse Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Takita, Cristiane; Wright, Jean; Reis, Isildinha M.; Zhao, Wei; Brian, E. Lally; Jennifer, J. Hu

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Post-surgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly reduced the local recurrence rate. However, many patients develop early adverse skin reactions (EASRs) that impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. Methods We evaluated an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting RT-induced EASRs in 159 breast cancer patients undergoing RT. In each patient, we measured pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels using a highly-sensitive ELISA CRP assay. RT-induced EASRs were assessed at weeks 3 and 6 using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (v3.0). Association between EASRs and CRP levels were assessed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. Results RT-induced grade 2+ EASRs were observed in 8 (5%) and 80 (50%) patients at weeks 3 and 6 (end of RT), respectively. At the end of RT, significantly higher proportion of African Americans developed grade 3 EASRs (13.8% vs. 2.3% in others); grade 2+ EASRs were significantly associated with: change of CRP>1 mg/L (OR=2.51; 95%CI=1.06, 5.95, p=0.04), obesity (OR=2.08; 95%CI=1.03, 4.21, p=0.04), or combined both factors (OR=5.21; 95%CI=1.77, 15.38, p=0.003). Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate that an inflammatory biomarker CRP is associated with RT-induced EASRs, particularly combined with obesity. Impact Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and facilitate the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory agents to protect normal tissue from RT-induced adverse effects and improve quality of life in breast cancer patients undergoing RT. PMID:24917184

  10. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 μg total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development. PMID:24595754

  11. Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

    2011-10-01

    The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water. PMID:21461648

  12. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

  13. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  14. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  15. Deviations from the Expectable Environment in Early Childhood and Emerging Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood. PMID:24998622

  16. “Upstream markers” provide for early identification of patients at high risk for myocardial necrosis and adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kavsak, Peter A.; Ko, Dennis T.; Newman, Alice M.; Palomaki, Glenn E.; Lustig, Viliam; MacRae, Andrew R.; Jaffe, Allan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background For patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) to the emergency department, early identification of those that are at high risk for subsequent myocardial necrosis or adverse outcomes would allow earlier or more aggressive treatment. We determined if a panel of biomarkers can be used to identify high risk patients. Methods A cohort (84 females/132 males) from our 1996 ACS study population that had EDTA specimens stored (−70 °C) was selected and the earliest available specimen was analyzed for 11 biomarkers (IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, VEGF, L-selectin, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, NT-proBNP, cTnT). These data were linked to the existing cTnI and health outcome databases for this population. ROC curve analysis for myocardial necrosis (i.e., peak cTnI >0.04 μg/l) identified 3 candidate biomarkers. These 3 biomarkers were applied together to generate a panel test (2 of the 3 biomarkers increased for a positive result) and assessed for its ability to identify patients at risk for myocardial necrosis and the combined endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). Results The panel test (IL-6, NT-proBNP, E-selectin) alone detected 60% (95% CI: 49–69; false positive rate: 26%) of subjects that would be classified with myocardial necrosis. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional analyses indicated that patients positive by the biomarker panel (including those with cTnI ≤0.04 μg/l) had significantly worse outcomes (death/MI/HF) as compared to those negative by both cTnI and the panel test. Conclusion A biomarker panel analyzed early after pain onset can identify individuals at risk for both myocardial necrosis and the combined endpoint of death/MI/HF. Additional prospective studies are required to assess this panel for both early MI detection and to further refine which health outcomes (death, MI, HF) are associated with positive panel results. PMID:17964560

  17. Early-life adversity and orbitofrontal and cerebellar volumes in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha J; Naidoo, Vanesh; Roos, Annerine; Fouché, Jean-Paul; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundEarly-life adversity is a risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the impact at the neural level is less clear.AimsTo investigate the association between brain volumes and early-life adversity in individuals with a diagnosis of OCD only.MethodThe Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) was used to assess early-life adversity in 21 participants with OCD and 25 matched healthy controls. The relationship between global and regional brain volume and early-life adversity was measured using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). All data were corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error (FWE) at P<0.05.ResultsIn the OCD group, correlations with total CTQ scores were positively associated with a larger right orbitofrontal cortex volume. Physical neglect was higher in the OCD group than in controls and was positively associated with larger right cerebellum volume in the OCD group only.ConclusionsLarger brain volumes may reflect underlying developmental neuropathology in adults with OCD who also have experience of childhood trauma. PMID:26338992

  18. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  19. Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Mrquez, Natalia; Martnez-Harms, Jaime; Vsquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (57 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (nave) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

  20. Continuous ultraviolet irradiation increases the adverse effects of photoreactive nanoparticles on the early development of Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu-Jin; Nam, Sun-Hwa; An, Youn-Joo

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles (NPs) on the development of Oryzias latipes. Buoyant fish embryos are potentially vulnerable to sunlight-derived ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs in surface water easily absorb UV irradiation from transmitted solar light. In the present study, O. latipes were exposed to ZnO NPs under irradiation with UV or visible light. The ZnO NPs exhibited considerable toxicity toward embryos and sac fry following UV irradiation, and these toxic effects resulted in increased mortality and abnormalities. The UV irradiation induced more serious effects on embryos than did visible light irradiation, and embryonic exposure resulted in irreversible developmental impairment or death of sac fry. The adverse effects of ZnO NPs may result from Zn ions released from photoreactive ZnO NPs. The present study demonstrates photo-dependent developmental impairment of O. latipes embryos as a result of exposure to ZnO NPs. The results demonstrate that the toxicity of photoreactive ZnO NPs could vary under environmentally relevant UV irradiation. These data could serve as a guide for evaluation of the toxicity of photo-activated NPs in natural surface waters and could be useful for the ecological risk assessment of photoreactive NPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1195-1200. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26395674

  1. Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;

  2. Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;…

  3. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  4. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery. PMID:26164813

  5. Early-type galaxy star formation histories in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Graves, Genevieve J.

    2015-02-01

    We use very high signal-to-noise ratio stacked spectra of ˜29 000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane. We define three classifications of local group environment based on the `identities' of galaxies within their dark matter haloes: central `Brightest Group Galaxies' (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those `most massive' in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; differences in Fe enrichment with local group environment are consistent with zero (<2σ); there are no differences in Mg enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy's initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  6. DNA methylation, early life environment, and health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Colter; Schneper, Lisa M; Notterman, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetics, and especially DNA methylation, have recently become provocative biological explanations for early-life environmental effects on later health. Despite the large increase in papers on the topic over the last few years, many questions remain with regards to the biological feasibility of this mechanism and the strength of the evidence to date. In this review, we examine the literature on early-life effects on epigenetic patterns, with special emphasis on social environmental influences. First, we review the basic biology of epigenetic modification of DNA and debate the role of early-life stressful, protective, and positive environments on gene-specific, system-specific, and whole-genome epigenetic patterns later in life. Second, we compare the epigenetic literatures of both humans and other animals and review the research linking epigenetic patterns to health in order to complete the mechanistic pathway. Third, we discuss physical environmental and social environmental effects, which have to date, generally not been jointly considered. Finally, we close with a discussion of the current state of the area's research, its future direction, and its potential use in pediatric health. PMID:26466079

  7. Early-type galaxies in different environments: an HI view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Crocker, Alison; Jütte, Eva; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2010-12-01

    We present an analysis of deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the neutral hydrogen in 33 nearby early-type galaxies selected from a representative sample studied earlier at optical wavelengths with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. This is the deepest homogeneous set of HI imaging data available for this class of objects. The sample covers both field environments and the Virgo cluster. Our analysis shows that gas accretion plays a role in the evolution of field early-type galaxies, but less so for those in clusters. The HI properties of SAURON early-type galaxies strongly depend on environment. For detection limits of a few times 106 Msolar, HI is detected in about 2/3 of the field galaxies, while <10 per cent of the Virgo objects are detected. In about half of the detections, the HI forms a regularly rotating disc or ring. In many galaxies unsettled tails and clouds are seen. All HI discs have counterparts of ionized gas, and inner HI discs are also detected in molecular gas. The cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions is dominated by molecular gas (). Assuming our sample is representative, we conclude that accretion of HI is very common for field early-type galaxies, but the amount of material involved is usually small and the effects on the host galaxy are, at most, subtle. Cluster galaxies appear not to accrete HI, or the accreted material gets removed quickly by environmental effects. The relation between HI and stellar population is complex. The few galaxies with a significant young sub-population all have inner gas discs, but for the remaining galaxies there is no trend between stellar population and HI properties. A number of early-type galaxies are very gas rich, but only have an old population. The stellar populations of field galaxies are typically younger than those in Virgo. This is likely related to differences in accretion history. There is no obvious overall relation between gas HI content and global dynamical characteristics except that the fastest rotators all have an HI disc. This confirms that if fast and slow rotators are the result of different evolution paths, this is not strongly reflected in the current HI content. In about 50 per cent of the galaxies we detect a central radio continuum source. In many objects this emission is from a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), and in some it is consistent with the observed star formation. Galaxies with HI in the central regions are more likely detected in continuum. This is due to a higher probability for star formation to occur in such galaxies and not to HI-related AGN fuelling.

  8. Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

    2013-09-30

    Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

  9. A single-center study evaluating the effect of the controlled adverse environment (CAESM) model on tear film stability

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Richard; Lane, Keith J; Rodriguez, John; Johnston, Patrick; Angjeli, Endri; Ousler, George; Montgomery, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate use of an improved ocular tear film analysis protocol (OPI 2.0) in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM) model of dry eye disease, and to examine the utility of new metrics in the identification of subpopulations of dry eye patients. Methods Thirty-three dry eye subjects completed a single-center, single-visit, pilot CAE study. The primary endpoint was mean break-up area (MBA) as assessed by the OPI 2.0 system. Secondary endpoints included corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time, and OPI 2.0 system measurements. Subjects were also asked to rate their ocular discomfort throughout the CAE. Dry eye endpoints were measured at baseline, immediately following a 90-minute CAE exposure, and again 30 minutes after exposure. Results The post-CAE measurements of MBA showed a statistically significant decrease from the baseline measurements. The decrease was relatively specific to those patients with moderate to severe dry eye, as measured by baseline MBA. Secondary endpoints including palpebral fissure size, corneal staining, and redness, also showed significant changes when pre- and post-CAE measurements were compared. A correlation analysis identified specific associations between MBA, blink rate, and palpebral fissure size. Comparison of MBA responses allowed us to identify subpopulations of subjects who exhibited different compensatory mechanisms in response to CAE challenge. Of note, none of the measures of tear film break-up time showed statistically significant changes or correlations in pre-, versus post-CAE measures. Conclusion This pilot study confirms that the tear film metric MBA can detect changes in the ocular surface induced by a CAE, and that these changes are correlated with other, established measures of dry eye disease. The observed decrease in MBA following CAE exposure demonstrates that compensatory mechanisms are initiated during the CAE exposure, and that this compensation may provide the means to identify and characterize clinically relevant subpopulations of dry eye patients. PMID:23185114

  10. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-08-20

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

  11. Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…

  12. Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and

  13. Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments.

    PubMed

    Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Gaspar, Fraser; Nishioka, Marcia; Colón, Maribel; Weathers, Walter; Egeghy, Peter P; Maddalena, Randy; Williams, Jeffery; Jenkins, Peggy L; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    Infants and young children spend as much as 50h per week in child care and preschool. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend some time each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available about environmental exposures in these environments. We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California ECE facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. Low levels of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and four non-PBDE flame retardants were present in air, including two constituents of Firemaster 550 and two tris phosphate compounds [tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)]. Tris phosphate, Firemaster 550 and PBDE compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples. BDE47, BDE99, and BDE209 comprised the majority of the PBDE mass measured in dust. The median concentrations of TCEP (319 ng g(-1)) and TDCIPP (2265 ng g(-1)) were similar to or higher than any PBDE congener. Levels of TCEP and TDCIPP in dust were significantly higher in facilities with napping equipment made out of foam (Mann-Whitney p-values<0.05). Child BDE99 dose estimates exceeded the RfD in one facility for children<3 years old. In 51% of facilities, TDCIPP dose estimates for children<6 years old exceeded age-specific "No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs)" based on California Proposition 65 guidelines for carcinogens. Given the overriding interest in providing safe and healthy environments for young children, additional research is needed to identify strategies to reduce indoor sources of flame retardant chemicals. PMID:24835158

  14. Exposure to early adversity: Points of cross-species translation that can lead to improved understanding of depression.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between developmental exposure to adversity and affective disorders is reviewed. Adversity discussed herein includes physical and sexual abuse, neglect, or loss of a caregiver in humans. While these stressors can occur at any point during development, the unique temporal relationship to specific depressive symptoms was the focus of discussion. Further influences of stress exposure during sensitive periods can vary by gender and duration of abuse as well. Data from animal studies are presented to provide greater translational and causal understanding of how sensitive periods, different types of psychosocial stressors, and sex interact to produce depressive-like behaviors. Findings from maternal separation, isolation rearing, chronic variable stress, and peer-peer rearing paradigms clarify interpretation about how various depressive behaviors are influenced by age of exposure. Depressive behaviors are broken down into the following categories: mood and affect, anhedonia, energy, working memory, sleep-wake, appetite changes, suicide, and general malaise. Cross-species evidence from humans, nonhuman primates, rats, and mice within each of these categories is discussed. In conclusion, sensitive periods for affective-related behaviors (anxiety, mood, and controllability) occur earlier in life, while other aspects of depression are associated with adversity later during adolescence. PMID:25997766

  15. Adjuvanted influenza-H1N1 vaccination reveals lymphoid signatures of age-dependent early responses and of clinical adverse events.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Olga; Binda, Elisa; O'Farrell, Sean; Lorenc, Anna; Pradines, Joel; Huang, Yongqing; Duffner, Jay; Schulz, Reiner; Cason, John; Zambon, Maria; Malim, Michael H; Peakman, Mark; Cope, Andrew; Capila, Ishan; Kaundinya, Ganesh V; Hayday, Adrian C

    2016-02-01

    Adjuvanted vaccines afford invaluable protection against disease, and the molecular and cellular changes they induce offer direct insight into human immunobiology. Here we show that within 24 h of receiving adjuvanted swine flu vaccine, healthy individuals made expansive, complex molecular and cellular responses that included overt lymphoid as well as myeloid contributions. Unexpectedly, this early response was subtly but significantly different in people older than ∼35 years. Wide-ranging adverse clinical events can seriously confound vaccine adoption, but whether there are immunological correlates of these is unknown. Here we identify a molecular signature of adverse events that was commonly associated with an existing B cell phenotype. Thus immunophenotypic variation among healthy humans may be manifest in complex pathophysiological responses. PMID:26726811

  16. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  17. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  18. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention services in natural environments. 303... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  19. Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion σ, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ΔIe. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters σ and ΔIe. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

  20. Early Holocene hydrology and environments of the Ner River (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Piotr; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Borówka, Ryszard K.; Okupny, Daniel; Pawłowski, Dominik; Peyron, Odille; Stachowicz-Rybka, Renata; Obremska, Milena; Cywa, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    The Ner River valley (central Poland) underwent substantial transformation during the Weichselian-Holocene transition as a result of fluvial processes and climate changes, resulting in the establishment of its present shape in the Holocene. A multiproxy study based on organic deposits from a palaeochannel fill (Lutomiersk-Koziówki) shows that after the channel was cut off during the late glacial termination, it became a shallow oxbow, fed by local springs. In the Boreal period, the oxbow lake was also fed by precipitation and became a telmatic environment overgrown by rush and swamp vegetation. Finally, it was covered by overbank deposits. The first flooding phase (9900-9600 cal. BP) was followed by the accumulation of overbank sediments (after 9500 cal. BP) and flooding increased after ca. 9300-9000 cal. BP. Pollen data provide information on the regional vegetation context for local and regional changes. In the Atlantic period, an increase in both summer and winter temperatures is inferred from the pollen data, corresponding to an expansion of thermophilous deciduous forests. While in general, flooding phases of the Early Holocene are poorly recognised in Eastern Europe, the Lutomiersk-Koziówki site may be considered as one of the reference points for this phenomenon in the region.

  1. Assessing the Physical Environment in an Early Childhood Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    1999-01-01

    Describes Montessori's vision of developmentally appropriate physical environment, considers some effective design principles and characteristics of environments for young children, and identifies criteria for assessing the indoor and outdoor physical environments. (Author/KB)

  2. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

  3. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical

  4. Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

  5. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia, high temperatures, and acidification impacted biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. Our findings of protracted early Mesozoic reef recovery suggest that the causal links between environmental disturbance and biotic recovery extended into Middle Triassic time.

  6. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  7. Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

  8. Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

  9. Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk

  10. Do the Fibroblasts Contained in Early Passage MSC Population Adversely Affect the Characteristics of Stem Cell Population Obtained from Human Placenta?

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jun-Woo; Kim, Jin-A; Ha, Chul-Won

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been obtained from various human tissues by harvesting plastic adherent fibroblast-like cell population. For potential use in regeneration medicine, early passage MSC population is preferred to avoid cell senescence. The early passage adherent cell population contains MSCs as well as fibroblasts, however, the significance of the contained fibroblasts has not been well investigated. Thus, we investigated the stem cell characteristics of the early passage MSC population with and without fibroblasts depletion. Methods and Results: We obtained adherent cell populations from full term placenta at passage 2∼3 and divided them into two subpopulations: fibroblasts depleted (popFD) and non-depleted population (popFND) using magnetic cell sorting method. The two subpopulations were compared in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation for adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation. The percentage of fibroblasts contained in the early passage MSC population was 5.3% (2.9∼8.4). Both the popFD and popFND was spindle shaped from early passages and maintained long term culture up to 20∼22 passages. CFU-F assay showed no difference between the subpopulations. Overall, tri-lineage differentiation showed a tendency of better differentiation potential of popFND than popFD. Conclusions: We confirmed that fibroblasts are contained in early population of placenta-derived MSCs obtained by current method. This study revealed that the contained fibroblasts in early passage MSC population do not adversely affect the properties of MSCs in terms of cell morphology, potential for long term culture, colony forming ability, and tri-lineage differentiation. PMID:24298361

  11. Expert Practitioner's Views about the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…

  12. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  13. Early-life environment, developmental immunotoxicology, and the risk of pediatric allergic disease including asthma.

    PubMed

    Dietert, Rodney R; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2008-12-01

    Incidence of childhood allergic disease including asthma (AD-A) has risen since the mid-20th century with much of the increase linked to changes in environment affecting the immune system. Childhood allergy is an early life disease where predisposing environmental exposures, sensitization, and onset of symptoms all occur before adulthood. Predisposition toward allergic disease (AD) is among the constellation of adverse outcomes following developmental immunotoxicity (DIT; problematic exposure of the developing immune system to xenobiotics and physical environmental factors). Because novel immune maturation events occur in early life, and the pregnancy state itself imposes certain restrictions on immune functional development, the period from mid-gestation until 2 years after birth is one of particular concern relative to DIT and AD-A. Several prenatal-perinatal risk factors have been identified as contributing to a DIT-mediated immune dysfunction and increased risk of AD. These include maternal smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, diesel exhaust and traffic-related particles, heavy metals, antibiotics, environmental estrogens and other endocrine disruptors, and alcohol. Diet and microbial exposure also significantly influence immune maturation and risk of allergy. This review considers (1) the critical developmental windows of vulnerability for the immune system that appear to be targets for risk of AD, (2) a model in which the immune system of the DIT-affected infant exhibits immune dysfunction skewed toward AD, and (3) the lack of allergy-relevant safety testing of drugs and chemicals that could identify DIT hazards and minimize problematic exposure of pregnant women and children. PMID:19085948

  14. Absence of adverse outcomes after magnetic resonance imaging early after stent placement for acute myocardial infarction: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kramer, C M; Rogers, W J; Pakstis, D L

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of stents in vitro, when placed in animals in vivo, and in patients after elective stent placement. The safety of imaging patients' with stents early after myocardial infarction (MI) has not been examined. We studied 13 patients in an MRI study of myocardial viability on day 3 +/- 1 after stent placement for acute MI. No patient had any clinical events in the early post-MI period, and only 1 of 13 patients demonstrated in-stent restenosis with a mean follow-up of 7 +/- 2 months. For comparison, a group of 17 patients studied concurrently at Allegheny General Hospital as part of the Stent PAMI study, without undergoing MRI, suffered two early deaths and three episodes of in-stent restenosis within 6 months. Based on a review of the literature and this preliminary study, recent stent placement for acute MI should not be considered a contraindication to MRI. PMID:11545124

  15. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  16. Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and

  17. Sedimentary Hematite on Mars and Its Implications for the Early Martian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, D. C.; Moore, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Crystalline hematite deposits detected by Mars Global Surveyor are thought to have formed aqueously on early Mars. The formation of such deposits is discussed with regard to the overall redox implications for the early environment and early life. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  19. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  20. The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Maślanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; Wędzony, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. PMID:24508235

  1. Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored. PMID:22280100

  2. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harnarayan, Patrick; Islam, Shariful; Budhooram, Steve; Ramsewak, Shivaa; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78%) and home remedy (74.8%) groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001), more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001), and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001). Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073). Conclusion There are negative outcomes when patients delay conventional medical therapy in favour of home remedies to treat diabetic foot infections. These treatments need not be mutually exclusive. We encourage persons with diabetes who wish to try home remedies to seek medical advice in addition as a part of holistic care. PMID:25473322

  3. Development of children at risk for adverse outcomes participating in early intervention in developing countries: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk factors and country of implementation. Also, birth asphyxia as a risk condition has not been well studied. To address these limitations, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to test the hypothesis that there will be differential developmental trajectories favoring those who receive EDI versus a health education intervention in children in rural areas of India, Pakistan, and Zambia. Methods Children with and without birth asphyxia were randomized to EDI or control intervention, which was implemented by parents who received training in biweekly home visits initiated before child age 1 month and continuing until 36 months. Development was assessed in 376 children at ages 12, 24, and 36 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and Ages & Stages Questionnaire administered by evaluators blind to intervention assignment and risk condition. Results Longitudinal mixed model analysis indicated that EDI resulted in better development over 36 months in cognitive abilities, regardless of risk condition, maternal resources, child gender, or country. Psychomotor development and parent-reported general development showed similar trends as for cognitive abilities, but were not statistically different between intervention conditions. Developmental differences were observed first at 36 months of age. Conclusion Early developmental intervention has promise for improving development in children across developing countries when exposed to various risk conditions. EDI should be one prominent approach used to begin to address long-term outcomes and intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:24811237

  4. Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = −1.714 (−3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (−0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

  5. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  6. Radiation environment and shielding for early manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Stephen B.; Mccann, Michael E.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of shielding a crew during early manned Mars missions is discussed. Requirements for shielding are presented in the context of current astronaut exposure limits, natural ionizing radiation sources, and shielding inherent in a particular Mars vehicle configuration. An estimated range for shielding weight is presented based on the worst solar flare dose, mission duration, and inherent vehicle shielding.

  7. Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

  8. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity—remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children’s development. PMID:26849071

  9. Early and Short-term Triiodothyronine Supplementation Prevents Adverse Postischemic Cardiac Remodeling: Role of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Antifibrotic miRNA Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Giuseppina; Forini, Francesca; Kusmic, Claudia; Pitto, Letizia; Mariani, Laura; Iervasi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling in the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injured myocardium leads to dysregulation of miR-29-30-133, favoring the profibrotic process that leads to adverse cardiac remodeling (CR). We have previously shown that timely correction of the postischemic low-T3 syndrome (Low-T3S) exerts antifibrotic effects, but the underlying molecular players are still unknown. Here we hypothesize that a prompt, short-term infusion of T3 in a rat model of post I/R Low-T3S could hamper the early activation of the TGFβ1-dependent profibrotic cascade to confer long-lasting cardioprotection against adverse CR. Twenty-four hours after I/R, rats that developed the Low-T3S were randomly assigned to receive a 48-h infusion of 6 μg/kg/d T3 (I/R-L+T3) or saline (I/R-L) and sacrificed at 3 or 14 d post-I/R. Three days post-I/R, Low-T3S correction favored functional cardiac recovery. This effect was paralleled by a drop in TGFβ1 and increased miR-133a, miR-30c and miR-29c in the infarcted myocardium. Consistently, connective transforming growth factor (CTGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), validated targets of the above miRNAs, were significantly reduced. Fourteen days post-I/R, the I/R-L+T3 rats presented a significant reduction of scar size with a better preservation of cardiac performance and LV chamber geometry. At this time, TGFβ1 and miR-29c levels were in the normal range in both groups, whereas miR-30c-133a, MMP-2 and CTGF remained significantly altered in the I/R group. In conclusion, the antifibrotic effect exerted by T3 in the early phase of postischemic wound healing triggers a persistent cardioprotective response that hampers the progression of heart dysfunction and adverse CR. PMID:26623926

  10. Genetic variants in Nogo receptor signaling pathways may be associated with early life adversity in schizophrenia susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jessica L.; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder thought to result from abnormal brain development. Nogo, an oligodendrocyte bound molecule, signals by binding to the Nogo receptor (NgR) located on axonal membranes. The NgR co-receptors include p75 neurotrophin receptor or TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY). Nogo signaling is responsible for central nervous system myelin regulation and neurite outgrowth during neurodevelopment, and plasticity in the mature brain. Methods We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NgR, p75, and TROY receptor genes and downstream signaling partner With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1-like (Myt1l) genes in an Australian case–control schizophrenia cohort (n = 268/group). High-throughput SNP genotyping was performed using the MassARRAY® genotyping assay. Results Analysis revealed a significant association between the Myt1l SNP rs2304008 and female schizophrenia subjects. The WNK1 SNP rs1468326 and the Myt1l SNP rs3748988 showed significant associations with schizophrenia in subjects with a maternal mental history and in subjects who experienced childhood trauma respectively. Following Bonferroni correction, all significance was lost. Conclusions Despite the lack of positive findings in our population after correction for multiple testing, previous gene expression and association studies in schizophrenia suggest the implication of NgR signaling pathway genes in the etiology of schizophrenia remains topical and timely. General significance Further investigations will be necessary to fully assess the role of these genes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However these genes may prove useful in further understanding the mechanism by which negative experiences early in life can affect myelin-related processes in the context of schizophrenia. PMID:26673096

  11. Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have explicit foci on (1) integrating physical and social vulnerability indicators across timescales, (2) analytical capacity to generate local scenarios of risk using both analogs and projections, (3) the communication of risk-based information, and (4) the support and governance of a collaborative framework for early warning structures across spatial scales.

  12. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil assemblage is at treeline and higher on Isla Navarino (55°S) at the southern tip of South America. By mid-Miocene, the upland tundra biota was less diverse, most notably in the number of angiosperm taxa. Based on the autecology and geographic distributions of the descendants of the fossil biota which survive in the subantarctic islands, South America and Tasmania, there was a decline of mean summer temperatures from c. 6°C to c. 4°C from the early to the mid-Miocene. During the early Miocene, the MST of the TAM was c.19°C warmer than today. A paleotemperature estimate based on leaf waxes from a Ross Sea core is for a MST 11°C warmer than today which seems low considering it is based on a near sea-level vegetation. A recent paper utilizing a salt-hydration process to provide adequate moisture to support a Miocene tundra biota is based on erroneous data. The Miocene climate was wet with an annual precipitation of at least 3000 mm. A recent report of the possible survival of vegetation in the Taylor Valley until the Pliocene, based on the discovery of 5 Ma wood-like forms in a DVDP core, is improbable. Even if wood can be definitively identified from the Pliocene deposits it is likely to be reworked Miocene wood from uplands in the TAM (e.g. Friis Hills). Research supported by NSF OPP 0739693.

  13. Strength-Based Factors for Successful Adaptation to an Early College High School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    In an early college high school setting, students are subject to varying academic, social and contextual demands of a higher educational environment. In a strength-based study of 136 diverse early college high school students, this research explored the relationship of internal and external developmental assets to adaptive functioning of…

  14. Functional Analysis of the Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: Incorporating Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper…

  15. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  16. Implications for the Earth of the early dynamical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaula, W. M.; Cooperman, S. A.

    The formation of the Earth, was mainly from sizeable bodies: perhaps moon sized. Models of interaction among small planetesimals which take into account only close encounters all lead to the formation of moon sized objects, thus leading to several 100 in the inner solar system. Longer term interactions, such as secular resonance sweepings, are needed to get these planetesimals together to form the observed terrestrial bodies. After the accumulation of the Earth, during which core formation certainly occurred, further impacts probably influenced the locations of rifting centers in the system of mantle convection and crustal differentiation. They may have affected craton stabilization by promoting lateral heterogeneity, but had little influence on the key problem of early recycling of sial.

  17. Exacerbation of signs and symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis by a controlled adverse environment challenge in subjects with a history of dry eye and ocular allergy

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Paulo J; Ousler, George W; Welch, Donna L; Smith, Lisa M; Coderre, Jeffrey; Abelson, Mark B

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a controlled adverse environment (CAE) challenge on subjects with both allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. Methods Thirty-three subjects were screened and 17 completed this institutional review board-approved study. Subjects underwent baseline ocular assessments and conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) on days 0 and 3. Those who met the ocular redness and itching criteria were randomized to receive either the controlled adverse environment (CAE) challenge (group A, n = 9) or no challenge (group B, n = 8) at day 6. Thirty minutes after CAE/no-CAE, subjects were challenged with allergen and their signs and symptoms graded. Exploratory confocal microscopy was carried out in a subset of subjects at hourly intervals for 5 hours post-CAC on days 3 and 6. Results Seven minutes post-CAC, subjects exposed to the CAE had significantly greater itching (difference between groups, 0.55 ± 0.25, P = 0.028), conjunctival redness (0.59 ± 0.19, P = 0.002), episcleral redness (0.56 ± 0.19, P = 0.003) and mean overall redness (mean of conjunctival, episcleral, and ciliary redness, 0.59 ± 0.14, P < 0.001). The mean score at 7, 15, and 20 minutes post-CAC for conjunctival redness (0.43 ± 0.17, P = 0.012), episcleral redness (0.49 ± 0.15, P = 0.001), mean overall redness in all regions (0.43 ± 0.15, P = 0.005), and mean chemosis (0.20 ± 0.08, P = 0.017) were also all significantly greater in CAE-treated subjects. Confocal microscopic images of conjunctival vessels after CAC showed more inflammation in CAE-treated subjects. Conclusion In subjects with both dry eye and allergic conjunctivitis, exposure to adverse environmental conditions causes an ocular surface perturbation that can intensify allergic reactions. PMID:23378734

  18. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

  19. Societal Trends Affecting the Environment of Early Childhood Education. Follow Through Planning Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Martin T.; Vandell, Deborah

    This monograph documents the magnitude and likely prognosis of demographic changes in the 1970's and suggests the impact of these trends on the problems of early childhood education. The implications of this changing environment for designing a new Follow Through program are also examined. With respect to the changing demographic environment,

  20. Effect of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program for Low Birth Weight Children of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    This paper describes an external evaluation study of the Responsive Environment Early Education Program (formerly known as the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children), an educational intervention program for "high risk" (low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in Clovis, New Mexico. Major goals of the program are:…

  1. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the

  2. Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…

  3. Early Family Environments of Obese and Non-Obese College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailey, B. Jo; Sison, Gustave F. P., Jr.

    Although case studies and anecdotal information have suggested that differences exist between the early family environments of obese and non-obese individuals, no experimental research exists. Undergraduates completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a questionnaire concerning past and present weight information. Subjects were classified as…

  4. Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional

  5. Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic δ13C and molecular δ13C and δD from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic δ13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular δ13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular δD signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The δD of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the δ13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and δD = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in δD, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that δD ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of δD for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

  6. Insights and Challenges for Using the Early Earth to Understand Potentially Habitable Environments on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, N. D.

    2014-12-01

    Many of the challenges for recognizing and reconstructing habitable environments on early Mars are shared by the early Earth. However, a number of key differences obscure the possibility for direct comparison of the evolutionary history of surface environments on the two planets. In particular, while the "faint young Sun" paradox can potentially be solved on the early Earth via high levels of reduced greenhouse gases such as the methane, the early and probably continuous oxidation (and lack of any methane today on Mars) of the Martian surface precludes a similar solution for early Mars. This necessity for a different atmospheric evolutionary history also complicates the interpretation of Martian sedimentary rocks because fundamentally different weathering reactions and different reaction rates would have occurred on early Mars relative to early Earth. In this context, it is possible to evaluate recent claims for Martian paleosols at Gale Crater using both model- and data-based methods of looking at weathering processes there and on the early Earth. The putative paleosol interpretation contrasts strongly with mission scientists, who found, for example, that major element geochemistry of weathering products at Mars' surface indicate little pedogenesis as compared with similar environments on Earth (McLennan et al. 2014, Science). Mass balance gains and losses of redox-sensitive metals (e.g., Cu and Cr) and other trace elements have been proposed as potential biosignatures for early Earth, do not exhibit similar patterns at Gale Crater. While there are orders of more data for the early Earth, this suggests either that there was little or no biological activity at Gale Crater or that those putative biosignatures were not appropriate for the aqueous environments there because they were derived from non-analogous environments. This disconnect between both paleosols/weathering environments of the early Earth and with predictions of expected weathering trends in comparison to observations from Gale Crater suggest that improvements both to our understanding of Earth analogues for Martian environments and more realistic simulations of the differences in atmospheric evolution for Mars are necessary to advance our understanding of potential or realized habitability on Mars.

  7. Visual outcomes and perinatal adversity.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anna R; Fielder, Alistair R

    2007-10-01

    Preterm birth per se, the neonatal environment, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and neurological damage are all causes of visual impairment and the impact of these factors is discussed in relation to the resultant ophthalmic deficits. Visual acuity impairments range from blindness, due to ROP or cortical visual impairment, which can be identified at an early age, to subtle deficits related to preterm birth only identified at a later age. Visual function deficits are not limited to visual acuity but can affect contrast sensitivity, field of vision and colour vision. Strabismus and refractive errors are also very common in children following perinatal adversity. Although more is now known about the types of deficits affecting these children, there is still a poor understanding of how these deficits impact on a child's functional ability. The impact of these ophthalmic deficits on the long term ophthalmic care required, and the role of perinatal factors, is discussed. PMID:17704016

  8. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morpho-quantitative characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat spleen subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Morpho-quantitative studies of the spleen indicate that the proportions of the compartments and sub-compartments are stable in normal conditions. However, disorders due to stress can influence the number and function of the immune cells in this organ. The aim of this study was to determine, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and altering the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the morpho-quantitative characteristics of the spleen in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, kept under the standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The rats were assigned randomly to 2 control groups (C1 and C2) and 3 experimental groups, exposed to early (E1), late (E2) or early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood (C2, E1, E2 and E3). The spleen of each animal was isolated and its morphometric characteristics were determined: volume density (Vv) of the red pulp, white pulp, marginal zone, splenic lymph nodule, periarterial lymphatic sheath and germinal center; areal number density (Na), surface density (Sv), number density (Nv), diameter (D) and total number of splenic lymph nodules. The mass of each compartment was also determined. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffé’s post hoc test were used for the statistical analysis. The p values were considered significant when they were less than 0.05 (*) and very significant at less than 0.025 (**). There were significant differences in the Vv of the red pulp, white pulp and their sub-compartments between the control and experimental groups. The white pulp increased significantly (P = 0.000) in E1, E2 and E3 compared to C1 and C2. The average Na and D values of the splenic lymph nodules were also higher in the experimental groups. The ANOVA for the mass of the spleen and the red pulp revealed no differences between the groups. The mass of the white pulp and its subcompartments was greater in the experimental groups. A higher proportion of white pulp in the experimental groups could be associated with an increase in spleen immune activity, with alterations depending on certain cell subsets. The chronic stress produced morpho-quantitative changes in the rat spleen, and these depended on the animal’s history of stress, whether it had been previously stressed or not, with further exposure to stress in adulthood. PMID:26097544

  9. Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchfield, Carol D.

    1998-07-01

    There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high salt, low water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.

  10. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  11. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  12. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie; Curtis, Deb

    2015-01-01

    You likely have dreams for your early childhood environment that are greater than rating scales, regulations, and room arrangements. "Designs for Living and Learning" has been a favorite resource among educators and caregivers for more than a decade, and this new edition is packed with even more ideas that can be used as you create

  13. Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

  14. Social Factors in the Development of Early Executive Functioning: A Closer Look at the Caregiving Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Deschenes, Marie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated prospective links between quality of the early caregiving environment and children's subsequent executive functioning (EF). Sixty-two families were met on five occasions, allowing for assessment of maternal interactive behavior, paternal interactive behavior, and child attachment security between 1 and 2 years of age, and

  15. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie; Curtis, Deb

    2015-01-01

    You likely have dreams for your early childhood environment that are greater than rating scales, regulations, and room arrangements. "Designs for Living and Learning" has been a favorite resource among educators and caregivers for more than a decade, and this new edition is packed with even more ideas that can be used as you create…

  16. Social Factors in the Development of Early Executive Functioning: A Closer Look at the Caregiving Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Deschenes, Marie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated prospective links between quality of the early caregiving environment and children's subsequent executive functioning (EF). Sixty-two families were met on five occasions, allowing for assessment of maternal interactive behavior, paternal interactive behavior, and child attachment security between 1 and 2 years of age, and…

  17. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Home Literacy Environment and Early Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.; Friend, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal assessment concentrated on the relation between the home literacy environment (HLE) and early language acquisition during infancy and toddlerhood. In study 1, after controlling for socio-economic status, a broadly defined HLE predicted language comprehension in 50 infants. In study 2, 27 children returned for further analyses.…

  18. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  19. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  20. Early experiences matter: a review of the effects of prenatal environment on offspring characteristics in poultry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L M; Sparks, N H C; Rutherford, K M D

    2016-03-01

    Early life experiences can be important in determining offspring phenotypes and may influence interaction with the environment and hence health, welfare, and productivity. The prenatal environment of poultry can be divided into the pre-lay environment and the egg storage/incubation environment, both of which can affect offspring outcomes. The ability to separate maternal and egg/incubation effects makes birds well suited to this type of research. There are many factors, including feeding and nutrition, environmental conditions, husbandry practices, housing system, social environment, infectious environment, and maternal health status, that can influence both the health and performance and behavior and cognition of the offspring. There are some aspects of the environments that can be changed to produce beneficial effects in the offspring, like addition of certain additives to feed or short changes in incubation temperatures, while other aspects should be avoided to reduce negative effects, such as unpredictable feeding and lighting regimens. Measures of offspring characteristics may prove to be a useful method of assessing parent stock welfare if known stressors result in predictable offspring outcomes. This has the advantage of assessing the parent environment without interfering with the animals and possibly affecting their responses and could lead to improved welfare for the animals. PMID:26614679

  1. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  2. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  3. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were

  4. Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2014-12-01

    Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

  5. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents׳ perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children׳s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. PMID:25744220

  6. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  7. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account. PMID:21241479

  8. Gene-environment interactions and intermediate phenotypes: early trauma and depression.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Orla P; Heim, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

  9. Gene–Environment Interactions and Intermediate Phenotypes: Early Trauma and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Hornung, Orla P.; Heim, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

  10. Effects of Childhood Conduct Problems and Family Adversity on Health, Health Behaviors, and Service Use in Early Adulthood: Tests of Developmental Pathways Involving Adolescent Risk Taking and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Kosterman, Rick; Mason, W. Alex; Hawkins, J. David; McCarty, Carolyn A.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a developmental, cascade model that includes childhood risks of conduct problems and family adversity at age 10 12; conduct problems, risk taking, and internalizing during adolescence; and adult outcomes of conduct problems, poor health, health risks, depression, and service use at ages 27 and 30. Analyses showed that childhood conduct problems predicted adolescent conduct problems and risk taking, which, in turn, predicted adult conduct problems, health risks, depression, and service use. Childhood family adversity predicted adolescent internalizing, a predictor itself of poor health, depression, and service use at age 27. There was considerable continuity in the same adult outcomes measured over a 3-year period, as well as some cross-domain prediction from measures at age 27 to measures at age 30. Developmental patterns found in these data offer implications for future research and prevention. PMID:20576185

  11. Composition and depositional environment of concretionary strata of early Cenomanian (early Late Cretaceous) age, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2000-01-01

    Unusual, concretion-bearing mudrocks of early Late Cretaceous age, which were deposited in an early Cenomanian epeiric sea, have been recognized at outcrops in eastern Wyoming and in adjoining areas of Montana, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Colorado. In Johnson County, Wyo., on the western flank of the Powder River Basin, these strata are in the lower part of the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier Formation. At a core hole in south-central Johnson County, they are informally named Unit 2. These strata are about 34 m (110 ft) thick and consist mainly of medium- to dark-gray, noncalcareous, silty shale and clayey or sandy siltstone; and light-gray to grayish-red bentonite. The shale and siltstone are either bioturbated or interlaminated; the laminae are discontinuous, parallel, and even or wavy. Several ichnogenera of deposit feeders are common in the unit but filter feeders are sparse. The unit also contains marine and continental palynomorphs and, near the top, a few arenaceous foraminifers. No invertebrate macrofossils have been found in these rocks. Unit 2 conformably overlies lower Cenomanian shale in the lowermost Belle Fourche Member, informally named Unit 3, and is conformably overlain by lower and middle Cenomanian shale, siltstone, and sandstone within the member, which are informally named Unit 1. The mineral and chemical composition of the three Cenomanian units is comparable and similar to that of shale and siltstone in the Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale, except that these units contain more SiO2 and less CaO, carbonate carbon, and manganese. Silica is generally more abundant and CaO is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. The composition of Unit 2 contrasts significantly with that of the underlying and overlying units. Unit 2 contains no pyrite and dolomite and much less sulfur than Units 1 and 3. Sulfate is generally less abundant in river water than in seawater. Unit 2 also includes sideritic and calcitic concretions, whereas Units 1 and 3 contain neither concretions nor siderite and only sparse calcite. Carbon-sulfur-iron chemistry for the concretions suggests that sulfate availability was the limiting factor in pyrite formation and sulfide incorporation in Unit 2. Isotopic compositions of the carbon and oxygen in siderite and calcite from several concretions are variable and suggest cementation during early diagenesis in a variety of microenvironments. The isotopic composition of these carbonate minerals differs from that of Upper Cretaceous marine limestones. When considered in conjunction with the proportions of sulfur, organic carbon, and iron in Unit 2, major-element and micropaleontological data suggest that the composition of the original pore waters and of overlying waters in the late early Cenomanian sea was brackish to fresh. The mudrocks of Units 3 and 2, and a lower part of Unit 1, accumulated on a shelf at low to moderate rates of sedimentation in association with variable but generally weak current action. In Unit 2 and laterally equivalent rocks of the region, the sideritic and calcitic concretions probably indicate the extent of a body of brackish to fresh and oxygen-deficient water. Rates of precipitation in this region during the mid-Cretaceous could have been unusually high and the precipitation probably was seasonal. The organic matter in Unit 2 is humic-rich and would have been derived from continental environments. If the epeiric sea was brackish to fresh in the region of eastern Wyoming and contiguous areas, meteoric runoff from the adjoining lowlands must have been periodically large and the seaway north of the region probably was constricted. Seasonal changes in salinity might have been accompanied by changes in water temperature and oxygen content. The lower part of the Frontier Formation (Units 3, 2, and 1) in Wyoming records an intermittently and easterly prograding shoreline during late early and early middle Cenomanian time. Laterally equivalent strata in Nebraska

  12. Early Social Environment Affects the Endogenous Oxytocin System: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Emily; Fielder, Andrea; Ghabriel, Nerelle; Sawyer, Michael; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation, and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g., genetic variation (of the OXTR), age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences, such as social experiences, stress, or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences, and function. Second, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention. PMID:25814979

  13. Non-verbal reasoning ability and academic achievement as moderators of the relation between adverse life events and emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence: the importance of moderator and outcome specificity.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2011-02-01

    This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural problems was non-quadratic. Intelligence rather than academic achievement moderated the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems. However, the interaction effect was significant only on peer problems. These findings suggest that both moderator and outcome specificity should be considered when evaluating the role of intellectual competence in the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems. PMID:20730483

  14. Differential effects of the early and late intrauterine environment on corticotrophic cell development

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Timothy G.; Schwartz, Jeff; McMillen, I. Caroline

    2002-01-01

    The developing embryo and fetus respond to a range of intrauterine stressors, but the effect of chronic intrauterine stress on the programmed development of pituitary corticotrophs has not been investigated. We have used a pregnant sheep model in which the embryonic environment at conception has been surgically perturbed by uterine carunclectomy. This procedure results in the development of fetuses that either are placentally restricted and chronically hypoxemic or that demonstrate compensatory placental growth and maintain normoxemia throughout late gestation. We found that uterine carunclectomy resulted in the emergence of a population of non–corticotrophin-releasing hormone (non-CRH) target cells that secreted high amounts of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in the fetal pituitary. This change in corticotroph development was independent of late-gestation hypoxemia. However, chronic hypoxemia during late gestation (in either carunclectomized or non-carunclectomized uterine environments) resulted in a reduction in the proportion of ACTH stored in CRH-target. Thus, the early and late intrauterine environments differentially program the development of specific corticotrophic cell types in the fetal pituitary. These patterns of altered corticotroph development are important given the central roles of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in the fetal adaptive response to intrauterine stress and in the early programming of adult disease. PMID:12235109

  15. Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, T.J.; Gieskes, J.M. ); Jahnke, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved O{sub 2}, NO{sup {minus}}{sub 3}, NO{sup {minus}}{sub 2}, and SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several parameters of potential importance to the cycling of these metals: bottom water O{sub 2} concentration; sediment redox conditions; cycling of metal oxide carrier phases and the relative contribution of biogenic and terrigenous material to the detrital metal flux. In general, metal cycling associated with the early diagenesis of sediments was observed to decouple transport processes from burial processes for the transition metals measured in this study.

  16. Direct experimental evidence that early-life farm environment influences regulation of immune responses.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lewis MC; Inman CF; Patel D; Schmidt B; Mulder I; Miller B; Gill BP; Pluske J; Kelly D; Stokes CR; Bailey M

    2012-05-01

    BACKGROUND:   In mammals, early-life environmental variations appear to affect microbial colonization and therefore competent immune development, and exposure to farm environments in infants has been inversely correlated with allergy development. Modelling these effects using manipulation of neonatal rodents is difficult due to their dependency on the mother, but the relatively independent piglet is increasingly identified as a valuable translational model for humans. This study was designed to correlate immune regulation in piglets with early-life environment.METHODS:   Piglets were nursed by their mother on a commercial farm, while isolator-reared siblings were formula fed. Fluorescence immunohistology was used to quantify T-reg and effector T-cell populations in the intestinal lamina propria and the systemic response to food proteins was quantified by capture ELISA.RESULTS:   There was more CD4(+) and CD4(+) CD25(+) effector T-cell staining in the intestinal mucosa of the isolator-reared piglets compared with their farm-reared counterparts. In contrast, these isolator-reared piglets had a significantly reduced CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T-cell population compared to farm-reared littermates, resulting in a significantly higher T-reg-to-effector ratio in the farm animals. Consistent with these findings, isolator-reared piglets had an increased serum IgG anti-soya response to novel dietary soya protein relative to farm-reared piglets.CONCLUSION:   Here, we provide the first direct evidence, derived from intervention, that components of the early-life environment present on farms profoundly affects both local development of regulatory components of the mucosal immune system and immune responses to food proteins at weaning. We propose that neonatal piglets provide a tractable model which allows maternal and treatment effects to be statistically separated.

  17. Early respiratory infections: the role of passive smoking in gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    Brescianini, Sonia; Fagnani, Corrado; Aquilini, Elisabetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Stazi, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to: (i) estimate genetic and environmental components of four early respiratory diseases and (ii) test if these components are modified by parental smoking exposure. Study subjects were 2068 Italian twins aged 3-17. We performed biometric modeling under the assumptions of the twin design. For bronchitis and bronchiolitis, variance was mostly explained by shared environment, with no modification effect by parental smoking. For pneumonia and wheezy bronchitis, shared environmental component was larger among passive smokers, while genetic component was predominant among non-smokers. In the etiology of pneumonia and wheezy bronchitis, parental smoking could be a major familial factor. PMID:27013548

  18. Parent-directed approaches to enrich the early language environments of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Leffel, Kristin; Suskind, Dana

    2013-11-01

    Children's early language environments are critical for their cognitive development, school readiness, and ultimate educational attainment. Significant disparities exist in these environments, with profound and lasting impacts upon children's ultimate outcomes. Children from backgrounds of low socioeconomic status experience diminished language inputs and enter school at a disadvantage, with disparities persisting throughout their educational careers. Parents are positioned as powerful agents of change in their children's lives, however, and evidence indicates that parent-directed intervention is effective in improving child outcomes. This article explores the efficacy of parent-directed interventions and their potential applicability to the wider educational achievement gap seen in typically developing populations of low socioeconomic status and then describes efforts to develop such interventions with the Thirty Million Words Project and Project ASPIRE (Achieving Superior Parental Involvement for Rehabilitative Excellence) curricula. PMID:24297619

  19. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  20. The effect of unpredictable early childhood environments on parenting in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Szepsenwol, Ohad; Simpson, Jeffry A; Griskevicius, Vladas; Raby, K Lee

    2015-12-01

    Life history theory suggests that individual differences in parenting are partially rooted in environmental conditions experienced early in life. Whereas certain conditions should promote increased investment in parenting, unpredictable and/or harsh environments should promote decreased investment in parenting, especially in men. We tested this hypothesis in 3 studies. In Study 1a, we conducted analyses on 112 parents taking part in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA), all of whom have been continuously studied starting before they were born. Parenting orientations were assessed at age 32 via an interview. Findings showed that experiencing more unpredictability at ages 0-4 (i.e., frequent changes in parental employment status, cohabitation status, and residence) prospectively forecasted more negative parenting orientations among men, but not women. This effect was serially mediated by lower early maternal supportive presence measured at ages 0-4 and insecure attachment assessed at ages 19 and 26. In Study 1b, we replicated these findings on 96 parents from the MLSRA using behavioral observations of their parental supportive presence. In Study 2, we replicated the effect of early-life unpredictability on men's parenting orientations with a sample of 435 parents. This effect was mediated by adult attachment anxiety and avoidance. Across all studies, greater early-life harshness (low socioeconomic status [SES]) did not predict adult parenting outcomes. These findings suggest that greater early-life unpredictability may be conveyed to children through less supportive parenting, which results in insecure attachment representations in adulthood. Among men, this process culminates in less positive adult parenting orientations and less supportive parenting. PMID:26461797

  1. The microbial environment and its influence on asthma prevention in early life.

    PubMed

    von Mutius, Erika

    2016-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence to suggest that the environmental microbiome plays a significant role in asthma development. The very low prevalence of asthma in populations highly exposed to microbial environments (farm children and Amish populations) highlights its preventive potential. This microbial diversity might be necessary to instruct a well-adapted immune response and regulated inflammatory responses to other inhaled and ingested environmental elements, such as allergens, particles, and viruses. Like the internal gut microbiome, which is increasingly recognized as an important instructor of immune maturation, the external environmental microbiome might shape immune responses on the skin, airway mucosal surfaces, and potentially also the gut early in life. The diversity of the external microbial world will ensure that of the many maladapted pathways leading to asthma development, most, if not all, will be counterbalanced. Likewise, important contributors to asthma, such as allergen sensitization and allergic manifestations early in life, are being suppressed. Thus the facets of innate immunity targeted by microbes and their compounds and metabolites might be the master switch to asthma and allergy protection, which has been found in environments rich in microbial exposures. PMID:26806048

  2. HERITABILITY OF AND EARLY ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON VARIATION IN MATING PREFERENCES

    PubMed Central

    Schielzeth, Holger; Bolund, Elisabeth; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Many species show substantial between-individual variation in mating preferences, but studying the causes of such variation remains a challenge. For example, the relative importance of heritable variation versus shared early environment effects (like sexual imprinting) on mating preferences has never been quantified in a population of animals. Here, we estimate the heritability of and early rearing effects on mate choice decisions in zebra finches based on the similarity of choices between pairs of genetic sisters raised apart and pairs of unrelated foster sisters. We found a low and nonsignificant heritability of preferences and no significant shared early rearing effects. A literature review shows that a low heritability of preferences is rather typical, whereas empirical tests for the relevance of sexual imprinting within populations are currently limited to very few studies. Although effects on preference functions (i.e., which male to prefer) were weak, we found strong individual consistency in choice behavior and part of this variation was heritable. It seems likely that variation in choice behavior (choosiness, responsiveness, sampling behavior) would produce patterns of nonrandom mating and this might be the more important source of between-individual differences in mating patterns. PMID:19895552

  3. Tectonics and depositional environments in early Pennsylvanian of south-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kalesky, J. )

    1987-02-01

    The Pennsylvanian Magdalena Group unconformably overlies Precambrian to Mississippian strata throughout south-central New Mexico. Regional southward tilting, warping, and erosion resulted in progressively older pre-Pennsylvanian subcrop relations from south to north. Normal marine shelf sedimentation was represented by upward shoaling cycles containing mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. Channels cut into Ordovician strata in the southern Caballo Mountain area suggest that this area was a relatively deep valley or trough during Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian erosion. Marine transgression from the south backfilled the preexisting stream valleys with sequences of packstone, wackestone, shale, and coarse quartzarenite. Topographically higher areas were blanketed with thin beds of laminated bioclastic packstone, grainstone, lime mudstone, and shale. Semirestricted tidal to nearshore environments are reflected in local sections by finely laminated hematitic dolomites, oncolitic wackestones, limestone conglomerates containing reworked Mississippian chert, and terrigenous shales supporting petrified wood float. Depositional onlap farther north resulted in a thinner and younger sequence. The cyclic nature of these deposits reflects a proximity to the shoreline and suggests an abruptly shifting base level, possibly controlled by Early Pennsylvanian glacial eustasy. The time-stratigraphic position of the valley-fill depositional unit may be broadly correlated to other Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian valley-fill sequences recognized in the Delaware basin and Grand Canyon.

  4. Home Numeracy Environments of Preschoolers: Examining Relations among Mathematical Activities, Parent Mathematical Beliefs, and Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missall, Kristen; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Repasky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Early mathematical skills and knowledge are strongly related to long-term achievement, and yet the knowledge base regarding the mechanisms through which young children develop these skills and knowledge is limited. Although research has examined the relation of the home numeracy environment and children's early mathematics…

  5. The Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyunghee

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author reports secondary analyses that examine the bidirectional effects of the duration of early poverty on children's reading and home environment scores. The author focuses on three specific questions: (1) Does the duration of early childhood poverty affect children's reading scores…

  6. Home Literacy Environments and Foundational Literacy Skills for Struggling and Nonstruggling Readers in Rural Early Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary…

  7. Home Literacy Environments and Foundational Literacy Skills for Struggling and Nonstruggling Readers in Rural Early Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary

  8. The Regulatory Environment in Long Day Care: A "Double-Edged Sword" for Early Childhood Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Goodfellow, Joy

    2006-01-01

    While early childhood professionals in NSW are accountable to a substantial collection of regulatory requirements, little research has explored the outcomes of this regulatory environment, both intended and otherwise. This paper presents findings from a NSW study and shows how early childhood professionals working in long day care centres perceive…

  9. Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

  10. Depositional environments of the Kurnub group (Early Cretaceous) in northern Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amireh, Belal S.; Abed, Abdulkadr M.

    1999-10-01

    Seven facies associations comprise the Early Cretaceous Kurnub Group (KG) in northern Jordan. They are assigned to the following five depositional environments: proximal to distal alluvial braidplain; tidal flat; tidal marsh-coastal swamp; inner shelf; and meandering river. According to the evolution of these depositional facies associations, the KG can be split into three regressive-transgressive depositional sequences. This development of the depositional environment of the KG through the Early Cretaceous Epoch is portrayed as a six-block depositional model. The depositional history of the KG began with the first regression, when a conglomerate and sandstone facies association of a proximal to distal alluvial braidplain system was deposited above a regional angular unconformity, truncating Triassic and Jurassic strata. Afterwards, the Tethys Seaway inundated northern Jordan, giving rise to the first transgressive sequence, consisting of a tidal flat-mixed carbonate-siliciclastic and coastal swamp-carbonaceous shalelignite facies association. Due to the second regression of the sea, a medial to distal unconfined braided river system resumed in northern Jordan. The second transgression of the Tethys covered most of the region during the middle interval of the KG, and deposited a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence with interbedded inner shelf carbonates, subtidal oolitic ironstones and tidal marsh-coastal swamp black shales and lignites. During the next interval of the KG, the Tethys regressed from the area and was replaced by a moderate sinuosity meandering river system that deposited the third regressive fluvial sequence. The third transgression of the sea developed a marginal to shallow marine depositional system, which affected northernmost Jordan, giving rise to a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic tidal flat and an inner shelf carbonate sequence. The climate in Jordan during the Early Cretaceous Epoch was generally humid and temperate.

  11. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence. PMID:21462790

  12. Early-type Galaxies at z ~ 1.3. IV. Scaling Relations in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M ⊙ < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M <~ 2 × 1011 M⊙ and those with masses M ~ 1011 M⊙ follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ~35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  13. Early exposure to dynamic environments alters patterns of motor exploration throughout the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hong, S Lee; Estrada-Sánchez, Ana María; Barton, Scott J; Rebec, George V

    2016-04-01

    We assessed early rearing conditions on aging-related changes in mouse behavior. Two isolated-housing groups, running wheel (IHRW) and empty cage (IHEC), were compared against two enriched environments, static (EEST) and dynamic (EEDY), both of which included toys and other mice. For EEDY, the location of toys and sources of food and water changed daily, but remained constant for EEST. All mice, randomly assigned to one of the four groups at ∼4 weeks of age, remained in their respective environments for 25 weeks followed by single housing in empty cages. Beginning at ∼40 weeks of age, all mice were tested at monthly intervals in a plus-shaped maze in which we measured the number of arm entries and the probability of entering a perpendicular arm. Despite making significantly more arm entries than any other group, IHEC mice also were less likely to turn into the left or right arm, a sign of motor inflexibility. Both EEDY and EEST mice showed enhanced turning relative to IHRW and IHEC groups, but only EEDY mice maintained their turning performance for up to ∼100 weeks of age. EEDY and EEST mice also were unique in showing an increase in expression of the major glutamate transporter (GLT1) in striatum, but a decrease in motor cortex, suggesting a need for further assessment of environmental manipulations on long-term changes in forebrain glutamate transmission. Our behavioral results indicate that early exposure to continually changing environments, rather than socialization or exercise alone, results in life-long changes in patterns of motor exploration. PMID:26778790

  14. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

  15. Mass and size growth of early-type galaxies by dry mergers in cluster environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oogi, Taira; Habe, Asao; Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2016-02-01

    We perform dry merger simulations to investigate the role of dry mergers in the size growth of early-type galaxies in high-density environments. We replace the virialized dark matter haloes obtained by a large cosmological N-body simulation with N-body galaxy models consisting of two components, a stellar bulge and a dark matter halo, which have higher mass resolution than the cosmological simulation. We then resimulate nine cluster-forming regions, whose masses range from 1 × 1014 to 5 × 1014 M⊙. Masses and sizes of stellar bulges are also assumed to satisfy the stellar mass-size relation of high-z compact massive early-type galaxies. We find that dry major mergers considerably contribute to the mass and size growth of central massive galaxies. One or two dry major mergers double the average stellar mass and quadruple the average size between z = 2 and 0. These growths favourably agree with observations. Moreover, the density distributions of our simulated central massive galaxies grow from the inside-out, which is consistent with recent observations. The mass-size evolution is approximated as R∝ M_{{ast }}^{α }, with α ˜ 2.24. Most of our simulated galaxies are efficiently grown by dry mergers, and their stellar mass-size relations match the ones observed in the local Universe. Our results show that the central galaxies in the cluster haloes are potential descendants of high-z (z ˜ 2-3) compact massive early-type galaxies. This conclusion is consistent with previous numerical studies which investigate the formation and evolution of compact massive early-type galaxies.

  16. Early geochemical environment of Mars as determined from thermodynamics of phyllosilicates.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Vincent; Poulet, Francois; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2007-07-01

    Images of geomorphological features that seem to have been produced by the action of liquid water have been considered evidence for wet surface conditions on early Mars. Moreover, the recent identification of large deposits of phyllosilicates, associated with the ancient Noachian terrains suggests long-timescale weathering of the primary basaltic crust by liquid water. It has been proposed that a greenhouse effect resulting from a carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere sustained the temperate climate required to maintain liquid water on the martian surface during the Noachian. The apparent absence of carbonates and the low escape rates of carbon dioxide, however, are indicative of an early martian atmosphere with low levels of carbon dioxide. Here we investigate the geochemical conditions prevailing on the surface of Mars during the Noachian period using calculations of the aqueous equilibria of phyllosilicates. Our results show that Fe3+-rich phyllosilicates probably precipitated under weakly acidic to alkaline pH, an environment different from that of the following period, which was dominated by strongly acid weathering that led to the sulphate deposits identified on Mars. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that the oxidation state of the martian surface was already high, supporting early escape of hydrogen. Finally, equilibrium with carbonates implies that phyllosilicate precipitation occurs preferentially at a very low partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We suggest that the possible absence of Noachian carbonates more probably resulted from low levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than primary acidic conditions. Other greenhouse gases may therefore have played a part in sustaining a warm and wet climate on the early Mars. PMID:17611538

  17. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  18. Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

  19. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  20. Association between serotonin cumulative genetic score and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS): Moderation by early life environment

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Rahel; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates if genetic variation in the serotonergic system interacts with early adversity to predict changes in the Behavioral Approach System (BAS), a system that taps into reward processing. In a sample of community adults (N= 236) the influence of single serotonergic candidate polymorphisms on BAS was analyzed, we also examined the aggregate contribution of these genetic variants by creating a Cumulative Genetic Score (CGS). A CGS quantifies an individual’s cumulative risk by aggregating the number of risk alleles across the candidate polymorphisms. After individual gene analysis, three candidate genes rs7305115 (TPH2), rs6311 (HTR2A), and rs6295 (HTR1A) were combined into the CGS. There were no significant interactions between individual candidate polymorphisms and childhood adversity, but the CGS interacted with childhood adversity to explain a significant amount of variance (11.6%) in the BAS. Findings suggest that genetic variations in the serotonergic system in combination with childhood adversity contribute to individual differences in reward sensitivity. PMID:25264393

  1. Dimensions of Quality in Swedish Day Care Centers--An Analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrby, Gunni; Giota, Joanna

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a statistical analysis of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS), a popular research instrument used to measure overall quality of the educational environment in day care centers and preschool settings. Results are based on ECERS' use in Swedish day care centers and are discussed in relation to Swedish child care policy.

  2. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  3. Prediction of drug-related cardiac adverse effects in humans--B: use of QSAR programs for early detection of drug-induced cardiac toxicities.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anna A; Matthews, Edwin J

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the use of three quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) programs to predict drug-related cardiac adverse effects (AEs), BioEpisteme, MC4PC, and Leadscope Predictive Data Miner. QSAR models were constructed for 9 cardiac AE clusters affecting Purkinje nerve fibers (arrhythmia, bradycardia, conduction disorder, electrocardiogram, palpitations, QT prolongation, rate rhythm composite, tachycardia, and Torsades de pointes) and 5 clusters affecting the heart muscle (coronary artery disorders, heart failure, myocardial disorders, myocardial infarction, and valve disorders). The models were based on a database of post-marketing AEs linked to 1632 chemical structures, and identical training data sets were configured for three QSAR programs. Model performance was optimized and shown to be affected by the ratio of the number of active to inactive drugs. Results revealed that the three programs were complementary and predictive performances using any single positive, consensus two positives, or consensus three positives were as follows, respectively: 70.7%, 91.7%, and 98.0% specificity; 74.7%, 47.2%, and 21.0% sensitivity; and 138.2, 206.3, and 144.2 chi(2). In addition, a prospective study using AE data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch Program showed 82.4% specificity and 94.3% sensitivity. Furthermore, an external validation study of 18 drugs with serious cardiotoxicity not considered in the models had 88.9% sensitivity. PMID:19941924

  4. Early developmental responses to seedling environment modulate later plasticity to light spectral quality.

    PubMed

    von Wettberg, Eric J B; Stinchcombe, John R; Schmitt, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Correlations between developmentally plastic traits may constrain the joint evolution of traits. In plants, both seedling de-etiolation and shade avoidance elongation responses to crowding and foliage shade are mediated by partially overlapping developmental pathways, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic constraints. To test for such constraints, we exposed inbred lines of Impatiens capensis to factorial combinations of leaf litter (which affects de-etiolation) and simulated foliage shade (which affects phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance). Increased elongation of hypocotyls caused by leaf litter phenotypically enhanced subsequent elongation of the first internode in response to low red:far red (R:FR). Trait expression was correlated across litter and shade conditions, suggesting that phenotypic effects of early plasticity on later plasticity may affect variation in elongation traits available to selection in different light environments. PMID:22479538

  5. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Meredith D; Kosik, Kenneth S; Steward, Oswald

    2002-09-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity. PMID:12431413

  6. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  7. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Plasma Environment during Rosetta's Early Comet Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Martin; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Tenishev, V. M.

    2010-10-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft is on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to accompany it from roughly 3 AU all the way to perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 AU. During this journey the comet's gas production rate varies over several orders of magnitude and also the composition of the released material will likely change. Whereas the production of H2O has been derived from observations the relative abundance of CO as well as CO2 is still subject of discussion, especially during Rosetta's early comet phase around 3 AU. The neutral gas is ionized by mostly solar photons and electron-impact and then picked-up by the solar wind. This mass loading slows down the solar wind as momentum is transferred to the cometary ions and the bow shock appears where the solar wind transitions from supersonic to subsonic speeds. In case of a high enough production rate also a magnetic cavity can form close to nucleus. Here the coupled cometary neutrals and ions flowing out from the nucleus prevent the penetration of solar wind particles that carry the sun's magnetic field. With respect to the wide range of neutral gas production rates anticipated in the early comet phase we will show results of our magentohydrodynamics (SWMF/BATSRUS) code modeling the plasma environment of the comet. For 2.7 and 3.0 AU we identified 8 different sets of relative and absolute gas production rates injected spherically symmetric as well as in form of jets. We will show our model results thereof and discuss the expected plasma environment for Rosetta during the period of rendezvous and lander deployment. [This work has been supported by JPL subcontract 1266313 under NASA grant NMO710889 and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST0707283. We also acknowledge the support from the ISSI comet-modeling group.

  8. Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments

    PubMed Central

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Holland, Gregory P.; Williams, Lynda B.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter’s Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

  9. Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Ward, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Brauta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

  10. Global Coronary Flow Reserve Associates with Adverse Cardiovascular Events Independently of Luminal Angiographic Severity, and Modifies the Effect of Early Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Taqueti, Viviany R.; Hachamovitch, Rory; Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Naya, Masanao; Foster, Courtney R.; Hainer, Jon; Dorbala, Sharmila; Blankstein, Ron; Di Carli, Marcelo F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary flow reserve (CFR, an integrated measure of focal, diffuse and small vessel coronary artery disease, CAD), identifies patients at risk for cardiac death. We sought to determine the association between CFR, angiographic CAD, and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods and Results Consecutive patients (n=329) referred for invasive coronary angiography after stress testing with myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography (PET), were followed (median 3.1 years) for cardiovascular death and heart failure admission. The extent and severity of angiographic disease was estimated using the CAD prognostic index (CADPI), and CFR measured noninvasively by PET. A modest inverse correlation was seen between CFR and CADPI (r=?0.26, p<0.0001). After adjusting for clinical risk score, ejection fraction, global ischemia, and early revascularization, CFR and CADPI independently associated with events (hazard ratio for unit decrease in CFR, 2.02; 95%CI 1.20-3.40, p=0.008, and for 10-unit increase in CADPI, 1.17; 95%CI 1.01-1.34, p=0.032). Subjects with low CFR experienced rates of events similar to that of subjects with high angiographic scores, and those with low CFR and/or high CADPI showed highest risk of events (p=0.001). There was a significant interaction (p=0.039) between CFR and early revascularization by CABG, such that patients with low CFR who underwent CABG, but not PCI, experienced event rates comparable to those with preserved CFR, independently of revascularization. Conclusions CFR associated with outcomes independently of angiographic CAD, and modified the effect of early revascularization. Diffuse atherosclerosis and associated microvascular dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular death and heart failure, and impact upon the outcomes of revascularization. PMID:25400060

  11. Early life adversities or high fat diet intake reduce cognitive function and alter BDNF signaling in adult rats: Interplay of these factors changes these effects.

    PubMed

    Arcego, Danusa Mar; Krolow, Rachel; Lampert, Carine; Toniazzo, Ana Paula; Berlitz, Carolina; Lazzaretti, Camilla; Schmitz, Felipe; Rodrigues, André Felipe; Wyse, Angela T S; Dalmaz, Carla

    2016-05-01

    Environmental factors, like early exposure to stressors or high caloric diets, can alter the early programming of central nervous system, leading to long-term effects on cognitive function, increased vulnerability to cognitive decline and development of psychopathologies later in life. The interaction between these factors and their combined effects on brain structure and function are still not completely understood. In this study, we evaluated long-term effects of social isolation in the prepubertal period, with or without chronic high fat diet access, on memory and on neurochemical markers in the prefrontal cortex of rats. We observed that early social isolation led to impairment in short-term and working memory in adulthood, and to reductions of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and the immunocontent of phospho-AKT, in prefrontal cortex. Chronic exposure to a high fat diet impaired short-term memory (object recognition), and decreased BDNF levels in that same brain area. Remarkably, the association of social isolation with chronic high fat diet rescued the memory impairment on the object recognition test, as well as the changes in BDNF levels, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, MAPK, AKT and phospho-AKT to levels similar to the control-chow group. In summary, these findings showed that a brief social isolation period and access to a high fat diet during a sensitive developmental period might cause memory deficits in adulthood. On the other hand, the interplay between isolation and high fat diet access caused a different brain programming, preventing some of the effects observed when these factors are separately applied. PMID:26948152

  12. Early and 1-year outcome and predictors of adverse outcome following monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction for patients with tetralogy of Fallot: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Sasikumar, Deepa; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Dharan, Baiju S; Mathew, Thomas; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction prevents pulmonary regurgitation (PR) for a variable period. Since postoperative outcome is governed by PR and right ventricular function, we sought to assess the severity of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow (RVOT) gradient in the immediate postoperative period and at 1 year and attempted to identify the anatomical substrates responsible for adverse outcomes. Methods: The study included 30 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before surgery, within 5 days of surgery, and 1 year later. Presence and severity of PR, RVOT gradient, and residual branch pulmonary stenosis were assessed. Right ventricular and monocusp valve functions were studied. Results: Median age was 36.5 months (3-444 months). There were no deaths. Pulmonary regurgitation was mild in 18, moderate in 10, and severe in 2 patients immediately following surgery. At 1 year, 10 patients had severe PR and one had significant RVOT gradient. None of the variables like age, presence of supravalvar pulmonary branch stenosis, main pulmonary artery diameter, or mobility of monocusp valve was found to have any significant association with the progression of PR. McGoon index <1.5 showed a trend toward more PR, while patients with more residual RVOT gradient had lesser regurgitation. Conclusions: Repair of TOF with monocusp pulmonary valve reduces immediate postoperative PR. At 1 year, the monocusp valve underwent loss of function in a significant proportion and PR also progressed. This study could not identify any predictors of progression of PR, though patients with McGoon index <1.5 tended to have more PR while those with more outflow gradient had lesser PR. PMID:24701078

  13. Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival compared to wives of centenarians' brothers. This finding demonstrates an important role of shared familial environment and lifestyle in human longevity. The results of this study suggest that familial background, early-life conditions and midlife characteristics play an important role in longevity. PMID:25664346

  14. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity), microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivity), astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining), myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity), ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:26312758

  15. TIDAL INTERACTION AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN GROUP ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-11-20

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a ''smoking gun'' example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s{sup –1} to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

  16. Tidal Interaction as the Origin of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in Group Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-11-01

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a "smoking gun" example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s-1 to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) methylation processes as mediators of early adversity in stress-related disorders causality: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Palma-Gudiel, Helena; Córdova-Palomera, Aldo; Leza, Juan Carlos; Fañanás, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is a known risk factor for suffering psychopathology in adulthood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been described to be deregulated in both individuals who experienced early psychosocial stress and in patients with a wide range of psychiatric disorders. The NR3C1 gene codes for the glucocorticoid receptor, a key element involved in several steps of HPA axis modulation. In this review, we gather existing evidence linking NR3C1 methylation pattern with either ELS or psychopathology. We summarize that several types of ELS have been frequently associated with NR3C1 hypermethylation whereas hypomethylation has been continuously found to be associated with post-traumatic stress disorder. In light of the reported findings, the main concerns of ongoing research in this field are the lack of methodological consensus and selection of CpG sites. Further studies should target individual CpG site methylation assessment focusing in biologically relevant areas such as transcription factor binding regions whereas widening the examined sequence in order to include all non-coding first exons of the NR3C1 gene in the analysis. PMID:26073068

  18. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity. PMID:23946881

  19. Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljinović, Dunja; Smirčić, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    In the central part of the Dinarides in Croatia, the Early Triassic depositional sequence was investigated by means of litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy at locality Plavno (ca. 1.000m thick). Conodont and δ13C-isotope analysis were a powerfull tool to determine stage and substage boundaries. The succession begins with the second conodont zone of the Griesbachian Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica with low δ13C-values and a steadily increase towards the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. Around that boundary a minor, short, negative excursion occurs. In the Dienerian the δ13C-values increase with a steepening of the slope towards the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. Around that boundary a maximum of +5o in shallow water carbonate occurs followed by a steep and continuous drop to low, often negative values in the Smithian. Just before the Smithian-Spathian boundary a steep rise to a second maximum is documented. It is followed by decline in the Spathian and a gentle increase to a rounded peak at the Spathian-Anisian boundary. In lithological sense Plavno succession has threefold division: 1) carbonates representing the oldest Early Triassic strata (early Griesbachian); 2) dominantly red clastics (shales, siltstones and sandstones) with intercalation of oncoid/ooid or bioclast rich grainstones (uppermost Griesbachian, Dienerian and Smithian) and 3) dominantly grey carbonaceous lime mudstones, marls and calcisiltites with ammonoids representing Spathian strata. In the oldest strata (Griesbachian) in macrocrystalline subhedral dolomites rare microspheres and foraminifers Earlandia and Cornuspira point to the stressful conditions related to the end Permian mass extinction. In the uppermost Griesbachian and Dienerian strata, within dominantly clastic deposition, rare coarse oncoliths with typical microbial cortices occur. Their presence fits to the interpretation of biotical-induced precipitation related to PTB extinction and can suggest still stressful condition. The Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

  20. Sensitivity of Solvation Environment to Oxidation State and Position in the Early Actinide Period.

    PubMed

    Clark, Aurora E; Samuels, Alex; Wisuri, Katy; Landstrom, Sarah; Saul, Tessa

    2015-07-01

    The aqueous solvation of U-Pu in the III-VI oxidation states has been examined using density functional theory and hydrated cluster models of the form An(H2O)30(4+/3+) and AnO2(H2O)30(2+/+) embedded within a polarizable continuum model to approximate the effect of bulk water. The structural features are compared to available data from extended X-ray absorption fine structure. Then, using a multiple-scattering approach, the X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) have been simulated and compared to experiment. These structural data are complemented by a detailed thermodynamic analysis using a recently benchmarked protocol. The structural, spectroscopic, and thermodynamic information has been used to assign the primary solvation environments in water, with an emphasis upon understanding how oxidation state and position in the period modifies the hydration number and equilibrium between different solvation shell environments. Tetravalent U is proposed to exist in equilibrium between the 8- and 9-coordinate species. Moving to the right of the period, Np(IV) and Pu(IV) exist solely as the octa-aquo species. Reduction to the trivalent ions leads to thermodynamic favorability for this solvation environment, whose features reproduce the XANES spectra. The actinyl dications (AnO2(2+)) of U and Np have a preferred environment in the equatorial plane consisting of 5 solvating waters; however, changes to the ionic radius and electronic structure at Pu leads to an equilibrium between the 4- and 5-coordinate species for PuO2(2+). Reduction of the dications to form the monocations generally leads to a preference for the 4-coordinate primary solvation shell, with an equilibrium existing for uranyl, while the neptunyl and plutonyl species exist solely as AnO2(H2O)4(+). These data provide accurate thermodynamic information for several rare species and the combined thermodynamic, structural, and spectroscopic approach reveals trends in hydration behavior across actinide oxidation states and within the early actinide period. PMID:26091144

  1. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  2. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ΔFosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ΔFosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ΔFosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ΔFosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  4. Evidence of boosted 13CO/12CO ratio in early-type galaxies in dense environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Crocker, Alison F.; Aalto, Susanne; Davis, Timothy A.; Nyland, Kristina; Bureau, Martin; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-07-01

    We present observations of 13CO(1-0) in 17 Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy ATLAS3D early-type galaxies (ETGs), obtained simultaneously with 12CO(1-0) observations. The 13CO in six ETGs is sufficiently bright to create images. In these six sources, we do not detect any significant radial gradient in the 13CO/12CO ratio between the nucleus and the outlying molecular gas. Using the 12CO channel maps as 3D masks to stack the 13CO emission, we are able to detect 15/17 galaxies to >3σ (and 12/17 to at least 5σ) significance in a spatially integrated manner. Overall, ETGs show a wide distribution of 13CO/12CO ratios, but Virgo cluster and group galaxies preferentially show a 13CO/12CO ratio about two times larger than field galaxies, although this could also be due to a mass dependence, or the CO spatial extent (RCO/Re). ETGs whose gas has a morphologically settled appearance also show boosted 13CO/12CO ratios. We hypothesize that this variation could be caused by (i) the extra enrichment of gas from molecular reprocessing occurring in low-mass stars (boosting the abundance of 13C to 12C in the absence of external gas accretion), (ii) much higher pressure being exerted on the mid-plane gas (by the intracluster medium) in the cluster environment than in isolated galaxies, or (iii) all but the densest molecular gas clumps being stripped as the galaxies fall into the cluster. Further observations of 13CO in dense environments, particularly of spirals, as well as studies of other isotopologues, should be able to distinguish between these hypotheses.

  5. Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis

    PubMed Central

    van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

    2014-01-01

    The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2–14 to 3 h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25004389

  6. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  7. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A; Münsterkötter, Anna L; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter; Lonsdorf, Tina B

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  8. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J.; Bottjer, David J.; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-06-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic.

  9. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J.; Bottjer, David J.; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic. PMID:26054731

  10. Geneenvironment interactions: early life stress and risk for depressive and anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Prior reviews have examined how stress, broadly defined, interacts with genetic diathesis in the pathogenesis of internalizing (i.e., depressive and anxiety) disorders. Recent findings have suggested a unique role for early life stress (ELS) in the development of internalizing disorders, contributing to the rapid proliferation of research in this area. Objective This paper critically reviews studies in humans examining geneenvironment interaction (GxE) effects of ELS on the risk for depression and anxiety, primarily from a candidate gene perspective. Major methodological challenges that are unique to such studies are considered. Results The majority of published studies have focused on candidates that regulate the serotonin system, especially the serotonin transporter. More recent work has addressed interactions of ELS with candidates from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotrophin system. Available studies vary greatly with respect to definitions of ELS, examination of genegene interactions, consideration of gender effects, and attention to analytic limitations. Conclusions Overall, there is support for GxE effects of ELS on the risk for depressive and anxiety outcomes. Future studies of ELS in this context will require careful attention to methodologic considerations. Such studies would benefit from more systematic assessment of positive environmental factors (e.g., social support) and greater utilization of developmentally sensitive paradigms. PMID:21225419

  11. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life.

    PubMed

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J; Bottjer, David J; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic. PMID:26054731

  12. Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    George, David; Blieck, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

  13. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  14. Order in the House!: Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children's Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…

  15. Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in Southern Europe - implications for early human environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele

    2013-04-01

    The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from Southern Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.

  16. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  17. From Toumai to Lucy: climate and orographic forcing on Environment and Early Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Jost, Anne

    2014-05-01

    This abstract will present a summary of several studies we conducted at LSCE to understand through modeling simulations how the climate and topography variations may drive the evolution/migration of Early Humans. Tectonics and orbital forcing are major forcing factors on environment which act at different time scales. African Uplift spans over Millions of years whereas at low latitudes precession cycles will produce drastic hydrologic variations at the pluri millennial time scale. Therefore, in a first step it is necessary to investigate the impact of long term topographic changes on climate and vegetation. The long term forcing of the African uplift has been first tested and investigated through a set of numerical experiments using different heights for the Rift. We pointed out that this issue was the key factor to explain the dryness of the East part of the Rift associated with the disappearance of the forests when the rift was uplifted during the late Pliocene. Prior to this, much more water penetrates from the Indian Ocean over East Africa and forests can sustain. Therefore, this pattern of Dry East of the Rift and Wet west of the Rift is driven by the uplift and consistent with the evolution of vegetation. On the other side, the Mega Lake Chad (MLC) region was not really sensitive to this topographic change but much more to orbital forcing. Two species of early hominids (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 3,6 Ma, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Toumai, 7 Ma) were found in this region, associated with other vertebrate fossil remains, which seem to be associated to the presence of the Mega Lake Chad. It is thus crucial to understand how it is possible to produce and sustain such a large lake (350 000 km2) at these latitudes. Through a second series of simulations, we demonstrated that during the Pliocene, occurrences of such megalake episodes were possible (similarly as during most recent Holocene) and may be sustained during half a precession cycle (10 kyr) allowing a vegetation that enabled hominin settings (Australopithecus) Therefore the orbital parameters, mainly the precession cycle, drives the hydrologic cycle, shifting the ITCZ and the Monsoon to produce oscillations between arid and wet phases. This second mechanism is responsible for the establishment of periodically favorable conditions that enable a large lake in the Chad area which may last several thousand years. To go a step further, we need to downscale our model results from 50 to 10 km. We need this spatial resolution to better catch the topography and to better compare climate and vegetation outputs to multiproxies.

  18. The Competitive Interplay between Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor BI/D and LEDGF/p75 during the Early Stage of HIV-1 Replication Adversely Affects Inhibitor Potency.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Serrao, Erik; Hoyte, Ashley; Larue, Ross C; Slaughter, Alison; Sharma, Amit; Plumb, Matthew R; Kessl, Jacques J; Fuchs, James R; Bushman, Frederic D; Engelman, Alan N; Griffin, Patrick R; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-05-20

    Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) have recently emerged as a promising class of antiretroviral agents and are currently in clinical trials. In infected cells, ALLINIs potently inhibit viral replication by impairing virus particle maturation but surprisingly exhibit a reduced EC50 for inhibiting HIV-1 integration in target cells. To better understand the reduced antiviral activity of ALLINIs during the early stage of HIV-1 replication, we investigated the competitive interplay between a potent representative ALLINI, BI/D, and LEDGF/p75 with HIV-1 integrase. While the principal binding sites of BI/D and LEDGF/p75 overlap at the integrase catalytic core domain dimer interface, we show that the inhibitor and the cellular cofactor induce markedly different multimerization patterns of full-length integrase. LEDGF/p75 stabilizes an integrase tetramer through the additional interactions with the integrase N-terminal domain, whereas BI/D induces protein-protein interactions in C-terminal segments that lead to aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization. We demonstrate that LEDGF/p75 binds HIV-1 integrase with significantly higher affinity than BI/D and that the cellular protein is able to reverse the inhibitor induced aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with these observations, alterations of the cellular levels of LEDGF/p75 markedly affected BI/D EC50 values during the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, genome-wide sequencing of HIV-1 integration sites in infected cells demonstrate that LEDGF/p75-dependent integration site selection is adversely affected by BI/D treatment. Taken together, our studies elucidate structural and mechanistic details of the interplay between LEDGF/p75 and BI/D during the early stage of HIV-1 replication. PMID:26910179

  19. Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

  20. A new approach to detect early or hidden fungal development in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Anton, Rukshala; Moularat, Stéphane; Robine, Enric

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the biodegradation problems encountered in buildings, exposure of their occupants to mold is responsible for numerous diseases such as respiratory infections, immediate or delayed allergies and different types of irritations. However, current techniques are unable to detect mold at an early stage of development or hidden contaminants. Moularat et al., in 2008 has established chemical fingerprints of moldy growth from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) arising specifically from fungal metabolism and developed the Fungal Contamination Index (FCI) (Moularat et al., 2008a,b). This index has the advantage of detecting fungal development both reliably and rapidly before any visible signs of contamination could be detected. However, even though the FCI has been widely tested, VOCs' analysis by GC/MS, which is required for index calculation, is incompatible with real-time monitoring strategy for indoor environments. In this context, researches around FCI exploitation have been followed up in order to provide a monitoring device widely deployable which is the result of the miniaturization of an analytical chain for portable, reliable and low-cost applications. This device is based on one hand the selection and concentration of chemical compounds from the sample of interest and on the other hand the development of an array of different conducting polymer based sensors in order to obtain a specific footprint. This fungal contamination detection device was the subject of patent applications by the CSTB. The modularity of the system (ability to vary both the elements of detection polymers and retention time of interest) allows for expansion of its use to other pollutants. PMID:26169910

  1. Developmental Differences in Early Adolescent Aggression: A Gene × Environment × Intervention Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, H. Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-01-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11–16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7−) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

  2. Evidence for the Rapid Formation of Low-mass Early-type Galaxies in Dense Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiqing; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Puzia, Thomas H.; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hong-Xin

    2016-02-01

    We explore the environmental dependence of star formation timescales in low-mass galaxies using the [α/Fe] abundance ratio as an evolutionary clock. We present integrated [α/Fe] measurements for 11 low-mass ({M}\\star ˜ {10}9 {M}⊙ ) early-type galaxies (ETGs) with a large range of cluster-centric distance in the Virgo Cluster. We find a gradient in [α/Fe], where the galaxies closest to the cluster center (the cD galaxy, M87) have the highest values. This trend is driven by galaxies within a projected radius of 0.4 Mpc (0.26 times the virial radius of Virgo A), all of which have super-solar [α/Fe]. Galaxies in this mass range exhibit a large scatter in the [α/Fe]-σ diagram, and do not obviously lie on an extension of the relation defined by massive ETGs. In addition, we find a correlation between [α/Fe] and globular cluster specific frequency (SN), suggesting that low-mass ETGs that formed their stars over a short period of time were also efficient at forming massive star clusters. The innermost low-mass ETGs in our sample have [α/Fe] values comparable to that of M87, implying that environment is the controlling factor for star formation timescales in dense regions. These low-mass galaxies could be the surviving counterparts of the objects that have already been accreted into the halo of M87, and may be the link between present-day low-mass galaxies and the old, metal-poor, high-[α/Fe], high-SN stellar populations seen in the outer halos of massive ETGs.

  3. Clay Formation Dominantly in the Subsurface? Implications for Early Mars Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Bibring, J.; Meunier, A.; Fraeman, A. A.; Langevin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Alteration minerals preserved in the ancient crust of Mars record changes in water availability, climate, and potential habitats for life during the first billion years of the planet's history. Widespread clay minerals discovered in Noachian (>~3.7 Gyr) terrains indicate long-duration alteration by neutral to high pH water; however, to date, evidence for specific environmental conditions, e.g. weathering, lacustrine, or hydrothermal clay formation, has been ambiguous. We examined mineral associations in clay-bearing terrains, considered relative ages and stratigraphic relationships of alteration mineral-bearing deposits, and evaluated models for aqueous alteration of basalt. Available data are consistent with clay mineral formation by mostly subsurface aqueous processes during the Noachian epoch. Low water:rock ratio processes in largely closed-system conditions formed Fe/Mg phyllosilicates (smectites, chlorites) from basaltic materials at temperatures ranging from ambient to 300 C. The Fe/Mg clay-bearing units formed are volumetrically large and occupy some of the deepest exposed stratigraphic units; however, their formation would have resulted in little change in the bulk chemistry of Noachian crustal rocks. In contrast to the Noachian crustal clay deposits dominated by Fe/Mg phyllosilicates with other diverse hydrated silicate phases, stratigraphically higher deposits contain clay minerals with more Al clays (kaolinite, montmorillonite), silica, and salts. These appear to have formed later under open-system, surface to near-surface alteration. These findings suggest that continuously warm surface conditions with stable liquid water did not need to be maintained in order to form clays during the Noachian. Instead, surface waters may have been geologically brief and the longest-lived aqueous environments on early Mars may have been in the subsurface.

  4. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  5. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  6. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  7. Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    This booklet provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and secure setting. Such an environment also…

  8. Financing Early Care and Education: Funding and Policy Choices in a Changing Fiscal Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clothier, Steffanie; Clemens, Beth; Poppe, Julie

    Because of an increasingly challenging fiscal climate, state lawmakers are faced with making tough financial decisions regarding their early childhood systems. This document describes and examines various funding sources used when making decisions about possible early childhood initiatives combined with policy choices that may be considered in…

  9. Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

  10. Infant difficult behaviors in the context of perinatal biomedical conditions and early child environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother) and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests that early onset of difficult behavior highly increases the risk for the continuation of difficult behavior during infancy. In general, the impact of prenatal psychosocial environment on infant behavior decreases from the ages of 3 to 6 months; however, some prenatal and preconceptional psychosocial factors have direct associations with the continuity of difficult behaviors through the first half-year of an infant's life. PMID:22494700

  11. Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nomura, Kuninori; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

  12. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  13. Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

  14. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  15. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N=262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'

  16. Adverse reactions to sulfites

    PubMed Central

    Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products. PMID:4052897

  17. Genes, environments, and developmental GEWIS: Methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Costello, E. J.; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E.; Angold, A.; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H.; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the NIDA-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative (GEDI) our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used whose common characteristics include (1) general population samples including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already-collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables. PMID:23461817

  18. Genes, environments, and developmental research: methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Costello, E Jane; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E; Angold, A; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

    2013-04-01

    The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative, our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used of which common characteristics include (1) general population samples, including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables. PMID:23461817

  19. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of

  20. Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

  1. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

    2012-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

  2. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  3. The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budros, Art

    2005-01-01

    Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In

  4. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  5. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic

  6. [Adverse effects of marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mallaret, Michel; Dal'Bo-Rohrer, Dominique; Demattis, Maurice

    2005-01-15

    When admitted in an emergency unit, young patients often present acute neurological effects of smoked marijuana. Other chronic adverse effects of marijuana are probably underestimated: postural syncope, arteritis, chronic bronchitis, amnesia. Marijuana may trigger a myocardial infarction and have a vasospastic effect. Marijuana has impairing effects on driving ability. Smoked marijuana is a potential respiratory tract carcinogen. PMID:15801396

  7. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  8. Temperament and peer problems from early to middle childhood: Gene-environment correlations with negative emotionality and sociability.

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, Liat; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Steinberg, Tami; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Based in a transactional framework in which children's own characteristics and the social environment influence each other to produce individual differences in social adjustment, we investigated relationships between children's peer problems and their temperamental characteristics, using a longitudinal and genetically informed study of 939 pairs of Israeli twins followed from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 6.5). Peer problems were moderately stable within children over time, such that children who appeared to have more peer problems at age 3 tended to have also more peer problems at age 6.5. Children's temperament accounted for 10%-22% of the variance in their peer problems measured at the same age and for 2%-7% of the variance longitudinally. It is important that genetic factors accounted for the association between temperament and peer problems and were in line with a gene-environment correlation process, providing support for the proposal that biologically predisposed characteristics, particularly negative emotionality and sociability, have an influence on children's early experiences of peer problems. The results highlight the need for early and continuous interventions that are specifically tailored to address the interpersonal difficulties of children with particular temperamental profiles. PMID:26439064

  9. Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

  10. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  11. Early-type dwarf galaxies with multicomponent stellar structure: Are they remnants of disc galaxies strongly transformed by their environment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The surface brightness distribution of ~30-40% of the early-type dwarf galaxies with - 18 ≤ MB ≤ -15 in the Virgo and the Coma clusters is fitted by models that include two structural components (Sérsic + exponential) as for bright disc galaxies. Aims: The goal of the present study is to determine whether early-type dwarf galaxies with a two-component stellar structure in the Virgo and the Coma clusters are low-luminosity copies of bright disc galaxies or are the remnants of bright galaxies strongly transformed by cluster environmental effects. Methods: I analysed the location of bright disc galaxies and early-type dwarfs in the rb,e/h- n plane. The location in this plane of the two-component dwarf galaxies was compared with the remnants of tidally disrupted disc galaxies reported by numerical simulations. Results: Bright unbarred disc galaxies show a strong correlation in the rb,e/h-n plane. Galaxies with larger Sérsic shape parameters show a higher rb,e/h ratio. In contrast, two-component early-type dwarf galaxies do not follow the same correlation. A fraction (~55%) of them are located outside the locus defined in this plane by having 95% of bright disc galaxies. This distribution indicates that they are not a low-mass replica of bright disc galaxies. The different location in the rb,e/h- n plane of two-component early-type dwarfs and bright galaxies can be qualitatively explain whether the former are remnants of disc galaxies strongly transformed by tidal processes. Conclusions: The progenitors of ~20-25% of early-type dwarf galaxies with - 18 ≤ MB ≤ -15 in the Virgo and Coma clusters could be bright disc galaxies transformed by effects of the environment. These tidally transformed galaxies can be selected according to their location in the rb,e/h-n plane.

  12. The Pattern of Adipose Tissue Accumulation during Early Infancy Provides an Environment for the Development of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Wang, Pengyan; Guo, Zhiru; Bigcas, Venelle; Brion, Job D.; Capeding, Rosario Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans with half of the world’s population at risk. During early infancy, severe dengue can develop after a primary dengue virus infection. There has been a clinical observation that severe dengue during the first year of life is seen only in chubby infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the associations between the development of severe dengue and adipose tissue accumulation patterns during the first year of life in a prospective observational clinical study of infants and dengue virus infections. We found that adipose tissue contains two potential targets for dengue virus infection and production- adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages. During the first year of life, total body adiposity and visceral adipose tissue stores were at their highest levels in early infancy. Early infancy was also characterized by a relative decrease in alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory) macrophages, and a relative increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions/Significance The data has been used to propose a model where the adipose tissue accumulation pattern and pro-inflammatory environment during early infancy provide the conditions for the potential development of severe dengue in immune-susceptible infants. PMID:26636570

  13. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  14. AMUSE-Field. II. Nucleation of early-type galaxies in the field versus cluster environment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Valluri, Monica; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-08-20

    The optical light profiles of nearby early-type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80% of the galaxies with stellar masses below 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} hosting a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field versus cluster early-type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W and F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early-type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra survey, and compare our results against the companion HST and Chandra surveys for a sample of 100 Virgo Cluster early-types (ACS Virgo Cluster and AMUSE-Virgo surveys, respectively). We model the two-dimensional light profiles of the field targets to identify and characterize NSCs, and find a field nucleation fraction of 26%{sub −11%}{sup +17%} (at the 1σ level), consistent with the measured Virgo nucleation fraction across a comparable mass distribution (30%{sub −12%}{sup +17%}). Coupled with the Chandra result that SMBH activity is higher for the field, our findings indicate that, since the last epoch of star formation, the funneling of gas to the nuclear regions has been inhibited more effectively for Virgo galaxies, arguably via ram pressure stripping.

  15. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Thilo; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, Stefan; Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects for offspring growth in the wild is largely unknown. Otoliths of 366 age-0 pike (Esox lucius L.) were sampled in a natural lake over three seasons. All offspring were assigned to more than 330 potential mothers using 16 informative microsatellites. We found temperature and past maternal environment (as represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated with the offspring length in early summer. One mechanism could be related to fast-growing females spawning somewhat earlier in the season. However, the more likely mechanism emerging in our study was that fast-growing females could have been in better condition prior to spawning, in turn possibly producing higher numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions. PMID:25894093

  16. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  17. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  18. Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the

  19. Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

  20. Responsive Environment Early Education Program (REEEP). Final Evaluation Report, 1976-1977 (Second Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askins, Billy E.; And Others

    Formerly the Responsive Environment Program for Spanish American Children, REEEP is an educational intervention program for "high risk" (of low birth weight) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children, living in the Clovis, New Mexico area. Goals of REEEP, an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III program, are: to prevent school failure with an…

  1. Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

  2. Early Child Language Mediates the Relation between Home Environment and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…

  3. Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

  4. The Unique Contribution of Home Literacy Environment to Differences in Early Literacy Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluated the psychometric utility of a home literacy environment measure. Examined the measure's accuracy in predicting unique variance in children's performance on academic achievement measures after accounting for other important sources of variance, such as IQ and maternal education. Claims that this measure is psychometrically strong and…

  5. Multi-environment evaluation of sugarcane early in our selection and variety evaluation program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the USDA and the LSU AgCenter breeding programs combined, fewer than 100 candidates out of about 150,000 annually-planted seedlings will receive permanent numbers and be evaluated in multiple environments for their potential as commercial varieties. This means that over 99.9% of seedlings planted...

  6. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents

  7. Genotype-Environment Correlations in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Antisocial Behavioral Problems and Coercive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Thomas G.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Fulker, David; Rutter, Michael; Polmin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal study with adopted children to examine genotype-environment correlations for behavioral problems. Found that children genetically at risk for antisocial behavior were more likely to receive negative parenting from adoptive parents than children not genetically at risk. Most of the association between negative parenting and…

  8. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a

  9. Paleoceanography in Northwest Pacific during Early Albian: Global Carbon Cycle and the Related Ocean Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, M.; Kawahata, H.; Takashima, R.; Nishi, H.

    2002-12-01

    The major components (organic carbon and carbonate) and inorganic elements are analyzed in the sediments from the Okusakainosawa and Chirashinaigawa sections in the middle to north Hokkaido, Japan. It is estimated that the Yezo basin was located on a continental slope at the middle latitude of the northwest Pacific from late Aptian to early Albian. Total organic carbon contents vary from 0.30 to 1.12 wt. %, averaging 0.79 wt. % in the Okusakainosawa section, and from 0.32 to 0.95 wt. % in the samples of the Chirashinaigawa section. The black shale is not recognized at the studied area. The mean Corganic/N atomic ratios of samples reveal about 20, which shows that most of the organic matter was terrigenous in origin at the Okusakainosawa section, while the organic matter is a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic carbon in the Chirashinaigawa section. Namely, terrestrial organic matter had been a main contributor in both sections and labile organic matter, which could reduce dissolved oxygen content very little in the bottom water, hardly deposited during early Albian. On the other hand, both sections are characterized by very low occurrence of carbonate due to dissolution through the water column and/or on the seafloor. As the cause of low content of marine organic carbon in both sections, the primary records of carbonate preservation were affected by seawater chemistry rather than by local rain of organic matter. Based upon the organic carbon content at the Tethys, the severe dissolution of carbonate is attributed to the degraded intermediate and deep seawater rather than the released carbon dioxide by the local rain. Hence, there is some possibility that the intermediate-deep water at the northwest Pacific Ocean was one of the oldest during mid Cretaceous. Nevertheless the dissolved oxygen in the bottom water had not been completely consumed during early Albian from the behavior of Mn in the sediment. In contrast, dissolved oxygen is completely consumed in the northwest Atlantic although all carbonate is well preserved. If any possibility is adopted, big differences exist between the north Pacific and Atlantic during early Albian. Actually, the organic rich strata were only deposited at the limited area in the Pacific as compared with the Atlantic. It is suggested that the Pacific seldom experienced the reduced conditions spatially and/or temporally in contrast to the Tethys Sea. These observations point out one possibility that the Pacific and Atlantic had each original chemical composition of intermediate and deep water and different conveyor belt thermohaline circulation may exist at least during early Albian.

  10. Adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Loke, Yoon K

    2012-06-01

    Our ability to understand fully the characteristics of clinically important adverse drug reactions is hindered by a lack of emphasis on biological mechanisms, patient susceptibility factors and long-term outcomes. Assessment of drug safety needs to move beyond industry and regulatory perspectives, towards a greater focus on evidence-based preventive and management strategies that will allow patients and physicians to deal with adverse drug reactions at the bedside. This would ideally involve close collaboration between clinical pharmacologists and pharmacoepidemiologists skilled at interrogating the increasingly sophisticated electronic healthcare databases. In light of the myriad safety scares that are constantly emerging, patients and physicians would be best served by a centrally funded independent network of rapid-response drug safety researchers who can use techniques of teleoanalysis to describe fully the magnitude of risk, the potential biological mechanisms and patients' susceptibility factors. PMID:22360319

  11. Postmarketing adverse drug reactions

    PubMed Central

    Bourdette, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Summary Physicians play an important role in recognizing and reporting suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Physicians can report suspected ADRs directly to the FDA via its MedWatch program, by contacting the manufacturer of the drug, and by publishing case reports. While this takes time, physicians have an ethical obligation to participate in recognizing and reporting ADR. PMID:24195018

  12. Early environments drive diversity and floristic composition in Mediterranean old fields: Insights from a long-term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Luis; Rey Benayas, José María; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián

    2008-11-01

    While many studies have explored how previous and current environmental conditions affect the performance of individual organisms, their relative importance as drivers of current diversity and composition of communities is virtually unknown. We evaluated the response of herbaceous communities to previous (experienced during early establishment) and current environmental conditions by comparing their composition and diversity in an abandoned Mediterranean cropland planted with Quercus ilex subsp. ballota L. seedlings. These seedlings received different experimental treatments (summer irrigation and artificial shading) during the first three years after planting, and were interrupted from then on. We tested two complementary hypotheses: (i) the previous environments experienced by the herbaceous communities during their establishment have a long-term carry-over effect on diversity and composition of species assemblages and (ii) these communities are influenced by their current environment, particularly by the woody layer and the soil conditions. Overall, we observed an important contribution of initial environmental conditions in determining the current diversity and composition of herbaceous communities. Amelioration of environmental conditions, particularly water stress, during community establishment resulted in a decrease in alpha and beta diversity, possibly as a consequence of decreasing environmental heterogeneity. Previous environments accounted for 26.3% of the explained variance in current community composition. Annuals, legumes and forbs also responded significantly to previous environments, which explained 27.9%, 36.2% and 30.1%, respectively, of the variance in their composition. Our results suggest that those species present at a particular site early in succession pre-empt the site and influence vegetation dynamics on that site for a long time. This study provides important insights for understanding the mechanisms underlying the ecological effects of issues like cropland reforestation and woody vegetation encroachment.

  13. Environment and ecology of East Asian dinosaurs during the Early Cretaceous inferred from stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Fluteau, Frédéric; Ding, Zhongli; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Philippe, Marc; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing

    2015-02-01

    During the cold Late Barremian-Early Albian interval, terrestrial environments in East Asia were populated by rich and diverse vertebrate faunas characterized by a strong provincialism. The latitudinal gradient of temperature and the existence of geographic barriers likely accounted for some aspects of this heterogeneous distribution of faunas. Other factors, however, such as local environmental conditions and interactions within vertebrate communities, which could have influenced their distribution, have not yet been fully identified and understood. Therefore, new and published oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of apatite from Chinese and Thai reptiles (dinosaurs, crocodilians and turtles) have been analyzed and interpreted in terms of ecology, local air temperature and precipitation amounts. Differences in carbon and oxygen isotope compositions between various groups of sympatric plant-eating dinosaurs (sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) indicate food resources partitioning among them most likely to avoid competition. Mid-latitude environments, where the Jehol Biota flourished, were submitted to cool temperate climatic conditions with Mean Air Temperature (MAT) of 10 ± 4 °C and Mean Annual Precipitations (MAP) of about 600 mm/yr compatible with the existence of forest environments. By contrast, sub-tropical regions, characterized by MAT of about 20-25 °C were either submitted to high amounts of seasonal precipitations (of about 1200 mm/yr in Thailand) or to significant aridity (MAP of about 400 mm/yr in South China). This difference in precipitation regime between Thailand and South China may be attributed to the occurrence of the Coastal Cordillera extending along the East margin of the South China block. These mountain ranges likely prevented humid air masses from the Pacific to penetrate some parts of South China, thus generating a "rain shadow effect". Mosaic environments characterizing East Asia during the Late Early Cretaceous may have acted as a cradle for the origination of advanced dinosaur taxa that subsequently radiated over Eurasia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  14. Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Li, Y.; Cao, L.

    2015-03-01

    The protracted recovery of marine ecosystems following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, Guizhou Province, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (δ34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental paleoredox and paleoproductivity proxies. The SSB at Shitouzhai is characterized by a +4‰ shift in δ13Ccarb and a -10 to -15‰ shift in δ34SCAS, recording negative covariation that diverges from the positive δ13Ccarb-δ34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic. This pattern is inferred to reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with the oxidation of isotopically light H2S, as the result of enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deep waters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was likely a response to climatic cooling and the reinvigoration of global-ocean overturning circulation at the SSB. Coeval decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment flux at Shitouzhai are also consistent with climatic cooling. A decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum (LSTM) rather than with the SSB per se. The SSB thus marked the termination of the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic and is significant as a record of accompanying climatic, environmental, and biotic changes. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to a reduction in intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps large igneous province.

  15. Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, R.; Chen, L.; Hou, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, H.; Feng, X.; Lu, Z.; Wang, X.; Huang, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Life on Earth underwent a protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The slowness of the recovery process may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (δ13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (δ34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity proxies. Unlike the positive δ13Ccarb-δ34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic, the SSB at Shitouzhai exhibits negative covariation between δ13Ccarb (+4‰) and δ34SCAS (-14‰). This relationship may reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with oxidation of isotopically light H2S, a pattern that we attribute to enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deepwaters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was a likely response to the well-documented climatic cooling event at the SSB that terminated the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian, a cooling that we infer to have transiently invigorated the global-ocean overturning circulation. Evidence at Shitouzhai for concurrent decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment influx are also consistent with climatic cooling. A penecontemporaneous decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum rather than the SSB event itself, and the affected marine faunas did not recover immediately in response to climatic and environmental amelioration at the SSB but, rather, underwent a stepwise recovery during the early to middle Spathian. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to reduced intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

  16. Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

  17. Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination.

    PubMed

    Burney, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

  18. Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [α/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [α/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

  19. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  20. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  1. Paleosol stable isotope evidence for early hominid occupation of East Asian temperate environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Ambrose, S.H.; Liu, Chen; Follmer, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Hominids left Africa and occupied mainland Asia by 1.8 myr ago. About 1.15 myr ago Homo erectus and an associated Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna migrated from subtropical China across the Qinling Mountains into the temperate Loess Plateau. This migration may be an evolutionary milestone in human adaptability because it may represent the first occupation of a nontropical environment. Loess-paleosol stable isotope ratios from the last interglacial-glacial cycle provide comparative data for reconstructing the hominid paleoenvironments. The climate during Gongwangling hominid occupation about 1.15 myr ago was influenced by both Siberian-Mongolian winter and Indian summer monsoon systems characterized as a cold/cool, dry winter and warm/mild, semihumid summer and fall. The Gongwangling hominids preyed mainly on warm-climate-adapted animals such as Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna, suggesting a warm season occupation. The stable isotope ratios also indicate that the Chenjiawo hominids occupied an environment similar to that of the Gongwangling about 650,000 yr ago. The associated fauna, with a mixture of forest and steppe, warm-and cold/cool-climate-adapted animal assemblage's, suggests a permanent occupation by this time. Thus, the reliable earliest and permanent occupation of temperate environments may have occurred 150,000 yr earlier in eastern Asia rather than in Europe. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  2. Towards an automatic early stress recognition system for office environments based on multimodal measurements: A review.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, Ane; Aztiria, Asier; Basarab, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Stress is a major problem of our society, as it is the cause of many health problems and huge economic losses in companies. Continuous high mental workloads and non-stop technological development, which leads to constant change and need for adaptation, makes the problem increasingly serious for office workers. To prevent stress from becoming chronic and provoking irreversible damages, it is necessary to detect it in its early stages. Unfortunately, an automatic, continuous and unobtrusive early stress detection method does not exist yet. The multimodal nature of stress and the research conducted in this area suggest that the developed method will depend on several modalities. Thus, this work reviews and brings together the recent works carried out in the automatic stress detection looking over the measurements executed along the three main modalities, namely, psychological, physiological and behavioural modalities, along with contextual measurements, in order to give hints about the most appropriate techniques to be used and thereby, to facilitate the development of such a holistic system. PMID:26621099

  3. Early life environment and developmental immunotoxicity in inflammatory dysfunction and disease

    PubMed Central

    Leifer, Cynthia A.; Dietert, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    Components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells are instrumental in determining the fate of immune responses and are, also, among the most sensitive targets of early life environmental alterations including developmental immunotoxicity (DIT). DIT can impede innate immune cell maturation, disrupt tissue microenvironment, alter immune responses to infectious challenges, and disrupt regulatory responses. Dysregulation of inflammation, such as that observed with DIT, has been linked with an increased risk of chronic inflammatory diseases in both children and adults. In this review, we discuss the relationship between early-life risk factors for innate immune modulation and promotion of dysregulated inflammation associated with chronic inflammatory disease. The health risks from DIT-associated inflammation may extend beyond primary immune dysfunction to include an elevated risk of several later-life, inflammatory-mediated diseases that target a wide range of physiological systems and organs. For this reason, determination of innate immune status should be an integral part of drug and chemical safety evaluation. PMID:26146439

  4. Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

  5. Lithic landscapes: early human impact from stone tool production on the central Saharan environment.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools--Acheulean and Middle Stone Age--indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

  6. Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world’s ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools—Acheulean and Middle Stone Age—indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

  7. Trajectories of Childhood Weight Gain: The Relative Importance of Local Environment versus Individual Social and Early Life Factors

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Megan A.; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S.; Taljaard, Monica; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. Methods Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4–10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ) were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n = 1,566). Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. Results Four weight trajectory groups were estimated: low-increasing (9.7%); low-medium, accelerating (36.2%); medium-high, increasing (43.0%); and high-stable (11.1%). In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. Conclusions In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight. PMID:23077545

  8. Study of early stages of amyloid Aβ13-23 formation using molecular dynamics simulation in implicit environments.

    PubMed

    Bajda, Marek; Filipek, Slawomir

    2015-06-01

    β-amyloid aggregation and formation of senile plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It leads to degeneration of neurons and decline of cognitive functions. The most aggregative and toxic form of β-amyloid is Aβ1-42 but in experiments, the shorter forms able to form aggregates are also used. The early stages of amyloid formation are of special interest due to the influence of this peptide on progression of AD. Here, we employed nine helices of undecapeptide Aβ13-23 and studied progress of amyloid formation using 500ns molecular dynamics simulation and implicit membrane environment. The small β-sheets emerged very early during simulation as separated two-strand structures and a presence of the membrane facilitated this process. Later, the larger β-sheets were formed. However, the ninth helix which did not form paired structure stayed unchanged till the end of MD simulation. Paired helix-helix interactions seemed to be a driving force of β-sheet formation at early stages of amyloid formation. Contrary, the specific interactions between α-helix and β-sheet can be very stable and be stabilized by the membrane. PMID:25749181

  9. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  11. Early immunological response to German cockroach frass exposure induces a Th2/Th17 environment.

    PubMed

    Page, Kristen; Zhou, Ping; Ledford, John R; Day, Scottie B; Lutfi, Riad; Dienger, Krista; Lewkowich, Ian P

    2011-01-01

    Cockroach exposure is a major risk factor for the development of asthma; however, the early immune events induced by cockroach leading to the Th2 response are not fully understood. Exposure of naïve mice to German cockroach (GC) feces (frass) was sufficient to induce dendritic cell (DC) recruiting and activating chemokines C-C motif ligand 20, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α into the airways. This corresponded with an increase in myeloid DCs (mDCs) in the airways as well as increased expression of CD80 and CD86 on the mDCs. Plasmacytoid DCs in the lung were unchanged. Levels of IL-5, IL-17A and IL-6 cytokines in whole lung cultures were significantly increased 18 h following GC frass exposure demonstrating the early development of a mixed Th2/Th17 response. In addition, GC frass stimulated the production of IL-23, IL-6 and IL-12p70 from bone marrow-derived mDCs. Adoptive transfer of GC frass-pulsed mDCs induced airway reactivity, airway inflammation as well as eosinophilia and induced a strong Th2/Th17 response in the lung. MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived mDCs did not respond to GC frass treatment, suggesting a functional Toll-like receptor pathway was important to induce the Th2/Th17 response. Together, our data show that GC frass activated the innate immune response to augment DC recruitment and activation of mDCs which promoted robust T cell-skewing cytokines and ultimately drive the development of airway inflammation. PMID:21051864

  12. A Model for the Early Identification of Sources of Airborne Pathogens in an Outdoor Environment

    PubMed Central

    van Leuken, Jeroen P. G.; Havelaar, Arie H.; van der Hoek, Wim; Ladbury, Georgia A. F.; Hackert, Volker H.; Swart, Arno N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Source identification in areas with outbreaks of airborne pathogens is often time-consuming and expensive. We developed a model to identify the most likely location of sources of airborne pathogens. Methods As a case study, we retrospectively analyzed three Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands in 2009, each with suspected exposure from a single large dairy goat farm. Model input consisted only of case residential addresses, day of first clinical symptoms, and human population density data. We defined a spatial grid and fitted an exponentially declining function to the incidence-distance data of each grid point. For any grid point with a fit significant at the 95% confidence level, we calculated a measure of risk. For validation, we used results from abortion notifications, voluntary (2008) and mandatory (2009) bulk tank milk sampling at large (i.e. >50 goats and/or sheep) dairy farms, and non-systematic vaginal swab sampling at large and small dairy and non-dairy goat/sheep farms. In addition, we performed a two-source simulation study. Results Hotspots – areas most likely to contain the actual source – were identified at early outbreak stages, based on the earliest 2–10% of the case notifications. Distances between the hotspots and suspected goat farms varied from 300–1500 m. In regional likelihood rankings including all large dairy farms, the suspected goat farms consistently ranked first. The two-source simulation study showed that detection of sources is most clear if the distance between the sources is either relatively small or relatively large. Conclusions Our model identifies the most likely location of sources in an airborne pathogen outbreak area, even at early stages. It can help to reduce the number of potential sources to be investigated by microbial testing and to allow rapid implementation of interventions to limit the number of human infections and to reduce the risk of source-to-source transmission. PMID:24324598

  13. [Adverse reaction of pseudoephedrine].

    PubMed

    López Lois, G; Gómez Carrasco, J A; García de Frías, E

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of a 7 years old girl who developed an episode of myoclonic movements and tremors after being medicated with a not well quantified amount of a pseudoephedrine/antihistamine combination. We want to highlight the potential toxicity of pseudoephedrine, usually administered as part of cold-syrup preparations which are used for symptomatic treatment of upper respiratory tract cough and congestion associated with the common cold and allergic rhinitis. Although these products are generally considered to be safe either by physicians and parents, we can't underestimate the potential adverse events and toxic effects that can occur when administering these medications. PMID:15826569

  14. Adverse reaction to pseudoephedrine.

    PubMed

    Rochina, A; Burchés, E; Morales, C; Brasó, J V; Pelaéz, A

    1995-01-01

    A patient developed a scarlatina-like rash on two separate occasions after receiving a dose of pseudoephedrine. Patch tests with this substance and other structurally related substances (i.e. ephedrine, phenylephrine, and epinephrine) were negative. The oral test with pseudoephedrine provoked a new episode. It is difficult to clarify the exact mechanism of the described reaction; the nature of this eruption probably resembles many other drug-induced adverse reactions in which there is no certainty if mechanisms of type I or III are involved. PMID:8705016

  15. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p < 0.05). The child persuasion group was more varied with regard to age, income, and household structure but cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p < 0.05). Discrete choice experiments using maximum difference scaling can be employed to design and tailor interventions to change health behaviors. Segmenting a diverse target population by needs and preferences enables the tailoring and optimization of future interventions to improve parental home food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food environments and preventing obesity starting from early childhood. PMID:26596704

  16. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

  17. Social environment and weather during early life influence gastro-intestinal parasite loads in a group-living mammal.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett

    2014-10-01

    Conditions experienced during early life have been frequently shown to exert long-term consequences on an animal's fitness. In mammals and birds, the time around and shortly after weaning is one of the crucial periods early in life. However, little is known about how social and abiotic environmental conditions experienced around this time affect fitness-related traits such as endoparasite loads. We studied consequences of social interactions and rainy weather conditions around and after weaning on gastro-intestinal nematode loads in juvenile European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Infestations with the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum and with the intestinal nematode Passalurus ambiguus were higher in animals experiencing more rain during early life. This might have been due to the higher persistence of nematodes' infective stages outside the host body together with the animals' lower energy allocation for immune defence under more humid and thus energetically challenging conditions. In contrast, infestations with P. ambiguus were lower in animals with more positive social interactions with mother and litter siblings. We propose that social support provided by familiar group members buffered negative stress effects on immune function, lowering endoparasite infestations. This is supported by the negative correlation between positive social behaviour and serum corticosterone concentrations, indicating lower stress in juveniles which integrated more successfully into the social network of their group. In conclusion, the findings offer a pathway showing how differences in the abiotic environment and social life conditions experienced early in life could translate into long-term fitness consequences via the effects on endoparasite loads. PMID:25004871

  18. Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major rivers during early-middle Miocene. The younger Los Chorros sediments show Sr and Nd values comparable to those nowadays found in the Solimões region, indicating an Andean source existed already during early-middle Miocene times. Lipid biomarkers were identified and quantified and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter for whole samples were determined to identify the sources of organic matter. Ratio's between typically terrestrial and aquatic GDGTs indicate shifts between more terrestrial settings and more aquatic settings. Intervals which suggest a more aquatic setting often contain marine palynomorphs and thus could result from a marine incursion at the time. Changes in the overall composition of biomarker lipids at each site reflects the diversity and dynamic features of the wetland. Differences in both provenance and biomarker composition between the two sites demonstrate the diversity within the basin. This diversity could either be geographical diversity since the two sites are located about 380 km from each other. Or, considering the differences in age between the two sites of 2-5 Myrs, it could also reflect the fast changing environmental conditions as a result of Andean uplift. Hoorn, C. et al (2010). The Development of the Amazonian Mega-Wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia). In: C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh (eds) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 123- 142. Marshall, L.G., Lundberg, J.G. (1996) Miocene deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin. Science 273, 123-124.

  19. A Wicked Problem: Early Childhood Safety in the Dynamic, Interactive Environment of Home

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both upstream and downstream causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The wicked problems model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on tame solutions that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453

  20. Understanding Relations Among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined whether changes in cortisol response were related to later child aggression. Among lower warmth families, the intervention effect on aggression was largely mediated by the intervention effect on cortisol response. Although the intervention also resulted in significant benefits on child engaging behavior, cortisol response did not mediate this effect. These findings demonstrate meaningful associations between cortisol response and aggression among children at familial risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:20331668

  1. The early growth of artificially reared American lobsters : Part 1: Genetic parameters within environments.

    PubMed

    Fairfull, R W; Haley, L E; Castell, J D

    1981-09-01

    Twenty families of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were reared at 10°, 15° and 20°C with and without bilateral eye-stalk-ablation. At 20°C both eye-stalk-ablated and non-eye-stalk-ablated lobsters from each family were assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) frozen whole brine shrimp, or 2) a diet of cheap, local constituents. The means of growth traits improved while viability decreased with increasing temperature. The ablation technique shows promise since improved performance for growth was apparent in eye-stalk ablated lobsters, but mortality was greater. Important genetic variation of all traits was found in each of the environments tested. The genetic correlations between growth traits were reinforcing, but the correlations between growth and viability traits were mainly negative. Ease and reliability of measurement should be considered when choosing growth traits in any artifical selection program. PMID:24276865

  2. Early-adolescents' reading comprehension and the stability of the middle school classroom-language environment.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K

    2015-04-01

    This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners. PMID:25688998

  3. Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention. PMID:24847438

  4. The Ribosome-Sec61 Translocon Complex Forms a Cytosolically Restricted Environment for Early Polytopic Membrane Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa A; Bandyopadhyay, Anannya; Devaraneni, Prasanna K; Woodward, Josha; Rooney, LeeAnn; Yang, Zhongying; Skach, William R

    2015-11-27

    Transmembrane topology of polytopic membrane proteins (PMPs) is established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the ribosome Sec61-translocon complex (RTC) through iterative cycles of translocation initiation and termination. It remains unknown, however, whether tertiary folding of transmembrane domains begins after the nascent polypeptide integrates into the lipid bilayer or within a proteinaceous environment proximal to translocon components. To address this question, we used cysteine scanning mutagenesis to monitor aqueous accessibility of stalled translation intermediates to determine when, during biogenesis, hydrophilic peptide loops of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel are delivered to cytosolic and lumenal compartments. Results showed that following ribosome docking on the ER membrane, the nascent polypeptide was shielded from the cytosol as it emerged from the ribosome exit tunnel. Extracellular loops followed a well defined path through the ribosome, the ribosome translocon junction, the Sec61-translocon pore, and into the ER lumen coincident with chain elongation. In contrast, intracellular loops (ICLs) and C-terminalresidues exited the ribosome into a cytosolically shielded environment and remained inaccessible to both cytosolic and lumenal compartments until translation was terminated. Shielding of ICL1 and ICL2, but not the C terminus, became resistant to maneuvers that disrupt electrostatic ribosome interactions. Thus, the early folding landscape of polytopic proteins is shaped by a spatially restricted environment localized within the assembled ribosome translocon complex. PMID:26254469

  5. Transgenerational latent early-life associated regulation unites environment and genetics across generations.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Debomoy K; Maloney, Bryan; Bayon, Baindu L; Chopra, Nipun; White, Fletcher A; Greig, Nigel H; Nurnberger, John I

    2016-03-01

    The origin of idiopathic diseases is still poorly understood. The latent early-life associated regulation (LEARn) model unites environmental exposures and gene expression while providing a mechanistic underpinning for later-occurring disorders. We propose that this process can occur across generations via transgenerational LEARn (tLEARn). In tLEARn, each person is a 'unit' accumulating preclinical or subclinical 'hits' as in the original LEARn model. These changes can then be epigenomically passed along to offspring. Transgenerational accumulation of 'hits' determines a sporadic disease state. Few significant transgenerational hits would accompany conception or gestation of most people, but these may suffice to 'prime' someone to respond to later-life hits. Hits need not produce symptoms or microphenotypes to have a transgenerational effect. Testing tLEARn requires longitudinal approaches. A recently proposed longitudinal epigenome/envirome-wide association study would unite genetic sequence, epigenomic markers, environmental exposures, patient personal history taken at multiple time points and family history. PMID:26950428

  6. Stratigraphy and depositional environment of early Mississippian Joana limestone of east-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmore, T.

    1987-08-01

    The Early Mississippian Joana Limestone in the southern Schell Creek and Egan Ranges of east-central Nevada is divided into nine rock types: mudstone, fossiliferous mudstone, wackestone, peloidal wackestone, pelmatozoan wackestone, pelmatozoan packstone, pelmatozoan grainstone, and ooid packstone. From the combined rock type and larger scale outcrop information, three depositional facies were identified: (1) unbedded subtidal, (2) bedded subtidal, and (3) restricted subtidal, each containing a unique set of diagnostic microfacies. Facies thicknesses, lithologies, and contacts with adjacent stratigraphic units indicate a highly varied paleotopography of localized highs and basins during Joana deposition. It is suggested that Waulsortian-type buildups occur downslope of some paleohighs in the unbedded subtidal facies. An age of upper Kinderhookian to lowest Osagean within the Mississippian Period was determined for the Joana, based primarily on conodonts and foraminifera. In the middle beds of the Joana, the previously unreported upper Siphonodella crenulata conodont zone occurs and relates the timing of the Joana to regional geologic events. Color alteration indices of these conodonts are 1.5 to 2, and occur in the oil generation window. Additionally, oil staining was noted in numerous samples primarily from the lower half of the formation, represented by the unbedded subtidal facies. Porosities of the formation are varied, ranging from no visible porosity to over 20% interparticle porosity in some pelmatozoan grainstones.

  7. Pliocene and early Pleistocene environments and climates of the western Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentological, palynological, and magnetic susceptibility data provide paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information from a 989 ft (301 m) core of sediments from the upper Glenns Ferry and Bruneau Formations from near the town of Bruneau, Idaho. Chronology is based on stratigraphic position, paleomagnetism, and biostratigraphic data. Palynological data from the Glenns Ferry sediments reveal a pollen flora similar to the modern regional pollen flora, with very rare occurrences of now-extirpated taxa common earlier in the Tertiary. Palynological data from the Pliocene portion of this core indicate conditions more moist than today, with cooler summers and perhaps warmer winters. The pollen spectra from the Bruneau Formation sediments resemble those of the Wisconsinan glacial period on the Snake River Plain, and hence indicate cold and dry conditions during some portion of the early Pleistocene. The deep-water Glenns Ferry lacustrine episode appears to date between approximately 3.5 to 3.3 and 2.5 Ma, and thus occurred during the middle Pliocene period of warmer-than-modern global temperatures. Similar sustained wetter-than-present conditions occurred in the same age range at sites across the western USA. This moist period was apparently followed by an interval of regional arid conditions that persisted for several hundred thousand years. -from Author

  8. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  9. A policy for flash floods early warnings in the Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siccardi, F.

    2003-04-01

    The measure of the uncertainty of the prediction tools used by Regional Agencies dealing with early warnings for flash floods events, like sudden inundations, debris flows, mud flows and diffuse land sliding, is a major concern. Frequent warnings tend to reduce the public perception of reliability of the Agency if false, whilst failing the warning can cause large casualties. Recent events in Northern Italy and South France are discussed. The operational flash floods warning procedure proposed for the Italian network of Civil Protection Centres is discussed in the present invited talk . The procedure uses Ensemble Prediction System as input for a semi-distributed hydrologic model. A rainfall downscaling model is used to bridge the scale gap between numerical weather prediction model output and hydrologic modeling input. the uncertainty that resides in the rainfall field statistics, even when the downscaling model is applied, suggests the design of a regional warning procedure in opposition to the single site procedure for smaller scales catchments in the region analysed. The issue of space scales leading to single site warning or to regional warning is discussed.

  10. Biomolecule-Mineral Interactions in the Geochemical Environment on Early Earth and in the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, N.

    2011-12-01

    We worked on four projects consistent with the broad goals of the grant to investigate (i) the potential impacts of mineral surface chemistry and particle size on the stability and viability of cell membranes, bacteria and human cells and (ii) the influence of biomolecules on mineral nucleation and growth. The projects are of relevance to the origin and early evolution of life, biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental biogeochemistry. The freedom enabled by the five-year grant to explore high-risk scientific areas, and the resulting high impact outcomes, cannot be overstated. We developed an almost entirely new field of Medical Mineralogyy and extended our concepts and knowledge-base to the potential roles of mineral surfaces in the evolution of protocells and the earliest cells. These exciting connections to medical mineralogy, and to the origin and evolution of life on early Earth are fascinating topics to the general public and even to other scientists, especially when the links to mineralogy and geochemistry are highlighted. In brief, we examined the stability of lipid bilayers representing model protocell membranes comprised of phospholipid bilayers with mineral surfaces. We found that the stability of lipid bilayers depends on mineral surface charge and increases as silica glass ~ quartz < rutile ~ mica < corundum. In a second project, we investigated whether the evolution of bacterial extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) may have been driven by nanomineral toxicity. Results showed that EPS does protect against mineral toxicity, and toxicity increases as amorphous SiO2 < β-TiO2 (anatase) < γ-Al2O3. A commonly accepted mechanism for Biomineralization is protein-templated nucleation. We used Molecular Dynamics and Bioinformatics computational chemistry approaches and showed that the random coil structure of a specific peptide promotes formation of an amorphous Ca-PO4 cluster, but not direct templation of hydroxyapatite. The consistency between our Ca-PO4 and previous experimental Ca-CO3 studies indicates that universal principles underly biomineralization processes of relevance to environmental biogeochemistry as well as to medical mineralogy. Minerals can enter the human either inadvertently as inhaled dusts or are inserted by design such as in components of orthopedic implants. It is important to know how the mineral surface properties affect the body's immune system response. We found that adhesion/detachment force of the Jurkat -line of T-lymphocytes increased as SiO2 glass ~ quartz < rutile (100) ~ mica (001) < polycrystalline corundum, and was related to the unraveling of cell surface glycoproteins, and to mineral surface charge. The studies described above have resulted in 23 peer-reviewed publications to date (published or in review or in prep.); one MSA volume and one Elements issue edited by the P.I.; trained five graduate students, three post-doctoral research scientists and 4 undergraduate students; numerous invited presentations at international conferences and at Universities; and numerous outreach activities including interviews on National Public Radio and on Hungarian national newspapers and television at the International Mineralogical Association's Annual Meeting.

  11. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  12. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  13. Epigenetics of Early Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood. To date, the study of gene–environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene–environment interactions can predispose individuals toward psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene–environment dialog in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give rise to lasting epigenetic marks conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions. PMID:21647402

  14. Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L

    2013-08-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

  15. The influence of complex and threatening environments in early life on brain size and behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, T.; Hirrlinger, A. M.; Braithwaite, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    The ways in which challenging environments during development shape the brain and behaviour are increasingly being addressed. To date, studies typically consider only single variables, but the real world is more complex. Many factors simultaneously affect the brain and behaviour, and whether these work independently or interact remains untested. To address this, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were reared in a two-by-two design in housing that varied in structural complexity and/or exposure to a stressor. Fish experiencing both complexity (enrichment objects changed over time) and mild stress (daily net chasing) exhibited enhanced learning and were less anxious when tested as juveniles (between 77 and 90 days). Adults tested (aged 1 year) were also less anxious even though fish were kept in standard housing after three months of age (i.e. no chasing or enrichment). Volumetric measures of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that complexity alone generated fish with a larger brain, but this increase in size was not seen in fish that experienced both complexity and chasing, or chasing alone. The results highlight the importance of looking at multiple variables simultaneously, and reveal differential effects of complexity and stressful experiences during development of the brain and behaviour. PMID:26817780

  16. Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, H.H.; Oercen, S.

    1988-08-01

    The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts of the Tethys Sea and Indian-Pacific Oceans. The clastic lower part of the succession is characterized by sheet flow and braided-stream deposits of an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex. Marine carbonates overlie these deposits, but in some places a transgressive lag deposit lies between the unconformity surface and the carbonates. The lag deposit unit corresponds to the Gastropoda biozone, including Ostrea, Terebralia, and Pecten. Four carbonate facies are recognized: (1) Clayey limestones with ahermatypic corals, ostracods, macrofossils, and foraminifers. This facies corresponds to the Textularia-Rotalia biozone. (2) Packstones and grainstones with abundant nearshore and some offshore foraminifers, corresponding to the Miliolidae biozone. (3) Packstones and wackestones with offshore foraminifers. This facies includes the Miogypsina irregularis-Miogypsina intermedia biozone. (4) Boundstones and very poorly sorted reef-talus conglomerates including hermatypic corals, foraminifers, and binding foraminifers. This facies is the coral biozone. These sediments define the northern extent of the Tethys Sea in the investigated area during the Burdigalian. They were deposited in a shallow carbonate platform at the southern margin of the Anatolian mainland, which had a steep coast characterized by an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex.

  17. Ion Composition in Saturn's Plasma Environment: Early Results from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reisenfeld, D. B.; Baragiola, R. A.; Crary, F. J.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Shappirio, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to Cassini s arrival at Saturn, most of what was known about the composition of the plasma in Saturn s environment was derived from limited measurements by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 in 1979-1981[1-3]. The measurements reported here were made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) [4] during the first two Cassini orbits, including the closest approach to Saturn and the rings during the tour, and a close flyby of Titan. The CAPS instrument resolves ion energy/charge from 1 V to 50 kV and ion mass/charge from 1 to approx.100 amu/e, and it measures electron energy from 1 eV to 28 keV. Initial composition measurements of Saturn s magnetosphere show that protons dominate outside approx.8 R(sub s), while inside this radius the plasma is dominated by a mix of water-derived ions and N(+). Over the A and B rings a plasma layer is observed composed of O2(+) and O(+) . The close passage near Titan shows a rich network of both positive and negative molecular ions. We report preliminary analysis of these and other composition findings.

  18. The influence of complex and threatening environments in early life on brain size and behaviour.

    PubMed

    DePasquale, C; Neuberger, T; Hirrlinger, A M; Braithwaite, V A

    2016-01-27

    The ways in which challenging environments during development shape the brain and behaviour are increasingly being addressed. To date, studies typically consider only single variables, but the real world is more complex. Many factors simultaneously affect the brain and behaviour, and whether these work independently or interact remains untested. To address this, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were reared in a two-by-two design in housing that varied in structural complexity and/or exposure to a stressor. Fish experiencing both complexity (enrichment objects changed over time) and mild stress (daily net chasing) exhibited enhanced learning and were less anxious when tested as juveniles (between 77 and 90 days). Adults tested (aged 1 year) were also less anxious even though fish were kept in standard housing after three months of age (i.e. no chasing or enrichment). Volumetric measures of the brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that complexity alone generated fish with a larger brain, but this increase in size was not seen in fish that experienced both complexity and chasing, or chasing alone. The results highlight the importance of looking at multiple variables simultaneously, and reveal differential effects of complexity and stressful experiences during development of the brain and behaviour. PMID:26817780

  19. Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

  20. Potentially dangerous sleeping environments and accidental asphyxia in infancy and early childhood.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Beal, S; Bourne, A J

    1994-12-01

    Infants and young children may be exposed to a variety of dangerous situations when left sleeping in cots, chairs, or beds. A review of 30 cases of accidental asphyxia occurring in infants and young children who had been left to sleep unattended was undertaken from the necropsy and consultation files of the Adelaide Children's Hospital. Causes of death included hanging from loose restrainers, clothing, or a curtain cord (12 cases), positional asphyxia/wedging from slipping between a mattress and bed/cot sides or wall, or from moving into a position where the face was covered and the upper airway occluded (16 cases), and suffocation from plastic bed covers (two cases). Cases of co-sleeping in bed with an adult and of non-accidental asphyxia were not included in this review. As the pathological findings were on occasion identical to those that are typically found in sudden infant death syndrome, adequate death scene examination was vital in several cases to allow identification of lethal sleeping environments and to enable steps to be taken to minimise the risk of future deaths due to similar situations. For example, two cases in which infants asphyxiated in rocking cradles led to the investigation of the cradles and to formulation of specific safety recommendations regarding the angle of tilt. Two infants who died after becoming wedged between the back of a couch and a co-sleeping parent in one case and cushions in the other, would indicate that this also represents a potentially lethal sleeping position. Other dangerous situations involved infant car seat restraints, seats with loose harnesses, cots with movable sides or projecting pieces, thin plastic mattress/pillow coverings, and beds with spaces between the mattress and cot side or wall. Lack of supervision at the time of death was a feature of each case. PMID:7726607

  1. THE EARLY EVOLVING SEX HORMONE ENVIRONMENT IS ASSOCIATED WITH SIGNIFICANT OUTCOME AND INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE DIFFERENCES POST-INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Zolin, Samuel J.; Vodovotz, Yoram; Forsythe, Raquel M.; Rosengart, Matthew R.; Namas, Rami; Brown, Joshua B.; Peitzman, Andrew P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE(S) Clinical research characterizing the mechanisms responsible for sex based outcome differences post-injury remain conflicting. Currently lacking is an understanding of the early sex-hormone milieu of the injured patient and the effects these early hormone differences have on clinical outcomes and the innate immune response following injury. METHODS A prospective cohort study was performed over a 20-month period. Blunt injured patients requiring ICU admission were enrolled. Samples were collected within 6 hours and at 24 hours post-injury and were analyzed for total testosterone (TT) and estradiol (EST) concentrations. Outcomes of interest included Multiple Organ Failure (MOF, Marshall MODscore > 5), nosocomial infection (NI), mortality and serial cytokine/chemokine measurements. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent risks associated with early sex hormone measurements. RESULTS In 288 prospectively enrolled patients, 69% were male with a median ISS of 16 [IQR 10,21]. Elevated TT levels at 6 hours were associated with elevated IL-6 levels and cytokine/chemokine measurements (18 of 24 measured). Risng TT levels were significantly associated with over a 5-fold and 2-fold higher independent risk of MOF and NI, respectively (OR 5.2, p=0.02, 95%CI 1.2–22.3, OR 2.1, p= 0.03, 95%CI 1.02–4.2). At 24 hours TT levels were no longer associated with poor outcome while EST levels were significantly associated with nearly a 4-fold higher independent risk of MOF (OR 3.9, p=0.04, 95% CI 1.05–13). CONCLUSIONS Early elevations and increasing testosterone levels over initial 24 hours post-injury are associated with an exaggerated inflammatory response and a significantly greater risk of MOF and NI. High Estrogen levels at 24 hours are independently associated with an increased risk of MOF. The current analysis suggests an early evolving testosterone to estrogen hormonal environment is associated with a significantly higher independent risk of poor outcome following traumatic injury. Level of Evidence II, prospective observational cohort PMID:25710413

  2. Depositional environment of some Late Devonian and Early Mississippian coals of the North-Central Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Brezinski, D.K.; Kertis, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports that coalbeds are generally thin and discontinuous in Late Devonian and Early Mississippian Pocono Group strata of Pennsylvania and Maryland. Three types of coals, based upon the environment of formation, are recognized. Transgressive coals predominate within the Rockwell Formation in western Maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. These coalbeds are exceedingly thin (1 to 10 cm), often exhibit thin underclays, and are overlain by Skolithos- or brachiopod-bearing sandstones. Less frequently, thin regressive coalbeds cap the top of individual transgressive-regressive packages. These coalbeds average 1 to 3 cm in thickness and do not have underclays present. Higher in the section, coals are also present between sandstone bodies of the Burgoon (Purslane) Formation. These coalbeds are typically thicker than those of the Rockwell, but, owing to channel migration in the associated sandstones, are commonly discontinuous. Such coalbeds are swamp deposits which developed lateral to migrating channels.

  3. Adversity, attachment, and mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Bateman, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this special issue offer evidence of personality disorder as a dysfunction of higher-order cognition, which is conceptualized variously as a disorder of mentalizing, metacognition, mindfulness, social cognition and reflective function. While there may be differences in the scope of these concepts, they all imply that higher-order mental processing is at the core of personality function. In this commentary, the authors use mentalizing as an umbrella term for these concepts, and argue that it is the complex interaction of adversity, attachment and mentalizing that leads to the characteristic symptoms of borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders. Evidence is provided from the papers in this special issue, comments made on the findings and further avenues for research are recommended. PMID:26654293

  4. The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Morrell, J I

    2010-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

  5. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations. PMID:26380685

  6. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered. PMID:25784864

  7. Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

    2014-08-01

    In order to understand the significance of the worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-stage over the last 3 decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local versus global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section, however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global Toarcian carbon isotope excursion (T-CIE) with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6‰) expressed as four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses.

  8. Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

    2014-04-01

    In order to understand the significance of worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-Stage over the last three decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local vs. global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area, the so-called Gutland. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7 ‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global T-CIE with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6 ‰) that is expressed by four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses. With the ongoing effort of high-resolution studies of the Meso-Cenozoic eras, further CIEs are likely to be found, but it has to be remembered that their (global) significance can only be determined via an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical, micropalaeontological and geochemical approach.

  9. The role of children's negative attributions on depressive symptoms: an inherited characteristic or a product of the early environment?

    PubMed

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Belli, Stefano D; Gregory, Alice M; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C

    2012-07-01

    Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic predisposition, elevating depressive responses to stress, other data suggest that negative attributions in children are more likely to reflect early environmental experiences on symptoms. Here, we assess the degree to which negative attributional style and depressive symptoms arise from common genetic, shared and non-shared environmental influences in childhood. Monozygotic and dizygotic twins reported on attributional style and depressive symptoms at age 8 (n = 300 pairs) and at age 10 (n = 250 pairs). Two multivariate models with varying assumptions on the nature of the relationship between negative attributions and depressive symptoms within and across time were fit to the data. The Common Pathway model provided better fit than the Cholesky decomposition. A common, latent factor influenced both attributional style and depressive symptoms at both time-points in children. The only significant influences on this factor were shared and non-shared aspects of the environment. Placing the present findings with those of adolescents suggests possible developmental differences in the relationship between attributional style and depressive symptoms. PMID:22709405

  10. Reported early family environment covaries with menarcheal age as a function of polymorphic variation in estrogen receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Manuck, Stephen B; Craig, Anna E; Flory, Janine D; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-α (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, (a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and (b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

  11. Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics

    PubMed Central

    JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

    2008-01-01

    In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

  12. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  13. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  14. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  15. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  16. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  17. The First 18 Months Following Food and Drug Administration Approval of Lumbar Total Disc Replacement in the United States: Reported Adverse Events Outside an Investigational Device Exemption Study Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guyer, Richard D.; Geisler, Fred H.; McAfee, Paul C.; Regan, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Introduction of a new surgical technology may result in higher rates of adverse events compared with rates reported in the study performed to gain regulatory approval. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence of reported adverse events during the first 18 months following US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first lumbar arthroplasty device available in the United States and to discern data trends. Methods Reports of adverse events submitted to the FDA in patients receiving the Charité artificial disc were reviewed and pooled by similarity. We analyzed 135 medical device reports filed with the FDA regarding the Charité artificial disc between October 26, 2004, and April 26, 2006. Sixteen reports were excluded for lack of information regarding cause or because described events were vague or unrelated to the procedure. Results Rate of adverse events reported to the FDA as a percentage of devices of which the device manufacturer was aware had been dispensed at 6, 12, and 18 months following approval was 0.58%, 2.34%, and 2.13%, respectively. The adverse event reported most frequently through 18 months was anterior migration with reoperation (0.65%); other reported adverse events were, in decreasing order, sizing and malposition errors resulting in reoperation (0.36%), posterior element fracture resulting in reoperation (0.30%), major vascular injury requiring a blood transfusion (0.23%), and subsidence requiring reoperation (0.20%). Three non–device-related patient deaths were reported following FDA approval. The reported rate of sizing/malposition errors leading to reoperation of 0.36% was the same rate as that seen in the investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc. All other reported rates were lower than rates of the same events reported in the study. Conclusions Medical device reporting is an important yet highly anecdotal and incomplete event-tracking process. However, it is the principal means available in the United States for obtaining information on the clinical performance of a device after its approval for sale and does provide some data, albeit imperfect, in this regard. The cumulative medical device reports through the 18 months following FDA approval, measured against the number of devices dispensed, suggests a rate of adverse events that either tracks or is somewhat less than that reported in the IDE study. This suggests that a repeat of the “cage rage,” a “lumbar arthroplasty rage,” has not yet occurred. PMID:25802573

  18. Serum n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychological distress in early pregnancy: Adjunct Study of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Hamazaki, K; Harauma, A; Otaka, Y; Moriguchi, T; Inadera, H

    2016-01-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially long-chain types such as docosahexaenoic acid, are important nutrients in pregnancy, but the relationship between n-3 PUFA levels and perinatal and postnatal depression remains controversial. This study examined the possible relationship between serum n-3 PUFA levels and psychological distress among expectant mothers in early pregnancy. Data and specimen samples were obtained in a birth cohort study started at Toyama Regional Center in July 2012 as an adjunct study of the Japan Environment and Children's Study. Blood samples were collected at 9-14 weeks' gestation (75% of samples) or after 15 weeks (25%). Subjects with a Kessler Psychological Distress Scale score (K6) ⩾9 were assigned to the psychological distress group (n=283). The control group (n=283) was matched for age, educational level and family income. Fatty acid composition was determined from serum samples by gas chromatography. Associations between fatty acid levels and incident psychological distress were evaluated by logistic regression. After adjusting for possible confounders, eicosapentaenoic acid showed an inverse association with risk of psychological distress, with an odds ratio of 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.30, 0.73) for the highest tertile. This inverse association remained even after applying a higher cutoff score (K6 ⩾13) indicating severe psychological distress (74 pairs). We believe this is the first study to reveal the associations between serum n-3 PUFAs and risk of psychological distress in early pregnancy. Further research is required to verify the causality of these associations. PMID:26882037

  19. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: An ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Bram G; Byun, Hyang-Min; Gyselaers, Wilfried; Lefebvre, Wouter; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Nawrot, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date has focused on epigenetic modifications in the nuclear genome, with little attention devoted to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Placental mtDNA content has been shown to respond to environmental exposures that induce oxidative stress, including airborne particulate matter (PM). Damaged or non-functioning mitochondria are specifically degraded through mitophagy, exemplified by lower mtDNA content, and could be primed by epigenetic modifications in the mtDNA. We studied placental mtDNA methylation in the context of the early life exposome. We investigated placental tissue from 381 mother-newborn pairs that were enrolled in the ENVIRONAGE birth cohort. We determined mtDNA methylation by bisulfite-pyrosequencing in 2 regions, i.e., the D-loop control region and 12S rRNA (MT-RNR1), and measured mtDNA content by qPCR. PM2.5 exposure was calculated for each participant's home address using a dispersion model. An interquartile range (IQR) increment in PM2.5 exposure over the entire pregnancy was positively associated with mtDNA methylation (MT-RNR1: +0.91%, P = 0.01 and D-loop: +0.21%, P = 0.05) and inversely associated with mtDNA content (relative change of −15.60%, P = 0.001) in placental tissue. mtDNA methylation was estimated to mediate 54% [P = 0.01 (MT-RNR1)] and 27% [P = 0.06 (D-loop)] of the inverse association between PM2.5 exposure and mtDNA content. This study provides new insight into the mechanisms of altered mitochondrial function in the early life environment. Epigenetic modifications in the mitochondrial genome, especially in the MT-RNR1 region, substantially mediate the association between PM2.5 exposure during gestation and placental mtDNA content, which could reflect signs of mitophagy and mitochondrial death. PMID:25996590

  20. Cardiac adverse effects of nicotine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Smoking markedly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nicotine replacement therapy is available to assist in smoking cessation. To assess the cardiac adverse effects of nicotine replacement therapy, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. A meta-analysis of 21 randomised, placebo-controlled trials published in early 2014 included a total of 11 647 patients, including 828 patients at high risk of cardiovascular events and 187 patients with acute coronary disorders. It showed that nicotine replacement therapy was associated with an increased risk of cardiac disorders, particularly palpitations, which are a known adverse effect of smoking. Among patients at high cardiovascular risk, 1.2% experienced a serious cardiovascular event, with no statistically significant difference versus placebo. Bupropion and varenicline both have serious adverse effects and have been less extensively evaluated in patients at high cardiovascular risk. In practice, when a drug is needed to assist in smoking cessation, nicotine appears to be a reasonable choice. Nicotine replacement therapy exposes patients to a risk of palpitations but rarely to serious cardiac disorders, even in individuals with a cardiovascular history. In addition, these adverse effects are better documented than those of bupropion and varenidine in such patients. Nonetheless, the cardiac effects of nicotine call for prudent use of nicotine replacement therapy: the minimum effective dose should be sought, and the goal should be total nicotine withdrawal. PMID:26788573

  1. H-ATLAS/GAMA and HeViCS - dusty early-type galaxies in different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agius, N. K.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Viaene, S.; Baes, M.; Sansom, A. E.; Bourne, N.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Davis, T. A.; De Looze, I.; Driver, S. P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Hughes, T. M.; Ivison, R. J.; Kelvin, L. S.; Maddox, S.; Mahajan, S.; Pappalardo, C.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rowlands, K.; Temi, P.; Valiante, E.

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has had a tremendous impact on the study of extragalactic dust. Specifically, early-type galaxies (ETG) have been the focus of several studies. In this paper, we combine results from two Herschel studies - a Virgo cluster study Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) and a broader, low-redshift Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS)/Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) study - and contrast the dust and associated properties for similar mass galaxies. This comparison is motivated by differences in results exhibited between multiple Herschel studies of ETG. A comparison between consistent modified blackbody derived dust mass is carried out, revealing strong differences between the two samples in both dust mass and dust-to-stellar mass ratio. In particular, the HeViCS sample lacks massive ETG with as high a specific dust content as found in H-ATLAS. This is most likely connected with the difference in environment for the two samples. We calculate nearest neighbour environment densities in a consistent way, showing that H-ATLAS ETG occupy sparser regions of the local Universe, whereas HeViCS ETG occupy dense regions. This is also true for ETG that are not Herschel-detected but are in the Virgo and GAMA parent samples. Spectral energy distributions are fit to the panchromatic data. From these, we find that in H-ATLAS the specific star formation rate anticorrelates with stellar mass and reaches values as high as in our Galaxy. On the other hand HeViCS ETG appear to have little star formation. Based on the trends found here, H-ATLAS ETG are thought to have more extended star formation histories and a younger stellar population than HeViCS ETG.

  2. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-28

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (≥30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  3. Transition from arid to hyper-arid environment in the southern Levant deserts as recorded by early Pleistocene cummulic Aridisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Rivka; Simhai, Ori; Ayalon, Avner; Enzel, Yehouda; Matmon, Ari; Crouvi, Onn; Porat, Naomi; McDonald, Eric

    2011-02-01

    The time at which deserts established their current arid or hyper-arid conditions remains a fundamental question regarding the history of Earth. Cosmogenic isotope exposure ages of desert pavement and welded, calcic-gypsic-salic Reg soils that developed on relatively flat alluvial surfaces ˜2 Ma ago in the Negev Desert indicate long geomorphic stability under extremely dry conditions. Over a short interval during their initial stage of development between 1-2 Ma, these cumulative soils are characterized by calcic soils reaching maximum stage III of carbonate morphology. This interval is the only period when calcic soil horizons formed on stable abandoned alluvial surfaces in the southern Negev Desert. Since ˜1 Ma pedogenesis changed toward more arid soil environment and the formation of gypsic-salic soil horizons that were later followed by dust accumulation. The dichotomy of only moderately-developed calcic soil (stages II-III) during a relatively long time interval (10 5-10 6 years) indicates an arid environment that does not support continuous development but only occasional calcic soil formation. The very low δ18O and relatively high δ13C values of these early pedogenic carbonates support soil formation under arid climatic conditions. Such an environment was probably characterized by rare and relatively longer duration rainstorms which occasionally allowed deeper infiltration of rainwater and longer retention of soil moisture. This, in turn enabled the growth of sparse vegetation that enhanced deposition of pedogenic carbonate. At ˜1 Ma these rare events of slightly wetter conditions ceased and less atmospheric moisture reached the southern Negev Desert leading to deposition of soluble salts and dust deposited in the soils. The combination of long-term hyperaridity, scarcity of vegetation and lack of bioturbation, salts cementation, dust accumulation and tight desert pavement cover, has protected the surfaces from erosion forming one of the most remarkably stable landscapes on Earth, a landscape that essentially has not eroded, but accumulated salt and dust for more than 10 6 yr.

  4. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families with Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influence of the partner’s emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent’s interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents’ emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child’s development, and declined thereafter. Children’s anger was highest at 15 months, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one’s positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one’s anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents’ neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships. PMID:20364900

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  6. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  7. A New Approach to Predicting the Thermal Environment in Buildings at the Early Design Stage. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 2/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    The paper argues that existing computer programs for thermal predictions do not produce suitable information for architects, particularly at the early stages of design. It reviews the important building features that determine the thermal environment and the need for heating and cooling plant. Graphical design aids are proposed, with examples to…

  8. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the…

  9. Are the Indicators for the Language and Reasoning Subscale of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Psychometrically Appropriate for Caribbean Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Williams, Sian G.; Morrison, Johnetta W.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen E.; Mayfield, Wayne A.; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of the indicators that comprise the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) language-reasoning scale from an item response theory (IRT) perspective on a sample of observations from 334 Caribbean classrooms, Stout's procedure revealed that all indicators on this dimension are not part of a…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of a Group of Children Reared in a Severely Depriving Environment During Infancy and Early Childhood: Sixteen Years Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Betty M.

    The purpose of this 16-year study was to investigate the developmental progress of a group of children reared in severely deprived environments during infancy and early childhood in order to evaluate their adjustment to family, school, and community by age 15. The subjects were 31 children ranging in age from 1 year 7 months through 5 years 11…

  11. Using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale as a Measure To Make Cross-National Evaluations of Quality: Advantages and Limitations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calder, Pamela

    This research report explores the extent to which the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) (Harms and Clifford, 1980) remains a valid instrument when used to make cross-national comparisons of quality, and the advantages and disadvantages of using ECERS for this purpose. ECERS was developed to be used by a trained observer to rate the…

  12. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  13. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  14. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  15. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  16. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  17. The second victim of adverse health care events.

    PubMed

    Hall, Leslie W; Scott, Susan D

    2012-09-01

    Nurses and other professionals drawn to health care by their desire to help others may be traumatized because they are involved in situations that bring harm rather than healing to patients. Health systems should develop early warning systems to alert unit or team leaders when health workers are at risk of harm from adverse events. This article focuses on health professionals who become second victims of adverse events that occur to patients. PMID:22920429

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Arrest Patterns in a Sample of Sexual Offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Socia, Kelly M

    2016-06-01

    Developmental psychopathology theories suggest that childhood adversity can contribute to antisocial conduct and delinquent activities. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) on arrest patterns in a sample of sexual offenders (N = 740). Higher ACE scores were associated with a variety of arrest outcomes, indicating that the accumulation of early trauma increased the likelihood of versatility and persistence of criminal behavior. Rapists of adults had higher ACE scores, lower levels of specialization, and higher levels of persistence than sex offenders with minor victims only. Child sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and domestic violence in the childhood home were significant predictors of a higher number of sex crime arrests. For measures of nonsexual arrests and criminal versatility, it was the household dysfunction factors-substance abuse, unmarried parents, and incarceration of a family member-that were predictive, suggesting that family dysfunction and a chaotic home environment contributed significantly to increased risk of general criminal behavior. Sex offenders inspire little sympathy in our society but may be among those most in need of trauma-informed models of treatment that recognize the influence of early adversity on maladaptive schema and self-regulation deficits related to criminal behavior. PMID:25711615

  19. Moving Upstream: Evaluating Adverse Upstream Endpoints for Improved Risk Assessment and Decision-Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and ...

  20. A comparison of the early diagenetic environment in intertidal sands and muds of the Manukau Harbour, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, R. B.; Hume, T. M.; Mol-Krijnen, J.

    1994-12-01

    The early diagenetic environment of intertidal sandy sediments (sands) and muddy sediments (muds) is described and compared from two cores taken from an unpolluted part of the Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. Extraction techniques characterized the form of the trace elements (Fe, Mn, S, C, Pb, Zn, Cu) at different depths in the sediment. Dissolved forms of Fe, Mn, and S were measured in interstitial water. Nonresidual metal concentrations, humic acid, FeS, and FeS2 are an order of magnitude higher in the muds than in the sands because of dilution by unreactive sand particles. Muds contain a larger proportion of metals in the mobile fractions; exchangeable (Mn), carbonate (Mn, Fe, Zn), and easily-reducible oxide (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb). This is due to greater surface area (for Mn adsorption); the favorable conditions for MnCO3, FeCO3, and FeS precipitation; and higher concentrations of easily reducible iron oxide and humic acid. Therefore, compared to the sands, muds are more important as reservoirs for toxic metals, both in terms of quantity and availability. At either site there was very little difference between the forms of Zn, Pb or Cu identified by sequential extraction as sediments changed from oxic to anoxic conditions. One reason for this is that the amounts and proportions of some of the important components that bind metals, viz., amorphous iron hydrous oxides, humic acids, and FeS2, do not change much. Other components that do change with redox conditions, for example, manganese phases and FeS, are only minor components of the sediment. Redox conditions, then, have relatively little effect on trace-metal partitioning in the sediment matrix of these unpolluted sediments.

  1. Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-03-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8% female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

  2. What a general paediatrician needs to know about early life programming.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas C; Drake, Amanda J

    2015-11-01

    The process whereby early exposure to an adverse environment has an influence on later life outcomes has been called 'early life programming'. While epidemiological evidence for this has been available for decades, only in recent years have the mechanisms, in particular epigenetic modifications, for this process begun to be elucidated. We discuss the evidence for early life programming, the possible mechanisms, how effects may be transmitted across generations, and conclude by looking at some examples relevant to general paediatrics. PMID:25990501

  3. Early Enriched Environment Exposure Protects Spatial Memory and Accelerates Amyloid Plaque Formation in APPSwe/PS1L166P Mice

    PubMed Central

    Montarolo, Francesca; Parolisi, Roberta; Hoxha, Eriola; Boda, Enrica; Tempia, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    Enriched environment exposure improves several aspects of cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease patients and in animal models and, although the role of amyloid plaques is questionable, several studies also assessed their response to enriched environment, with contrasting results. Here we report that rearing APPSwe/PS1L166P mice in an enriched environment since birth rescued the spatial memory impairment otherwise present at 6 months of age. At the same time, the exposure to the enriched environment caused a transient acceleration of plaque formation, while there was no effect on intracellular staining with the 6E10 antibody, which recognizes β-amyloid, full length amyloid precursor protein and its C-terminal fragments. The anticipation of plaque formation required exposure during early development, suggesting an action within critical periods for circuits formation. On the other hand, chronic neuronal activity suppression by tetrodotoxin decreased the number of plaques without affecting intracellular amyloid. These results indicate that enriched environment exposure since early life has a protective effect on cognitive deterioration although transiently accelerates amyloid deposition. In addition, the effects of the enriched environment might be due to increased neuronal activity, because plaques were reduced by suppression of electrical signaling by tetrodotoxin. PMID:23894463

  4. Adverse possession of subsurface minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

  5. Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

    2014-07-01

    Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

  6. Adverse effects of adolescent immunizations.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Natalia; Jhaveri, Pooja

    2014-03-01

    Optimal protection against preventable diseases for adolescents can be provided through routine vaccination. Vaccinations recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with influenza, meningococcal, human papillomavirus, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis infections. Most reported adverse reactions to these vaccinations are mild, and the benefits of immunization often outweigh the potential risks. In the present article, the authors discuss adverse events, contraindications, and precautions associated with adolescent immunizations. PMID:24636968

  7. Adverse childhood experiences and sexual victimization in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ports, Katie A; Ford, Derek C; Merrick, Melissa T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the link between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and sexual victimization (SV) in adulthood may provide important information about the level of risk for adult SV and sexual re-victimization among childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors. In the present paper, we explore the relationship between ACEs, including CSA, and SV in adulthood. Data from the CDC-Kaiser ACE Study were used to examine the effect of experiences of early adversity on adult SV. Adult HMO members (n=7,272) undergoing a routine health exam provided detailed information about ACEs that occurred at age 18 or younger and their experiences of SV in adulthood. Analyses revealed that as ACE score increased, so did risk of experiencing SV in adulthood. Each of the ACE variables was significantly associated with adult SV, with CSA being the strongest predictor of adult SV. In addition, for those who reported CSA, there was a cumulative increase in adult SV risk with each additional ACE experienced. As such, early adversity is a risk factor for adult SV. In particular, CSA is a significant risk factor for sexual re-victimization in adulthood, and additional early adversities experienced by CSA survivors may heighten adult SV risk above and beyond the risk associated with CSA alone. Given the interconnectedness among various experiences of early adversity, adult SV prevention actions must consider how other violence-related and non-violence-related traumatic experiences may exacerbate the risk conferred by CSA on subsequent victimization. PMID:26386753

  8. Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

  9. Identification of structure-activity relationships for adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in humans: Part B. Use of (Q)SAR systems for early detection of drug-induced hepatobiliary and urinary tract toxicities.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Edwin J; Ursem, Carling J; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel; Sabaté, David Aragonés; Yang, Chihae; Klopman, Gilles; Contrera, Joseph F

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting rare drug-induced liver and urinary tract injury in humans based upon a database of post-marketing adverse effects (AEs) linked to approximately 1600 chemical structures. The models are based upon estimated population exposure using AE proportional reporting ratios. Models were constructed for 5 types of liver injury (liver enzyme disorders, cytotoxic injury, cholestasis and jaundice, bile duct disorders, gall bladder disorders) and 6 types of urinary tract injury (acute renal disorders, nephropathies, bladder disorders, kidney function tests, blood in urine, urolithiases). Identical training data sets were configured for 4 QSAR programs (MC4PC, MDL-QSAR, BioEpisteme, and Predictive Data Miner). Model performance was optimized and was shown to be affected by the AE scoring method and the ratio of the number of active to inactive drugs. The best QSAR models exhibited an overall average 92.4% coverage, 86.5% specificity and 39.3% sensitivity. The 4 QSAR programs were demonstrated to be complementary and enhanced performance was obtained by combining predictions from 2 programs (average 78.4% specificity, 56.2% sensitivity). Consensus predictions resulted in better performance as judged by both internal and external validation experiments. PMID:19422098

  10. Does the Quality of Stimulation and Support in the Home Environment Moderate the Effect of Early Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families…

  11. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

  12. Aromatase inhibitors alone or sequentially combined with tamoxifen in postmenopausal early breast cancer compared with tamoxifen or placebo - Meta-analyses on efficacy and adverse events based on randomized clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Rydén, Lisa; Heibert Arnlind, Marianne; Vitols, Sigurd; Höistad, Malin; Ahlgren, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Tamoxifen (TAM) and aromatase inhibitors (AI) are adjuvant therapy options for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. This systematic review of seven randomized controlled studies comparing TAM and AI, and one study comparing extended therapy with an AI with placebo after about 5 years of tamoxifen, aims to assess long-term clinical efficacy and adverse events. The literature review was performed according to the principles of the Cochrane Collaboration. The search included common databases up to 2013-01-14. Studies of high or moderate quality were used for grading of evidence. Revman™ software was utilized for meta-analyses of published data. Disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were improved with AI monotherapy compared to TAM with high and moderate quality of evidence respectively. Sequenced therapy with AI → TAM (or vice versa) improved DFS compared with TAM with moderate quality of evidence, but did not improve OS (low quality of evidence). However, if only studies on sequenced AI therapy with randomization before endocrine therapy were considered, no improvement of DFS could be found. Fractures are more frequently associated with AI whereas the risk of endometrial cancer and venous thromboembolism are higher with TAM. For cardiovascular events no difference was found between AI (mono- or sequenced therapy) and TAM, whereas sequenced therapy compared with AI had lower risk of cardiovascular events (moderate level of evidence). AIs are superior to TAM as adjuvant hormonal therapy for postmenopausal ER-positive breast cancer. TAM can be considered for individual patients due to the different toxicity profile compared with AI. Cardiovascular events related to AI treatment deserve further attention. PMID:27017249

  13. Effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on the micro-environment of early osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huanjin; Tao, Li; Wang, Fang; Wang, Weizhuo; Wei, Yongchang; Shen, Wenjun; Zhou, Fuling

    2015-01-01

    Autologous implantation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has achieved promising clinical efficacy for the treatment of early-stage osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of BMSCs on the early ONFH in vitro and in vivo. In co-cultured system, primary BMSCs enhanced the activity and inhibited the apoptosis of primary OB. The concentrations of VEGF and BMP-2 in the co-cultured medium were significantly higher than those without co-culture. Importantly, BMSCs implantation increased OB, capillaries and VEGF and BMP-2 expressions of the necrotic areas of femoral head in the ONFH rabbits. In conclusion, our results indicated that BMSCs treated the early ONFH possibly through increasing OB and capillaries, as well as VEGF and BMP-2 expression in the femoral head. These results provided possible mechanisms for the treatment of early-stage ONFH with BMSCs transplantation. PMID:26823773

  14. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ronfani, Luca; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Mariuz, Marika; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Ferluga, Valentina; Knowles, Alessandra; Montico, Marcella; Barbone, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. Methods The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III). Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale), with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables. Results Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found. Conclusions Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development. PMID:25996934

  15. Neonatology and the Environment: Impact of Early Exposure to Airborne Environmental Toxicants on Infant and Child Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Horton, Megan K.; Miller, Rachel L.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Perera, Frederica

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contaminants pose a threat to infant neurodevelopment. In this current paper, we discuss evidence for the potentially harmful impact of fetal and early childhood exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. We focus on effects resulting from chronic and low-level exposure during the prenatal period and early childhood, when the brain is still undergoing rapid developmental changes. PMID:21566672

  16. Biologics in dermatology: adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2015-12-01

    Biologics are a group of drugs that precisely affect certain specific steps in the immune response and are an extremely useful group when used in an appropriate setting. However, their use can often be a double-edged sword. Careful patient selection and thorough knowledge of adverse effects is a key to their successful use in various disorders. The initial enthusiasm has gradually given way to a more cautious approach wherein a balance is sought between clinical usefulness and expected side effects. The adverse effects of the biologics most commonly used in dermatology have been carefully listed for ready reference. The plausible causes of the adverse reactions are succinctly outlined along with their incriminating factor(s). Besides, in brief, the attention has been focused on their management. The content should provide an essential didactic content for educating the practitioner. PMID:26147909

  17. The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Cordero, J F

    1993-07-01

    A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

  18. Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc. Resource Book Series No. 1. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    This booklet, revised from the March 1990 version, provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and…

  19. Vemurafenib and cutaneous adverse events - report of five cases*

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Giselle de Barros; Mendes, Adriana Pessoa; de Macedo, Mariana Petaccia; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Gibbons, Ivana Lameiras; Duprat Neto, João Pedreira

    2015-01-01

    Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of V600E-mutant BRAF protein used to treat metastatic and unresectable melanoma. Clinical trials have shown increased overall survival and progression-free survival in patients treated with Vemurafenib. However, cutaneous adverse events are common during treatment. We report fi ve cases of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E positivity, treated with Vemurafenib and its cutaneous adverse events. Dermatologists and oncologists need to be aware of possible skin changes caused by this medication, which is increasingly employed in melanoma treatment. Monitoring of patients during therapy is important for early treatment of adverse cutaneous cutaneous adverse events, improvement in quality of life and adherence to treatment. PMID:26312729

  20. Monitoring for adverse effects from systemic drugs used in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wolverton, S E

    1992-05-01

    Systemic drugs with an associated element of risk are essential in managing many important dermatoses. This review identifies eight major drugs or drug groups used in dermatology that require systematic monitoring for adverse effects. The complete monitoring process is emphasized, including significant patient involvement in reporting key signs or symptoms that allow early diagnosis of many of these adverse effects. The concepts of "risk-risk" assessment and "critical toxicities" are defined, emphasizing their important role in maximizing drug benefits and safety. Drug-related risk factors, disease-specific risk factors, and patient characteristics or habits that increase the risks from systemic drugs are identified. Basic principles of monitoring for adverse effects, specific clinical features of the most important adverse effects, along with detailed monitoring guidelines for methotrexate, retinoids, dapsone, corticosteroids, and cyclosporine are presented. PMID:1583165