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1

Robust word spotting in adverse car environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel word recognition techniquewhich allows hand-free dialing under adverse car environments.The algorithm is based on speaker dependentword spotting. The paper compared and investigated themethods of spectral subtraction, short time modified coherence,multi-microphone, dynamic and accelerated features,weighted distance measures and multi-templates byword recognition experiments. The experiments are carriedout using real speech database uttered in adverse car...

Satoshi Nakamura; Toshio Akabane; Seiji Hamaguchi

1993-01-01

2

Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

2013-01-01

3

Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence.  

PubMed

Within a longitudinal study of 1,005 adolescents, we investigated how exposure to childhood psychosocial adversities was associated with the emergence of depressive symptoms between 14 and 17 years of age. The cohort was classified into four empirically determined adversity subtypes for two age periods in childhood (0-5 and 6-11 years). One subtype reflects normative/optimal family environments (n = 692, 69%), while the other three subtypes reflect differential suboptimal family environments (aberrant parenting: n = 71, 7%; discordant: n = 185, 18%; and hazardous: n = 57, 6%). Parent-rated child temperament at 14 years and adolescent self-reported recent negative life events in early and late adolescence were included in models implementing path analysis. There were gender-differentiated associations between childhood adversity subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms. The discordant and hazardous subtypes were associated with elevated depressive symptoms in both genders but the aberrant parenting subtype only so in girls. Across adolescence the associations between early childhood adversity and depressive symptoms diminished for boys but remained for girls. Emotional temperament was also associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, while proximal negative life events related to depressive symptoms in girls only. There may be neurodevelopmental factors that emerge in adolescence that reduce depressogenic symptoms in boys but increase such formation in girls. PMID:25058564

St Clair, Michelle C; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

2014-07-24

4

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity  

PubMed Central

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

5

Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the development of violence and to test for gene–environment interactions relating to adverse childhood

Andreas Reif; Michael Rösler; Christine M Freitag; Marc Schneider; Andrea Eujen; Christian Kissling; Denise Wenzler; Christian P Jacob; Petra Retz-Junginger; Johannes Thome; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Wolfgang Retz

2007-01-01

6

Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

2014-01-01

7

Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment.  

PubMed

Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20-80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety. PMID:23340501

Oh, J-E; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

2013-01-01

8

Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

2011-05-01

9

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants.

10

Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

11

Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

2014-01-01

12

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

13

The early life environment and the epigenome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of evidence point to the early origin of adult onset disease. A key question is: what are the mechanisms that mediate the effects of the early environment on our health? Another important question is: what is the impact of the environment during adulthood and how reversible are the effects of early life later in life? The genome is

Moshe Szyf

2009-01-01

14

Intergenerational health responses to adverse and enriched environments.  

PubMed

Health consequences of relative or absolute poverty constitute a definitive area of study in social medicine. As demonstrated in the extreme example of the Dutch Hunger Winter from 1944 to 1945, prenatal hunger can lead to adult schizophrenia and depression. A Norwegian study showed how childhood poverty resulted in a heightened risk of myocardial infarction in adulthood. In England, a study of extended impaired prenatal nutrition indicated three different types of increased cardiovascular risk at older ages. Current animal and human studies link both adverse and enriched environmental exposures to intergenerational transmission. We do not fully understand the molecular mechanisms for it; however, studies that follow up epigenetic marks within a generation combined with exploration of gametic epigenetic inheritance may help explain the prevalence of certain conditions such as cardiovascular disease, schizophrenia, and alcoholism, which have complex etiologies. Insights from these studies will be of great public health importance. PMID:23297658

Bygren, Lars Olov

2013-01-01

15

The Environment of Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hydrologic routing model was applied to the Noachian cratered highlands to establish the climatic conditions required to maintain lakes and valley networks on early Mars. We used the ratio of precipitation and evaporation (the X-ratio) to express climatic conditions. Simulations were conducted using various X-ratios. The results from the lake analysis showed that many of the lakes that were not identified as overflowing probably overflowed as well. Because overflowing lakes can place constrain on possible climatic condition of early Mars, it is essential to identify as many overflowing craters as possible to understand the environment of early Mars. The multiple regression analyses indicate that incision depth is strongly influenced by gradient and weakly related to discharge. The factors determining incision depend partly on the type of channel bed. However, post-flow modification of the valleys precludes direct determination of bed morphology. We found through both lake and incision depth analysis that climatic conditions on early Mars were at least as moist as those that occurred in the Great Basin region during the Pleistocene (X ? 4). We also report on two studies motivated by the occurrence of sinuous paleochannels on Mars. Unconfined meanders require cohesive channel banks, which is obtained commonly by a vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment load. The Quinn River, Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through lacustrine sediments resulting in the river having both bed and banks composed of sediment containing at least 40% mud. In addition, ion chromatography data and SEM images indicate the presence of high solute concentrations. In the absence of vegetation, bank cohesion is provided by mud with salts aiding flocculation and possibly providing additional cohesion through cementation. A 1D depth-averaged linearized meander evolution model was calibrated using the field data collected at the Quinn River. Both approaches gave similar results for the best fit parameter values. The model sufficiently replicated 38 years of channel migration. Topographic profiles across point bars are essentially invariant over a wide range of migration rates, suggesting that the traditional formulation that cut bank erosion processes govern migration rates is appropriate for the Quinn River.

Matsubara, Yo

16

Stress and Resource Pathways Connecting Early Socioeconomic Adversity to Young Adults' Physical Health Risk.  

PubMed

Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth. PMID:25376472

Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

2014-11-01

17

Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research.  

PubMed

Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care - prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment - in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms. PMID:24133457

McGowan, Patrick O

2013-01-01

18

Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research  

PubMed Central

Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms. PMID:24133457

McGowan, Patrick O.

2013-01-01

19

Depression among Black Bisexual Men with Early and Later Life Adversities  

PubMed Central

This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a six-session health intervention, and at baseline reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination (R2 = .25, F3, 112 = 12.67, p < .001) and chronic stress (R2 = .17, F3, 112 = 7.41, p < .001). Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination (b = ?.154, t(111) = ?2.82, p < .01) and chronic stress (b = ?.019, t(111) = ?3.759, p < .01). Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

Myers, Hector F.; Williams, John K.

2014-01-01

20

Depression among Black bisexual men with early and later life adversities.  

PubMed

This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a 6-session health intervention, and, at baseline, reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination, R² = .25, F(3, 112) = 12.67, p < .001, and chronic stress, R² = .17, F(3, 112) = 7.41, p < .001. Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination, b = -.154, t(111) = -2.82, p < .01, and chronic stress, b = -.019, t(111) = -3.759, p < .01. Men's early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW's early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

Allen, Vincent C; Myers, Hector F; Williams, John K

2014-01-01

21

Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence  

E-print Network

depressive symptoms between 14 and 17 years of age. The cohort was classified into four empirically determined adversity subtypes for two age periods in childhood (0–5 and 6–11 years). One subtype reflects normative/optimal family environments (n...

St Clair, Michelle C.; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J.; Jones, Peter B.; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M.

2014-07-24

22

Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

PubMed Central

We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

2014-01-01

23

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome  

PubMed Central

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

2013-01-01

24

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: toward understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome.  

PubMed

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual's predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Bagot, Rosemary C; Parker, Karen J; Vinkers, Christiaan H; de Kloet, E R

2013-09-01

25

Impulsivity as a Mediating Mechanism Between Early-Life Adversity and Addiction: Theoretical Comment on Lovic et al. (2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life adversity, impulsivity, and dopaminergic function have all been implicated in adult drug addiction. The article by Lovic, Keen, Fletcher, and Fleming in this issue further elucidates this relationship by demonstrating that early-life adversity can increase impulsivity and decrease behavioral flexibility in adulthood. Recent literature suggests that these results are likely due to structural and functional changes in regions such

Jay Hosking; Catharine A. Winstanley

2011-01-01

26

Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N=109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents’ infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential methylation among adolescents whose parents reported high levels of stress during their children’s early lives. Maternal stressors in infancy and paternal stressors in the preschool years were most strongly predictive of differential methylation, and the patterning of such epigenetic marks varied by children’s gender. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of prospective associations between adversities in early childhood and the epigenetic conformation of adolescents’ genomic DNA. PMID:21883162

Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M.A.; Kobor, Michael S.

2011-01-01

27

Genetic variation in oxytocin rs2740210 and early adversity associated with postpartum depression and breastfeeding duration.  

PubMed

Mothers vary in duration of breastfeeding. These individual differences are related to a variety of demographic and individual maternal factors including maternal hormones, mood and early experiences. However, little is known about the role of genetic factors. We studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the OXT peptide gene (rs2740210; rs4813627) and the OXT receptor gene (OXTR rs237885) in two samples of mothers from the Maternal adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment study (MAVAN), a multicenter (Hamilton and Montreal, Canada) study following mothers and their children from pregnancy until 7?years of age. Data from the Hamilton site was the primary sample (n?=?201) and data from Montreal was the replication sample (n?=?151). Breastfeeding duration, maternal mood (measured by the CES-D scale) and early life adversity (measured by the CTQ scale) were established during 12?months postpartum. In our primary sample, polymorphisms in OXT rs2740210, but not the other SNPs, interacted with early life adversity to predict variation in breastfeeding duration (overall F8,125 ?=?2.361, P?=?0.021; interaction effect b?=?-8.12, t?=?-2.3, P?=?0.023) and depression (overall F8,118 ?=?5.751, P???0.001; interaction effect b?=?6.06, t?=?3.13, P?=?0.002). A moderated mediation model showed that higher levels of depression mediated the inverse relation of high levels of early life adversity to breastfeeding duration, but only in women possessing the CC genotype [effect a'?=?-3.3401, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?-7.9466 to -0.0015] of the OXT SNP and not in women with the AA/AC genotype (a'?=?-1.2942, ns). The latter findings (moderated mediation model) were replicated in our Montreal sample (a'?=?-0.277, 95% CI?=?-0.7987 to -0.0348 for CC; a'?=?-0.1820, ns for AA/AC). PMID:23941164

Jonas, W; Mileva-Seitz, V; Girard, A W; Bisceglia, R; Kennedy, J L; Sokolowski, M; Meaney, M J; Fleming, A S; Steiner, M

2013-10-01

28

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

29

Early life adversity alters the developmental profiles of addiction-related prefrontal cortex circuitry.  

PubMed

Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2-20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. PMID:24961311

Brenhouse, Heather C; Lukkes, Jodi L; Andersen, Susan L

2013-01-01

30

Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

31

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript Association of adverse childhood environment and 5-HTTLPR Genotype  

E-print Network

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Association of adverse childhood environment and 5 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5,FR Institute of Psychiatry2 University of London , De crespigny park, King s College Cedex 5,FR Service de psychologie m dicale et psychiatrie4 é CHRU Montpellier , Montpellier, FR D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

32

Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment could benefit from using Lewin’s force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. In this article, authors describe how they used Lewin’s Model of Change to retrospectively examine recruitment strategies from five cancer control studies conducted in an adverse environment that had resulted from well-known researcher misconduct and rural suspicion of outsiders.

33

[Physiological characteristics of resistance of different plum varieties to artificial adverse environments].  

PubMed

The relative electric conductivity, soluble sugar content in leaf, and POD activity of 17 plum varieties, which belong to six species and one genera, were measured under artificial adverse environments. The results showed that there were extreme significant negative correlation (alpha = 0.01) between soluble sugar content and membrane freezing damage, and significant negative correlation (alpha = 0.05) between POD activity in bark and leaf cell heat damage. According to Fuzzy synthetic evaluation, the comprehensive resistances of different plum varieties to adverse circumstances were discussed in this paper. PMID:12222039

Zhu, Liwu; Li, Shaowen; Liu, Jiafa; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Ling

2002-04-01

34

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R.

2012-01-01

35

Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis in Early Galactic Environments #  

E-print Network

Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis in Early Galactic Environments # James W. Truran 1 , John J. Cowan we can extract useful clues to and constraints upon the star formation and nucleosynthesis history that provide the site for s­process nucleosynthesis during the AGB phase of their evolution. We review recent

Cowan, John

36

Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation.  

PubMed

Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Methods: Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Results: Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. Conclusions: The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress. PMID:25268115

Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Ase Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej

2014-10-30

37

Effects of early-life adversity on white matter diffusivity changes in patients at risk for major depression  

PubMed Central

Background Relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and people who experienced early-life adversity are at risk for MDD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether unaffected first-degree healthy relatives (UHRs) of patients with MDD show changes in white matter fibre connections compared with healthy controls and whether there are interactions between early-life adversity and these microstructural changes. Methods Unaffected, healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and healthy controls without any family history for a psychiatric disease underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging with 61 diffusion directions. Data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics, and findings were confirmed with tractography. Results Twenty-one UHRs and 24 controls participated in our study. The UHRs showed greater fractional anisotropy than controls in the body and splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and right fornix. The UHRs who experienced more early-life adversity had greater fractional anisotropy than those with less early-life adversity in the splenium of the corpus callosum, fornix, IFO and SLF; in controls, early-life adversity was found to be associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in these fibre tracts. Limitations Studying participants’ strategies for coping with early-life adversity would have been helpful. Crossing fibres in tracts are a general limitation of the method used. Conclusion Altogether, our findings provide evidence for greater fractional anisotropy in UHRs and for interaction between early-life adversity and family risk on white matter tracts involved in cognitive–emotional processes. Whether stronger neural fibre connections are associated with more resilience against depression needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:22008179

Frodl, Thomas; Carballedo, Angela; Fagan, Andrew J.; Lisiecka, Danuta; Ferguson, Yolande; Meaney, James F.

2012-01-01

38

Transcriptional modulation of the developing immune system by early life social adversity  

PubMed Central

To identify molecular mechanisms by which early life social conditions might influence adult risk of disease in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), we analyze changes in basal leukocyte gene expression profiles in 4-mo-old animals reared under adverse social conditions. Compared with the basal condition of maternal rearing (MR), leukocytes from peer-reared (PR) animals and PR animals provided with an inanimate surrogate mother (surrogate/peer reared, SPR) show enhanced expression of genes involved in inflammation, cytokine signaling, and T-lymphocyte activation, and suppression of genes involved in several innate antimicrobial defenses including type I interferon (IFN) antiviral responses. Promoter-based bioinformatic analyses implicate increased activity of CREB and NF-?B transcription factors and decreased activity of IFN response factors (IRFs) in structuring the observed differences in gene expression. Transcript origin analyses identify monocytes and CD4+ T lymphocytes as primary cellular mediators of transcriptional up-regulation and B lymphocytes as major sources of down-regulated genes. These findings show that adverse social conditions can become embedded within the basal transcriptome of primate immune cells within the first 4 mo of life, and they implicate sympathetic nervous system-linked transcription control pathways as candidate mediators of those effects and potential targets for health-protective intervention. PMID:23184974

Cole, Steven W.; Conti, Gabriella; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Ruggiero, Angela M.; Heckman, James J.; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

39

The Combined Effects of Prenatal Drug Exposure and Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science. PMID:21756431

Fisher, Philip A.; Lester, Barry M.; DeGarmo, David S.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

2012-01-01

40

The Role of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807

Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

2014-01-01

41

Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.  

PubMed

We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour. PMID:25059307

Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

2014-10-01

42

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

43

Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context  

PubMed Central

This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

2014-01-01

44

5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

45

Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice  

EPA Science Inventory

In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

46

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

Krogh, Carmen ME

2014-01-01

47

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.  

PubMed

In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

2014-10-01

48

INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24115264

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

49

Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is essential to the fitness of organisms. In some cases, adaptation of the parent alters the offspring’s phenotype[1-10]. Such parental effects are adaptive for the offspring if the future environment is similar to the current one, but can be maladaptive otherwise[11]. One mechanism by which adaptation occurs is altered provisioning of embryos by the parent[12-16]. Here we show that exposing adult Caenorhabditis elegans to hyperosmotic conditions protects their offspring from the same, but causes sensitivity to anoxia exposure. We show that this alteration of survival is correlated to changes in the sugar content of adults and embryos. In addition, mutations in gene products which alter sugar homeostasis also alter the ability of embryos to survive in hyperosmotic and anoxic conditions and engage in the adaptive parental effect. Our results indicate that there is a physiological trade-off between the presence of glycerol, which protects animals from hyperosmotic conditions, and glycogen, which is consumed during anoxia. These two metabolites play an essential role in the survival of worms in these adverse environments, and the adaptive parental effect we describe is mediated by the provisioning of these metabolites to the embryo. PMID:19398339

Frazier, Harold N.; Roth, Mark B.

2009-01-01

50

KCTD8 gene and brain growth in adverse intrauterine environment: a genome-wide association study.  

PubMed

The most dramatic growth of the human brain occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of postnatal life. Genesis of the cerebral cortex involves cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, all of which may be influenced by prenatal environment. Here, we show that variation in KCTD8 (potassium channel tetramerization domain 8) is associated with brain size in female adolescents (rs716890, P = 5.40 × 10(-09)). Furthermore, we found that the KCTD8 locus interacts with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking vis-à-vis cortical area and cortical folding: In exposed girls only, the KCTD8 locus explains up to 21% of variance. Using head circumference as a proxy of brain size at 7 years of age, we have replicated this gene-environment interaction in an independent sample. We speculate that KCTD8 might modulate adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on brain development via apoptosis triggered by low intracellular levels of potassium, possibly reducing the number of progenitor cells. PMID:22156575

Paus, Tomás; Bernard, Manon; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Davey Smith, George; Gillis, Jesse; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Melka, Melkaye G; Leonard, Gabriel; Pavlidis, Paul; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Schumann, Gunter; Timpson, Nicholas; Toro, Roberto; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka

2012-11-01

51

Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

2013-01-01

52

Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

McMurtry, Robert Y.

2011-01-01

53

Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

2013-01-01

54

Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

2014-01-01

55

The effect of patient sex on the incidence of early adverse effects in a population of elderly patients.  

PubMed

Patient sex is known to influence the response to general and regional anaesthesia and recovery after surgery. However, most studies come from analyses carried out on middle-aged patients. As most of the patients admitted to the post-anaesthesia recovery room in our institution are elderly, we took the opportunity to investigate the association between sex and incidence of early adverse events in this older population of patients after major surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing general, orthopaedic, urological and gynaecological surgery, admitted to the recovery room of our institution over a 15-month period, were retrospectively studied. The following adverse events were considered in the analysis: shivering, postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypotension and hypertensive responses, new arrhythmias requiring treatment, acute respiratory failure and desaturation. A total of 1347 patients (mean age 73.3±15.1 years, 61.4% women) were included. Women showed a higher incidence of shivering (relative difference +48%, P=0.0003), postoperative nausea and vomiting (+91%, P<0.0001), hypotension (+32%, P=0.044) and desaturation (+60%, P=0.0030) than men. The incidence of hypertensive response, arrhythmias and acute respiratory failure were not statistically significantly different. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that women have a higher risk of early postoperative adverse events even in a more elderly population. PMID:24967759

Conti, D; Ballo, P; Boccalini, R; Boccherini, A; Cantini, S; Venni, A; Pezzati, S; Gori, S; Franconi, F; Zuppiroli, A; Pedullà, A

2014-07-01

56

Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

1989-01-01

57

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

58

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life  

PubMed Central

The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940

Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

2012-01-01

59

Young Children and the Environment: Early Education for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Young Children and the Environment" is intended for tertiary students in Early Childhood Education and as a reference for child care practitioners and primary school teachers to promote education for sustainability (EfS) from birth to 8 years. The focus is on early education services, including day care centres, kindergartens, preschools,…

Davis, Julie M.

2010-01-01

60

Fiber optics in adverse environments II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22-24, 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements and characterization of fiber optics in radiation environments are considered, taking into account material dispersion measurements on fiber optic cables used at the Nevada Test Site, gamma-ray to Cerenkov light conversion efficiency for pure-silica-core optical fibers, the measurement of transient radiation effects in optical fibers, optical characterization of radiation-resistant fibers, and a high-bandwidth multichannel fiber optic system for measuring gamma rays. Other topics discussed are related to radiation test monitoring systems using fiber optics, fiber optic systems in adverse environments, fiber optics in the electromagnetic environment, environmental effects on fiber optic components, radiation effects in optical fibers, and radiation effects on fiber optic devices. Attention is given to the radiation response of optical fibers in a nuclear reactor, a fiber optic digital uplink for ocean-floor experimentation, fiber optic aircraft systems electromagnetic pulse (EMP) survivability, and transient attenuation in optical fibers.

Greenwell, R. A.

1984-01-01

61

Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

2012-01-01

62

A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression  

PubMed Central

Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism, and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288), it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e., in the case of early-life abuse or neglect) may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity. PMID:23898235

McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Stead, John D.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

2013-01-01

63

Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans?  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

2013-01-01

64

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

PubMed Central

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect. PMID:22383860

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

2011-01-01

65

Adverse effects of ocean acidification on early development of squid (Doryteuthis pealeii).  

PubMed

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L

2013-01-01

66

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*  

E-print Network

and cognition in bipolar disorder of a gene-environment interaction implicating genes known to exert of Medicine of Geneva, University of Geneva, Switzerland. § corresponding author: Inserm U888 Pathologies and consequent cognitive disorder. The persistence of this association in late-life is examined. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

67

Fast Adaptation of Speech and Speaker Characteristics for Enhanced Speech Recognition in Adverse Intelligent Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a technique for fast adaptation of speech and speaker related information. Fast learning is particularly useful for automatic personalization of speech-controlled devices. Such a personalization of human-computer interfaces to be used in intelligent environments represents an important research issue. Speech recognition is enhanced by speaker specific profiles which are continuously adapted. A fast but robust

Tobias Herbig; Franz Gerl; Wolfgang Minker

2010-01-01

68

Adverse early life experience and social stress during adulthood interact to increase serotonin transporter mRNA expression  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of serotonergic systems in the brain. To evaluate the effects of early life experience, adverse experiences during adulthood, and potential interactions between these factors on serotonin transporter (slc6a4) mRNA expression, we investigated in rats the effects of maternal separation (180 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS180), neonatal handing (15 min/day from days 2–14 of life; MS15), or normal animal facility rearing control conditions (AFR) with or without subsequent exposure to adult social defeat on slc6a4 mRNA expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and caudal linear nucleus. At the level of specific subdivisions of the DR, there were no differences in slc6a4 mRNA expression between MS15 and AFR rats. Among rats exposed to a novel cage control condition, increased slc6a4 mRNA expression was observed in the dorsal part of the DR in MS180 rats, relative to AFR control rats. In contrast, MS180 rats exposed to social defeat as adults had increased slc6a4 mRNA expression throughout the DR compared to both MS15 and AFR controls. Social defeat increased slc6a4 mRNA expression, but only in MS180 rats and only in the “lateral wings” of the DR. Overall these data demonstrate that early life experience and stressful experience during adulthood interact to determine slc6a4 mRNA expression. These data support the hypothesis that early life experience and major stressful life events contribute to dysregulation of serotonergic systems in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:19781533

Gardner, Katherine L.; Hale, Matthew W.; Lightman, Stafford L.; Plotsky, Paul M.; Lowry, Christopher A.

2009-01-01

69

Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies.  

PubMed

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test guideline (OECD 210 or OCSPP 850.1400) is the most frequently used bioassay for predicting chronic fish toxicity and supporting aquatic ecological risk assessments around the world. For each chemical, the FELS test requires a minimum of 360 fish and 1 to 3 months from test initiation to termination. Although valuable for predicting fish full life-cycle toxicity, FELS tests are labor and resource intensive and, due to an emphasis on apical endpoints, provide little to no information about chemical mode of action. Therefore, the development and implementation of alternative testing strategies for screening and prioritizing chemicals has the potential to reduce the cost and number of animals required for estimating FELS toxicity and, at the same time, provides insights into mechanisms of toxicity. Using three reference chemicals with well-established yet distinct adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in early life stages of fish, we proposed FELS-specific AOPs as conceptual frameworks for identifying useful chemical screening and prioritization strategies. The reference chemicals selected as case studies were a cardiotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), neurotoxic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos), and narcotic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Using qualitative descriptions for each chemical during early fish development, we developed generalized AOPs and, based on these examples, proposed a three-tiered testing strategy for screening and prioritizing chemicals for FELS testing. Linked with biologically based concentration-response models, a tiered testing strategy may help reduce the reliance on long-term and costly FELS tests required for assessing the hazard of thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. PMID:21750347

Volz, David C; Belanger, Scott; Embry, Michelle; Padilla, Stephanie; Sanderson, Hans; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan; Villeneuve, Daniel

2011-10-01

70

Using Simcyp to project human oral pharmacokinetic variability in early drug research to mitigate mechanism-based adverse events.  

PubMed

Positive allosteric modulators ('potentiators') of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) have been shown to display a mechanism-based exposure-response continuum in preclinical species with procognitive electrophysiological and behavioral effects ('efficacy') at low exposures and motor coordination disruptions at progressively higher exposures. Due to the dose-capping nature of such motor coordination deficits, an exposure threshold-mediated adverse event (C(AE) ), the adequacy of separation between the maximal total plasma compound concentration (C(max) ) at a predicted clinically efficacious oral dose and this adverse event (AE) was explored in early drug research with three AMPAR potentiators considered potential candidates for clinical trials. In vitro metabolism studies in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes demonstrated the metabolic clearance for each compound was predominately due to cytochromes P450 (CYP). Thus, for each compound's anticipated clinically efficacious dose, human C(max) variability following oral administration was assessed using Simcyp software, which combines its virtual human populations database using extensive demographic, physiological and genomic information with routinely collected compound-specific in vitro biochemical data to simulate and predict drug disposition. Using a combination of experimentally determined recombinant human CYP intrinsic clearances for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, human binding factors, expected fraction absorbed and estimated steady-state volume of distribution, Simcyp simulations demonstrated that two of the three potentiators had acceptable projected C(max) variability (i.e. the 95th percentile C(max) did not breach C(AE) ). This evaluation aided in the selection of compounds for preclinical progression, and represents a novel application of pharmacologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) software approaches to predict interpatient variability. PMID:22213407

Shaffer, Christopher L; Scialis, Renato J; Rong, Haojing; Obach, R Scott

2012-03-01

71

Testing Putative Causal Associations of Risk Factors for Early Intercourse in the Study of Twin Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE)  

PubMed Central

Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19–47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents’ cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent’s environment should be addressed. PMID:22441771

Donahue, Kelly L.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

2012-01-01

72

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

E-print Network

with emerging abilities to monitor the environment for potential threats. Areas in the am- ygdala are activated, social, and biological mechanisms that underlie the ability to regulate stress. The goal of this article fundamentally represent a system for man- aging threat. How this system develops is critically affected by early

Lehman, Barbara J.

73

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harsh early family environment is related to mental and physical health in adulthood. An important question is why family en- vironment in childhood is associated with these outcomes so long after its initial occurrence. We describe a program of research that evaluates a model linking these variables to each other. Specifically, we hypothesize that low social competence and negative

Shelley E. Taylor; Jennifer S. Lerner; Rebecca M. Sage; Barbara J. Lehman; Teresa E. Seeman

2004-01-01

74

Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.  

PubMed

In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 ?g total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development. PMID:24595754

Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

2014-12-01

75

Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age?=?24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

2014-01-01

76

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions. PMID:24830297

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

77

Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

78

Adversity in early and mid-adolescence is associated with elevated startle responses to safety cues in late adolescence  

PubMed Central

Elevated responding to safety cues in the context of threat is associated with anxiety disorder onset, but pathways underlying such responding remain unclear. This study examined whether childhood/adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during safe phases of a fear potentiation startle paradigm (following delivery of an aversive stimulus) that predict anxiety disorders. Participants (N = 104) came from the Youth Emotion Project, a longitudinal study of risk factors for emotional disorders. Participants with no baseline psychopathology underwent a startle modulation protocol and were assessed for childhood and adolescent adversities using a validated interview. Adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during the safe phases following an aversive stimulus. Neither child nor adolescent adversities were associated with responding during any other phase of the protocol. These findings suggest a pathway between adolescent adversity and a risk factor for anxiety disorders wherein adolescent adversity contributes to impaired responding to safety cues. PMID:25473591

Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Waters, Allison M.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Rick; Ornitz, Edward; Naliboff, Bruce; Craske, Michelle G.

2014-01-01

79

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

80

Early Permian Carbonitidae (Ostracoda): ontogeny, affinity, environment and systematics  

E-print Network

Early Permian Carbonitidae (Ostracoda): ontogeny, a?nity, environment and systematics JULIE B. RETRUM 1 & ROGER L. KAESLER 1, 2 1 Department of Geology, University of Kansas, 1475 Jawhawk Blvd., Room 120, Lawrence KS 66045-7613, USA 2..., but research has produced mixed results regarding its evolutionary relationships, ontogeny and palaeoenvironmental significance. Di?erences of opinion regarding these aspects of the Carbonitidae have been attributed to poorly preserved specimens (Bless...

Retrum, Julie Beth; Kaesler, R. L.

2005-10-01

81

Links Between Hydrothermal Environments, Pyrophosphate, Na+, and Early Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H+-pump, and like the Na+-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na+-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na+ transport preceded ATP and H+ transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na+ is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na+-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water.

Holm, Nils G.; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

2011-10-01

82

Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5–7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge

2015-01-01

83

Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

2007-01-01

84

Early detection of adverse drug events within population-based health networks: application of sequential testing methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Active surveillance of population-based health networks may improve the timeliness of detection of adverse drug events (ADEs). Active monitoring requires sequential analysis methods. Our objectives were to (1) evaluate the utility of automated healthcare claims data for near real-time drug adverse event surveillance and (2) identify key methodological issues related to the use of healthcare claims data for real-time

Jeffrey S. Brown; Martin Kulldorff; K. Arnold Chan; Robert L. Davis; David J. Graham; Parker T. Pettus; Susan E. Andrade; Marsha A. Raebel; Lisa J. Herrinton; Douglas W. Roblin; Denise M. Boudreau; David H. Smith; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Margaret J. Gunter; Richard Platt

2007-01-01

85

Early-type galaxy star formation histories in different environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use very high signal-to-noise ratio stacked spectra of ˜29 000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane. We define three classifications of local group environment based on the `identities' of galaxies within their dark matter haloes: central `Brightest Group Galaxies' (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those `most massive' in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters ? and ?Ie. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; differences in Fe enrichment with local group environment are consistent with zero (<2?); there are no differences in Mg enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy's initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Graves, Genevieve J.

2015-02-01

86

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-09-30

87

Evolution and Environment of Early-Type Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical abundance indicators are studied using composite spectra, which we provide in tabular form. Tables of line strengths measured from these spectra and parameters derived from these line strengths are also provided. From these we find that at fixed luminosity, early-type galaxies in low-density environments are slightly bluer, with stronger O II emission and stronger H? and H? Balmer absorption lines, indicative of star formation in the not very distant past. These galaxies also tend to have systematically weaker D4000 indices. The Lick indices and ?-element abundance indicators correlate weakly but significantly with environment. For example, at fixed velocity dispersion, Mg is weaker in early-type galaxies in low-density environments by 30% of the rms scatter across the full sample, whereas most Fe indicators show no significant environmental dependence. The galaxies in our sample span a redshift range that corresponds to look-back times of ~1 Gyr. We see clear evidence for evolution of line-index strengths over this time. Since the low-redshift population is almost certainly a passively aged version of the more distant population, age is likely the main driver for any observed evolution. We use the observed redshift evolution as a model-independent clock to identify indicators that are more sensitive to age than to other effects such as metallicity. In principle, for a passively evolving population, comparison of the trends with redshift and environment constrain how strongly the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities depend on environment. We develop a method for doing this that does not depend on the details of stellar population synthesis models. Our analysis suggests that the galaxies that populate the densest regions in our sample are older by ~1 Gyr than objects of the same luminosity in the least dense regions, and that metallicity differences are negligible. We also use single-burst stellar population synthesis models, which allow for nonsolar ?-element abundance ratios, to interpret our data. The combination of H?, Mg b, and lines suggests that age, metallicity, and ?-enhancement all increase with velocity dispersion. The objects at lower redshifts are older but have the same metallicities and ?-enhancements as their counterparts of the same ? at higher redshifts, as expected if the low-redshift sample is a passively aged version of the sample at higher redshifts. In addition, objects in dense environments are less than 1 Gyr older and ?-enhanced by ~0.02 relative to their counterparts of the same velocity dispersion in less dense regions, but the metallicities show no dependence on environment. This suggests that in dense regions, the stars in early-type galaxies formed at slightly earlier times and on a slightly shorter timescale than in less dense regions. Using H?F instead of H? leads to slightly younger ages but the same qualitative differences between environments. In particular, we find no evidence that objects in low-density regions are more metal-rich.

Bernardi, Mariangela; Nichol, Robert C.; Sheth, Ravi K.; Miller, C. J.; Brinkmann, J.

2006-03-01

88

Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy during the early art period at a tertiary hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV morbidity and mortality worldwide but has many adverse effects. These adverse drug reactions (ADRs) lead to discontinuations, disease progression or treatment failure. We explored the types and risk factors for ADRs in a cohort starting ART in a teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana where the main regimens used were a combination of nucleotide and non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Methods A Cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted reviewing data of 2042 patients initiated on HAART from 2003 to 2007. Univariate analysis was done for the dependent and independent variables. Stepwise logistic regression procedures were used to model the effect of gender on the development of ADRs controlling for other variables like age, marital status, weight at baseline and CD4 at baseline. Results The period prevalence of ADRs was 9.4%. The two most common adverse reactions were anaemia and diarrhoea. Female sex was a statistically significant independent predictor of an adverse drug reaction (AOR: 1.66, p = 0.01, CI: 1.16-2.36). CD4 counts 250 cells/mm3 or more was significantly associated with the occurrence of an ADR. The occurrence of anaemia in females was statistically significant compared to males. Conclusion Adverse drug reactions were less common than expected, anaemia was the commonest ADR. Female sex and high CD4 counts >250mm3 were predictors of ADRs whereas females were significantly more likely to develop anaemia than males. Recommendations were made for interventions to prevent and also mitigate the high levels of anaemia especially among women in the ART scale up. PMID:25368714

Lartey, Margaret; Asante-Quashie, Abena; Essel, Ama; Kenu, Ernest; Ganu, Vincent; Neequaye, Alfred

2014-01-01

89

A protective genetic variant for adverse environments? The role of childhood traumas and serotonin transporter gene on resilience and depressive severity in a high-risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic aspects may influence the effect of early adverse events on psychological well being in adulthood. In particular, a common polymorphism within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR short\\/long) has been associated to the risk for stress-induced psychopathology. In the present study we investigated the role of childhood traumas and 5-HTTLPR on measures of psychological resilience and depression in a sample

V. Carli; L. Mandelli; L. Zaninotto; A. Roy; L. Recchia; L. Stoppia; V. Gatta; M. Sarchiapone; A. Serretti

2011-01-01

90

A Simulation Environment for Early Lifecycle Software Reliability Research and Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to apply models of software reliability early in the development lifecycle. This paper describes a software reliability simulation environment that will allow us to investigate early application of software reliablity models. The simulation environment uses information available during the design and coding phases to assist an model selection and early software reliability prediction. While we have just

Anneliese Von Mayrhauser; James Keables

1992-01-01

91

Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia, high temperatures, and acidification impacted biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. Our findings of protracted early Mesozoic reef recovery suggest that the causal links between environmental disturbance and biotic recovery extended into Middle Triassic time.

Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

92

Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

2013-01-01

93

Sensitizing effect of early adversity on depressive reactions to later proximal stress: Moderation by polymorphisms in serotonin transporter and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor genes in a 20-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Previous research supports gene-environment interactions for polymorphisms in the corticotropin hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) and the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in predicting depression, but it has rarely considered genetic influences on stress sensitization processes, whereby early adversities (EA) increase depressive reactivity to proximal stressors later in life. The current study tested a gene-environment-environment interaction (G × E × E; specifically, gene-EA-proximal stress interaction) model of depression in a 20-year longitudinal study. Participants were assessed prospectively for EA up to age 5 and recent chronic stress and depressive symptoms at age 20 and genotyped for CRHR1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs110402 and 5-HTTLPR. EA predicted stronger associations between recent chronic stress and depression, and the effect was moderated by genes. CRHR1 A alleles and 5-HTTLPR short alleles were associated with greater stress sensitization (i.e., greater depressive reactivity to chronic stress for those also exposed to high levels of EA). The results are consistent with the notion that EA exposure results in neurobiological and cognitive-emotional consequences (e.g., altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning), leading to emotional distress in the face of recent stressors among those with certain genetic characteristics, although further research is needed to explore explanatory mechanisms. PMID:25422958

Starr, Lisa R; Hammen, Constance; Conway, Christopher C; Raposa, Elizabeth; Brennan, Patricia A

2014-11-01

94

Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

2003-01-01

95

The early Holocene Milankovitch thermal maximum and humans: adverse conditions for the Denali complex of eastern Beringia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calibration of 14C ages has forced the revision of paleoecological relationships with the Milankovitch thermal maximum, 10,000–9000cal BP (Edwards and Barker, Palaeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 109 (1994) 127. In eastern Beringia, paleo-geographic factors had dramatic consequences for humans, many represented by the Late Pleistocene–early Holocene (13,000–7000cal BP) Denali complex. Calibration of 71radiocarbon ages associated with Denali occupations indicates that the earliest

Owen K. Mason; Peter M. Bowers; David M. Hopkins

2001-01-01

96

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp. PMID:22958647

2012-01-01

97

Role of Erythrocytes as a Reservoir for Ribavirin and Relationship with Adverse Reactions in the Early Phase of Interferon Combination Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

We investigated the relationship between serum ribavirin concentrations and clearance, as well as therapeutic efficacy and adverse reactions, in 97 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections treated with a 6-month course of high-dose alpha2b interferon (6 million units/day) plus ribavirin (600 to 800 mg/day) combination therapy. This randomized trial showed that the saturation of ribavirin uptake after taking ribavirin capsules does not occur within a dose range of 600 to 800 mg/day, which is a standard dosage used clinically in Japan. Serum ribavirin concentrations and clearance did not correlate with sustained virological response rates. Fourteen patients discontinued therapy because of adverse reactions, and sustained virological response rates were significantly reduced by discontinuation of therapy, while dose reduction of ribavirin did not alter the therapeutic effects. Ribavirin concentrations after 1 week and ribavirin clearance were significantly correlated with discontinuation of ribavirin; however, a multiple-regression analysis revealed that only hemoglobin concentration, but not ribavirin clearance, was a significant factor for discontinuation of therapy (odds ratio, 0.514; 95% confidence interval, 0.311 to 0.85; P = 0.0095). It appears that peripheral erythrocytes may act as a reservoir for ribavirin and regulate serum ribavirin levels in the very early phase of treatment. PMID:17021083

Saito, Hidetsugu; Tada, Shinichiro; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Ishii, Hiromasa; Kashiwazaki, Kazuo; Takahashi, Masahiko; Tsukada, Nobuhiro; Nishida, Jiro; Tanaka, Shin; Shiozaki, Hiroshi; Hibi, Toshifumi

2006-01-01

98

The effects of early-life adversity on fear memories in adolescent rats and their persistence into adulthood.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by extensive morphological and functional remodeling of the brain. The processes of brain maturation during this period may unmask malfunctions that originate earlier in life as a consequence of early-life stress (ELS). This is associated with the emergence of many psychopathologies during adolescence, particularly affective spectrum disorders. In the present study, we applied a maternal separation (MS) procedure (3h/day, on postnatal days 1-14) as a model of ELS to examine its effects on the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear memories in adolescent rats. Additionally, we studied the persistence of these memories into adulthood. We found that MS decreased the expression of both contextual (CFC) and auditory (AFC) fear conditioning in adolescent rats. Besides, MS had no impact on the acquisition of extinction learning. During the recall of extinction MS animals both, those previously subjected and not subjected to the extinction session, exhibited equally low levels of freezing. In adulthood, the MS animals (conditioned during adolescence) still displayed impairments in the expression of AFC (only in males) and CFC. Furthermore, the MS procedure had also an impact on the expression of CFC (but not AFC) after retraining in adulthood. Our findings imply that ELS may permanently affect fear learning and memory. The results also support the hypothesis that, depending on individual predispositions and further experiences, ELS may either lead to a resilience or a vulnerability to early- and late-onsets psychopathologies. PMID:24508235

Chocyk, Agnieszka; Przyborowska, Aleksandra; Makuch, Wioletta; Majcher-Ma?lanka, Iwona; Dudys, Dorota; W?dzony, Krzysztof

2014-05-01

99

Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = ?1.714 (?3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (?0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

2013-01-01

100

Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored. PMID:22280100

Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

2013-01-01

101

Radiation environment and shielding for early manned Mars missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of shielding a crew during early manned Mars missions is discussed. Requirements for shielding are presented in the context of current astronaut exposure limits, natural ionizing radiation sources, and shielding inherent in a particular Mars vehicle configuration. An estimated range for shielding weight is presented based on the worst solar flare dose, mission duration, and inherent vehicle shielding.

Hall, Stephen B.; Mccann, Michael E.

1986-01-01

102

Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments  

EPA Science Inventory

Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

103

Functional Analysis of the Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: Incorporating Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper…

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2008-01-01

104

Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

2012-01-01

105

Early Delivery Totally Ordered Multicast in Asynchronous Environments  

E-print Network

the construction of a multi­ cast service, called agreed multicast, that guarantees that messages arrive reliably at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. This service is desired in distributed systems, and supports high level membership service, ToTo can operate in a dynamic environment, and continue to form an agreed total order

Hebrew University of Jerusalem

106

Early Family Environments of Obese and Non-Obese College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although case studies and anecdotal information have suggested that differences exist between the early family environments of obese and non-obese individuals, no experimental research exists. Undergraduates completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a questionnaire concerning past and present weight information. Subjects were classified as…

Hailey, B. Jo; Sison, Gustave F. P., Jr.

107

Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.  

PubMed

The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology. PMID:25640835

van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

2015-02-01

108

Links Between Hydrothermal Environments, Pyrophosphate, Na + , and Early Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation\\u000a of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported\\u000a PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is\\u000a a H+-pump, and like the Na+-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na+-pump,

Nils G. Holm; Herrick Baltscheffsky

2011-01-01

109

The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil assemblage is at treeline and higher on Isla Navarino (55°S) at the southern tip of South America. By mid-Miocene, the upland tundra biota was less diverse, most notably in the number of angiosperm taxa. Based on the autecology and geographic distributions of the descendants of the fossil biota which survive in the subantarctic islands, South America and Tasmania, there was a decline of mean summer temperatures from c. 6°C to c. 4°C from the early to the mid-Miocene. During the early Miocene, the MST of the TAM was c.19°C warmer than today. A paleotemperature estimate based on leaf waxes from a Ross Sea core is for a MST 11°C warmer than today which seems low considering it is based on a near sea-level vegetation. A recent paper utilizing a salt-hydration process to provide adequate moisture to support a Miocene tundra biota is based on erroneous data. The Miocene climate was wet with an annual precipitation of at least 3000 mm. A recent report of the possible survival of vegetation in the Taylor Valley until the Pliocene, based on the discovery of 5 Ma wood-like forms in a DVDP core, is improbable. Even if wood can be definitively identified from the Pliocene deposits it is likely to be reworked Miocene wood from uplands in the TAM (e.g. Friis Hills). Research supported by NSF OPP 0739693.

Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

2012-12-01

110

Implications for the Earth of the early dynamical environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The formation of the Earth, was mainly from sizeable bodies: perhaps moon sized. Models of interaction among small planetesimals which take into account only close encounters all lead to the formation of moon sized objects, thus leading to several 100 in the inner solar system. Longer term interactions, such as secular resonance sweepings, are needed to get these planetesimals together to form the observed terrestrial bodies. After the accumulation of the Earth, during which core formation certainly occurred, further impacts probably influenced the locations of rifting centers in the system of mantle convection and crustal differentiation. They may have affected craton stabilization by promoting lateral heterogeneity, but had little influence on the key problem of early recycling of sial.

Kaula, W. M.; Cooperman, S. A.

1985-01-01

111

Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

112

Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

113

Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children  

PubMed Central

Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

2009-01-01

114

Effect of Early Rearing Environment and Tail Docking on Later Behaviour and Production in Fattening Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of early rearing environment and tail docking on behaviour and production of fattening pigs was investigated in 576 cross-bred pigs. Half of the pigs came from four commercial pig units with tethered or otherwise confined sows, 4 weeks' weaning, little space per piglet and no use of straw. The other half of the pigs came from another four

Henrik B. Simonsen

1995-01-01

115

Those Who Have, Receive: The Matthew Effect in Early Childhood Intervention in the Home Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are preventive early childhood interventions effective in improving home environments, as assessed with the HOME inventory (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984)? The authors traced 48 published articles, presenting 56 intervention effects (N = 7,350). The combined effect size on the HOME total score was d = 0.20 (p less than 0.001). Randomized intervention…

Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bradley, Robert H.

2005-01-01

116

A Longitudinal Assessment of the Home Literacy Environment and Early Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal assessment concentrated on the relation between the home literacy environment (HLE) and early language acquisition during infancy and toddlerhood. In study 1, after controlling for socio-economic status, a broadly defined HLE predicted language comprehension in 50 infants. In study 2, 27 children returned for further analyses.…

Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.; Friend, Margaret

2011-01-01

117

Social Factors in the Development of Early Executive Functioning: A Closer Look at the Caregiving Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated prospective links between quality of the early caregiving environment and children's subsequent executive functioning (EF). Sixty-two families were met on five occasions, allowing for assessment of maternal interactive behavior, paternal interactive behavior, and child attachment security between 1 and 2 years of age, and…

Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Deschenes, Marie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

2012-01-01

118

Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account. PMID:21241479

2011-01-01

119

Detecting Adverse Events Using Information Technology  

PubMed Central

Context: Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology techniques can detect some adverse events in a timely and cost-effective way, in some cases early enough to prevent patient harm. Objective: To review methodologies of detecting adverse events using information technology, reports of studies that used these techniques to detect adverse events, and study results for specific types of adverse events. Design: Structured review. Methodology: English-language studies that reported using information technology to detect adverse events were identified using standard techniques. Only studies that contained original data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Adverse events, with specific focus on nosocomial infections, adverse drug events, and injurious falls. Results: Tools such as event monitoring and natural language processing can inexpensively detect certain types of adverse events in clinical databases. These approaches already work well for some types of adverse events, including adverse drug events and nosocomial infections, and are in routine use in a few hospitals. In addition, it appears likely that these techniques will be adaptable in ways that allow detection of a broad array of adverse events, especially as more medical information becomes computerized. Conclusion: Computerized detection of adverse events will soon be practical on a widespread basis. PMID:12595401

Bates, David W.; Evans, R. Scott; Murff, Harvey; Stetson, Peter D.; Pizziferri, Lisa; Hripcsak, George

2003-01-01

120

Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with

Teresa Tamayo; Christian Herder; Wolfgang Rathmann

2010-01-01

121

Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

Hadeed, Julie

2014-01-01

122

Gene–Environment Interactions and Intermediate Phenotypes: Early Trauma and Depression  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

Hornung, Orla P.; Heim, Christine M.

2013-01-01

123

Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

124

Glucocorticoids in early rheumatoid arthritis: are the benefits of joint-sparing effects offset by the adverse effect of osteoporosis? the effects on bone in the utrecht study and the CAMERA-II study.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the clinical effects on bone of 10 mg of prednisone daily in early rheumatoid arthritis, given for 2 years in the Utrecht Study and in the second CAMERA (Computer- Assisted Management in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis) Study, and addresses the question whether there were joint-sparing effects and whether these were offset by adverse effects, especially osteoporosis. We conclude that a 2-year adjunct treatment with 10 mg of prednisone daily increases the benefits of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy and has joint-sparing properties, even if added to the tight control methotrexate-based strategy aiming for remission. Importantly, with good control of inflammation and adequate use of calcium, vitamin D and bisphosphonates - according to national or international guidelines - steroid-induced osteoporosis is rare over 2 years. PMID:25228126

Jacobs, Johannes W G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Laar, Jacob M

2015-01-01

125

Profiles of Family-focused Adverse Experiences through Childhood and Early Adolescence: The ROOTS Project, a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

E-print Network

environment persists over the first 15 years of life. Different profiles of family risk may be associated with specific mental disorders in young people. Sex differences in psychopathologies may be most pronounced in those exposed to low levels of family...

Dunn, Valerie J; Abbott, Rosemary A; Croudace, Tim J; Wilkinson, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

2011-07-07

126

Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development  

EPA Science Inventory

The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

127

Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

2008-01-01

128

Role of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in detecting early adverse remodeling and subacute ventricular wall rupture complicating myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ventricular free wall rupture is a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction accounting for a significant proportion\\u000a of in-patient deaths. Various imaging modalities including two-dimensional and contrast echocardiography have been applied\\u000a for the early diagnosis of free wall rupture. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has recently gained favor as a tool providing\\u000a accurate diagnosis and visualization of the site of rupture

Unni Krishnan; Gerry P. McCann; Mark Hickey; Matthias Schmitt

2008-01-01

129

Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

Lee, Sunyoung

130

Early Developmental Responses to Seedling Environment Modulate Later Plasticity to Light Spectral Quality  

PubMed Central

Correlations between developmentally plastic traits may constrain the joint evolution of traits. In plants, both seedling de-etiolation and shade avoidance elongation responses to crowding and foliage shade are mediated by partially overlapping developmental pathways, suggesting the possibility of pleiotropic constraints. To test for such constraints, we exposed inbred lines of Impatiens capensis to factorial combinations of leaf litter (which affects de-etiolation) and simulated foliage shade (which affects phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance). Increased elongation of hypocotyls caused by leaf litter phenotypically enhanced subsequent elongation of the first internode in response to low red?far red (R?FR). Trait expression was correlated across litter and shade conditions, suggesting that phenotypic effects of early plasticity on later plasticity may affect variation in elongation traits available to selection in different light environments. PMID:22479538

von Wettberg, Eric J. B.; Stinchcombe, John R.; Schmitt, Johanna

2012-01-01

131

Landscape genetics of an early successional specialist in a disturbance-prone environment.  

PubMed

Species that specialize in disturbed habitats may have considerably different dispersal strategies than those adapted to more stable environments. However, little is known of the dispersal patterns and population structure of such species. This information is important for conservation because many postfire specialists are at risk from anthropogenic changes to natural disturbance regimes. We used microsatellite markers to assess the effect of landscape variation and recent disturbance history on dispersal by a small mammal species that occupies the early seral stage of vegetation regeneration in burnt environments. We predicted that a postfire specialist would be able to disperse over multiple habitat types (generalist) and not exhibit sex-biased dispersal, as such strategies should enable effective colonization of spatially and temporally variable habitat. We found significant differentiation between sites that fitted an isolation-by-distance pattern and spatial autocorrelation of multilocus genotypes to a distance of 2-3 km. There was no consistent genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal. We tested the influence of different habitat- and fire-specific landscape resistance scenarios on genetic distance between individuals and found a significant effect of fire. Our genetic data supported recently burned vegetation having greater conductance for gene flow than unburnt habitat, but variation in habitat quality between vegetation types and occupied patches had no effect on gene flow. Postfire specialists must evolve an effective dispersal ability to move over distances that would ensure access to early successional stage vegetation. Natural disturbance and natural heterogeneity may therefore not influence population genetic structure as negatively as expected. PMID:23379886

Pereoglou, F; Lindenmayer, D B; MacGregor, C; Ford, F; Wood, J; Banks, S C

2013-03-01

132

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

133

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments  

PubMed Central

The composition of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter’s Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Holland, Gregory P.; Williams, Lynda B.

2013-01-01

134

Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Brauta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

Sedinger, J.S.; Herzog, M.P.; Ward, D.H.

2004-01-01

135

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments.  

PubMed

The composition of the Sutter's Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter's Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K; Holland, Gregory P; Williams, Lynda B

2013-09-24

136

Risk factors for the development of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients lead to increased morbidity, mortality and costs. Early detection of adverse drug events could aid in the prevention of these adverse outcomes. A cost-effective system for the early detection of adverse drug events should focus on high risk patients. A study was set up with the primary aim to identify characteristics that are associated

P. M. L. A. van den Bemt; A. C. G. Egberts; A. W. Lenderink; J. M. Verzijl; K. A. Simons; W. S. C. J. M. van der Pol; H. G. M. Leufkens

2000-01-01

137

Psychopathology and adversities from early- to late-adolescence: a general population follow-up study with the CBCL DSM-Oriented Scales.  

PubMed

Aims. Adolescence is a critical transition phase between childhood and adulthood, when the burden of mental disorder may still be prevented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the continuity and discontinuity of behavioural problems in adolescence while taking into account the multiple co-variation of psychopathological traits and the complex role of recent stressful life events (SLEs). Methods. This is a 5-year follow-up investigation of emotional and behavioural problems assessed by the newly developed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) DSM-Oriented Scales (DOSs) in 420 general population subjects aged 15-19 years. Results. The DOSs showed good stability, even when multiple co-variation was taken into account. Longitudinal data showed that homotypic evolution of psychopathology was to be expected in the first place. Equifinality and multifinality were also found. Oppositional Defiant Problems emerged to be polyvalent predictors of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, Oppositional Defiant Problems predicted more SLEs, which in turn predicted more Depression, Anxiety and Oppositional Defiant Problems. Mediational analyses confirmed the role of SLEs in partially accounting for the continuity of Oppositional Defiant Problems and for the heterotypic progression towards Affective Problems. Conclusions. These data underscore early adolescence behavioural problems as an important focus for primary and secondary intervention. PMID:22794669

Nobile, M; Colombo, P; Bellina, M; Molteni, M; Simone, D; Nardocci, F; Carlet, O; Battaglia, M

2013-03-01

138

Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Female Sex Offenders.  

PubMed

This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

2014-09-10

139

Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

2013-01-01

140

Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival compared to wives of centenarians' brothers. This finding demonstrates an important role of shared familial environment and lifestyle in human longevity. The results of this study suggest that familial background, early-life conditions and midlife characteristics play an important role in longevity.

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2014-01-01

141

Do theory of mind and executive function deficits underlie the adverse outcomes associated with profound early deprivation?: findings from the English and Romanian adoptees study.  

PubMed

Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of whom 144 were adopted into the UK from deprived institutional settings before 43months of age, and a group of 52 within-UK adoptees, all adopted before 6months of age. Both groups were assessed at 6 and 11years. The Strange Stories task was used to assess ToM and the Stroop task was used to assess EF, both at age 11. The Romanian adoptees displayed deficits in both ToM and EF compared with the within-UK adoptee group. The degree of deficit was greater for children who had experienced more than 6months of institutional deprivation. Deficits in both domains (ToM and EF) were associated with each of the three apparently deprivation-specific problems, namely quasi-autism, disinhibited attachment and inattention/overactivity. Statistical analyses indicated a mediating role for both ToM and EF with respect to quasi-autism; possibly a partial mediating role for EF with respect to inattention/overactivity; and probably no mediating role for either ToM or EF in the case of disinhibited attachment. In conclusion, there is evidence for a possible mediating role for ToM and EF in the development of some apparently deprivation-specific difficulties in institution-reared Romanian adoptees, but neither accounts for the overall pattern of deprivation-related difficulties. PMID:18427975

Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

2008-10-01

142

Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central part of the Dinarides in Croatia, the Early Triassic depositional sequence was investigated by means of litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy at locality Plavno (ca. 1.000m thick). Conodont and ?13C-isotope analysis were a powerfull tool to determine stage and substage boundaries. The succession begins with the second conodont zone of the Griesbachian Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica with low ?13C-values and a steadily increase towards the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. Around that boundary a minor, short, negative excursion occurs. In the Dienerian the ?13C-values increase with a steepening of the slope towards the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. Around that boundary a maximum of +5o in shallow water carbonate occurs followed by a steep and continuous drop to low, often negative values in the Smithian. Just before the Smithian-Spathian boundary a steep rise to a second maximum is documented. It is followed by decline in the Spathian and a gentle increase to a rounded peak at the Spathian-Anisian boundary. In lithological sense Plavno succession has threefold division: 1) carbonates representing the oldest Early Triassic strata (early Griesbachian); 2) dominantly red clastics (shales, siltstones and sandstones) with intercalation of oncoid/ooid or bioclast rich grainstones (uppermost Griesbachian, Dienerian and Smithian) and 3) dominantly grey carbonaceous lime mudstones, marls and calcisiltites with ammonoids representing Spathian strata. In the oldest strata (Griesbachian) in macrocrystalline subhedral dolomites rare microspheres and foraminifers Earlandia and Cornuspira point to the stressful conditions related to the end Permian mass extinction. In the uppermost Griesbachian and Dienerian strata, within dominantly clastic deposition, rare coarse oncoliths with typical microbial cortices occur. Their presence fits to the interpretation of biotical-induced precipitation related to PTB extinction and can suggest still stressful condition. The Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

Aljinovi?, Dunja; Smir?i?, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

2014-05-01

143

Early Developing Pig Embryos Mediate Their Own Environment in the Maternal Tract  

PubMed Central

The maternal tract plays a critical role in the success of early embryonic development providing an optimal environment for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Preparation of this environment requires an intimate dialogue between the embryo and her mother. However, many intriguing aspects remain unknown in this unique communication system. To advance our understanding of the process by which a blastocyst is accepted by the endometrium and better address the clinical challenges of infertility and pregnancy failure, it is imperative to decipher this complex molecular dialogue. The objective of the present work is to define the local response of the maternal tract towards the embryo during the earliest stages of pregnancy. We used a novel in vivo experimental model that eliminated genetic variability and individual differences, followed by Affymetrix microarray to identify the signals involved in this embryo-maternal dialogue. Using laparoscopic insemination one oviduct of a sow was inseminated with spermatozoa and the contralateral oviduct was injected with diluent. This model allowed us to obtain samples from the oviduct and the tip of the uterine horn containing either embryos or oocytes from the same sow. Microarray analysis showed that most of the transcripts differentially expressed were down-regulated in the uterine horn in response to blastocysts when compared to oocytes. Many of the transcripts altered in response to the embryo in the uterine horn were related to the immune system. We used an in silico mathematical model to demonstrate the role of the embryo as a modulator of the immune system. This model revealed that relatively modest changes induced by the presence of the embryo could modulate the maternal immune response. These findings suggested that the presence of the embryo might regulate the immune system in the maternal tract to allow the refractory uterus to tolerate the embryo and support its development. PMID:22470458

Almiñana, Carmen; Heath, Paul R.; Wilkinson, Stephen; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Cuello, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A.; Vazquez, Jose L.; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A.; Fazeli, Alireza

2012-01-01

144

Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

145

Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  

PubMed

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

146

Early Adverse Experience Increases Emotional Reactivity  

E-print Network

is associated with psychopa- thology, including anxiety, mood and conduct disorders, impulsivity, and aggression with externalizing problems (e.g., aggres- sion, impulsivity, conduct disorders, delinquency) or comorbid Spelman College Athens 5 Department of Psychiatry University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC

Maestripieri, Dario

147

Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

Inoue, Kenji

2014-01-01

148

Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

149

Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.  

PubMed

Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

2015-03-01

150

A STEP AP224 agent-based early manufacturability assessment environment using XML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early design assessment activities have a significant impact on reducing the cost of manufacture. The efficient utilisation\\u000a of the product development time and the level of coordination of the early design activities between the major stakeholders\\u000a are becoming key factors for success in manufacturing today. The paper reports on a new distributed early design manufacturability\\u000a assessment methodology using collaborative autonomous

O. Medani; S. M. Ratchev

2006-01-01

151

Does the quality of stimulation and support in the home environment moderate the effect of early education programs?  

PubMed

The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families from 17 program sites. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the interaction of EHS with (a) early maternal emotional warmth and (b) provision of a stimulating home environment on children's development at ages 3 and 5. Findings showed EHS sometimes differentially benefited children who came from households where the levels of warmth and stimulation were lowest. However, there was evidence of other forms of moderation as well. PMID:22004351

Bradley, Robert H; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

2011-01-01

152

Caregiver-Child Interactions and Early Literacy Development of Preschool Children from Low-Income Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed early literacy skills and expressive and receptive vocabulary skills in 39 Head Start children and correlated skills with measures of caregiver/child interactions observed in the home. Degree of caregiver involvement, rate of language interactions, and participation in early literacy activities were related to literacy and…

Rush, Karen L.

1999-01-01

153

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

154

Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

155

Epigenetics of Early Child Development  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood. To date, the study of gene–environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene–environment interactions can predispose individuals toward psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene–environment dialog in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give rise to lasting epigenetic marks conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions. PMID:21647402

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2011-01-01

156

The Role of the Early-Life Environment in the Development of Allergic Disease.  

PubMed

A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

2015-02-01

157

Postmarketing adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Summary Physicians play an important role in recognizing and reporting suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Physicians can report suspected ADRs directly to the FDA via its MedWatch program, by contacting the manufacturer of the drug, and by publishing case reports. While this takes time, physicians have an ethical obligation to participate in recognizing and reporting ADR. PMID:24195018

Bourdette, Dennis

2013-01-01

158

Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes,\\u000a the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have\\u000a a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded\\u000a in some cases. Only the most

Bo Abrahamsen

2010-01-01

159

GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Renzini, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Cimatti, A. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chary, R.-R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-08-01

160

Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2012-01-01

161

Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

2012-01-01

162

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents

S L Anzman; B Y Rollins; L L Birch

2010-01-01

163

Developmental plasticity of human reproductive development: Effects of early family environment in modern-day France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a first study, we investigated how the absence of a father and the presence of a stepfather during early childhood affected physiological and behavioral traits related to reproductive development (such as age of menarche, age of first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners) in a large sample set of male and female French university students. We evaluated which

Alexandra Alvergne; Charlotte Faurie; Michel Raymond

2008-01-01

164

Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes  

PubMed Central

During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

2012-01-01

165

Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

Hu, Bi Ying

2015-01-01

166

Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

Ernst, Julie

2014-01-01

167

Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cuttings recovered from two deep exploratory wells in the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, include fossiliferous marine deposits that offer an uncommon opportunity to study paleoenvironments from the deep subsurface in Hawaii and interpret the paleogeography and geologic history of Kauai. These deposits indicate that two marine incursions gave rise to protected shallow-water, low-energy embayments in the southern part of the Lihue Basin in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. During the first marine incursion, the embayment was initially zoned, with a variable-salinity environment nearshore and a normal-marine reef environment offshore. The offshore reef environment eventually evolved to a nearshore, variable-salinity environment as the outer part of the embayment shallowed. During the second marine incursion, the embayment had normal-marine to hypersaline conditions, which constitute a significant departure from the variable-salinity environment present during the first marine incursion. Large streams draining the southern Lihue Basin are a likely source of the freshwater that caused the salinity fluctuations evident in the fossils from the first marine incursion. Subsequent volcanic eruptions produced lava flows that buried the embayment and probably diverted much of the stream flow in the southern Lihue Basin northward, to its present point of discharge north of Kalepa Ridge. As a result, the embayment that formed during the second marine incursion received less freshwater, and a normal-marine to hypersaline environment developed. The shallow-water marine deposits, currently buried between 86 m and 185 m below present sea level, have implications for regional tectonics and global eustasy. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Izuka, S.K.; Resig, J.M.

2008-01-01

168

The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

1993-01-01

169

Age and rearing environment interact in the retention of early olfactory memories in honeybees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the changing behavioral contexts at which social insects are exposed during the adult lifespan, they are ideal models\\u000a to analyze the effect of particular sensory stimuli during young adulthood on later behavior. Specifically, our goal is to\\u000a understand early influences on later foraging behavior. For that, olfactory memories were established by worker honeybees\\u000a to different pre-foraging ages using

Andrés Arenas; Walter M. Farina

2008-01-01

170

A Hundred Ways of Listening: Gathering Children's Perspectives of Their Early Childhood Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how young children can play active roles as researchers, explorers, and designers of their outdoor environment. It introduces the Mosaic approach, a framework for listening and responding to young children's perspectives, first developed in a study in a London preschool in 1999 (Clark & Moss 2001). The author used this…

Clark, Alison

2007-01-01

171

Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

2014-01-01

172

Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

2013-01-01

173

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

174

Nature and nurture of early-type dwarf galaxies in low density environments  

E-print Network

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [alpha/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

2010-01-01

175

Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [?/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [?/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

176

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

177

ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421518

2013-01-01

178

ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421544

2013-01-01

179

ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24474829

2013-01-01

180

Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth underwent a protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The slowness of the recovery process may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (?13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (?34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity proxies. Unlike the positive ?13Ccarb-?34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic, the SSB at Shitouzhai exhibits negative covariation between ?13Ccarb (+4‰) and ?34SCAS (-14‰). This relationship may reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with oxidation of isotopically light H2S, a pattern that we attribute to enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deepwaters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was a likely response to the well-documented climatic cooling event at the SSB that terminated the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian, a cooling that we infer to have transiently invigorated the global-ocean overturning circulation. Evidence at Shitouzhai for concurrent decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment influx are also consistent with climatic cooling. A penecontemporaneous decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum rather than the SSB event itself, and the affected marine faunas did not recover immediately in response to climatic and environmental amelioration at the SSB but, rather, underwent a stepwise recovery during the early to middle Spathian. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to reduced intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, R.; Chen, L.; Hou, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, H.; Feng, X.; Lu, Z.; Wang, X.; Huang, Y.

2014-11-01

181

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-01-01

182

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-05-01

183

[Cutaneous adverse drug reactions.  

PubMed

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

2014-11-01

184

Telomere loss in relation to age and early environment in long-lived birds.  

PubMed Central

Shortening of telomeres, specific nucleotide repeats that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, is thought to play an important role in cellular and organismal senescence. We examined telomere dynamics in two long-lived seabirds, the European shag and the wandering albatross. Telomere length in blood cells declines between the chick stage and adulthood in both species. However, among adults, telomere length is not related to age. This is consistent with reports of most telomere loss occurring early in life in other vertebrates. Thus, caution must be used in estimating annual rates of telomere loss, as these are probably not constant with age. We also measured changes within individuals in the wild, using repeat samples taken from individual shags as chicks and adults. We found high inter-individual variation in the magnitude of telomere loss, much of which was explained by circumstances during growth. Individuals laying down high tissue mass for their size showed greater telomere shortening. Independently of this, individuals born late in the season showed more telomere loss. Early conditions, possibly through their effects on oxidative stress, appear to play an important role in telomere attrition and thus potentially in the longevity of individuals. PMID:15306302

Hall, Margaret E.; Nasir, Lubna; Daunt, Francis; Gault, Elizabeth A.; Croxall, John P.; Wanless, Sarah; Monaghan, Pat

2004-01-01

185

Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.  

PubMed

This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

2014-05-28

186

Neonatal seizures: Predictors of adverse outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Early detection of predictors of adverse outcome will be helpful for neonatologists to plan management, follow up and rehabilitation in advance so that neurological disability can be minimised. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting the adverse outcome of neonatal seizures. Settings and Design: This is a prospective study conducted in the neonatal unit of a tertiary care hospital. One hundred and eight newborns consecutively admitted with seizures were included in this study. Materials and Methods: Data was collected regarding perinatal history and seizure and evaluated for etiology. We conducted a retrospective analysis to identify the factors associated with adverse outcome after neonatal seizures. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test with degree of freedom = 1 was used to find the variables significantly associated with adverse outcome (P < 0.05). Results: Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score at 5 min, seizure onset <24 hrs, status epilepticus, radiological findings and EEG findings were significantly associated with outcome. Conclusion: Mortality and severe neurological impairment after neonatal seizure is associated with prematurity, LBW, low Apgar score at 5 min, etiologies like meningitis, sepsis, severe HIE, brain malformations, grade 3 or 4 IVH or intracranial haemorrhage, seizure onset <24 hours, presence of status epilepticus, severely abnormal radiological and EEG findings. PMID:25250059

Anand, Veena; Nair, P. M. C.

2014-01-01

187

Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

2012-04-01

188

Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention. PMID:24847438

2014-01-01

189

A Wicked Problem: Early Childhood Safety in the Dynamic, Interactive Environment of Home  

PubMed Central

Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents’ perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both “upstream” and “downstream” causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The “wicked problems” model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on ‘tame solutions’ that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453

Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

2013-01-01

190

Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major rivers during early-middle Miocene. The younger Los Chorros sediments show Sr and Nd values comparable to those nowadays found in the Solimões region, indicating an Andean source existed already during early-middle Miocene times. Lipid biomarkers were identified and quantified and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter for whole samples were determined to identify the sources of organic matter. Ratio's between typically terrestrial and aquatic GDGTs indicate shifts between more terrestrial settings and more aquatic settings. Intervals which suggest a more aquatic setting often contain marine palynomorphs and thus could result from a marine incursion at the time. Changes in the overall composition of biomarker lipids at each site reflects the diversity and dynamic features of the wetland. Differences in both provenance and biomarker composition between the two sites demonstrate the diversity within the basin. This diversity could either be geographical diversity since the two sites are located about 380 km from each other. Or, considering the differences in age between the two sites of 2-5 Myrs, it could also reflect the fast changing environmental conditions as a result of Andean uplift. Hoorn, C. et al (2010). The Development of the Amazonian Mega-Wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia). In: C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh (eds) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 123- 142. Marshall, L.G., Lundberg, J.G. (1996) Miocene deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin. Science 273, 123-124.

van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2014-05-01

191

A NICMOS Survey of Early-Type Galaxy Centers: The Relation Between Core Properties, Gas and Dust Content and Environment  

E-print Network

We present a NICMOS 1.6 micron imaging isophotal study of 27 early-type galaxies. Our selected sample is not as biased against dusty galaxies as the visible WFPC samples observed with HST. Core galaxies have reduced ellipticity and boxiness near and within their core or break radius. This supports a core formation mechanism which mixes or scatters stars such as scattering caused by a binary black hole. We find no correlation between core properties and dust mass or X-ray luminosity, suggesting that processes determining the current gas content (e.g., such as minor mergers and cooling flows) are unrelated to processes occurring during core formation. Core galaxies exist in a variety of environments ranging from poor groups to large clusters. A combined sample suggests that galaxy groups may harbor more luminous power law galaxies than clusters such as Virgo and Fornax.

A. C. Quillen; Gary A. Bower; M. Stritzinger

1999-07-01

192

Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

Margulis, L.

1981-01-01

193

How early aging and environment interact in everyday listening: from brainstem to behavior through modeling.  

PubMed

We recently showed that listeners with normal hearing thresholds vary in their ability to direct spatial attention and that ability is related to the fidelity of temporal coding in the brainstem. Here, we recruited additional middle-aged listeners and extended our analysis of the brainstem response, measured using the frequency-following response (FFR). We found that even though age does not predict overall selective attention ability, middle-aged listeners are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of reverberant energy than young adults. We separated the overall FFR into orthogonal envelope and carrier components and used an existing model to predict which auditory channels drive each component. We find that responses in mid- to high-frequency auditory channels dominate envelope FFR, while lower-frequency channels dominate the carrier FFR. Importantly, we find that which component of the FFR predicts selective attention performance changes with age. We suggest that early aging degrades peripheral temporal coding in mid-to-high frequencies, interfering with the coding of envelope interaural time differences. We argue that, compared to young adults, middle-aged listeners, who do not have strong temporal envelope coding, have more trouble following a conversation in a reverberant room because they are forced to rely on fragile carrier ITDs that are susceptible to the degrading effects of reverberation. PMID:23716257

Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara; Ruggles, Dorea R; Bharadwaj, Hari

2013-01-01

194

Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the south where coal beds are preserved, and more arid in the north where evaporites and eolian deposits are common. Fluctuations in paleoclimate that caused lake levels to rise and fall in hydrologically closed basins are preserved as lacustrine cycles of various scales, including major shifts in the Late Triassic from a wet Carnian to an arid Norian. In contrast, fluvial deposits were mainly formed in response to the tectonic evolution of the basins, but to some extent also reflect climatic changes. The Newark Supergroup illustrates the complexity of rift-basin sedimentation and the problems that may arise from using a single modern analog for sedimentary deposition spanning millions of years. It also shows that a tremendous wealth of depositional, climatic, and tectonic information is preserved in ancient rift-basin deposits which can be recovered if the depositional processes of modern rift-basin deposits are understood. ?? 1991.

Smoot, J.P.

1991-01-01

195

Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens  

PubMed Central

Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

2014-01-01

196

Ion Composition in Saturn's Plasma Environment: Early Results from the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to Cassini s arrival at Saturn, most of what was known about the composition of the plasma in Saturn s environment was derived from limited measurements by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 in 1979-1981[1-3]. The measurements reported here were made by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) [4] during the first two Cassini orbits, including the closest approach to Saturn and the rings during the tour, and a close flyby of Titan. The CAPS instrument resolves ion energy/charge from 1 V to 50 kV and ion mass/charge from 1 to approx.100 amu/e, and it measures electron energy from 1 eV to 28 keV. Initial composition measurements of Saturn s magnetosphere show that protons dominate outside approx.8 R(sub s), while inside this radius the plasma is dominated by a mix of water-derived ions and N(+). Over the A and B rings a plasma layer is observed composed of O2(+) and O(+) . The close passage near Titan shows a rich network of both positive and negative molecular ions. We report preliminary analysis of these and other composition findings.

Reisenfeld, D. B.; Baragiola, R. A.; Crary, F. J.; Coates, A. J.; Goldstein, R.; Hill, T. W.; Johnson, R. E.; McComas, D. J.; Sittler, E. C.; Shappirio, M. D.

2005-01-01

197

Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.  

PubMed

Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

Burnette, Mandi L

2013-08-01

198

Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

2013-01-01

199

Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-? (ESR1)  

PubMed Central

Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

2010-01-01

200

Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics  

PubMed Central

In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

2008-01-01

201

Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the significance of worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-Stage over the last three decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local vs. global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area, the so-called Gutland. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7 ‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global T-CIE with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6 ‰) that is expressed by four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses. With the ongoing effort of high-resolution studies of the Meso-Cenozoic eras, further CIEs are likely to be found, but it has to be remembered that their (global) significance can only be determined via an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical, micropalaeontological and geochemical approach.

Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

2014-04-01

202

Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the significance of the worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-stage over the last 3 decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local versus global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section, however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global Toarcian carbon isotope excursion (T-CIE) with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6‰) expressed as four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses.

Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

2014-08-01

203

Early enriched environment induces an increased conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rat's hippocampus.  

PubMed

An enriched environment has been shown to influence brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF, which is synthesized as a precursor molecule (proBDNF) that undergoes proteolytic cleavage, plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to several brain functions such as memory, learning, and behavior. The neurotrophins and proneurotrophins often play opposite roles in the brain, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage of proneurotrophins controls the action of neurotrophins. However, few studies have focused on the expression and cleavage of proBDNF after exposure to an enriched environment. Our study aimed to explore the effects of an early-enriched environment on the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rats' hippocampus. We found that there was no difference in the expression of proBDNF in the hippocampus between the SE (standard environment) and EE (enriched environment) rats, but a significantly increased BDNF protein level was found in the EE rats. Thus, a remarkably enhanced ratio of BDNF to proBDNF (BDNF/proBDNF) was observed in the EE rats. In addition, the EE resulted in a remarkably up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the hippocampus, which played a key role in converting proBDNF to BDNF in the extracellular space. Furthermore, the expression of synapse-related proteins (NR1 and NR2A) was analyzed, and the results indicated that EE could significantly increase the expression of NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus. In addition, the behavioral results showed that EE reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test and reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, the EE resulted in an increased preference for sucrose compared to the SE. These results suggested that the EE up-regulated MMP-9 levels within the hippocampus, which might facilitate the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, thereby contributing to the long lasting alterations of synaptic plasticity and behavior. PMID:24569010

Cao, Wenyu; Duan, Juan; Wang, Xueqin; Zhong, Xiaolin; Hu, Zhaolan; Huang, Fulian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jianyi; Luo, Xuegang; Li, Chang-Qi

2014-05-15

204

344 loss of constraints imposed by tissue environment activates early signals of cellular reprogramming.  

PubMed

Pluripotency is the ability of one cell to generate every cell type of the 3 germ layers, a property typically owned by embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), with some exceptions; multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are an example. Muse cells, described as pre-existing pluripotent stem cells in mesenchymal tissues (Kuroda et al. 2010) are able to form clusters from single cells in suspension culture, express pluripotency factors and differentiate into cell types of the 3 germ layers, like ESC and iPSC. In addition, Muse cells are proposed to be the only source of cells capable to generate iPSC by current methodologies (Wakao et al. 2011). However, it is unclear whether they are normally present in adult tissue, derive from precursors stem or differentiated cells, or are induced by the in vitro conditions. In our work, we tested the hypothesis that the transition from a committed (tissue) to an uncommitted (in vitro culture) environment triggers in the cells the activation of a default gene circuitry leading to pluripotency. Adult skin fibroblasts were obtained from sheep ear biopsy (n=3) and expanded in vitro (A) or cultured in suspension in hanging drops (B) or in nonadherent dishes (C) in MEM with 10% FBS. In a subsequent experiment, clonal expansion was attempted by culturing single suspension cells in drops of medium (D). Pluripotency was assessed analysing Oct4 and Nanog expression, using real-time PCR (mRNA) and Western blotting (protein), in cultured fibroblasts compared to whole ear biopsy (30-day-old fetus was used as positive control, CTR). Furthermore, in adherent cells (A) and in clusters obtained from suspension culture (B, C, D), Oct4 and Nanog expression was compared by immunofluorescence. We found that while in the ear biopsy not one of these pluripotency markers was expressed, in in vitro-expanded fibroblasts both mRNA and protein expression was detected; mRNA expression value (mean ± s.e.m. relative to CTR) was 0.59±0.18 for Nanog and 0.2±0.07 for Oct4. Moreover, fibroblasts in suspension (B, C, D) were able to form clusters [obtained from 32% (16/50) of single cells, D] similar to those normally obtained with ESC, iPSC. and Muse cells. All the clusters (B, C, D) showed a more intensive signal of Oct4 and Nanog protein compared to adherent cells by immunofluorescence. In the present work we demonstrate that adult somatic cells (skin fibroblasts) express key pluripotency factors, such as OCT4 and Nanog, in both adherent and suspension culture, after removal from the tissue (ear). We can conclude that the simple in vitro culture switches on the expression of pluripotency markers in adult somatic cells. Removal from the context of the tissue probably leads the cells to lose their tissue-specific identity and acquire a new undifferentiated one, which in an optimal condition culture could result in pluripotency. Our interpretation is that reprogramming must be an automatic, default response when differentiated cells are removed from the constraints imposed by a multicellular environment. PMID:25472392

Anzalone, D A; Iuso, D; Toschi, P; Zacchini, F; Ptak, G E; Loi, P

2014-12-01

205

Adverse Event (AE) Reporting and Evaluation  

E-print Network

or significant disability/ incapacity #12;7 Serious Adverse Event continued Any adverse drug experience occurringAdverse Event (AE) Reporting and Evaluation Lisa Wilson CTSC Clinical Research Center (CCRC) UC the identification, assessment, follow-up, and reporting of adverse events and serious adverse events. #12;4 Adverse

Carmichael, Owen

206

Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

207

Class climate moderates peer relations and emotional adjustment in children with an early history of anxious solitude: a Child X Environment model.  

PubMed

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers. As anticipated, children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude were more rejected, poorly accepted (boys), and victimized (girls) by peers and demonstrated more depressive symptoms (girls) in 1st-grade classrooms with negative observed emotional climate. Results support a Child x Environment model of children's social and emotional adjustment. PMID:17087551

Gazelle, Heidi

2006-11-01

208

Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning in subduction and strike-slip environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the application of GPS data to earthquake early warning and investigate whether the coseismic ground deformation can be used to provide fast and reliable magnitude estimations and ground shaking predictions. We use an algorithm to extract the permanent static offset from GPS displacement time series and invert for the slip distribution on the fault plane, which is discretized into a small number of rectangular patches. We developed a completely "self-adapting" strategy in which the initial fault plane model is built based on a quick, approximate magnitude estimation and is then allowed to increase in size based on the evolutionary magnitude estimation resulting from the slip inversion. Two main early warning outputs are delivered in real-time: magnitude and the along-strike extent of the rupture area. These are finally used to predict the expected ground shaking due to the finite source. We tested the proposed strategy by simulating real-time environments for three earthquakes. For the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, our algorithm provides the first magnitude estimate of 8.2 at 39 s after the origin time and then gradually increases to 8.9 at 120 s. The estimated rupture length remains constant from the outset at ~360 km. For the Mw 8.3, 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake, the initial magnitude estimate is 8.5 at 24 s and drops to 8.2 at 40 s with a rupture length of 290 km. Finally, for the Mw 7.2, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the magnitude estimate is 7.0 from the outset with a rupture length of 140 km. The accuracy of the ground shaking prediction using the GPS-based magnitude and finite extent is significantly better than existing seismology-based point source approaches. This approach would also facilitate more rapid tsunami warnings.

Colombelli, Simona; Allen, Richard M.; Zollo, Aldo

2013-07-01

209

Childhood Adversity Increases Risk for Nicotine Dependence and Interacts with ?5 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genotype Specifically in Males  

PubMed Central

The relative importance of specific genetic and environmental factors in regulating nicotine dependence (ND) risk, including the effects on specific forms of childhood adversity on smoking risk, have been understudied. Genome-wide association studies and rodent models have demonstrated that the ?5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene (CHRNA5) is important in regulating nicotine intake. Childhood adversity increases the methylation level of the CHRNA5 promoter region in European Americans (EAs), an effect that was observed only in males (Zhang et al, submitted for publication). In view of this potential sex difference in the effects of early life experience on smoking, we investigated the presence of a sex-specific gene-by-environment effect of this marker on ND risk. A nonsynonymous SNP in CHRNA5 previously associated to ND and several related traits, rs16969968, was genotyped in 2206 EAs (1301 men and 905 women). The main and interactive effects of childhood adversity and rs16969968 genotype on diagnosis of ND and ND defined by dichotomized Fagerstrom test for ND (FTND) scores were explored. Men and women were analyzed separately to test for sex differences. Childhood adversity significantly increased ND risk in both sexes, and the effect in women was twice than that in men. Significant interactive effects of childhood adversity and rs16969968 genotype were observed in men (ND: OR=1.80, 95% CI=1.18–2.73, P=0.0044; FTND: OR=1.79, 95% CI=1.11–2.88, P=0.012). No interaction was found in women. This study provides evidence of a sex-specific gene × environment effect of CHRNA5 and childhood adversity on the risk for ND. PMID:22012472

Xie, Pingxing; Kranzler, Henry R; Zhang, Huiping; Oslin, David; Anton, Raymond F; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

2012-01-01

210

Late Miocene and early Pliocene environments in the southwestern Black Sea region from high-resolution palynology of DSDP Site 380A (Leg 42B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-resolution palynological study has been performed on late Miocene (Messinian) and early Pliocene (Zanclean) sediments cored at DSDP Site 380A (Leg 42B). A late Miocene coastal vegetation has been identified in association with a delta environment. The Pliocene is characterised by competition between the two most important vegetation components, namely humid thermophilous forests and dry steppes, with changes driven

Speranta-Maria Popescu

2006-01-01

211

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

212

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

213

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2010-07-01

214

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2014-07-01

215

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2013-07-01

216

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2012-07-01

217

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

2011-07-01

218

Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through 10 lessons and more than 20 hands-on activities, students are introduced to the concept of an environment and the many interactions within it. As they learn about natural and human-made environments, as well as renewable and non-renewable natural resources, they see how people use our planet's natural resources and the many resulting environmental issues that exist in our world today. Topics include: solid waste disposal; the concepts of reduce, reuse, recycle and compost; the causes and effects of water pollution and the importance of water treatment and clean-up methods; air pollution and air quality and the many engineering technologies to prevent it and clean it up; land use and community planning, seeing how decisions made by people have a long-term impact on our natural world; and renewable energy sources, seeing how solar, water and wind energy can be transformed into electricity. In the hands-on activities, students: create a yarn "web" to identify environmental interactions, which they tally and graph; use Moebius strips (loops of paper with a half twist) to demonstrate the environmental interconnectedness and explore natural cycles (water, oxygen/carbon dioxide, carbon, nitrogen); conduct an environmental issue survey to gather and graph data and use an opinion spectrum; brainstorm ways that they use and waste natural resources; use cookies to simulate the distribution of nonrenewable resources; collect, categorize, weigh and analyze classroom solid waste for a week; build and observe a model landfill; evaluate alternative product packaging; use models to investigate the process and consequences of water contamination; design and build water filters; observe and discuss a balloon model of an electrostatic precipitator; build particulate matter collectors; observe and discuss a model of a wet scrubber; dig into the newspaper's daily air quality index; act as community planning engineers to determine optimal structure placement in a community; investigate the thermal storage properties of sand, salt, water and paper to evaluate their suitability as passive solar thermal mass; design and create models for new waterwheels within time and material constraints; build model anemometers; and create publications to communicate what they have learned.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

219

The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.  

PubMed Central

A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

Cordero, J F

1993-01-01

220

Star formation history of early-type galaxies in low density environments. I. Nuclear line-strength indices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the first of a series \\cite[(Longhetti et al. 1997a,b)]{lon97} dedicated to the study of the star formation history in early-type galaxies which show fine structures and/or signatures of interaction. It presents nuclear line-strength indices for a sample composed of 21 shell galaxies, from the \\cite[Malin & Carter (1983)]{mal83} southern survey, and 30 members of isolated interacting pairs, from the \\cite[Reduzzi & Rampazzo (1995)]{red95} catalogue, located in low density environments. The spectral range covers 3700 Angstroms < lambda < 5700 Angstroms at 2.1 Angstroms FWHM resolution. We measure 16 red (lambda > 4200 Angstroms) indices defined by the Lick Group. Measures have been transformed into the Lick-IDS ``standard'' system. The procedure has been tested on a set of 5 elliptical galaxies selected from the \\cite[Gonzalez (1993)]{gon93} sample. We derive also three blue (lambda < 4200) indices, namely Delta (4000 Angstroms) defined by \\cite[Hamilton (1985)]{ham85}, H+K(CaII) and Hdelta /FeI defined by \\cite[Rose (1984, 1985)]{ros84}. Blue indices are correlated to the age of the last starburst occurred in a galaxy \\cite[(Leonardi & Rose 1996)]{leo96}. The determination of these indices, the estimate of the measurement errors and the correction for the galaxies velocity dispersions are discussed in detail. In the Appendix A we present the indices for a set of hot stars (T> 10000 K) which may be used for extending W92 fitting functions toward high temperatures. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile. Tables 1-8 are also available in electronic form at CDS and Tables 9-15 are only available in electronic form at CDS: via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Longhetti, M.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Chiosi, C.

1998-06-01

221

Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.  

PubMed

Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

2014-04-01

222

The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function  

PubMed Central

Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

2015-01-01

223

Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

2014-07-01

224

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

2005-01-01

225

Do Maternal Stress and Home Environment Mediate the Relation between Early Income-to-Need and 54-Months Attentional Abilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Ecological Systems Theory and stage sequential modelling procedures for detecting mediation, this study examined how early developmental contexts impact preschoolers' performances on a measure of sustained attention and impulse control. Data from 1273 European-American and African-American participants in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care…

Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Khurshid, Ayesha; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

2007-01-01

226

Research review: the neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity.  

PubMed

The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in turn sets the stage for a child's psychological and emotional development. This review provides a concise synopsis of those studies investigating the neurobiological and genetic factors associated with childhood maltreatment and adversity. We first provide an overview of the neuroendocrine findings, drawing from animal and human studies. These studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which can predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then review the neuroimaging findings of structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. These studies offer evidence of several structural differences associated with early stress, most notably in the corpus callosum in children and the hippocampus in adults; functional studies have reported atypical activation of several brain regions, including decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex. Next we consider studies that suggest that the effect of environmental adversity may be conditional on an individual's genotype. We also briefly consider the possible role that epigenetic mechanisms might play in mediating the impact of early adversity. Finally we consider several ways in which the neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention. PMID:20546078

McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

2010-10-01

227

Effect of Two Different Methods of Initiating Atomoxetine on the Adverse Event Profile of Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods for initiating atomoxetine in terms of the incidence of early adverse events. Method: Data on atomoxetine treatment-emergent adverse events in youths, ages 6 to 18 years, were analyzed from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute-phase studies. Two studies involve…

Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao; Feldman, Peter D.

2007-01-01

228

Adverse reaction to intravenous gadoteridol.  

PubMed

Moderate and severe anaphylactoid reactions--while extremely rare--have been reported in association with intravenous administration of gadopentetate dimeglumine. There has been no similar experience related to use of the newly released magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agent gadoteridol. The authors describe a case of vasovagal response and anaphylactoid reaction during intravenous administration of gadoteridol. MR users should be aware of the potential for adverse effects to occur in association with use of gadoteridol and be prepared by implementing appropriate observation procedures for patients receiving this as well as other MR contrast agents. In addition, physiologic monitoring devices and resuscitation equipment should be readily available in the clinical MR setting for proper treatment of patients who may experience moderate to severe adverse reactions. PMID:8372186

Shellock, F G; Hahn, H P; Mink, J H; Itskovich, E

1993-10-01

229

Neonatology and the Environment: Impact of Early Exposure to Airborne Environmental Toxicants on Infant and Child Neurodevelopment  

PubMed Central

Environmental contaminants pose a threat to infant neurodevelopment. In this current paper, we discuss evidence for the potentially harmful impact of fetal and early childhood exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. We focus on effects resulting from chronic and low-level exposure during the prenatal period and early childhood, when the brain is still undergoing rapid developmental changes. PMID:21566672

Rauh, Virginia A.; Horton, Megan K.; Miller, Rachel L.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Perera, Frederica

2010-01-01

230

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glu- cose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter (0.4 mmol per liter)), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter (1.7 mmol per liter)), and an in-

E. Metzger; Lynn P. Lowe; Alan R. Dyer; Elisabeth R. Trimble; Udom Chaovarindr; David R. McCance; Moshe Hod; Helen Schneider; Harold David McIntyre; Jeremy J. N. Oats; B. Persson; M. S. Rogers; D. A. Sacks

2009-01-01

231

Early Life History Variation among Hatchery and Wild-Origin Lake Trout Reared in a Hatchery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatcheries play a key role in augmenting populations for conservation, harvest, or both, although rapid domestication and adaptation to hatchery conditions may lead to fish that are maladapted to natural environments. Three processes may lead to domestication: (1) negative selection against fish adapted to wild environments, (2) positive selection for fish that thrive in artificial conditions, or (3) relaxation of

Jenni L. McDermid; William N. Sloan; Chris C. Wilson; Brian J. Shuter

2010-01-01

232

Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

2013-01-01

233

Linking prenatal and perinatal adversities with child development.  

PubMed

Several professional groups share an interest in the effects of prenatal and perinatal adversities on children's development. The aim is to present a conceptual and methodological framework which will foster multidisciplinary study in this area. Recent evidence and principles about early life adversities, and developmental processes, are reviewed. The limitations of studies which address discrete variables at single points in time are highlighted. The proposal is that reproductive adversities are most effectively conceptualized as perturbations of infants' endogenous and social regulatory systems, which lead to adaptive developmental processes. The origins of maladaptations are to be found not simply in fixed, within-the-child, characteristics but in an understanding of regulatory processes; particularly the regulatory exchange between child and caregivers. A study is used to illustrate the translation of the model into research design. PMID:3304694

St James-Roberts, I

1987-01-01

234

When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.  

PubMed

Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G?×?E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G?×?E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in resilience to stress. Therefore, deeper insight into the role of epigenetic regulation in the process of neurodevelopmental programmes is likely to result in early diagnosis of affective spectrum disorders and will contribute to the design of innovative treatments targeting neural pathways that foster resilience. PMID:21225411

Lesch, Klaus-Peter

2011-01-01

235

Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in Pregnancy: Can Genes Help Us in Predicting Neonatal Adverse Outcome?  

PubMed Central

Lots has been written on use of SSRI during pregnancy and possible short and long term negative outcomes on neonates. the literature so far has described a various field of peripartum illness related to SSRI exposure during foetal life, such as increased incidence of low birth weight, respiratory distress, persistent pulmonary hypertension, poor feeding, and neurobehavioural disease. We know that different degrees of outcomes are possible, and not all the newborns exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy definitely will develop a negative outcome. So far, still little is known about the possible etiologic mechanism that could not only explain the adverse neonatal effects but also the degree of clinical involvement and presentation in the early period after birth. Pharmacogenetics and moreover pharmacogenomics, the study of specific genetic variations and their effect on drug response, are not widespread. This review describes possible relationship between SSRIs pharmacogenetics and different neonatal outcomes and summarizes the current pharmacogenetic inquiries in relation to maternal-foetal environment. PMID:24524073

Giudici, Valentina; Pogliani, Laura; Cattaneo, Dario; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2014-01-01

236

Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

2002-01-01

237

Responsive Environment Early Education Program (REEEP): Third-Year Evaluation Study. Final Evaluation Report, 1977-78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

REEEP serves as an educational intervention providing direct services to "high risk" (of low birth weight--less than 5 1/2 pounds) 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children, living in the Clovis, New Mexico area. The program aims: to prevent school failure with an intervention program which includes early identification and remediation of developmental…

Askins, Billy E.; And Others

238

How Does a Neuron “know” to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

239

Early Years Education in Germany and Ireland--a Study of Provision and Curricular Implementation in Two Unique Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares case studies of early childhood education in schools in Germany and Ireland. Both schools emphasize the importance of children's emotional-spiritual development, but while Irish children are already in formal education, German schooling defers beginning of formal learning. Concludes that more teacher interaction with children in German…

Horgan, Mary; Douglas, Francis

1995-01-01

240

Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life. PMID:23314296

Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

2013-04-01

241

The international serious adverse events consortium.  

PubMed

The International Serious Adverse Events Consortium is generating novel insights into the genetics and biology of drug-induced serious adverse events, and thereby improving pharmaceutical product development and decision-making. PMID:25359365

Holden, Arthur L; Contreras, Jorge L; John, Sally; Nelson, Matthew R

2014-11-01

242

Association of headache with childhood adversity and mental disorder: cross-national study  

PubMed Central

Background Community studies about the association of headache with both childhood family adversities and depression/anxiety disorders are limited. Aims To assess the independent and joint associations of childhood family adversities and early-onset depression and anxiety disorders with risks of adult-onset headache. Method Data were pooled from cross-sectional community surveys conducted in ten Latin and North American, European and Asian countries (n=18 303) by using standardised instruments. Headache and a range of childhood family adversities were assessed by self-report. Results The number of childhood family adversities was associated with adult-onset headache after adjusting for gender, age, country and early-onset depression/anxiety disorder status (for one adversity, hazard ratio (HR)=1.22–1.6; for two adversities, HR=1.19–1.67; for three or more adversities, HR=1.37–1.95). Early and current onset of depression/anxiety disorders were independently associated (HR=1.42–1.89) with adult-onset headache after controlling for number of childhood family adversities. Conclusions The findings call for a broad developmental perspective concerning risk factors for development of headache. PMID:19182169

Lee, Sing; Tsang, Adley; Von Korff, Michael; de Graaf, Ron; Benjet, Corina; Haro, Josep Maria; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demyttenaere, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gasquet, Isabelle; Merikangas, Kathleen; Posada-Villa, José; Takeshima, Tadashi; Kessler, Ronald C.

2009-01-01

243

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in\\u000apoor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages,\\u000ametallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta,\\u000aMgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population\\u000a(SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial\\u000asubsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive

F. Annibali; R. Grutzbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2010-01-01

244

Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

Ferner, R E

2015-03-01

245

The environment of early humans in Southern Caucasus - High-resolution reconstruction of climate and vegetation in Armenia at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Caucasus is the area of earliest human occupation in Eurasia, proven by findings of Homo fossils in Georgia with an age of ca. 1.8 Ma. The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Lake sediments from Sisian Formation, Vorotan River Basin, southern Armenia, provide detailed information on environmental changes during late Early Pleistocene. Based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric dating, the exposed part of the succession covers a stratigraphic age from ca. 1.3 to 0.9 Ma and includes the Jaramillo subchron. Due to the precise age control high-resolution pollen analysis was conducted at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal spanning from 1.12 to 1.035 Ma (MIS 33 - MIS 30) with a mean resolution of ca. 250 years per samples. Results document a clear vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic changes with open vegetation during the less pronounced cycles MIS 33/34, the expansion of broadleaved deciduous forests during the very warm and humid MIS 31, and the expansion of needleleaved forests during the long, cool and humid MIS 30. Furthermore, the age of the numerous macro floral assemblages could be constrained to warm and humid parts of the climatic phases, most of them connected to MIS 31 confirming the dominance of mosaic vegetation at that time. Plant species compositions show strong relations to Euxinian and Hycanian forests occurring today at the coasts of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, respectively, which must have been expanded considerably during warmer and more humid periods of the Early Pleistocene. Climate quantifications show substantially warmer and 50-100% more humid conditions for most pronounced interglacials. Based on those results we extrapolate the distribution of forests and mosaic landscapes in Southern Caucasus for different climatic phases during Early Pleistocene as a prerequisite for the reconstruction of early human environments in this region.

Bruch, Angela; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Scharrer, Steffen; Teodoridis, Vasilis

2014-05-01

246

Adverse Selection and the Opaqueness of Insurers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract While adverse selection problems between insureds and insurers are well known to insurance researchers, few explore adverse selection in the insurance industry from a capital markets perspective. This study examines adverse selection in the quoted prices of insurers' common stocks with a particular focus on the opacity of both asset portfolios and underwriting liabilities. We find that more opaque

Tao Zhang; Larry A. Cox; Robert A. Van Ness

2009-01-01

247

Children's Recovery after Early Adversity: Lessons from Intercountry Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on children who have been internationally adopted provides many strong examples of resilience. This paper discusses what counts as resilience in intercountry adoption and includes new data from the first study in this area conducted in Ireland. As with studies conducted in other jurisdictions, the Irish data indicate a remarkable capacity…

Greene, Sheila; Kelly, Ruth; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Greg; Borska, Zofia; Murphy, Sile; Daly, Aoife

2008-01-01

248

Of Primary Interest: Using Brain-Based Teaching Strategies to Create Supportive Early Childhood Environments that Address Learning Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors remind teachers that standards are not intended to fence in creative teachers or become obstacles for learners with special needs. To help teachers optimize learning for all children, they review brained-based research findings such as the importance of safe environments, the effect of emotions on learning, the use of multisensory…

Schiller, Pam; Willis, Clarissa

2008-01-01

249

ne morning Sharon woke up early. She wanted to find the environment. Her teacher, Miss Clark, had told her that  

E-print Network

is everywhere. In the sky and in the ground. In the water and under the bed. " "And we can all help teeth and watched the water rush from the faucet and swirl down the drain. Where did it all come from't need to. The environment seems to be everywhere we go." Sharon looked to the right and the left. She

Bandettini, Peter A.

250

The Children's Learning Center: A Study of a Self-Manipulative Physical Environment on Early Childhood Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Learning Center in Providence, Rhode Island, is a prototypical teaching/learning environment for preschool children aged 3-5. The center represents the first prototypical application of the Multi-Activity Zones for Education (MAZE) system. This study attempts to demonstrate and test the physical and operational performances of the…

Studio of Environmental Technology, Providence, RI.

251

Predictors of externalizing behavior problems in early elementary-aged children: the role of family and home environments.  

PubMed

As children enter elementary school they display behavioral orientations that reveal potential developmental trajectories. Developmental transitions offer unique opportunities for examining developmental pathways and the factors that influence emerging pathways. The primary goal of this investigation was to examine characteristics of family and home contexts in predicting externalizing behavior problems among children transitioning into elementary school. Dimensions of the family and home environments of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 177) were examined and used to predict externalizing behavior problems. Maltreatment was assessed using case file information, characteristics of the family and home environment were rated by interviewers, and externalizing behavior was assessed by mother's ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist. Relative to nonmaltreated children, the family environments of physically abused children were characterized by higher levels of negative social interactions. Also, in comparison to nonmaltreated children, the home environments of children who experienced neglect were characterized as less organized and clean. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical abuse was the strongest predictor of externalizing behavior. After controlling for the contribution of physical abuse, mother's negative behavior toward the focal child, aggression between siblings, and the lack of an organized and clean home were each predictive of externalizing behavior. PMID:23991617

Price, Joseph M; Chiapa, Amanda; Walsh, Natalia Escobar

2013-01-01

252

Lateglacial and early-Holocene environments of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region of the Russian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen and radiocarbon data from Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region suggest that the hypo thetical Panarctic Ice Sheet (Denton and Hughes, 1981) never existed in this area, at least during the last 16 000 years. Lateglacial tundra environments were slightly cooler and drier than the present ones, but there were also warmer intervals such as the Allerød, which

Leonid Serebryanny; Andrei Andreev; Evgeniya Malyasova; Pavel Tarasov; Fedor Romanenko

1998-01-01

253

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

E-print Network

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 \\pm 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 \\pm 0.28, and -0.04 \\pm 0.33 for age, log Z/Zsun, and [alpha/Fe], respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Annibali et al.2007 sample residing in comparable environment we derive median values of 9.8 \\pm 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 \\pm 0.16, and 0.18 \\pm 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the alpha-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low mass regime of the scaling relations der...

Annibali, F; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

2010-01-01

254

Community interventions to promote healthy social environments: early childhood development and family housing. A report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services.  

PubMed

The sociocultural environment exerts a fundamental influence on health. Interventions to improve education, housing, employment, and access to health care contribute to healthy and safe environments and improved community health. The Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) has conducted systematic reviews of early childhood development interventions and family housing interventions. The topics selected provide a unique, albeit small, beginning of the review of evidence that interventions do effectively address sociocultural factors that influence health. Based on these reviews, the Task Force strongly recommends publicly funded, center-based, comprehensive early childhood development programs for low-income children aged 3-5 years. The basis for the recommendation is evidence of effectiveness in preventing developmental delay, assessed by improvements in grade retention and placement in special education. The Task Force also recommends housing subsidy programs for low-income families, which provide rental vouchers for use in the private housing market and allow families choice in residential location. This recommendation is based on outcomes of improved neighborhood safety and families' reduced exposure to violence. The Task Force concludes that insufficient evidence is available on which to base a recommendation for or against creation of mixed-income housing developments that provide safe and affordable housing in neighborhoods with adequate goods and services. This report provides additional information regarding these recommendations, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, and discusses implications for applying the interventions locally. PMID:11843093

Anderson, Laurie M; Shinn, Carolynne; St, Charles Joseph; Fullilove, Mindy T; Scrimshaw, Susan C; Fielding, Jonathan E; Normand, Jacques; Sanchez-Way, Ruth; Richardson, Todd

2002-02-01

255

Evidence of gene-environment correlation for peer difficulties: disruptive behaviors predict early peer relation difficulties in school through genetic effects.  

PubMed

Early disruptive behaviors, such as aggressive and hyperactive behaviors, known to be influenced by genetic factors, have been found to predict early school peer relation difficulties, such as peer rejection and victimization. However, there is no consensus regarding the developmental processes underlying this predictive association. Genetically informative designs, such as twin studies, are well suited for investigating the underlying genetic and environmental etiology of this association. The main goal of the present study was to examine the possible establishment of an emerging gene-environment correlation linking disruptive behaviors to peer relationship difficulties during the first years of school. Participants were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of twins who were assessed with respect to their social behaviors and their peer relation difficulties in kindergarten and in Grade 1 through peer nominations measures and teacher ratings. As predicted, disruptive behaviors were concurrently and predictively associated with peer relation difficulties. Multivariate analyses of these associations indicate that they were mainly accounted for by genetic factors. These results emphasize the need to adopt an early and persistent prevention framework targeting both the child and the peer context to alleviate the establishment of a negative coercive process and its consequences. PMID:23398754

Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Feng, Bei; Tremblay, Richard E; Dionne, Ginette

2013-02-01

256

Early origins of chronic obstructive lung diseases across the life course.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive lung diseases, like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, have high prevalences and are a major public health concern. Chronic obstructive lung diseases have at least part of their origins in early life. Exposure to an adverse environment during critical periods in early life might lead to permanent developmental adaptations which results in impaired lung growth with smaller airways and lower lung volume, altered immunological responses and related inflammation, and subsequently to increased risks of chronic obstructive lung diseases throughout the life course. Various pathways leading from early life factors to respiratory health outcomes in later life have been studied, including fetal and early infant growth patterns, preterm birth, maternal obesity, diet and smoking, children's diet, allergen exposure and respiratory tract infections, and genetic susceptibility. Data on potential adverse factors in the embryonic and preconception period and respiratory health outcomes are scarce. Also, the underlying mechanisms how specific adverse exposures in the fetal and early postnatal period lead to chronic obstructive lung diseases in later life are not yet fully understood. Current studies suggest that interactions between early environmental exposures and genetic factors such as changes in DNA-methylation and RNA expression patterns may explain the early development of chronic obstructive lung diseases. New well-designed epidemiological studies are needed to identify specific critical periods and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic obstructive lung disease throughout the life course. PMID:25537319

Duijts, Liesbeth; Reiss, Irwin K; Brusselle, Guy; de Jongste, Johan C

2014-12-01

257

Perceived adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Adverse effects from antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for HIV are associated with medication nonadherence. The purposes of this study were to explore group differences in the reporting of adverse effects, identify individual adverse effects that are linked to nonadherence, and to explore the role of coping in the relationship between adverse effects and adherence. Cross-sectional interviews of 2,765 HIV-positive adults on ARV therapies in four U.S. cities were performed using a computerized assessment of self-reported adverse effects, coping self-efficacy, and adherence. There were no gender differences in the rate or severity of adverse effects reported. Latino respondents reported more adverse effects than either White or African Americans. Those taking a protease inhibitor (PI) reported a higher rate and greater severity of adverse effects. Older participants reported fewer adverse effects despite being more likely to be on a regimen containing a PI. Respondents with less than 90% adherence reported greater numbers and severity of adverse effects overall. In multivariate analyses, nausea, skin problems, vomiting, and memory adverse effects were independently related to less than 90% adherence over the prior three days. Coping moderated the relationship between nausea and adherence such that individuals who reported lower coping self-efficacy and experienced nausea were at increased risk for nonadherence, regardless of the length of time on the current ARV regimen. Women and men are similar in their overall reports of adverse effects, and Latinos report more adverse effects to ARVs than White or African American patients. Specific adverse effects (skin problems, memory problems, vomiting, and nausea) are more likely than others to be associated with missing ARV medications. Increasing adaptive coping self-efficacy among patients experiencing nausea may be a particularly effective strategy in increasing medication adherence. PMID:15793937

Johnson, Mallory O; Charlebois, Edwin; Morin, Stephen F; Catz, Sheryl L; Goldstein, Rise B; Remien, Robert H; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Mickalian, Joanne D; Kittel, Lauren; Samimy-Muzaffar, Farishta; Lightfoot, Marguerita A; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Chesney, A

2005-02-01

258

The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da\\/dN), and the effect of cold

James T. Burns

2010-01-01

259

A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the expression of many ornamental traits is dependent on the current condition of the bearer. However, conditions experienced in early life are also known to be important for an individual's subsequent fitness and therefore, directly or indirectly, for the fitness of their mate. Specifically, a recent hypothesis suggests that sexually selected traits might be sensitive to conditions experienced during early-life development and thereby function as honest indicators of developmental history. Whether this applies to colourful male plumage, however, is largely unknown. We tested this idea with a field experiment by manipulating neonatal nutrition in a sexually dichromatic passerine, the hihi (Notymystis cincta). We found that carotenoid supplementation increased nestling plasma carotenoid concentration, which was in turn correlated with increased yellow saturation in male breeding plumage after moulting. We also found that the post-moult luminance (lightness) of the white ear-tufts tended to be reduced in males that had received an all-round nutritional supplement as nestlings. Black breeding plumage was not affected by neonatal nutritional treatment. Although the mechanisms that generate colourful plumage are evidently diverse, our results show that at least some parts of this display are accurate indicators of environmental conditions during development. PMID:23407833

Walker, Leila K.; Stevens, Martin; Karada?, Filiz; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Ewen, John G.

2013-01-01

260

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.  

PubMed

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages--demonstrably made by modern humans--are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-10-01

261

OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events  

PubMed Central

Background A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data relating to AEs arising subsequent to medical interventions, as well as to support computer-assisted reasoning. OAE has over 3,000 terms with unique identifiers, including terms imported from existing ontologies and more than 1,800 OAE-specific terms. In OAE, the term ‘adverse event’ denotes a pathological bodily process in a patient that occurs after a medical intervention. Causal adverse events are defined by OAE as those events that are causal consequences of a medical intervention. OAE represents various adverse events based on patient anatomic regions and clinical outcomes, including symptoms, signs, and abnormal processes. OAE has been used in the analysis of several different sorts of vaccine and drug adverse event data. For example, using the data extracted from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), OAE was used to analyse vaccine adverse events associated with the administrations of different types of influenza vaccines. OAE has also been used to represent and classify the vaccine adverse events cited in package inserts of FDA-licensed human vaccines in the USA. Conclusion OAE is a biomedical ontology that logically defines and classifies various adverse events occurring after medical interventions. OAE has successfully been applied in several adverse event studies. The OAE ontological framework provides a platform for systematic representation and analysis of adverse events and of the factors (e.g., vaccinee age) important for determining their clinical outcomes. PMID:25093068

2014-01-01

262

The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da/dN), and the effect of cold loading environment provide the means to validate mechanism-based modeling. Both pristine and corroded (L-S surface) 7075-T651 specimens were fatigued at 23°C, -50°C and -90°C under various applied stresses. Microscopy of programmed loading-induced crack surface marks produced an unparalleled Ni and small crack da/dN database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to elimination of H-enhanced cracking by reduced external water vapor pressure, lower crack tip reaction rate (to produce atomic-H), and slower H diffusion. Engineering level modeling approaches are validated using these high fidelity experimental results, informing next generation prognosis methods for realistic airframe environments.

Burns, James T.

263

iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined. PMID:23420567

Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

2012-12-01

264

Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) on the relationship between antidepressants and suicide. We obtain point estimates and 95 per cent confidence (posterior) intervals for the rate multiplier for each drug (e.g. antidepressants), which can be used to determine whether a particular drug has an increased risk of association with a particular AE (e.g. suicide). Confidence (posterior) intervals that do not include 1.0 provide evidence for either significant protective or harmful associations of the drug and the adverse effect. We also examine EB, parametric Bayes, and semiparametric Bayes estimators of the rate multipliers and associated confidence (posterior) intervals. Results of our analysis of the FDA AERS data revealed that newer antidepressants are associated with lower rates of suicide adverse event reports compared with older antidepressants. We recommend improvements to the existing AERS system, which are likely to improve its public health value as an early warning system. PMID:18404622

Gibbons, Robert D.; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M.; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J. John

2008-01-01

265

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C. [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

2005-04-26

266

Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness  

PubMed Central

Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society. PMID:19059871

McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.

2009-01-01

267

Multiple sulfur isotopes in Paleoarchean barites identify an important role for microbial sulfate reduction in the early marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedded barites from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa and Swaziland) preserve a comprehensive record of atmospheric, oceanic and microbial processes involved in the formation and evolution of the Paleoarchean (3.6-3.2 Ga) oceanic sulfate reservoir. Here, we report multiple sulfur isotopic compositions from four of these barite occurrences. Relatively constant mass-independent signatures (?36S/?33S = - 1.0 ± 0.2) within deposits support an important role for atmospheric photolysis in the production of oxidized sulfur, whereas 34S enrichments relative to the inferred composition of photolytic sulfate suggest drawdown of 34S by microbial sulfate reduction. Strong compositional overlap with barites from India and Western Australia indicates the presence of a large-scale and well-mixed marine sulfate pool. Covariation between ?34S and ?33S within individual deposits also suggests a role for processes occurring in semi-closed basins fed by this global reservoir. Based on modeling results, we interpret variations in ?34S by local microbial sulfate reduction and correlations with ?33S by weak inputs of sulfur from magmatic sources, microbial sulfide oxidation or sulfur disproportionation. This agrees with the early occurrence of sulfate reducers in the geological record as inferred from published microscopic pyrite data, and identifies their role as important in both global oceans and local basins in the Paleoarchean.

Roerdink, Desiree L.; Mason, Paul R. D.; Farquhar, James; Reimer, Thomas

2012-05-01

268

Gene Interactions and Structural Brain Change in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Subjects Using the Pipeline Environment  

PubMed Central

Objective This article investigates subjects aged 55 to 65 from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database to broaden our understanding of early-onset (EO) cognitive impairment using neuroimaging and genetics biomarkers. Methods Nine of the subjects had EO-AD (Alzheimer's disease) and 27 had EO-MCI (mild cognitive impairment). The 15 most important neuroimaging markers were extracted with the Global Shape Analysis (GSA) Pipeline workflow. The 20 most significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and were associated with specific neuroimaging biomarkers. Results We identified associations between the neuroimaging phenotypes and genotypes for a total of 36 subjects. Our results for all the subjects taken together showed the most significant associations between rs7718456 and L_hippocampus (volume), and between rs7718456 and R_hippocampus (volume). For the 27 MCI subjects, we found the most significant associations between rs6446443 and R_superior_frontal_gyrus (volume), and between rs17029131 and L_Precuneus (volume). For the nine AD subjects, we found the most significant associations between rs16964473 and L_rectus gyrus (surface area), and between rs12972537 and L_rectus_gyrus (surface area). Conclusion We observed significant correlations between the SNPs and the neuroimaging phenotypes in the 36 EO subjects in terms of neuroimaging genetics. However, larger sample sizes are needed to ensure that the effects will be detectable for a reasonable false-positive error rate using the GSA and Plink Pipeline workflows.

Dinov, Ivo D.; Zamanyan, Alen; Shi, Ran; Genco, Alex; Hobel, Sam; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.

2015-01-01

269

ON THE RADIAL STELLAR CONTENT OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF MASS AND ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Using optical-optical and optical-NIR colors, we analyze the radial dependence of age and metallicity inside massive (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), residing in both high-density group regions and the field. On average, internal color gradients of ETGs are mainly driven by metallicity, consistent with previous studies. However, we find that group galaxies feature positive age gradients, {nabla} {sub t}, i.e., a younger stellar population in the galaxy center, and steeper metallicity gradients, compared to the field sample, whose {nabla} {sub t} ranges from negative in lower mass galaxies to positive gradients at higher mass. These dependencies yield new constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution. We speculate that age and metallicity gradients of group ETGs result from (either gas-rich or minor-dry) mergers and/or cold-gas accretion, while field ETGs exhibit the characteristic flatter gradients expected from younger, more metal-rich stars formed inside-out by later gas cooling.

La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Carvalho, R. R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil); Lopes, P. A. A. [Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pasquali, A. [Astronomisches Rechen Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); De la Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); De Lucia, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 1-34143 Triste (Italy)

2011-10-20

270

Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary depositional environments of the northern Sacramento basin revealed by seismic-stratigraphic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of regional seismic data across the Willows-Beehive Bend gas field reveals a prograding shelf-slope depositional sequence, including basic submarine-fan, slope, and shelf deltaic deposits, that progressively infilled the northern Sacramento forearc basin during the Campanian. The base of the Forbes Formation and the base of the Princeton Gorge fill form the lower and upper boundaries, respectively, of this sequence. Upper Cretaceous submarine-fan and basin-plain deposit form the strata between the Sierran basement and the base of the Forbes and progressively onlap the basement from west to east. The lower to middle Forbes Formation is characterized by high-amplitude discontinuous reflections and consists of mud-rich submarine-fan deposit with laterally restricted, sand-prone channel/levee complexes and broader depositional lobes. In contrast the upper Forbes consist of mud-rich slope deposits characterized by broad, southward-dipping clinoforms. Submarine-canyon/gully fills are common and return discordant hummocky to chaotic reflections. The overlying Kione Formation consists of sand-rich, delta-front deposits that return high amplitude, gently dipping subparallel reflections and are transitional into the slope deposits of the uppermost Forbes. The Kione was partially eroded during cutting of the Princeton Gorge submarine canyon in the early Tertiary. The lower (Eocene) Princeton Gorge fill shows highly variable reflection character and seismic facies that suggest multiple episodes of submarine erosion and deposition. At least three northwest-southeast-striking fault zones, including the Willows fault, disrupt these formations and appear to have strike-slip components.

Damuth, J.E.; Link, M.H.; Gabay, S.H. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

271

Early detection of production deficit hot spots in semi-arid environment using FAPAR time series and a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timely information on vegetation development at regional scale is needed in arid and semiarid African regions where rainfall variability leads to high inter-annual fluctuations in crop and pasture productivity, as well as to high risk of food crisis in the presence of severe drought events. The present study aims at developing and testing an automatic procedure to estimate the probability of experiencing a seasonal biomass production deficit solely on the basis of historical and near real-time remote sensing observations. The method is based on the extraction of vegetation phenology from SPOT-VEGTATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and the subsequent computation of seasonally cumulated FAPAR as a proxy for vegetation gross primary production. Within season forecasts of the overall seasonal performance, expressed in terms of probability of experiencing a critical deficit, are based on a statistical approach taking into account two factors: i) the similarity between the current FAPAR profile and past profiles observable in the 15 years FAPAR time series; ii) the uncertainty of past predictions of season outcome as derived using jack-knifing technique. The method is applicable at the regional to continental scale and can be updated regularly during the season (whenever a new satellite observation is made available) to provide a synoptic view of the hot spots of likely production deficit. The specific objective of the procedure described here is to deliver to the food security analyst, as early as possible within the season, only the relevant information (e.g., masking out areas without active vegetation at the time of analysis), expressed through a reliable and easily interpretable measure of impending risk. Evaluation of method performance and examples of application in the Sahel region are discussed.

Meroni, M.; Fasbender, D.; Kayitakire, F.; Pini, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Verstraete, M. M.

2013-12-01

272

Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

2007-01-01

273

Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice  

PubMed Central

Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

Becker, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

274

Adverse Drug Events in Ambulatory Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Adverse events related to drugs occur frequently among inpatients, and many of these events are preventable. However, few data are available on adverse drug events among outpatients. We conducted a study to determine the rates, types, severity, and preventabil- ity of such events among outpatients and to identify preventive strategies. methods We performed a prospective cohort study, including a

Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Joshua Borus; Andrew C. Seger; Josh Peterson; Elisabeth Burdick; Diane L. Seger; Kirstin Shu; Frank Federico; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

2003-01-01

275

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

276

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

2011-04-01

277

Nurses must report adverse drug reactions.  

PubMed

There is renewed determination throughout the European Union (EU) to reduce the economic cost and high death rate associated with adverse drug reactions through better pharmacovigilance. Timely reporting and sharing of information concerning adverse drug reactions is vital to the success of this initiative. In the UK, the reporting of serious adverse drug reactions is facilitated by the Yellow Card Scheme, yet despite being well placed to monitor the effect of medicines on patients, nurses do not make full use of the scheme. This article sets out the impact of adverse drug reactions in the EU and argues that it is essential that nurses must be at the vanguard of adverse reaction reporting if the EU's pharmacovigilance initiative is to be a success. PMID:23905231

Griffith, Richard

278

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

279

Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.  

PubMed

Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology. PMID:23893545

Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

2013-08-01

280

Overview of medical errors and adverse events  

PubMed Central

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

2012-01-01

281

Overview of medical errors and adverse events.  

PubMed

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Philippart, François; Bruel, Cédric; Max, Adeline; Lau, Nicolas; Misset, B

2012-01-01

282

RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

283

Development and the epigenome: the 'synapse' of gene-environment interplay.  

PubMed

This paper argues that there is a revolution afoot in the developmental science of gene-environment interplay. We summarize, for an audience of developmental researchers and clinicians, how epigenetic processes - chromatin structural modifications that regulate gene expression without changing DNA sequences - may offer a strong, parsimonious account for the convergence of genetic and contextual variation in the genesis of adaptive and maladaptive development. Epigenetic processes may play a plausible explanatory role in understanding: divergent trajectories and sexual dimorphisms in brain development; statistical interactions between genes and environments; the biological embedding of early psychosocial adversities; the linkages of such adversities to disorders of mental health; the striking individual variation in the strength of those linkages; the molecular origins of critical and sensitive periods; and the transgenerational inheritance of risk and protection. Taken together, these arguments converge in a claim that epigenetic processes constitute a promising and illuminating point of connection - a 'synapse' - between genes and environments. PMID:25546559

Boyce, W Thomas; Kobor, Michael S

2015-01-01

284

The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H I in early-type galaxies as a function of environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the ATLAS3D H I survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H I down to 5 × 106-5 × 107 M? within the survey volume. We detect ˜40 per cent of all ETGs outside the Virgo galaxy cluster and ˜10 per cent of all ETGs inside it. This demonstrates that it is common for non-cluster ETGs to host H I. The morphology of the detected gas varies in a continuous way from regular, settled H I discs and rings to unsettled gas distributions (including tidal or accretion tails) and systems of clouds scattered around the galaxy. The majority of the detections consist of H I discs or rings (1/4 of all ETGs outside Virgo) so that if H I is detected in an ETG it is most likely distributed on a settled configuration. These systems come in two main types: small discs [? M?], which are confined within the stellar body and share the same kinematics of the stars; and large discs/rings [M(H I) up to 5 × 109 M?], which extend to tens of kpc from the host galaxy and are in half of the cases kinematically decoupled from the stars. Neutral hydrogen seems to provide material for star formation in ETGs. Galaxies containing H I within ˜1Re exhibit signatures of on-going star formation in ˜70 per cent of the cases, approximately five times more frequently than galaxies without central H I. The interstellar medium (ISM) in the centre of these galaxies is dominated by molecular gas, and in ETGs with a small gas disc the conversion of H I into H2 is as efficient as in spirals. The ETG H I mass function is characterized by M*˜ 2 × 109 M? and by a slope ?˜-0.7. Compared to spirals, ETGs host much less H I as a family. However, a significant fraction of all ETGs are as H I-rich as spiral galaxies. The main difference between ETGs and spirals is that the former lack the high-column-density H I typical of the bright stellar disc of the latter. The ETG H I properties vary with environment density in a more continuous way than suggested by the known Virgo versus non-Virgo dichotomy. We find an envelope of decreasing M(H I) and M(H I)/LK with increasing environment density. The gas-richest galaxies live in the poorest environments (as found also with CO observations), where the detection rate of star formation signatures is higher. Galaxies in the centre of Virgo have the lowest H I content, while galaxies at the outskirts of Virgo represent a transition region and can contain significant amounts of H I, indicating that at least a fraction of them has joined the cluster only recently after pre-processing in groups. Finally, we find an H I morphology-density relation such that at low environment density (measured on a local scale) the detected H I is mostly distributed on large, regular discs and rings, while more disturbed H I morphologies dominate environment densities typical of rich groups. This confirms the importance of processes occurring on a galaxy-group scale for the evolution of ETGs.

Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

2012-05-01

285

Macrophages are involved in hexachlorobenzene-induced adverse immune effects  

SciTech Connect

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. T cells play an important role but do not account for all adverse effects induced by HCB. Macrophages are probably also important and the relationship between macrophages and T cells was further investigated. To eliminate macrophages clodronate-liposomes were used. Furthermore, a kinetic study was performed to obtain insight in the early phase of the HCB-induced immune response. Also, experiments were performed to detect specific memory T cells. Therefore, an adoptive transfer study was performed. Our results indicate that macrophages are indeed involved in HCB-induced skin lesions, lung eosinophilia, and elevation of IgM against ssDNA. Kinetics showed that both skin and lung lesions appeared early after exposure. Moreover, immune effects could not be adaptively transferred. Thus, both macrophages and T cells are involved in HCB-induced immune effects but HCB exposure does not lead to specific T cell sensitization. Presumably, HCB exposure induces macrophage activation, thereby generating adjuvant signals that polyclonally stimulate T cells. Together, these events may lead to the observed immunopathology in BN rats.

Ezendam, Janine [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Janine.Ezendam@rivm.nl; Kosterman, Kevin [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Henneke [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleumink, Rob [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hassing, Ine [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooijen, Nico van [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Free University, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Joseph G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands); Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.150, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Pieters, Raymond [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

286

Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

287

ATM SEQUENCE VARIANTS ARE PREDICTIVE OF ADVERSE RADIOTHERAPY RESPONSE AMONG PATIENTS TREATED FOR PROSTATE CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine whether the presence of sequence variants in the ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia) gene is predictive for the development of radiation-induced adverse responses resulting from 125I prostate brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up who underwent 125I prostate brachytherapy of early-stage prostate cancer were screened for DNA sequence variations

JAMIE A. CESARETTI; RICHARD G. STOCK; STEVEN LEHRER; DAVID A. ATENCIO; JONINE L. BERNSTEIN; NELSON N. STONE; SYLVAN WALLENSTEIN; SHERYL GREEN; KAREN LOEB; MARISA KOLLMEIER; MICHAEL SMITH; BARRY S. ROSENSTEIN

2005-01-01

288

Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

2015-01-01

289

Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

2014-01-01

290

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2011-01-01

291

An exclusive causal-leverage measure for detecting adverse drug reactions from electronic medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of causal relationships between drugs and their associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can prevent harmful consequences or even deaths. Rare ADRs cannot be detected by pre-marketing clinical trials due to limitations in their size and duration. Existing postmarketing surveillance methods mainly rely on spontaneous reporting which is limited by severe underreporting (<10 percentage reporting rate), latency and inconsistency.

Yanqing Ji; Hao Ying; Peter Dews; John Tran; Ayman Mansour; Richard E. Miller; R. Michael Massanari

2011-01-01

292

Reexploration for bleeding is a risk factor for adverse outcomes after cardiac operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although previous studies have included early reexploration for bleeding as a risk factor in analyzing adverse outcomes after cardiac operations, reexploration for bleeding has not been systematically examined as a multivariate risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Furthermore, multivariate predictors of the need for reexploration have not been identified. Accordingly, we performed a retrospective analysis

Michael J. Moulton; Lawrence L. Creswell; Mary E. Mackey; James L. Cox; Michael Rosenbloom

1996-01-01

293

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. III. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF FORMATION EPOCHS AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES ON STELLAR MASS AND ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z {approx} 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z = 1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8- to 10-band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster ETGs. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the ages are similar and depend only on galaxy mass, the ones in the field do employ longer timescales to assemble their final mass. We find that, approximately 1 Gyr after the onset of star formation, the majority (75%) of cluster galaxies have already assembled most (>80%) of their final mass, while, by the same time, fewer (35%) field ETGs have. Thus, we conclude that while galaxy mass regulates the timing of galaxy formation, the environment regulates the timescale of their star formation histories.

Rettura, A.; Stanford, S. A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mei, S.; Ford, H. C.; Huertas-Company, M. [University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Raichoor, A. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Moran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Holden, B.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 92065 (United States); Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [European Southern Observatory, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ellis, R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakata, F. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kodama, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2011-05-10

294

Adverse events related to blood transfusion  

PubMed Central

The acute blood transfusion reactions are responsible for causing most serious adverse events. Awareness about various clinical features of acute and delayed transfusion reactions with an ability to assess the serious reactions on time can lead to a better prognosis. Evidence-based medicine has changed today's scenario of clinical practice to decrease adverse transfusion reactions. New evidence-based algorithms of transfusion and improved haemovigilance lead to avoidance of unnecessary transfusions perioperatively. The recognition of adverse events under anaesthesia is always challenging. The unnecessary blood transfusions can be avoided with better blood conservation techniques during surgery and with anaesthesia techniques that reduce blood loss. Better and newer blood screening methods have decreased the infectious complications to almost negligible levels. With universal leukoreduction of red blood cells (RBCs), selection of potential donors such as use of male donors only plasma and restriction of RBC storage, most of the non-infectious complications can be avoided. PMID:25535415

Sahu, Sandeep; Hemlata; Verma, Anupam

2014-01-01

295

Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. PMID:25442252

Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

2015-01-01

296

Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology.  

PubMed

Herbal treatments are becoming increasingly popular, and are often used for dermatological conditions. Thus dermatologists should know about their potential to cause adverse events. This review is aimed at addressing this area in a semisystematic fashion. Some agents, particularly Chinese herbal creams, have been shown repeatedly to be adulterated with corticosteroids. Virtually all herbal remedies can cause allergic reactions and several can be responsible for photosensitization. Some herbal medicines, in particular Ayurvedic remedies, contain arsenic or mercury that can produce typical skin lesions. Other popular remedies that can cause dermatological side-effects include St John's Wort, kava, aloe vera, eucalyptus, camphor, henna and yohimbine. Finally, there are some herbal treatments used specifically for dermatological conditions, e.g. Chinese oral herbal remedies for atopic eczema, which have the potential to cause systemic adverse effects. It is concluded that adverse effects of herbal medicines are an important albeit neglected subject in dermatology, which deserves further systematic investigation. PMID:11069498

Ernst, E

2000-11-01

297

Cardiovascular adverse effects of newer antidepressants.  

PubMed

Newer antidepressants that are more selective in their neurotransmitter effects include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others (agomelatine, bupropion, mirtazapine, reboxetine, vilazodone, vortioxetine). This article systematically reviews data from a variety of sources regarding the potential adverse effects of these medications on various cardiovascular parameters. Potential biochemical mechanisms by which these antidepressants may adversely affect the cardiovascular system are also discussed. Antidepressants that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk (SNRIs, reboxetine), lower risk (SSRIs), and without current evidence of cardiovascular risk (agomelatine, mirtazapine, vilazodone, vortioxetine) are identified. The FDA's recommendations regarding citalopram are organized and summarized, and situations with higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects are identified. PMID:24738823

Mago, Rajnish; Tripathi, Neeta; Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-05-01

298

Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience  

PubMed Central

Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

2012-01-01

299

SSRI Antidepressant Medications: Adverse Effects and Tolerability.  

PubMed

Side effects of antidepressants can be predicted by receptor selectivity and site of action. Although the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have better overall safety and tolerability than older antidepressants, broad-based experience with SSRIs has shown the frequency and type of side effects to be increased relative to clinical trial data. The author explores the reasons for the different profiles and discusses adverse effects, especially sexual dysfunction, weight gain, and sleep disturbance, the most troubling adverse events seen during long-term SSRI therapy. The informed management of these side effects by primary care practitioners supports successful treatment of depression. PMID:15014625

Ferguson, James M.

2001-02-01

300

Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sikhote-Alin (SA) meteorite is an example of a type IIAB octahedrite iron meteorite with ca. 0.5 wt% phosphorus (P) content principally in the form of the siderophilic mineral schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P. Meteoritic in-fall to the early Earth would have added significantly to the inventory of such siderophilic P. Subsequent anaerobic corrosion in the presence of a suitable electrolyte would produce P in a form different to that normally found within endogenous geochemistry which could then be released into the environment. One environment of specific interest includes the low pH conditions found in fumaroles or volcanically heated geothermal waters in which anodic oxidation of Fe metal to ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) would be coupled with cathodic reduction of a suitable electron acceptor. In the absence of aerobic dioxygen (Eo = +1.229 V), the proton would provide an effective final electron acceptor, being converted to dihydrogen gas (Eo = 0 V). Here we explore the hydrothermal modification of sectioned samples of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite in which siderophilic P-phases are exposed. We report on both, (i) simulated volcanic conditions using low pH distilled water and (ii) geothermally heated sub-glacial fluids from the northern Kverkfjöll volcanic region of the Icelandic Vatnajoküll glacier. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements using the scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) method reveals that schreibersite inclusions are significantly less susceptible to anodic oxidation than their surrounding Fe-Ni matrix, being some 550 mV nobler than matrix material. This results in preferential corrosion of the matrix at the matrix-inclusion boundary as confirmed using topological mapping via infinite focus microscopy and chemical mapping through Raman spectroscopy. The significance of these observations from a chemical perspective is that electrochemically noble inclusions such as schreibersite are likely to have been released into the geological environment through an undermining corrosion of the surrounding matrix, thus affording localised sources of available water-soluble, chemically reactive P in the form of H-phosphite [HPO3-, Pi(III) as determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy]. This compound has been shown to have considerable prebiotic chemical potential as a source of condensed P-oxyacids. Here we demonstrate that Pi(III) resulting from the hydrothermal modification of Sikhote-Alin by sub-glacial geothermal fluids can be readily dehydrated into the condensed P-oxyacid pyrophosphite [HPO52-, PPi(III)] by dry-heating under mild (85 °C) conditions. The potential significance of this latter condensed P-compound for prebiotic chemistry is discussed in the light of its modified chemical properties compared to pyrophosphate [HPO72-, PPi(V)].

Bryant, David E.; Greenfield, David; Walshaw, Richard D.; Johnson, Benjamin R. G.; Herschy, Barry; Smith, Caroline; Pasek, Matthew A.; Telford, Richard; Scowen, Ian; Munshi, Tasnim; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Cousins, Claire R.; Crawford, Ian A.; Kee, Terence P.

2013-05-01

301

Direct and indirect effects of childhood adversity on adult depression.  

PubMed

Exposure to adverse events in childhood is a predictor of subsequent exposure to adverse events in adulthood, and both are predictors of depression in adults. The degree to which adult depression has a direct effect of childhood adversity versus an indirect effect mediated by adult adversity has not previously been reported. We report data collected from 210 adult participants regarding childhood and adult adversity and current symptoms of depression. Mediation of the relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression by adult adversity was statistically assessed to evaluate the relative direct and indirect effects of childhood adversity on current depression levels in adults. Both the direct effect of childhood adversity on adult depression and the indirect effect, mediated by adulthood events, were significant. Therefore, partial mediation of the relationship between childhood adversity and adult symptoms of depression by adult adverse events was found in the sample. Implications for treatment are presented. PMID:21127974

LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Warner, Teddy D; Helitzer, Deborah L

2012-04-01

302

Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children With an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child × Environment Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers. As anticipated, children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude

Heidi Gazelle

2006-01-01

303

Early Algebra, Early Arithmetic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a variety of early algebra resources for teachers in grades 1-6, parents, researchers, policy makers, administrators, and curriculum developers. Site includes early algebra activities, handouts and overheads in PDF format (requires Acrobat Reader), articles, short reviews of articles and books focusing on early math and early algebra, news and events, and more. A valuable source for pre algebra activities in the elementary classroom.

National Science Foundation (NSF)

2007-12-12

304

The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

Zeanah, Charles H.

2009-01-01

305

Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

2014-01-01

306

Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children.  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

Rieder, Michael J; Carleton, Bruce

2014-01-01

307

Adverse drug events in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Increasing recognition of the burden associated with iatrogenic disease has led to international interest into how best to promote patient safety. Within this field, the subject of adverse drug events (ADEs) has received particular attention, this reflecting the known high frequency with which such events occur, particularly in the elderly. Methods: We conducted a narrative review summarizing epidemiological data

Kathrin M. Cresswell; Bernard Fernando; Brian McKinstry; Aziz Sheikh

2007-01-01

308

Adverse drug events in emergency department patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been studied in hospitalized patients. Less is known about this common type of injury in emergency department patients. This study seeks to measure the risks, incidence, severity, and costs of ADEs in an ED population. Methods: ED charts of visits to a university-affiliated tertiary-care ED occurring between March 1 and May 31, 1997,

John W. Hafner; Steven M. Belknap; Marc D. Squillante; Kay A. Bucheit

2002-01-01

309

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions... Rice University study of how to maintain energy efficiency while reducing air pollution. ? Supported legislation based on the findings. The Medical Professor Increasingly Concerned ? Asthma ? Emphysema ? Heart Attacks ? Stunted lung...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

310

Page 1 of 5 Adverse Weather Policy  

E-print Network

to travel to work. The University will not expect staff to travel to work during adverse weather conditions where they could put their own health or safety at risk. The University has a duty of care for all into work but should not attempt to travel if it is not safe to do so. #12;Page 2 of 5 · Staff should

Edinburgh, University of

311

Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.  

PubMed

This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

Ehlert, Ulrike

2013-09-01

312

The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

313

Adversity among drug users: relationship to impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Illicit substance users experience adverse life events, but few studies have examined the role of impulsivity in these events. The present investigation sought to establish a link between negative life experiences and a trait measure of impulsivity and demonstrate that this association remains even accounting for potential confounds. Participants were 330 heroin and cocaine users recruited from the community for

Jumi Hayaki; Michael D. Stein; Joanna A. Lassor; Debra S. Herman; Bradley J. Anderson

2005-01-01

314

Adverse Consequences of Acute Inhalant Intoxication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhalants are widely misused by adolescents and are among the most toxic of psychoactive substances. This investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication. Adolescent inhalant users (n = 279) in residential care completed structured interviews including assessments of the characteristics of their inhalant use. Multivariate logistic and linear regression and path analyses identified correlates

Eric L. Garland; Matthew O. Howard

2011-01-01

315

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: A Clinicoepidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug eruptions range from transient erythema to the life threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) that encompass Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms complex (DRESS). Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. All patients admitted in the Dermatology ward of our tertiary care hospital with CADR (those who fit in the category of probable or possible drug reaction as per WHO casuality assessment) from first September 2011 to 31st August 2012 were included in this cross sectional study after obtaining written informed consent. The drug reaction patterns observed in the study population were determined and the common offending drugs were identified. Results: In the study, population of males outnumbered females and the majority were between 46 and 60 years of age. The commonest reaction pattern observed was SJS- TEN spectrum of illness and aromatic anticonvulsants were the common offending drugs. Prompt withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids with or without I/V Ig reverted the adverse reaction in all except one. Conclusion: Severe drug reactions predominated as the study population was comprised of inpatients of a tertiary referral centre. Though; previous authors had reported a mortality rate of up to 20% in DRESS, all our patients with this reaction pattern, responded well to treatment. The mortality rate among TEN cases was much lower than the previous reports. Early diagnosis, prompt withdrawal of the suspected drug, careful monitoring for development of complications and immediate intervention can improve the prognosis of CADR.

Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Riyaz, Najeeba; Khader, Anza; Rajan, Uma; Binitha, Manikoth P; Sureshan, Deepthi N

2015-01-01

316

Management of sorafenib-related adverse events: a clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Sorafenib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). It is being evaluated in phase II and III clinical trials, which include treatment as a single agent (locally advanced/metastatic radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer [DTC]), as part of multimodality care (HCC), and in combination with chemotherapeutic agents (metastatic breast cancer). Sorafenib-related adverse events (AEs) that commonly occur across these tumor types include hand-foot skin reaction (HSFR), rash, upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) distress (ie, diarrhea), fatigue, and hypertension. These commonly range from grade 1 to 3, per the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), and often occur early in treatment. The goal for the management of these AEs is to prevent, treat, and/or minimize their effects, thereby enabling patients to remain on treatment and improve their quality of life. Proactive management, along with ongoing patient education (before and during sorafenib treatment), can help to effectively manage symptoms, often without the need for sorafenib dose modification or drug holidays. Effective management techniques for common sorafenib-related AEs, as well other important disease sequelae not directly related to treatment, are presented. Recommendations and observations are based on physician/author experience and recommendations from published literature. PMID:24576654

Brose, Marcia S; Frenette, Catherine T; Keefe, Stephen M; Stein, Stacey M

2014-02-01

317

Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

318

Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

319

Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: a case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current focus on identifying genes which predispose to psychiatric illness sharpens the need to identify environmental factors which interact with genetic predisposition and thus contribute to the multifactorial causation of these disorders. One such factor may be early parental loss (EPL). The putative relationship between early environmental stressors such as parental loss and psychopathology in adult life has intrigued

O Agid; B Shapira; J Zislin; M Ritsner; B Hanin; H Murad; T Troudart; M Bloch; U Heresco-Levy; B Lerer

1999-01-01

320

Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

Gazelle, Heidi

2006-01-01

321

Risk-Taking Behavior among Adolescents with Prenatal Drug Exposure and Extrauterine Environmental Adversity  

PubMed Central

Objective High-risk environments characterized by familial substance use, poverty, inadequate parental monitoring, and violence exposure are associated with an increased propensity for adolescents to engage in risk-taking behaviors (e.g., substance use, sexual behavior, and delinquency). However, additional factors such as drug exposure in utero and deficits in inhibitory control among drug-exposed youth may further influence the likelihood that adolescents in high-risk environments will engage in risk-taking behavior. This study examined the influence of prenatal substance exposure, inhibitory control, and sociodemographic/environmental risk factors on risk-taking behaviors in a large cohort of adolescents with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). Method Risk-taking behavior (delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity) was assessed in 963 adolescents (433 cocaine-exposed, 530 nonexposed) at 15 years of age. Results PCE predicted later arrests and early onset of sexual behavior in controlled analyses. Associations were partially mediated, however, by adolescent inhibitory control problems. PCE was not associated with substance use at this age. In addition, male gender, low parental involvement, and violence exposure were associated with greater odds of engaging in risk-taking behavior across the observed domains. Conclusions Study findings substantiate concern regarding the association between prenatal substance exposure and related risk factors and the long-term outcomes of exposed youth. Access to the appropriate social, educational, and medical services are essential in preventing and intervening with risk-taking behaviors and the potential consequences (e.g., adverse health outcomes, incarceration), especially among high-risk adolescent youth and their families. PMID:24220515

Lambert, Brittany L.; Bann, Carla M.; Bauer, Charles R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Lester, Barry M.; Whitaker, Toni M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

2014-01-01

322

Priors for Stereo Vision under Adverse Weather Conditions Stefan Gehrig1  

E-print Network

-represents the chal- lenges for vision-based advanced driver assistance systems that should operate at all weatherPriors for Stereo Vision under Adverse Weather Conditions Stefan Gehrig1 Maxim Reznitskii2 Nicolai Abstract Autonomous Driving benefits strongly from a 3D recon- struction of the environment in real

323

On the Likelihood of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Causing Adverse Marine Ecological Effects  

EPA Science Inventory

This brief article discusses the ecological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)in the marine environment. Based on new research and a review of the scientific literature, the paper concludes that SWNTs are unlikely to cause adverse ecological effects in the marine ...

324

Automatic adverse drug events detection using letters to the editor.  

PubMed

We present and test the intuition that letters to the editor in journals carry early signals of adverse drug events (ADEs). Surprisingly these letters have not yet been exploited for automatic ADE detection unlike for example, clinical records and PubMed. Part of the challenge is that it is not easy to access the full-text of letters (for the most part these do not appear in PubMed). Also letters are likely underrated in comparison with full articles. Besides demonstrating that this intuition holds we contribute techniques for post market drug surveillance. Specifically, we test an automatic approach for ADE detection from letters using off-the-shelf machine learning tools. We also involve natural language processing for feature definitions. Overall we achieve high accuracy in our experiments and our method also works well on a second new test set. Our results encourage us to further pursue this line of research. PMID:23304379

Yang, Chao; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Philip M

2012-01-01

325

Adverse Events in Affiliated Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Due to the complexity of the hospital environment, its structure faces with multiple hazards. The risks whether by providing the care and whether by hospital environment endanger patients, relatives and care providers. Therefore, a more accurate reporting and analysis of the report by focusing on access to preventative methods is essential. In this study, hospitals' adverse event that has sent by affiliated hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences to deputy for treatment has studied. PMID:24944536

Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Siamian, Hasan; Nezhad, Ayyob Barzegar; Asghari, Zoleleykha; Kabirzadeh, Azar

2014-01-01

326

Childhood Adversity Accelerates Intended Reproductive Timing in Adolescent Girls without Increasing Interest in Infants  

PubMed Central

Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1) childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2) childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3) intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies. PMID:24454778

Clutterbuck, Stephanie; Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

327

Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail services, Heads of Department/  

E-print Network

Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail to present him/herself for work. Where, due to the adverse weather conditions, public transport is affected as a result of the adverse weather conditions (for example a child's school is closed), they should consult

328

Overview of Early Intervention  

MedlinePLUS

... eligible babies and toddlers learn the basic and brand-new skills that typically develop during the first ... Services in Natural Environments Transition to Preschool Public Awareness & the Referral System Early Intervention, Then and Now ...

329

Adverse events among children in Canadian hospitals: the Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited data are available on adverse events among children admitted to hospital. The Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study was done to describe the epidemiology of adverse events among children in hospital in Canada. Methods: We performed a 2-stage medical record review at 8 academic pediatric centres and 14 community hospitals in Canada. We reviewed charts from patients admitted from April 2008 through March 2009, evenly distributed across 4 age groups (0 to 28 d; 29 to 365 d; > 1 to 5 yr and > 5 to 18 yr). In stage 1, nurses and health records personnel who had received training in the use of the Canadian Paediatric Trigger Tool reviewed medical records to detect triggers for possible adverse events. In stage 2, physicians reviewed the charts identified as having triggers and described the adverse events. Results: A total of 3669 children were admitted to hospital during the study period. The weighted rate of adverse events was 9.2%. Adverse events were more frequent in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65–5.39). The incidence of preventable adverse events was not significantly different between types of hospital, but nonpreventable adverse events were more common in academic pediatric centres (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.08–9.27). Surgical events predominated overall and occurred more frequently in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (37.2% v. 21.5%, relative risk [RR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.1), whereas events associated with diagnostic errors were significantly less frequent (11.1% v. 23.1%, RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Interpretation: More children have adverse events in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals; however, adverse events in the former are less likely to be preventable. There are many opportunities to reduce harm affecting children in hospital in Canada, particularly related to surgery, intensive care and diagnostic error. PMID:22847964

Matlow, Anne G.; Baker, G. Ross; Flintoft, Virginia; Cochrane, Douglas; Coffey, Maitreya; Cohen, Eyal; Cronin, Catherine M.G.; Damignani, Rita; Dubé, Robert; Galbraith, Roger; Hartfield, Dawn; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri

2012-01-01

330

Sturdy Positioning with High Sensitivity GPS Sensors Under Adverse Conditions  

PubMed Central

High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver’s position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

2010-01-01

331

Glaucoma Eye Drops Adverse Skin Reactions.  

PubMed

The term "Glaucoma" is used to describe a number of diseases of the eye characterized by a particular form of optic nerve damage that is often associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP). The open angle glaucoma is the most common form that is also referred to as chronic glaucoma. This is described as an optic neuropathy with multifactorial nature in which there is a loss of characteristics of the optic nerve fibers. Therapeutic options for the treatment of this disease are different, you can take advantage of eye drops, laser therapy and conventional surgery or more combined treatments. Medicated eye drops are the most common way to treat glaucoma. Although eye drops are widely used, adverse reactions are not frequently observed and described. In particular, the adverse skin reactions are not frequently described in the literature, but often seen in dermatologic clinic, we reported their skin reactions and possible alternative treatments described in literature and their patent applications. PMID:25487259

Carmen, Cantisani; Marina, Ambrifi; Federica, Frascani; Gilda, Fazia; Roberto, Lisi; Stefano, Calvieri

2014-12-01

332

An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

2004-01-01

333

Pharmacogenetics of Idiosyncratic Adverse Drug Reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions are unpredictable and thought to have an underlying genetic etiology. With the completion\\u000a of the human genome and HapMap projects, together with the rapid advances in genotyping technologies, we have unprecedented\\u000a capabilities in identifying genetic predisposing factors for these relatively rare, but serious, reactions. The main roadblock\\u000a to this is the lack of sufficient numbers of

Munir Pirmohamed

334

Mechanisms of Adverse Drug Reactions to Biologics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologics encompass a broad range of therapeutics that include proteins and other products derived from living systems. Although\\u000a the multiplicity of target organs often seen with new chemical entities is generally not seen with biologics, they can produce\\u000a significant adverse reactions. Examples include IL-12 and an anti-CD28 antibody that resulted in patient deaths and\\/or long\\u000a stays in intensive care units.

Janet B. Clarke

335

Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine). Methods We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 2005. The medical records of the patients filing these claims were reviewed and compared with Swespine data for the same period. Results Two-thirds (119/182, 65%) of patients who claimed economic compensation from the insurance company were registered in Swespine. Of the 210 complications associated with these 182 claims, only 74 were listed in Swespine. The most common causes of compensated injuries (n = 139) were dural lesions (n = 40) and wound infections (n = 30). Clinical outcome based on global assessment, leg pain, disability, and quality of health was worse for patients who claimed economic compensation than for the total group of Swespine patients. Interpretation We found considerable under-reporting of complications in Swespine. Dural lesions and infections were not well recorded, although they were important reasons for problems and contributed to high levels of disability. By analyzing data from more than one source, we obtained a better understanding of the patterns of adverse events and outcomes after spine surgery. PMID:22066564

2011-01-01

336

"It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

337

Children and the Environment. The State of the Environment, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the ways in which children in developing nations have been adversely affected by their environment and what changes could be made to mitigate these circumstances. Chapter 1 discusses the environment, children, and future generations, pointing out the special needs children have now and will have in the future, the role of…

United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

338

Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 2: Examples  

PubMed Central

To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR ? and dual ?/? agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR ? agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions. PMID:22272032

Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E.

2010-01-01

339

Anticoagulation-associated adverse drug events  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anticoagulant drugs are among the most common medications that cause adverse drug events (ADEs) in hospitalized patients. We performed a five-year retrospective study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital to determine clinical characteristics, types, root causes, and outcomes of anticoagulant-associated adverse drug events (ADEs). Methods We reviewed all inpatient anticoagulant-associated ADEs, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and medication errors, reported at Brigham and Women’s Hospital through the Safety Reporting System from May 2004 to May 2009. We also collected data regarding the cost associated with hospitalizations in which ADRs occurred. Results Of 463 anticoagulant-associated ADEs, 226 were MEs (48.8%), 141 were ADRs (30.5%), and 96 (20.7%) involved both a medication error and ADR. Seventy percent of anticoagulant-associated ADEs were potentially preventable. Transcription errors (48%) were the most frequent root cause of anticoagulant-associated medication errors, while medication errors (40%) were a common root cause of anticoagulant-associated ADRs. Death within 30 days of anticoagulant-associated ADEs occurred in 11% of patients. After an anticoagulant-associated ADR, most hospitalization expenditures were attributable to nursing costs (mean $33,189 per ADR) followed by pharmacy costs (mean $7,451 per ADR). Conclusion Most anticoagulant-associated ADEs among inpatients result from medication errors and are therefore potentially preventable. We observed an elevated 30-day mortality rate among patients who suffered an anticoagulant-associated ADE and high hospitalization costs following ADRs. Further Quality Improvement efforts to reduce anticoagulant-associated medication errors are warranted to improve patient safety and decrease health care expenditures. PMID:22114827

Piazza, Gregory; Nguyen, Thanh Nha; Cios, Deborah; Labreche, Matthew; Hohlfelder, Benjamin; Fanikos, John; Fiumara, Karen; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.

2011-01-01

340

Standardizing adverse drug event reporting data  

PubMed Central

Background The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is an FDA database providing rich information on voluntary reports of adverse drug events (ADEs). Normalizing data in the AERS would improve the mining capacity of the AERS for drug safety signal detection and promote semantic interoperability between the AERS and other data sources. In this study, we normalize the AERS and build a publicly available normalized ADE data source. The drug information in the AERS is normalized to RxNorm, a standard terminology source for medication, using a natural language processing medication extraction tool, MedEx. Drug class information is then obtained from the National Drug File-Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) using a greedy algorithm. Adverse events are aggregated through mapping with the Preferred Term (PT) and System Organ Class (SOC) codes of Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). The performance of MedEx-based annotation was evaluated and case studies were performed to demonstrate the usefulness of our approaches. Results Our study yields an aggregated knowledge-enhanced AERS data mining set (AERS-DM). In total, the AERS-DM contains 37,029,228 Drug-ADE records. Seventy-one percent (10,221/14,490) of normalized drug concepts in the AERS were classified to 9 classes in NDF-RT. The number of unique pairs is 4,639,613 between RxNorm concepts and MedDRA Preferred Term (PT) codes and 205,725 between RxNorm concepts and SOC codes after ADE aggregation. Conclusions We have built an open-source Drug-ADE knowledge resource with data being normalized and aggregated using standard biomedical ontologies. The data resource has the potential to assist the mining of ADE from AERS for the data mining research community. PMID:25157320

2014-01-01

341

The pharmacist and adverse drug reaction reporting.  

PubMed

During premarketing trials, the number of patients exposed to a drug and the length of exposure to a drug are both limited. After marketing, many thousands, frequently millions, of patients are exposed to the drug over considerably longer periods of time, and adverse drug reactions not previously recognized appear. Because of these factors, postmarketing surveillance is extremely important. Pharmacists can contribute to drug safety and improved patient care by understanding and actively participating in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting Program. PMID:10256700

Pearson, K

1982-08-01

342

Adverse events associated with percutaneous enteral access.  

PubMed

Placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy is a safe procedure with low periprocedural mortality, but overall mortality rates are high because of underlying disease conditions. These procedures are also associated with postprocedure complications. The clinically significant adverse events related to the procedures include infection (at tube site and peritonitis), bleeding, and aspiration. More rare associated events include buried bumpers, injury to adjacent viscera with subsequent fistula formation, and tumor seeding. There is a lack of guidelines about these procedures other than those concerning the use of antibiotics and the management of antithrombotics and anticoagulation before the procedure. PMID:25442959

Singh, Ajaypal; Gelrud, Andres

2015-01-01

343

Adverse effects of topical corticosteroid use.  

PubMed Central

Topical corticosteroid use, a common and often efficacious therapy for a wide variety of cutaneous conditions, may have substantial adverse effects. These range from the notable nondermatologic side effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, Cushing's disease, femoral head osteonecrosis, and cataracts to a variety of less serious skin effects such as cutaneous tinea and contact dermatitis. The broad availability, efficacy, relative low cost, and ease of applying topical corticosteroids should not induce complacency or a cavalier attitude in prescribers. Physicians should have the same awareness of the possible side effects of topical steroid use as when prescribing parenteral medication. Images PMID:7794369

Fisher, D A

1995-01-01

344

Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

Sousa, Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

2014-01-01

345

Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events  

PubMed Central

Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences. PMID:25249979

Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, Søren

2014-01-01

346

Adverse Events Related to Colonic Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Polypectomy.  

PubMed

Colonoscopy is a commonly performed procedure. The rate of adverse events is 2.8 per 1000 screening colonoscopies. These adverse events include cardiovascular and pulmonary events, abdominal pain, hemorrhage, perforation, postpolypectomy syndrome, infection, and death. Serious adverse events, such as hemorrhage and perforation, occur most frequently when colonoscopy is performed with polypectomy. This article highlights the prevention and management of adverse events associated with polypectomy and endoscopic mucosal resection of colonic lesions. PMID:25442958

Sethi, Amrita; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

2015-01-01

347

Interrogating Social Justice in Early Years Education: How Effectively Do Contemporary Policies and Practices Create Equitable Learning Environments for Indigenous Australian Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines some of the contemporary policies and practices in Australian early years education to provide an insight into why social justice is such a critical element in preparing Australia's Indigenous children to engage in learning experiences in ways that will enable them to establish sound foundations for their future learning…

Herbert, Jeannie

2013-01-01

348

Are adverse outcome pathways here to stay?  

PubMed

Social pressure to minimize the use of animal testing and the ever-increasing concern on animal welfare, together with the need for more human-relevant and more predictive toxicity tests, are some of the drivers for new approaches to chemical screening. These approaches must also be able to accelerate the screening and assessment of the thousands of chemicals that are currently in use and in development for potential hazards to human and ecological health. Ideally, approaches are needed that decrease (or eliminate) animal testing while increasing predictivity. Efforts in many countries have focused on a toxicological pathway-based vision for human health assessments relying on in vitro systems and predictive models,1 vision equally applicable to ecological risk assessment.2 A pathway-based analysis of chemical effects opens numerous opportunities to apply nontraditional approaches for understanding the risks of chemical exposure. Conservation of molecular initiating and key events leading to adverse outcomes of regulatory concern provide a defensible framework for extrapolating chemical effects across species, even if the specific adverse outcomes differ between them.3. PMID:25469516

Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

2015-01-01

349

Adverse Outcome Pathway Development II: Best Practices.  

PubMed

Organization of existing and emerging toxicological knowledge into adverse outcome pathway (AOP) descriptions can facilitate greater application of mechanistic data, including those derived through high-throughput in vitro, high content omics and imaging, and biomarker approaches, in risk-based decision making. The previously ad hoc process of AOP development is being formalized through development of internationally harmonized guidance and principles. The goal of this article was to outline the information content desired for formal AOP description and some rules of thumb and best practices intended to facilitate reuse and connectivity of elements of an AOP description in a knowledgebase and network context. For example, key events (KEs) are measurements of change in biological state that are indicative of progression of a perturbation toward a specified adverse outcome. Best practices for KE description suggest that each KE should be defined as an independent measurement made at a particular level of biological organization. The concept of "functional equivalence" can help guide both decisions about how many KEs to include in an AOP and the specificity with which they are defined. Likewise, in describing both KEs and evidence that supports a causal linkage or statistical association between them (ie, a key event relationship; KER), best practice is to build from and contribute to existing KE or KER descriptions in the AOP knowledgebase rather than creating redundant descriptions. The best practices proposed address many of the challenges and uncertainties related to AOP development and help promote a consistent and reliable, yet flexible approach. PMID:25466379

Villeneuve, Daniel L; Crump, Doug; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Hecker, Markus; Hutchinson, Thomas H; LaLone, Carlie A; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lettieri, Teresa; Munn, Sharon; Nepelska, Malgorzata; Ottinger, Mary Ann; Vergauwen, Lucia; Whelan, Maurice

2014-12-01

350

Adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with diabetes  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy affects both the maternal and fetal metabolism and even in nondiabetic women exerts a diabetogenic effect. Among pregnant women, 2 to 17.8% develop gestational diabetes. Pregnancy can also occur in women with preexisting diabetes, that can predispose the fetus to many alterations in organogenesis, growth restriction and the mother to some diabetes-related complications like retinopathy and nephropathy or accelerate the course of these complications if they are already present. Women with gestational diabetes generally start their treatment with diet and lifestyle modification; when these changes fail in keeping an optimal glycemic control, then insulin therapy must be considered. Women with type 2 diabetes in use of oral hypoglycemic agents are advised to change to insulin therapy. Those with preexisting type 1 diabetes must start an intensive glycemic control, preferably before conception. All these procedures are performed aiming to keep glycemic levels normal or near-normal as possible to avoid the occurrence of adverse perinatal outcomes to the mother and to the fetus. The aim of this review is to reinforce the need to improve the knowledge on reproductive health of women with diabetes during gestation and to understand what are the reasons for them failing to attend for prepregnancy care programs, and to understand the underlying mechanisms of adverse fetal and maternal outcomes, which in turn may lead to strategies for its prevention. PMID:22964143

2012-01-01

351

Adverse drug reactions in the elderly.  

PubMed

Medications probably are the single most important health care technology in preventing illness, disability, and death in the geriatric population. Age-related changes in drug disposition and pharmacodynamic responses have significant clinical implications; increased use of a number of medications raises the risk that medicine-related problems may occur. The relationship between increased use of drugs including the prescription medication and elderly is well established. Majority of ADRs (80%) causing admission or occurring in hospital are type A reactions. Although less common occurring in elderly, type B ADRs may sometimes cause serious toxicity. Studies have correlated the integral association between old age and increased rate of adverse drug reactions arising out of confounding association between age and polypharmacy contributed by age-related changes in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics at least for some medical conditions. A drug combination may sometimes cause synergistic toxicity which is greater than the sum of the risks of toxicity of either agent used alone. But, strategies to increase opportunities for identifying ADRs and related problems have not been emphasised in current international policy responses especially in India to the increase in elderly population and chronic conditions. Careful epidemiological studies that encompass large numbers of elderly drug users are required to obtain this information as increased knowledge of the frequency and cost of adverse drug reactions is important in enabling both more rational therapeutic decisions by individual clinicians and more optimal social policy. PMID:23761706

Brahma, Dhriti K; Wahlang, Julie B; Marak, Maxilline D; Ch Sangma, Marlina

2013-04-01

352

[The adverse effects of anticholinergic drugs].  

PubMed

Acetylcholine is one of the main neurotransmitters. It is involved in autonomic activities of the peripheral organs and forms a part of complicated neural networks in the central nervous system. Anticholinergic drugs are used in the treatment of various diseases, and many drugs have anticholinergic side effects. Thus, estimating the total burden of anticholinergic activity of drugs is important to assess the related adverse effects for patients taking such drugs. Serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) is measured using a competitive radioreceptor binding assay of muscarinic receptors. In addition to this direct measurement, several drug scales like the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS), Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden Scale (ACB), and Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS) have been developed to estimate the total anticholinergic burden of drugs. These measurements have been used to demonstrate that certain drugs may be responsible for the cognitive impairment in the elderly or certain groups of patients with neurologic disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the impact of such drugs because central adverse effects are often obscure in these patient groups and are easily overlooked. PMID:24807371

Iwaki, Hirotaka; Nomoto, Masahiro

2014-05-01

353

7 CFR 273.13 - Notice of adverse action.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hearing official's decision is adverse to the household. If there...notice. Individual notices of adverse action shall not be provided...eligibility of a resident of a drug or alcoholic treatment center...same rights as a notice of adverse action except that the...

2010-01-01

354

Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

355

Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10?696 respondents – 59.7% female – aged 18–25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Findings Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32–2.15) – for physical inactivity – to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98–76.65) – for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Conclusion Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European. PMID:25378755

Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

2014-01-01

356

The Science of Early Life Toxic Stress for Pediatric Practice and Advocacy  

PubMed Central

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children’s life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children’s environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

Riley, Anne W.; Granger, Douglas A.; Riis, Jenna

2013-01-01

357

The science of early life toxic stress for pediatric practice and advocacy.  

PubMed

Young children who experience toxic stress are at high risk for a number of health outcomes in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease, cancers, asthma, and depression. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently called on pediatricians, informed by research from molecular biology, genomics, immunology, and neuroscience, to become leaders in science-based strategies to build strong foundations for children's life-long health. In this report, we provide an overview of the science of toxic stress. We summarize the development of the neuroendocrine-immune network, how its function is altered by early life adversity, and how these alterations then increase vulnerability to disease. The fact that early environments shape and calibrate the functioning of biological systems very early in life is both a cautionary tale about overlooking critical periods in development and reason for optimism about the promise of intervention. Even in the most extreme cases of adversity, well-timed changes to children's environments can improve outcomes. Pediatricians are in a unique position to contribute to the public discourse on health and social welfare by explaining how factors that seem distal to child health may be the key to some of the most intractable public health problems of our generation. We consider the challenges and opportunities for preventing toxic stress in the context of contemporary pediatric practice. PMID:23339224

Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W; Granger, Douglas A; Riis, Jenna

2013-02-01

358

Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children's exposure to pesticides and other environmental agents, and thereby reduce the incidence of environmentally related disease. PMID:10346990

Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

1999-01-01

359

Environmental Adversity Increases Genetic Risk for Externalizing Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of psychiatric and substance use disorders are rapidly accumulating. However, few attempts have been made to integrate findings and articulate general mechanisms of G-E influence in the emergence of psychopathology. Objective Identify patterns of G-E interplay between externalizing (EXT; antisocial behavior and substance use) disorders and several environmental risk factors. Design We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental risk for EXT disorders changes as a function of environmental context. Setting Participants were recruited from the community and took part in a day-long assessment at a university laboratory. Participants The sample consisted of 1315 male and female twin pairs participating in the age 17 assessment of the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Main Outcome Measures Multiple measures and informants were employed to construct a composite of EXT disorders and composite measures of 6 environmental risk factors including academic achievement and engagement, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliation, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, and stressful life events. Results A significant G × E interaction was detected between each environmental risk factor and EXT such that greater environmental adversity was associated with increased genetic risk in EXT. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that in the context of environmental adversity, genetic factors become more important in the etiology of EXT disorders. The consistency of the results further suggests a general mechanism of environmental influence on EXT disorders regardless of the specific form of the environmental risk. PMID:19487629

Hicks, Brian M.; South, Susan C.; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

2008-01-01

360

Constellations of Support and Impediment: Understanding Early Implementation Dynamics in the Research and Development of an Online Multimodal Writing and Peer Review Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors trace teachers' experiences while participating in an educational technology development and research project focused on the creation and use of an online writing and peer review environment. They follow teachers from their initial expectations of the program, to their response to professional development training…

Olmanson, Justin; Abrams, Sandra Schamroth

2013-01-01

361

Too Young for Respect? Realising Respect for Young Children in Their Everyday Environments: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 54  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the conceptual underpinnings of the routine disrespect shown to young children in everyday life in cultures around the world. General Comment 7 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child urges that the youngest children should be respected as persons in their own right, within an environment of reliable and affectionate…

George, Shanti

2009-01-01

362

Pilgrimstad revisited a multi-proxy reconstruction of Early/Middle Weichselian climate and environment at a key site in central Sweden  

E-print Network

and environment at a key site in central Sweden BARBARA WOHLFARTH, HELENA ALEXANDERSON, LINDA AMPEL, OLE BENNIKE in central Sweden. Boreas, Vol. 40, pp. 211­230. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2010.00192.x. ISSN 0300-9483. The site Pilgrimstad in central Sweden has often been cited as a key locality for discussions of ice

Wohlfarth, Barbara

363

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14884  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The…

Gould, Eric D.; Lavy, Victor; Paserman, M. Daniele

2009-01-01

364

Early traumatic events in psychopaths.  

PubMed

The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders. PMID:23550705

Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

2013-07-01

365

Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G.

2012-01-01

366

Adverse drug events occurring following hospital discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of adverse drug events (ADEs), preventable ADEs, and ameliorable ADEs occurring after hospital\\u000a discharge and their associated risk factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Urban academic health sciences center.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PATIENTS: Consecutive patients discharged home from the general medical service.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a INTERVENTIONS: We determined posthospital outcomes approximately 24 days following discharge by performing a chart review and

Alan J. Forster; Harvey J. Murff; Josh F. Peterson; Tejal K. Gandhi; David W. Bates

2005-01-01

367

Adverse reactions to the sulphite additives  

PubMed Central

Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. Most studies report a prevalence of sulphite sensitivity of 3 to 10% among asthmatic subjects who ingest these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. Although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed, the precise mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear. PMID:24834193

Misso, Neil LA

2012-01-01

368

Adverse skeletal effects of drugs - beyond Glucocorticoids.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic fractures are an important public health problem with significant individual and societal costs. In addition to the major risk factors for osteoporotic fracture, low bone mineral density (BMD), age, low body weight and history of fracture or falls, some drugs are now considered to be important secondary risk factor for bone loss and fracture, particularly amongst predisposed individuals. Currently available data are often generated from small observational clinical studies, making risk assessment and development of management guidelines difficult. In many cases, the exposed population has a low baseline risk for fracture and additional assessment and treatment may not be necessary. In this review, we focus on drugs other than glucocorticoids identified as potentially causing adverse skeletal effects, summarizing the existing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies, and suggest recommendations for patient management. PMID:25039381

O'Sullivan, Susannah; Grey, Andrew

2015-01-01

369

Measles vaccines: a review of adverse events.  

PubMed

A great deal of controversy has recently been generated over the publication of several articles implicating measles vaccine in the induction of Crohn's disease and autism. The publication of this work has already had a negative impact on measles vaccine acceptance in the UK. These allegations are particularly troubling because they arise in the context of increased use of measles vaccine as global control of measles nears and the international community considers strategies for a drive towards eradication. In 1994, the US Institute of Medicine reviewed the world literature and published a comprehensive review of adverse events associated with measles-containing vaccines. Reviewing the literature published between 1994 and the present day, reveals that there is considerable new data suggesting that modified gelatin rather than egg proteins is responsible for most episodes of anaphylaxis following measles vaccination. New work weakens the possible links between measles vaccine and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome, but strengthens the rare association of measles-containing vaccines with post infectious encephalomyelitis. The alleged associations between measles vaccination and Crohn's disease and autism are based upon weak science and have largely been refuted by a large volume of stronger work. A review of the data generated in the last 4 years amply demonstrates the continued efforts of the scientific community to monitor and understand true measles vaccine-associated adverse events. The rapidity and clarity of this same community's debunking of the spurious associations with Crohn's disease and autism suggests that those charged with vaccination programmes have learned from past mistakes. During 30 years of worldwide use, measles vaccination has proven to be one of the safest and most successful health interventions in the history of mankind. It is not a 'perfect' vaccine, but the benefits of measles vaccination far outweigh the risks even in countries with low incidence of measles and high rates of measles vaccine coverage. PMID:9880088

Duclos, P; Ward, B J

1998-12-01

370

Features of portal hypertension are associated with major adverse events in Fontan patients: The VAST study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic congestive hepatopathy is known to cause hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension in patients post-Fontan operation for single ventricle palliation. The clinical significance of these findings is not clear. We hypothesized that features of portal hypertension would be significantly related to major adverse events. Methods A retrospective review of 73 adult and pediatric post-Fontan patients referred for a liver evaluation from 2001-2011 was performed. The relationship between features of portal hypertension (VAST score ?2, 1 point each for Varices, Ascites, Splenomegaly or Thrombocytopenia) and a major adverse event (death, need for transplant, or hepatocellular carcinoma) was examined using logistic regression. Results 73 post-Fontan patients (30% female, 73% Caucasian, 66% systemic left ventricle (SLV), mean age 24 ±11 years, mean interval from Fontan 17 ±6 years) were included in analysis. Features of portal hypertension (VAST score ?2) were present in 26 (36%), and there were 19 major adverse events: death (n=12), transplant (n=6), HCC (n=1). A significant relationship was found between VAST score ?2 and major adverse events (OR=9.8, 95% CI [2.9-32.7]). After adjusting for time since Fontan, SLV, age, hemoglobin and type of failure, VAST score ?2 remained significant (OR=9.1, 95% CI [1.4-57.6]). Conclusion Fontan patients with features of portal hypertension have a 9-fold increased risk for a major adverse event. Therapies targeted to manage clinical manifestations of portal hypertension, and early referral to heart transplant may help delay major adverse events. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23849105

Elder, Robert W.; McCabe, Nancy M.; Hebson, Camden; Veledar, Emir; Romero, Rene; Ford, Ryan M.; Mahle, William T.; Kogon, Brian E.; Sahu, Anurag; Jokhadar, Maan; McConnell, Michael E.; Book, Wendy M.

2013-01-01

371

Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sample of 296 8th-grade middle school students, the authors examined the role of personal achievement goals and feelings of school belonging in mediating the relation between perceptions of the school psychological environment and school-related beliefs, affect, and achievement. Sequential regression analyses indicated that perceiving a task goal structure in middle school was positively related to academic self-efficacy and

Robert W. Roeser; Carol Midgley; Timothy C. Urdan

1996-01-01

372

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re\\/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For

F. Annibali; R. Grützbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2011-01-01

373

Evaluating Predictive Pharmacogenetic Signatures of Adverse Events in Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Fluoropyrimidines  

PubMed Central

The potential clinical utility of genetic markers associated with response to fluoropyrimidine treatment in colorectal cancer patients remains controversial despite extensive study. Our aim was to test the clinical validity of both novel and previously identified markers of adverse events in a broad clinical setting. We have conducted an observational pharmacogenetic study of early adverse events in a cohort study of 254 colorectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil or capecitabine. Sixteen variants of nine key folate (pharmacodynamic) and drug metabolising (pharmacokinetic) enzymes have been analysed as individual markers and/or signatures of markers. We found a significant association between TYMP S471L (rs11479) and early dose modifications and/or severe adverse events (adjusted OR = 2.02 [1.03; 4.00], p = 0.042, adjusted OR = 2.70 [1.23; 5.92], p = 0.01 respectively). There was also a significant association between these phenotypes and a signature of DPYD mutations (Adjusted OR = 3.96 [1.17; 13.33], p = 0.03, adjusted OR = 6.76 [1.99; 22.96], p = 0.002 respectively). We did not identify any significant associations between the individual candidate pharmacodynamic markers and toxicity. If a predictive test for early adverse events analysed the TYMP and DPYD variants as a signature, the sensitivity would be 45.5 %, with a positive predictive value of just 33.9 % and thus poor clinical validity. Most studies to date have been under-powered to consider multiple pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variants simultaneously but this and similar individualised data sets could be pooled in meta-analyses to resolve uncertainties about the potential clinical utility of these markers. PMID:24167597

Skinner, Jane; Keane, Melanie; Chu, Gavin S.; Turner, Richard; Epurescu, Daniel; Barrett, Ann; Willis, Gavin

2013-01-01

374

Clinical and economic burden of adverse drug reactions.  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are unwanted drug effects that have considerable economic as well as clinical costs as they often lead to hospital admission, prolongation of hospital stay and emergency department visits. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the main premarketing methods used to detect and quantify ADRs but these have several limitations, such as limited study sample size and limited heterogeneity due to the exclusion of the frailest patients. In addition, ADRs due to inappropriate medication use occur often in the real world of clinical practice but not in RCTs. Postmarketing drug safety monitoring through pharmacovigilance activities, including mining of spontaneous reporting and carrying out observational prospective cohort or retrospective database studies, allow longer follow-up periods of patients with a much wider range of characteristics, providing valuable means for ADR detection, quantification and where possible reduction, reducing healthcare costs in the process. Overall, pharmacovigilance is aimed at identifying drug safety signals as early as possible, thus minimizing potential clinical and economic consequences of ADRs. The goal of this review is to explore the epidemiology and the costs of ADRs in routine care. PMID:24347988

Sultana, Janet; Cutroneo, Paola; Trifirò, Gianluca

2013-12-01

375

Maternal serum triple analyte screening and adverse pregnancy outcome.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of maternal serum triple analyte screening with AFP, hCG and uE3 (unconjugated estriol) was studied early in the second trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study of 38 women and 76 matched controls derived from a consecutive screened population of 28,897, case selection was based upon elevated MSAFP and MShCG (> or = 2 MOM) and low MSuE3 (< or = 0.6 MOM). Adverse pregnancy outcome was found in 65.8% of cases and 2.6% of controls (RR 25, 95% CI 6.3-100.0). When increased odds (> or = 1 in 270) for Down's syndrome were considered with the abnormal analyte screen, fetal/congenital defects, fetal neonatal loss or low birth weight were noted in 17/26 cases (65.4%). Elevated MSAFP and MShCG with low values for estriol, with or without increased odds for Down's syndrome, imply an unfavorable prognosis for both the fetus and the child. PMID:8823604

Milunsky, A; Nebiolo, L

1996-01-01

376

The Long and the Short of it: Gene and Environment Interactions During Early Cortical Development and Consequences for Long-Term Neurological Disease  

PubMed Central

Cortical development is a complex amalgamation of proliferation, migration, differentiation, and circuit formation. These processes follow defined timescales and are controlled by a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. It is currently unclear how robust and flexible these processes are and whether the developing brain has the capacity to recover from disruptions. What is clear is that there are a number of cognitive disorders or conditions that are elicited as a result of disrupted cortical development, although it may take a long time for the full pathophysiology of the conditions to be realized clinically. The critical window for the manifestation of a neurodevelopmental disorder is prolonged, and there is the potential for a complex interplay between genes and environment. While there have been extended investigations into the genetic basis of a number of neurological and mental disorders, limited definitive associations have been discovered. Many environmental factors, including inflammation and stress, have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, and it may be that a better understanding of the interplay between genes and environment will speed progress in this field. In particular, the development of the brain needs to be considered in the context of the whole materno-fetal unit as the degree of the metabolic, endocrine, or inflammatory responses, for example, will greatly influence the environment in which the brain develops. This review will emphasize the importance of extending neurodevelopmental studies to the contribution of the placenta, vasculature, cerebrospinal fluid, and to maternal and fetal immune response. These combined investigations are more likely to reveal genetic and environmental factors that influence the different stages of neuronal development and potentially lead to the better understanding of the etiology of neurological and mental disorders such as autism, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia. PMID:22701439

Stolp, Helen; Neuhaus, Ain; Sundramoorthi, Rohan; Molnár, Zoltán

2012-01-01

377

Economic Adversity and Entrepreneurship-led Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, we draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms were those that best aligned the country's abundant labour resources and

Suma Athreye

2010-01-01

378

Managing ixabepilone adverse events with dose reduction.  

PubMed

Ixabepilone is a synthetic analogue of epothilone B approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in combination with capecitabine for cancer resistant to an anthracycline and a taxane, and as monotherapy for cancer resistant or refractory to anthracyclines, taxanes, and capecitabine. The principal dose-limiting adverse events (AEs) of ixabepilone's standard dose (40 mg/m(2) administered by 3-hour infusion once every 3 weeks) are peripheral neuropathy, neutropenia, and fatigue. An effective strategy to manage ixabepilone-related AEs is dose reduction by 20% (from 40 to 32 to 25 mg/m(2)); this does not appear to affect treatment efficacy and enables continuation of treatment after recovery (grade 1 or resolved). When appropriate, treatment can be restarted with a 20% dose reduction (to 32 mg/m(2)). For heavily pretreated patients, especially those with a low performance status, 32 mg/m(2) is an appropriate initial dose; the dose of capecitabine should also be lowered by 20%. Weekly ixabepilone (15-20 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) may have an improved tolerability profile, but prospective studies with a large number of patients are required to determine whether it has therapeutic benefit comparable with the current approved regimen. More information is required on dosage and scheduling of ixabepilone in combination with other agents, including novel targeted therapies. PMID:23098573

Valero, Vicente

2013-02-01

379

Idiosyncratic Adverse Drug Reactions: Current Concepts  

PubMed Central

Idiosyncratic drug reactions are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for patients; they also markedly increase the uncertainty of drug development. The major targets are skin, liver, and bone marrow. Clinical characteristics suggest that IDRs are immune mediated, and there is substantive evidence that most, but not all, IDRs are caused by chemically reactive species. However, rigorous mechanistic studies are very difficult to perform, especially in the absence of valid animal models. Models to explain how drugs or reactive metabolites interact with the MHC/T-cell receptor complex include the hapten and P-I models, and most recently it was found that abacavir can interact reversibly with MHC to alter the endogenous peptides that are presented to T cells. The discovery of HLA molecules as important risk factors for some IDRs has also significantly contributed to our understanding of these adverse reactions, but it is not yet clear what fraction of IDRs have a strong HLA dependence. In addition, with the exception of abacavir, most patients who have the HLA that confers a higher IDR risk with a specific drug will not have an IDR when treated with that drug. Interindividual differences in T-cell receptors and other factors also presumably play a role in determining which patients will have an IDR. The immune response represents a delicate balance, and immune tolerance may be the dominant response to a drug that can cause IDRs. PMID:23476052

Naisbitt, Dean J.

2013-01-01

380

Partners in adversity. IV. Coping and mood.  

PubMed

This paper presents details of an interviewer-based measure of coping, completed in the context of a study examining the mental health of three groups of married women following their exposure to recent severe adversity. For one group a marital partner had recently died and for another group a marital partner had recently experienced a myocardial infarction. The third group consisted of those women recently entering a Women's Aid refuge. Initial interviews were completed about 6 weeks following event experience. Coping and mood state were re-assessed about 4 months after the events that had recruited the samples to the study. The measures of coping response were adapted from the coping domains of 'fighting spirit', 'helplessness', 'fatalism', 'avoidance' and 'anger/frustration' assessed in the Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale. Details are provided of the construction of a summary measure of coping response based upon the above domains and of its relationship with follow-up mood state after allowance for mood levels at initial interview. PMID:8043617

Surtees, P G; Miller, P M

1994-01-01

381

Reporting vaccine-associated adverse events.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine family physicians' awareness of the need to monitor and report vaccine-associated adverse events (VAAE) in Canada and to identify mechanisms that could facilitate reporting. DESIGN: Mailed survey. SETTING: Canadian family practices. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 747 family physicians. Overall response rate was 32% (226 of 717 eligible physicians). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Access to education on VAAE; knowledge about VAAE monitoring systems, reporting criteria, and reporting forms; method of reporting VAAEs and reasons for not reporting them; and current experience with VAAEs. RESULTS: Of 226 respondents, 55% reported observing VAAEs, and 42% reported the event. Fewer than 50% were aware of a monitoring system for VAAE, and only 39% had had VAAE-related education during medical training. Only 28% knew the reporting criteria. Reporting was significantly associated with knowledge of VAAE monitoring systems and reporting criteria (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Physicians need more feedback and education on VAAE reporting and more information about the importance of reporting and about reporting criteria and methods. PMID:9303234

Duclos, P.; Hockin, J.; Pless, R.; Lawlor, B.

1997-01-01

382

The Environment as the Third Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores Katz (1987) goals for children's learning within the early childhood environment. The focus is on employing the environment as the third teacher, and how the environment can support knowledge, skills, dispositions and feelings is presented and discussed.

Darragh, Johnna C.

2006-01-01

383

Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I), sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs) for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications. PMID:24151517

Zaza, Gianluigi; Tomei, Paola; Ria, Paolo; Granata, Simona; Boschiero, Luigino; Lupo, Antonio

2013-01-01

384

Systemic and nonrenal adverse effects occurring in renal transplant patients treated with mTOR inhibitors.  

PubMed

The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I), sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs) for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications. PMID:24151517

Zaza, Gianluigi; Tomei, Paola; Ria, Paolo; Granata, Simona; Boschiero, Luigino; Lupo, Antonio

2013-01-01

385

Incidence and preventability of adverse drug events in nursing homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Adverse drug events, especially those that may have been preventable, are among the most serious concerns about medication use in nursing homes. We studied the incidence and preventability of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events in nursing homes.METHODS: We performed a cohort study of all long-term care residents of 18 community-based nursing homes in Massachusetts during a

Jerry H. Gurwitz; Terry S. Field; Jerry Avorn; Danny McCormick; Shailavi Jain; Marie A. Eckler; Marcia Benser; Amy C. Edmondson; David W. Bates

2000-01-01

386

Epidemiology Of Adverse Drug Reactions To Phenformin And Metformin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to phenformin and metformin reported to the Swedish Adverse Drug Reaction Committee during 1965-77 were analysed in relation to sales and prescription data. The biguanides accounted for 0·6% of all reported adverse drug reactions but for 6% of the fatal cases (all phenformin). Sixty-four ADRs to phenformin and eight to metformin were classified as causal relation

Ulf Bergman; Gunnar Boman; Bengt-Erik Wiholm

1978-01-01

387

Flow Control Device Evaluation for an Internal Flow with an Adverse Pressure Gradient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effectiveness of several active and passive devices to control flow in an adverse pressure gradient with secondary flows present was evaluated in the 15 Inch Low Speed Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. In this study, passive micro vortex generators, micro bumps, and piezoelectric synthetic jets were evaluated for their flow control characteristics using surface static pressures, flow visualization, and 3D Stereo Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. Data also were acquired for synthetic jet actuators in a zero flow environment. It was found that the micro vortex generator is very effective in controlling the flow environment for an adverse pressure gradient, even in the presence of secondary vortical flow. The mechanism by which the control is effected is a re-energization of the boundary layer through flow mixing. The piezoelectric synthetic jet actuators must have sufficient velocity output to produce strong longitudinal vortices if they are to be effective for flow control. The output of these devices in a laboratory or zero flow environment will be different than the output in a flow environment. In this investigation, the output was higher in the flow environment, but the stroke cycle in the flow did not indicate a positive inflow into the synthetic jet.

Jenkins, Luther N.; Gorton, Susan Althoff; Anders, Scott G.

2002-01-01

388

Adverse drug event notification on a semantic interoperability framework.  

PubMed

Adverse drug events (ADEs) are common, costly and one of the most important issues in contemporary pharmacotherapy. Current drug safety surveillance methods are largely based on spontaneous reports. However, this is known to be rather ineffective. There is a lack of automated systems checking potential ADEs on routine data captured in electronic health records (EHRs); present systems are usually built directly on top of specific clinical information systems through proprietary interfaces. In the context of the European project "SALUS", we aim to provide an infrastructure as well as a tool-set for accessing and analyzing clinical patient data of heterogeneous clinical information systems utilizing standard methods. This paper focuses on two components of the SALUS architecture: The "Semantic Interoperability Layer" (SIL) enables an access to disparate EHR sources in order to provide the patient data in a common data model for ADE detection within the "ADE Detection and Notification Tool" (ANT). The SIL in combination with the ANT can be used in different clinical environments to increase ADE detection and reporting rates. Thus, our approach promises a profound impact in the domain of pharmacovigilance. PMID:25160156

Krahn, Tobias; Eichelberg, Marco; Müller, Frerk; Gönül, Suat; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B; Sinaci, A Anil; Appelrath, H-Jürgen

2014-01-01

389

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related adverse events: general overview.  

PubMed

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) represents a monumental advance in the management of patients with pancreaticobiliary diseases, but is a complex and technically demanding procedure with the highest inherent risk of adverse events of all routine endoscopic procedures. Overall adverse event rates for ERCP are typically reported as 5-10%. The most commonly reported adverse events include post-ERCP pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, infection (cholangitis), and cardiopulomary or "sedation related" events. This article evaluates patient-related and procedure-related risk factors for ERCP-related adverse events, and discusses strategies for the prevention, diagnosis and management of these events. PMID:25442961

Rustagi, Tarun; Jamidar, Priya A

2015-01-01

390

15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Significant adverse environmental effects. 970.701 Section... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.701...

2014-01-01

391

15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Significant adverse environmental effects. 970.701 Section... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.701...

2012-01-01

392

15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Significant adverse environmental effects. 970.701 Section... GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED...REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Environmental Effects § 970.701...

2013-01-01

393

An upside to adversity?: moderate cumulative lifetime adversity is associated with resilient responses in the face of controlled stressors.  

PubMed

Despite common findings suggesting that lack of negative life events should be optimal, recent work has revealed a curvilinear pattern, such that some cumulative lifetime adversity is instead associated with optimal well-being. This work, however, is limited in that responses to specific stressors as they occurred were not assessed, thereby precluding investigation of resilience. The current research addressed this critical gap by directly testing the relationship between adversity history and resilience to stressors. Specifically, we used a multimethod approach across two studies to assess responses to controlled laboratory stressors (respectively requiring passive endurance and active instrumental performance). Results revealed hypothesized U-shaped relationships: Relative to a history of either no adversity or nonextreme high adversity, a moderate number of adverse life events was associated with less negative responses to pain and more positive psychophysiological responses while taking a test. These results provide novel evidence in support of adversity-derived propensity for resilience that generalizes across stressors. PMID:23673992

Seery, Mark D; Leo, Raphael J; Lupien, Shannon P; Kondrak, Cheryl L; Almonte, Jessica L

2013-07-01

394

Peri-operative adverse respiratory events in children.  

PubMed

Three quarters of all critical incidents and a third of all peri-operative cardiac arrests in paediatric anaesthesia are caused by adverse respiratory events. We screened for risk factors from children's and their families' histories, and assessed the usefulness of common markers of allergic sensitisation of the airway as surrogates for airway inflammation and increased risk for adverse respiratory events. One hundred children aged up to 16 years with two or more risk factors undergoing elective surgery were included in the study. Eosinophil counts, IgE level, specific IgE for D. pteronyssinus, cat epithelia and Gx2 (grass pollen) were measured for each child and adverse respiratory events (bronchospasm, laryngospasm, oxygen desaturation < 95%, severe persistent coughing, airway obstruction and postoperative stridor) were recorded. Twenty-one patients had an adverse respiratory event but allergic markers were poor predictors. Binary logistic regression showed a lack of predictive value of the eosinophil range and adverse respiratory events (p = 0.249). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the presence of adverse respiratory events vs level of specific IgE antibody (to Gx2 (AUC 0.614), cat epithelia (0.564) and D. pteronyssinus (0.520)) demonstrated poor predictive values. However, the presence of risk factors was strongly associated with adverse respiratory events (p < 0.001) and a ROC-curve analysis indicated a fair capacity to predict adverse respiratory events (AUC 0.788). There was a significant difference (p = 0.001) between the presence of adverse respiratory events in patients with more than four (p = 0.006), compared with less than four (p = 0.001), risk factors. We conclude that while risk factors taken from the child's (or family) history proved good predictors of adverse respiratory events, immunological markers of allergic sensitisation demonstrated low predictive values. Pre-operative identification of children at high risk for an adverse respiratory event should rely on clinical, rather than immunological, assessment. PMID:25421587

von Ungern-Sternberg, B S; Ramgolam, A; Hall, G L; Sly, P D; Habre, W

2014-11-25

395

Late-onset inflammatory adverse reactions related to soft tissue filler injections.  

PubMed

An ever-increasing number of persons seek medical solutions to improve the appearance of their aging skin or for aesthetic and cosmetic indications in diverse pathological conditions, such as malformations, trauma, cancer, and orthopedic, urological, or ophthalmological conditions. Currently, physicians have many different types of dermal and subdermal fillers, such as non-permanent, permanent, reversible, or non-reversible materials. Despite the claims of manufacturers and different authors that fillers are non-toxic and non-immunogenic or that complications are very uncommon, unwanted side effects do occur with all compounds used. Implanted, injected, and blood-contact biomaterials trigger a wide variety of adverse reactions, including inflammation, thrombosis, and excessive fibrosis. Usually, these adverse reactions are associated with the accumulation of large numbers of mononuclear cells. The adverse reactions related to fillers comprise a broad range of manifestations, which may appear early or late and range from local to systemic. Clinicians should be aware of them since the patient often denies the antecedent of injection or is unaware of the material employed. Most of these adverse effects seem to have an immunological basis, the fillers acting more as adjuvants than as direct T-cell activators, on a background of genetic predisposition. Their treatment has not been the subject of well-designed studies; management of both acute and systemic reactions is often difficult, and requires anti-inflammatory and occasionally immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of inflammatory and immune-mediated late-onset adverse reactions related to soft tissue filler injections are thoroughly reviewed herein. PMID:23361999

Alijotas-Reig, Jaume; Fernández-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Puig, Lluís

2013-08-01

396

Adverse pregnancy outcome: sensitive periods, types of adverse outcomes, and relationships with critical exposure periods  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of agents has been demonstrated to be capable of affecting the fetus in utero. Certain generalizations can be made concerning these teratogens. Two of the most important of these principles are the specificity of the agent and the time during gestation of the exposure. Although noticeable adverse effects are structural malformations, there are numerous functional malformations, such as lower intelligence and poor reproductive outcome, that may follow exposure to these agents. There is some evidence that future behavior may be affected by in utero teratogen exposure; however, this field has been infrequently investigated and no firm conclusions can be drawn.

Kochenour, N.K.

1984-01-01

397

An early Middle Anisian (Middle Triassic) Tubiphytes and cement crusts-dominated reef from North Dobrogea (Romania): facies, depositional environment and diagenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A well-developed Triassic carbonate platform is exposed in the eastern part of the Tulcea Unit, in the Cimmerian North Dobrogean Orogen, southeastern Romania. Facies analysis of the 200 m thick succession of lower Middle Anisian limestones exposed in a large limestone quarry south of the village of Mahmudia suggests a transition from upper slope towards toe-of-slope carbonate facies, reflecting sea-level fluctuations and tectonic tilting. The slope is dominated by in situ microbialites in the upper portion, consisting of reefal boundstone facies, and by molluscan coquina and cement boundstones. A key role is played by the cosmopolitan micro-encruster Tubiphytes, which became common in the aftermath of the mass extinction at the Permian/Triassic boundary, and by autochthonous micrite and synsedimentary marine cement. The absence of metazoan reef builders, such as sponges and corals, reflects the fact that microbes were the first organisms to recover after the Permian/Triassic crisis under unusual marine conditions and that their main role in reef formation was sediment stabilization along the upper slopes. The lower slope is mostly detrital, being dominated by platform-derived bioclastic rudstones and crinoidal floatstones, which are interbedded with basinal carbonate hemipelagics. The toe-of-slope is composed of pelagic wackestones framed by thin tongues of intraclast breccia. All these observations are in agreement with the slopeshedding model described for the Pennsylvanian microbial margin in Asturias (northern Spain) and the Anisian- Ladinian flat-topped, steep-rimmed Latemar platform (Dolomites, Italy). As most of the Anisian reefs were described from western and eastern Tethys (Southern Alps, Hungary, China), the occurrence of the early Middle Anisian Tubiphytes-reef from North Dobrogea (Romania) contributes to resolving the puzzle of the geographic distribution of reef recovery in the Middle Triassic.

Popa, Livia; Panaiotu, Cristina E.; Gr?dinaru, Eugen

2014-06-01

398

FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US  

EPA Science Inventory

Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

399

Adverse Selection in the Wholesale Used Car Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an empirical investigation of adverse selection in the wholesale used car market. New car dealers (who sell both new and used cars) differ from used car dealers (who sell only used cars) in the propensity to sell trade-ins on the wholesale market. Models of adverse selection suggest that the dealer type that sells a higher proportion of

David Genesove

1993-01-01

400

ORIGINAL REPORT Adverse events associated with prolonged antibiotic usey  

E-print Network

for anthrax prophylaxis. It is not possible to determine severe adverse drug event (ADE) risks from the fewORIGINAL REPORT Adverse events associated with prolonged antibiotic usey Sharon B. Meropol MD, MSCE long-term doxycycline with 3 ADEs or 0.9(0.2­2.6) ADEs/100 000 pds. For most events, the incidence rate

Hennessy, Sean

401

Pharmacogenomics and reducing the frequency of adverse drug events  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Application of pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information should allow the potential for ADEs to be premanaged in the out-patient setting.' Drug toxicity and adverse drug events Pharmacogenomics, as applied to medical prac- tice, offers the promise of reduction in adverse drug events (ADEs), enhanced drug efficacy and selection of patients able to respond to specific agents. This editorial will focus on

Dennis J O'Kane; Richard M Weinshilboum; Thomas P Moyer

2003-01-01

402

Modeling a Decision Support System to Prevent Adverse Drug Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug events are known to be a major health problem worldwide. Decision support systems (DSSs) that assist drug ordering have demonstrated to be a powerful tool to prevent prescription errors and adverse drug events. On the other hand, some issues related to the development, implementation, configuration and evaluation of these DDSs still need further research. The objective of this

Guilherme Del Fiol; Percy Nohama; Beatriz H. S. C. Rocha

2000-01-01

403

Adverse Effects of Systemic Immunosuppression in Keratolimbal Allograft  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) is a treatment for limbal stem cell deficiency. One disadvantage is systemic immunosuppression to avoid rejection. Our purpose was to examine the adverse effects of systemic immunosuppression in KLAL. Methods. A retrospective case review of 16 patients with KLAL who received systemic immunosuppression consisting of a corticosteroid, an antimetabolite, and/or a calcineurin inhibitor was performed. Patients were monitored for signs, symptoms, or laboratory evidence of toxicity. Results. Eleven of 16 patients (68%) experienced an adverse effect. The average age of those with adverse effects was 43.5 years and without was 31.4 years. Ten of 11 patients (91%) had resolution during mean followup of 16.4 months. No serious adverse effects occurred. The most common included anemia, hyperglycemia, elevated creatinine, and elevated liver function tests. Prednisone and tacrolimus were responsible for the most adverse effects. Patients with comorbidities were more likely to experience an adverse effect (82% versus 20%, P = 0.036). Conclusions. KLAL requires prolonged systemic immunosuppression. Our data demonstrated that systemic immunosuppression did not result in serious adverse effects in our population and is relatively safe with monitoring for toxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that adverse effects are more likely in older patients with comorbidities. PMID:22523651

Krakauer, M.; Welder, J. D.; Pandya, H. K.; Nassiri, N.; Djalilian, A. R.

2012-01-01

404

Use of a personal computer to monitor adverse drug reactions.  

PubMed

The Pharmacy department at Sewickley Valley Hospital, Sewickley, Pennsylvania, has developed an adverse drug reaction database using DBase III Plus software. The computer database allows instant, custom manipulation of large amounts of data, and aids in the analysis of adverse drug reaction reports for quality assurance purposes. PMID:10108661

Schlicht, J R; Fowler, T J

1991-01-01

405

Adverse events in 50 cats with allergic dermatitis receiving ciclosporin.  

PubMed

Ciclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used to treat allergies and other immune-mediated diseases in cats, dogs and humans. Information about the adverse effects of ciclosporin in cats has been limited to smaller studies and case reports. Adverse effects in dogs are mainly gastrointestinal in nature, but humans can also experience hypertension and altered renal function. The aim of this retrospective case series study was to document the occurrence and clinical appearance of adverse events in cats receiving ciclosporin to treat allergic skin disease. The medical records of 50 cats with allergic dermatitis treated with oral ciclosporin (1.9-7.3 mg/kg/day) were reviewed. Adverse events occurred in 66% (33 cats). Adverse events likely to be associated with ciclosporin included the following: vomiting or diarrhoea within 1-8 weeks of receiving ciclosporin (24%), weight loss (16%), anorexia and subsequent hepatic lipidosis (2%) and gingival hyperplasia (2%). Other adverse events less likely to be associated with ciclosporin therapy included the following: weight gain (14%), dental tartar and gingivitis (10%), otitis (4%), chronic diarrhoea (4%), inflammatory bowel disease with indolent gastrointestinal lymphoma (2%), urinary tract infection (2%), cataract (2%), elevated liver enzymes (2%), hyperthyroidism and renal failure (2%) and transient inappropriate urination (2%). Some cats experienced multiple adverse events. Case-control studies are needed to prove cause and effect of ciclosporin with regard to these adverse events. PMID:21545660

Heinrich, Nicole A; McKeever, Patrick J; Eisenschenk, Melissa C

2011-12-01

406

Interactive effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene and childhood adversity on depressive symptoms in young adults: findings from a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Accumulating research suggests a moderating role for the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) in the association between childhood adversity and adult depression. The present study aims to replicate recent findings using different genetic variants and measures of early adversity assessed both prospectively and retrospectively. Data were collected in the context of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study following the outcome of early risk factors from birth into adulthood. 300 participants (137 males, 163 females) were genotyped for four CRHR1 SNPs (rs7209436, rs110402, rs242924, and rs17689882) and completed the Beck Depression Inventory at ages 19, 22 and 23 years. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and by a standardized parent interview yielding an index of family adversity. Our results indicate that CRHR1 and childhood adversity interacted to predict depressive symptoms in young adults. Specifically, we found that the impact of childhood maltreatment on adult depressive symptoms was significantly higher in individuals (i) with two copies of the CRHR1 TAT haplotype, and (ii) homozygous for the G allele of rs17689882. The interaction was demonstrated for exposure to childhood maltreatment as assessed by retrospective self-report, but not to prospectively ascertain objective family adversity. The present study partially replicates recent findings of a CRHR1 by childhood adversity interaction with regard to adult depression highlighting the subjective characteristics of the environmental pathogen that is operative in this interaction. PMID:22748421

Laucht, Manfred; Treutlein, Jens; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Banaschewski, Tobias

2013-05-01

407

Meeting Report: Moving Upstream—Evaluating Adverse Upstream End Points for Improved Risk Assessment and Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Background Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and subsequent overt downstream effects. A workshop was held to consider how the resulting data inform consideration of an “adverse effect” in the context of hazard identification and risk assessment. Objectives Our objective here is to review what is known about the relationships between chemical exposure, early biological effects (upstream events), and later overt effects (downstream events) through three case studies (thyroid hormone disruption, antiandrogen effects, immune system disruption) and to consider how to evaluate hazard and risk when early biological effect data are available. Discussion Each case study presents data on the toxicity pathways linking early biological perturbations with downstream overt effects. Case studies also emphasize several factors that can influence risk of overt disease as a result from early biological perturbations, including background chemical exposures, underlying individual biological processes, and disease susceptibility. Certain effects resulting from exposure during periods of sensitivity may be irreversible. A chemical can act through multiple modes of action, resulting in similar or different overt effects. Conclusions For certain classes of early perturbations, sufficient information on the disease process is known, so hazard and quantitative risk assessment can proceed using information on upstream biological perturbations. Upstream data will support improved approaches for considering developmental stage, background exposures, disease status, and other factors important to assessing hazard and risk for the whole population. PMID:19057713

Woodruff, Tracey J.; Zeise, Lauren; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Janssen, Sarah; Miller, Mark; Miller, Gregory G.; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Alexeeff, George; Anderson, Henry; Birnbaum, Linda; Bois, Frederic; Cogliano, Vincent James; Crofton, Kevin; Euling, Susan Y.; Foster, Paul M.D.; Germolec, Dori R.; Gray, Earl; Hattis, Dale B.; Kyle, Amy D.; Luebke, Robert W.; Luster, Michael I.; Portier, Chris; Rice, Deborah C.; Solomon, Gina; Vandenberg, John; Zoeller, R. Thomas

2008-01-01

408

[The role of genotype in the intergenerational transmission of experiences of childhood adversity].  

PubMed

The prevalence of childhood abuse and maltreatment is estimated to lie at about 15% in the overall German population. Previous research suggested that about one third of all individuals who had experienced childhood adversity subsequently maltreated their own children or responded insensitively to their children's needs. Empirical studies imply that interindividual differences in the responsiveness to childhood adversity can partially be explained by gene-environment interactions. This article discusses the potential interplay of genes and environment in the context of transmitting maltreating behavior and (in)sensitive parenting against the background of current challenges in genetic research. Selected studies on gene × environment interactions are presented and relevant gene polymorphisms are identified. Overall, previous studies reported interactions between polymorphisms of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocin-related, and arginine vasopressin-related systems and childhood experiences of care and abuse in the prediction of social behaviors during mother-child interactions. The results indicate a differential susceptibility toward both negative and positive environments which is dependent on genetic characteristics. Future research should thus investigate the effects of children's presumed risk gene variants toward negative as well as positive parenting. This could contribute to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of abusive and beneficial parenting behavior and help to avoid false stigmatizations. PMID:25163997

Reichl, Corinna; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

2014-09-01

409

Evaluation of the uterine environment early in pregnancy establishment to characterise cows with a potentially superior ability to support conceptus survival.  

PubMed

During previous investigations, the capacity of the cow to secrete prostaglandin in response to oxytocin has been linked with pregnancy outcome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of prostaglandin release to identify groups of cows as potentially superior (SR, low prostaglandin release) or inferior (IR, high prostaglandin release) for pregnancy outcome and to utilise these cows to investigate factors that contribute to optimum uterine conditions for early pregnancy. Animals were synchronised and received an in vitro-derived blastocyst on Day 7 post-oestrus. Tissues (trophoblast and endometrial) and uterine luminal fluid (ULF) were recovered 10 days later. Pregnancy rates were 94 and 78% for SR and IR cows, respectively. Of the pregnant SR cows, 69% had larged conceptuses (>24 cm) in contrast to 43% IR of cows. IR cows with small conceptuses (<12 cm) had significantly lower mean Day 3 and 5 post-oestrous progesterone concentrations than cows with large conceptuses. The expression of factors involved in the prostaglandin pathway, pregnancy and conceptus development were analysed via quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Investigation of 16 endometrial gene transcripts indicated no differences between IR and SR cows except for osteopontin expression which, in uteri with large conceptuses, was 2-fold greater in SR than IR cows (P=0.02). There was greater expression of CTGF, OXTR, PGES, PGHS2 and UTMP mRNA in uteri of SR and IR cows that had large compared with small conceptuses (P<0.05). More IFNT protein was recovered in SR compared with IR ULF (P<0.03). SR cows with large conceptuses had less TIMP2 and legumain protein in their gravid, compared with their non-gravid horns (P?0.02) whereas IR cows did not. The predictive value of prostaglandin release in response to oxytocin challenge does not appear to be an effective indicator of subsequent pregnancy rates in cows. Differences between the two groups appear to be associated with subtle differences in progesterone and uterine protein concentrations that may be related to differences in conceptus size. PMID:21791175

Ledgard, A M; Meier, S; Peterson, A J

2011-01-01

410

Adverse events in patients with return emergency department visits  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study describes the proportion of emergency department (ED) returns within 7?days due to adverse events, defined as adverse outcomes related to healthcare received. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting We used an electronically triggered adverse event surveillance system at a tertiary care ED from May to June 2010 to examine ED returns within 7?days of index visit. Participants One of three trained nurses determined whether the visit was related to index emergency care. For such records, one of three trained emergency physicians conducted adverse event determinations. Main outcome measure We determined adverse event type and severity and analysed the data with descriptive statistics, ?2 tests and logistic regression. Results Of 13?495 index ED visits, 923 (6.8%) were followed by ED returns within 7?days. The median age of all patients was 47?years and 52.8% were women. After nursing review, 211 cases required physician review. Of these, 53 visits were adverse events (positive predictive value (PPV)=5.7%, 95% CI 4.4% to 7.4%) and 30 (56.6%) were preventable. Common adverse event types involved management, diagnostic or medication issues. We observed one potentially preventable death and 58.5% of adverse events resulting in transient disability. The PPV of a modified trigger with a cut-off of return within 72?h, resulting in admission was 11.9% (95% CI 6.8% to 18.9%). Conclusions Our electronic trigger efficiently identified adverse events among 12% of patients with ED returns within 72?h, requiring hospital admission. Given the high degree of preventability of the identified adverse events, this trigger also holds promise as a performance measurement tool. PMID:25540424

Calder, Lisa; Pozgay, Anita; Riff, Shena; Rothwell, David; Youngson, Erik; Mojaverian, Naghmeh; Cwinn, Adam; Forster, Alan

2015-01-01

411

Bacillary prostatitis after intravesical immunotherapy: a rare adverse effect.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the most efficient form of intravesical immunotherapy for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is the instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), proceeding from an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis. In up to 40% of cases, its instillation is associated with significantly elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. In these cases, prostate biopsy should be withheld for 3 months and PSA should be monitored. Bacillary prostatitis is a rare occurrence in patients treated with intravesical BCG immunotherapy. Although symptomatic bacillary prostatitis is even rarer, it is the worst type of this condition. The aims of this study are to report a case of bacillary prostatitis as a rare adverse effect of intravesical BCG immunotherapy and to make a theoretical review about how to manage this complication. A 58-year-old man, former smoker, underwent a transurethral resection of the bladder in February 2004 because of a papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (pT1G2N0M0). After surgery, BCG instillation therapy was given in a total of 15 instillations, the last one in March 2007. In the last 3 months of therapy, until May 2007, a progressive increase in his PSA level was registered, and he underwent a prostate biopsy revealing granulomatous prostatitis of bacillary etiology. The semen culture was positive for M. bovis. After 3 months of a two-drug (isoniazid and rifampin) antituberculous regimen, the semen culture became negative and the PSA level decreased. The early identification of intravesical BCG immunotherapy complications allows their effective treatment. However, when a histological diagnosis of asymptomatic granulomatous prostatitis is made, the execution and type of treatment are controversial. PMID:22539919

Joaquim, Ana; Custódio, Sandra; Pimentel, Francisco Luís; Matos, José Fidalgo; Peixoto, Vânia; Faria, Ana Luísa; Macedo, Joana Espiga; Macias, Emílio; Rego, Sónia; Araújo, António

2012-01-01

412

Adverse health consequences of US Government responses to the 2001 terrorist attacks.  

PubMed

In response to the attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), and the related security concerns, the USA and its coalition partners began a war in Afghanistan and subsequently invaded Iraq. The wars caused many deaths of non-combatant civilians, further damaged the health-supporting infrastructure and the environment (already adversely affected by previous wars), forced many people to migrate, led to violations of human rights, and diverted resources away from important health needs. After 9/11 and the anthrax outbreak shortly afterwards, the USA and other countries have improved emergency preparedness and response capabilities, but these actions have often diverted attention and resources from more urgent health issues. The documentation and dissemination of information about the adverse health effects of these wars and about the diversion of resources could help to mitigate these consequences and prevent their recurrence. PMID:21890059

Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

2011-09-01

413

Polypharmacy, adverse drug-related events, and potential adverse drug interactions in elderly patients presenting to an emergency department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objectives: We sought to document the degree of polypharmacy, the frequency of adverse drug-related events (ADREs) leading to emergency department presentation that were recognized by emergency physicians, and the frequency of potential adverse drug interactions (PADIs) in medication regimens of elderly patients in the ED. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review on 300 randomly selected ED visits made

Corinne Michèle Hohl; Jerrald Dankoff; Antoinette Colacone; Marc Afilalo

2001-01-01

414