These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Early Adverse Environments and Genetic Influences on Age at First Sex: Evidence for Gene × Environment Interaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth who experience adverse environments in early life initiate sexual activity at a younger age, on average, than those from more advantaged circumstances. Evolutionary theorists have posited that ecological stress precipitates earlier reproductive and sexual onset, but it is unclear how stressful environments interact with genetic influences on…

Carlson, Marie D.; Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige

2014-01-01

2

Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.  

PubMed

Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. PMID:19939573

Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

2010-06-01

3

The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.  

PubMed

A rapidly expanding body of research indicates that early social environments characterized by adversity, subordination and stress, along with individual differences in susceptibility to such environments, create risks for lifelong chronic diseases, including declines in oral health. Emerging findings suggest that gene-environment interplay, resulting in epigenetically regulated differences in gene expression, underlie many such declines in health. The origins of these processes in early life reveal how many of the chronic morbidities of adulthood should be viewed as developmental disorders, with etiologic roots in childhood. PMID:24717746

Boyce, W Thomas

2014-01-01

4

Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N?=?3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Results Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (?2????=?21.41, p?adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR?=?1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR?=?1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Conclusions Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional family environments cannot be ruled out. PMID:25089128

2014-01-01

5

Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

2005-01-01

6

Early adverse experiences in schizophrenia and unipolar depression.  

PubMed

To study the prevalence of early adversities in schizophrenia and unipolar depression, 2 groups of consecutive adult-onset inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 173) and unipolar depression (n = 305) were compared with an unscreened control group of volunteers from the general population (n = 310), with respect to their association with 4 types of childhood abuse and with early parental adversities (discord, separation, death, psychiatric caseness). Compared with general population, most types of early adversities (except sexual abuse and parental death) were significantly associated with both clinical groups. Compared with depression, all early adversities with the same 2 exceptions were significantly associated with schizophrenia; both frequency of abuse and number of types of abuse increased the risk of schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, suggesting causality. These findings stress the role of social developmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19155813

Rubino, I Alex; Nanni, Roberta C; Pozzi, Daniela M; Siracusano, Alberto

2009-01-01

7

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ?3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2013-01-01

8

TOWARDS AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of our research efforts towards building Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems designed to work in real-world conditions are presented. The methods we pro- pose exhibit improved performance in noisy environments and offer robustness against speaker variability. Advanced nonlinear signal processing techniques, modulation- and chaotic-based, are utilized for auditory feature extraction. The auditory features are complemented with visual speech cues

D. Dimitriadis; N. Katsamanis; P. Maragos; G. Papandreou; V. Pitsikalis

9

Speech Intelligibility in Adverse Conditions in Recorded Virtual Auditory Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of presentation mode on speech intelligibility in adverse listening conditions as signal-to-noise ratio was systematically varied in anechoic and reverberant environments. Speech intelligibility scores were obtained from 21 normally hearing listeners using a nonsense syllable test. The syllables were recorded in three environments (mono anechoic, spatial anechoic and spatial reverberant)

LTC Nancy; L. Vause; D. Wesley Grantham

10

Nurse-perceived Patient Adverse Events and Nursing Practice Environment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of patient adverse events in Korean hospitals as perceived by nurses and examine the correlation between patient adverse events with the nurse practice environment at nurse and hospital level. Methods: In total, 3096 nurses working in 60 general inpatient hospital units were included. A two-level logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: At the hospital level, patient adverse events included patient falls (60.5%), nosocomial infections (51.7%), pressure sores (42.6%) and medication errors (33.3%). Among the hospital-level explanatory variables associated with the nursing practice environment, ‘physician- nurse relationship’ correlated with medication errors while ‘education for improving quality of care’ affected patient falls. Conclusions: The doctor-nurse relationship and access to education that can improve the quality of care at the hospital level may help decrease the occurrence of patient adverse events. PMID:25284199

Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung; Lee, Sang-Yi

2014-01-01

11

Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

2013-01-01

12

Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China.  

PubMed

China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25732020

Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

2015-03-01

13

Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.  

PubMed

For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

2015-01-15

14

The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres  

PubMed Central

Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

2015-01-01

15

The developmental origins of chronic physical aggression: biological pathways triggered by early life adversity.  

PubMed

Longitudinal epidemiological studies with birth cohorts have shown that physical aggression in humans does not appear suddenly in adolescence as commonly thought. In fact, physically aggressive behaviour is observed as early as 12 months after birth, its frequency peaks around 2-4 years of age and decreases in frequency until early adulthood. However, a minority of children (3-7%) maintain a high frequency of physical aggression from childhood to adolescence and develop serious social adjustment problems during adulthood. Genetic factors and early social experiences, as well as their interaction, have been shown to play an important role in the development of chronic aggressive behaviour. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are just beginning to be uncovered. Recent evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are responsive to adverse environments and could be involved in the development of chronic aggression. Using both gene candidate and genomic approaches, recent studies have identified epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation alterations in genes involved in the stress response and the serotonin and immune systems to be partly responsible for the long-lasting effects of early adversity. Further longitudinal studies with biological, environmental and behavioural assessments from birth onwards are needed to elucidate the sequence of events that leads to these long-lasting epigenetic marks associated with early adversity and aggression. PMID:25568459

Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E

2015-01-01

16

Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the development of violence and to test for gene–environment interactions relating to adverse childhood

Andreas Reif; Michael Rösler; Christine M Freitag; Marc Schneider; Andrea Eujen; Christian Kissling; Denise Wenzler; Christian P Jacob; Petra Retz-Junginger; Johannes Thome; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Wolfgang Retz

2007-01-01

17

Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment  

PubMed Central

The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as ‘developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)’ or ‘Barker’ hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene–environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10–20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

2014-01-01

18

The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.  

PubMed

Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156

Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

2012-01-01

19

Association between Early Adverse Life Events and Irritable Bowel Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Although childhood and adult abuse are more prevalent among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) than healthy individuals (controls), other types of early adverse life events (EALs) have not been well characterized. We investigated whether different types of EALs, before an age of 18 years, are more prevalent among patients with IBS, and the effects of gender and non-gastrointestinal symptoms on the relationship between EALs and IBS. Methods EALs were evaluated in 294 IBS patients (79% women) and 435 controls (77% women) using the early trauma inventory self report form, which delineates sub-categories of general trauma and physical, emotional, and sexual abuse. Validated questionnaires assessed gastrointestinal, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Results Compared to controls, IBS patients reported a higher prevalence of general trauma (78.5% vs 62.3%), physical punishment (60.6% vs 49.2%), emotional abuse (54.9% vs 27.0%), and sexual events (31.2% vs 17.9%) (all P’s <.001). These significant differences were mainly observed in women. Of the EAL domains, emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of IBS (P<.001). Eight of the 27 EAL items were significant (P<.001) and increased the odds of having IBS by 108%–305%. Although EAL and psychological variables were related, EALs had an independent association with IBS (P=.04). Conclusion Various types of EALs are associated with development of IBS—particularly among women. Psychological distress and somatic symptoms might contribute to this relationship. When appropriate, EALs and non-gastrointestinal symptoms should be assessed in IBS patients. PMID:22178460

Bradford, Kara; Shih, Wendy; Videlock, Elizabeth; Presson, Angela P.; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Chang, Lin

2012-01-01

20

Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.  

PubMed

The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

2014-01-01

21

Childhood adversity and neural development: deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience.  

PubMed

A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one's physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Lambert, Hilary K

2014-11-01

22

Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

2011-05-01

23

What is an “adverse” environment? Interactions of rearing experiences and MAOA genotype in rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating that early adversity and specific genotype can be joint risk factors for poor behavioral outcomes. Using a rhesus monkey model, we examined how social context and different forms of early adversity influence whether a specific genotype (polymorphism in the promoter region of monoamine oxidase A) affects display of aggressive, fearful, and anxious behaviors. Methods Rhesus monkey infants (n=473) were exposed to brief social challenge at 3–4 months of age. Infants were reared a) with mothers and up to 150 other animals in large cages; b) with mothers in smaller social groups; c) with mother and access to, at most, one other mother-infant pair; and d) without mother, but with access to a same-aged peer in a nursery. Results No effects of genotype were found for infants reared by mothers in large social cages, although several genotype by rearing environment interactions were evident. Animals reared in smaller social groups were more likely to display aggression, which was especially true of animals possessing the low-activity MAOA genotype. In addition, animals with low-activity genotypes that had experienced restricted mother-rearing showed more anxious behavior (scratch, yawn). Conclusions Among mother-reared animals, broader contextual features, associated with the social environment and experience of the mother, can affect the extent to which genotype contributes to behavioral expression under conditions of challenge. Results also suggest that different forms of early adverse experience can affect the types of responses displayed by animals of different genotypes. PMID:19103441

Karere, Genesio M.; Kinnally, Erin L.; Sanchez, Jessica N.; Famula, Thomas R.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Capitanio, John P.

2009-01-01

24

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants.

25

Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

26

Early Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult SpragueDawley Rats  

E-print Network

in rats. These behavioral outcomes are known to be affected in human populations suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Robbins, 2000) as well as in those raised under adverse environmental conditionsEarly Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult Sprague­Dawley Rats Christie Burton

Sokolowski, Marla

27

Effects of early-life adversity on cognitive decline in older African Americans and whites  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Early-life adversity is related to adult health in old age but little is known about its relation with cognitive decline. Methods: Participants included more than 6,100 older residents (mean age = 74.9 [7.1] years; 61.8% African American) enrolled in the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a geographically defined, population-based study of risk factors for Alzheimer disease. Participants were interviewed at approximately 3-year intervals for up to 16 years. The interview included a baseline evaluation of early-life adversity, and administration of 4 brief cognitive function tests to assess change in cognitive function. We estimated the relation of early-life adversity to rate of cognitive decline in a series of mixed-effects models. Results: In models stratified by race, and adjusted for age and sex, early-life adversity was differentially related to decline in African Americans and whites. Whereas no measure of early-life adversity related to cognitive decline in whites, both food deprivation and being thinner than average in early life were associated with a slower rate of cognitive decline in African Americans. The relations were not mediated by years of education and persisted after adjustment for cardiovascular factors. Conclusions: Markers of early-life adversity had an unexpected protective effect on cognitive decline in African Americans. PMID:23233682

Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Hayward, Mark D.; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

2012-01-01

28

Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor

Chris Murgatroyd; Alexandre V Patchev; Yonghe Wu; Vincenzo Micale; Yvonne Bockmühl; Dieter Fischer; Florian Holsboer; Carsten T Wotjak; Osborne F X Almeida; Dietmar Spengler

2009-01-01

29

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

30

Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

2014-01-01

31

Stress and resource pathways connecting early socioeconomic adversity to young adults' physical health risk.  

PubMed

Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth. PMID:25376472

Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A

2015-05-01

32

Early-Life Adversity and Choice of the Social Work Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social work students have reported comparatively high incidences of adverse early-life experiences, yet little is known about the extent of these experiences among professional social workers or how they may affect the choice of social work. This study addresses many of the shortcomings of previous studies, with respondents drawn from a national random sample of social workers and a comparison

Carole J. Olson; David Royse

2006-01-01

33

Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.  

PubMed

Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

Garner, Andrew S

2013-11-01

34

Adult growth hormone treatment reduces hypertension and obesity induced by an adverse prenatal environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of a link between an adverse in utero environment and the propensity to develop metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult life is one of the most important advances in epidemiological research of recent years. Increasing experimental evidence suggests that alterations in the fetal environment may have long-term consequences for the development of metabolic disorders in adult life. This

M H Vickers; B A Ikenasio; B H Breier

2002-01-01

35

Depression among Black Bisexual Men with Early and Later Life Adversities  

PubMed Central

This study examined the role of adulthood adversities in the relationship between childhood adversities and depression in 117 HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) and who have histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Men were participants in the Enhanced Sexual Health Intervention for Men, a six-session health intervention, and at baseline reported their experiences of CSA, childhood adversities, perceived discrimination, chronic stress, social support, and depressive symptoms. The relationship between childhood adversities, including CSA, and depression was mediated by experiences with racial and HIV discrimination (R2 = .25, F3, 112 = 12.67, p < .001) and chronic stress (R2 = .17, F3, 112 = 7.41, p < .001). Social support moderated the mediated effects of both racial and HIV discrimination (b = ?.154, t(111) = ?2.82, p < .01) and chronic stress (b = ?.019, t(111) = ?3.759, p < .01). Men’s early adverse experiences were predictive of depression in adulthood; however, this relationship was largely affected by adulthood experiences, specifically discrimination, high chronic stress, and low social support. These findings illustrate pathways by which Black MSMW’s early vulnerability for depression is either exacerbated or attenuated by their experiences as adults. PMID:24099486

Myers, Hector F.; Williams, John K.

2014-01-01

36

Cortisol reactivity to social stress as a mediator of early adversity on risk and adaptive outcomes.  

PubMed

Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; LaGasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

2014-01-01

37

Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

PubMed Central

We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

2014-01-01

38

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome  

PubMed Central

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

2013-01-01

39

EARLY ADVERSITY IN CHRONIC DEPRESSION: CLINICAL CORRELATES AND RESPONSE TO PHARMACOTHERAPY  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence suggesting that early adversity may be a marker for a distinct pathway to major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined associations between childhood adversity and a broad variety of clinical characteristics and response to pharmacotherapy in a large sample of patients with chronic forms of MDD. Methods Subjects included 808 patients with chronic forms of MDD (chronic MDD, double depression, or recurrent MDD with incomplete recovery between episodes and a total continuous duration of >2 years) who were enrolled in a 12-week open-label trial of algorithm-guided pharmacotherapy. Baseline assessments included a semi-structured diagnostic interview, and clinician- and self-rated measures of depressive symptoms, social functioning, depressotypic cognitions, and personality traits, and childhood adversity. Patients were re-evaluated every 2 weeks. Results A longer duration of illness; earlier onset; greater number of episodes, symptom severity, self-rated functional impairment, suicidality, and comorbid anxiety disorder; and higher levels of dysfunctional attitudes and self-criticism were each associated with multiple forms of childhood adversity. A history of maternal overcontrol, paternal abuse, paternal indifference, sexual abuse, and an index of clinically significant abuse each predicted a lower probability of remission. Among patients completing the 12-week trial, 32% with a history of clinically significant abuse, compared to 44% without such a history, achieved remission. Conclusions These findings indicate that a history of childhood adversity is associated with an especially chronic form of MDD that is less responsive to antidepressant pharmacotherapy. PMID:19434623

Klein, Daniel N.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Barkin, Jennifer L.; Dowling, Frank; Kocsis, James H.; Leon, Andrew C.; Manber, Rachel; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

40

Epigenetic marking of the BDNF gene by early-life adverse experiences  

PubMed Central

Studies over the past half-century have made it clear that environmental influences in development, particularly stress and traumatic experiences, can remain pervasive across the lifespan. Though it has been hypothesized for some time that the long-term consequences of early-life adversity represent epigenetic influences, it has not been until recently that studies have begun to provide empirical support of experience-driven epigenetic modifications to the genome. Here we focus on this theme, and review current knowledge pertaining to the epigenetics of behavioral development. At the center of our discussion is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, as abnormal BDNF gene activity is a leading etiological hypothesis by which early-life adverse experiences persistently modify brain and behavioral plasticity. PMID:20483357

Roth, Tania L.; Sweatt, J. David

2010-01-01

41

Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N=109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents’ infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) sites within DNA derived from buccal epithelial cells showed differential methylation among adolescents whose parents reported high levels of stress during their children’s early lives. Maternal stressors in infancy and paternal stressors in the preschool years were most strongly predictive of differential methylation, and the patterning of such epigenetic marks varied by children’s gender. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of prospective associations between adversities in early childhood and the epigenetic conformation of adolescents’ genomic DNA. PMID:21883162

Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M.A.; Kobor, Michael S.

2011-01-01

42

A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents\\u000a creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators\\u000a must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical\\u000a reasoning, tools used

Som D. Mukherjee; Megan E. Coombes; Mitch Levine; Jarold Cosby; Brenda Kowaleski; Andrew Arnold

43

Early Life Adversity Alters the Developmental Profiles of Addiction-Related Prefrontal Cortex Circuitry  

PubMed Central

Early adverse experience is a well-known risk factor for addictive behaviors later in life. Drug addiction typically manifests during adolescence in parallel with the later-developing prefrontal cortex (PFC). While it has been shown that dopaminergic modulation within the PFC is involved in addiction-like behaviors, little is known about how early adversity modulates its development. Here, we report that maternal separation stress (4 h per day between postnatal days 2–20) alters the development of the prelimbic PFC. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy revealed differences between maternally-separated and control rats in dopamine D1 and D2 receptor expression during adolescence, and specifically the expression of these receptors on projection neurons. In control animals, D1 and D2 receptors were transiently increased on all glutamatergic projection neurons, as well as specifically on PFC?nucleus accumbens projection neurons (identified with retrograde tracer). Maternal separation exacerbated the adolescent peak in D1 expression and blunted the adolescent peak in D2 expression on projection neurons overall. However, neurons retrogradely traced from the accumbens expressed lower levels of D1 during adolescence after maternal separation, compared to controls. Our findings reveal microcircuitry-specific changes caused by early life adversity that could help explain heightened vulnerability to drug addiction during adolescence. PMID:24961311

Brenhouse, Heather C.; Lukkes, Jodi L.; Andersen, Susan L.

2013-01-01

44

Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

2012-01-01

45

Noise spectrum estimation in adverse environments: improved minima controlled recursive averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noise spectrum estimation is a fundamental compo- nent of speech enhancement and speech recognition systems. In this paper, we present an improved minima controlled recursive averaging (IMCRA) approach, for noise estimation in adverse environments involving nonstationary noise, weak speech com- ponents, and low input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The noise estimate is obtained by averaging past spectral power values, using a

Israel Cohen

2003-01-01

46

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript Association of adverse childhood environment and 5-HTTLPR Genotype  

E-print Network

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript Page /1 10 Association of adverse childhood environment and 5 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5,FR Institute of Psychiatry2 University of London , De crespigny park, King s College Cedex 5,FR Service de psychologie m dicale et psychiatrie4 é CHRU Montpellier , Montpellier, FR D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment could benefit from using Lewin’s force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. In this article, authors describe how they used Lewin’s Model of Change to retrospectively examine recruitment strategies from five cancer control studies conducted in an adverse environment that had resulted from well-known researcher misconduct and rural suspicion of outsiders.

48

The consequences of early-life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations.  

PubMed

During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-life programming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-life programming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment. PMID:25039443

Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J

2014-10-01

49

Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents  

PubMed Central

During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

2014-01-01

50

Specificity in the Relations among Childhood Adversity, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Symptom Profiles in Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present cross-sectional study examined the relations of particular forms of childhood adversity (e.g., emotional maltreatment\\u000a vs. physical abuse vs. sexual abuse) to specific early maladaptive schema themes (e.g., worthlessness\\/loss vs. danger) and\\u000a symptom profiles (i.e., anhedonic vs. anxious). Seventy-six depressed adolescents retrospectively reported on their childhood\\u000a experiences of emotional maltreatment, physical abuse, and sexual abuse in a contextual semi-structured

Margaret N. Lumley; Kate L. Harkness

2007-01-01

51

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: implications for health behaviors.  

PubMed

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R

2013-10-01

52

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R.

2012-01-01

53

Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

2015-01-01

54

Early Life Adversity and Inflammation in African Americans and Whites in the Midlife in the United States Survey  

E-print Network

, gender, and medications. We extended race-stratified models to test three potential mechanisms cardiovascular diseases; E-selectin endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1; ELA early life adversity; GCRC (5­7) have begun to investigate physiologic mechanisms linking early life experiences to health later

Mladenoff, David

55

The Combined Effects of Prenatal Drug Exposure and Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science. PMID:21756431

Fisher, Philip A.; Lester, Barry M.; DeGarmo, David S.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

2012-01-01

56

The Role of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Parasympathetic Functioning from 3 to 6 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

We employed latent growth curve analysis to examine trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) from 3 to 6 years among children with varying levels of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,121 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. Overall, there were significant individual differences in the trajectories of RSA reactivity, but not baseline RSA, across development. Greater levels of prenatal substance exposure, and less exposure to early adversity, were associated with increased RSA reactivity at 3 years, but by 6 years, both were associated with greater RSA reactivity. Prenatal substance exposure had an indirect influence through early adversity on growth in RSA reactivity. Results are in support of and contribute to the framework of allostatic load. PMID:24002807

Abar, Beau; Sheinkopf, Stephen; Lester, Barry; Lagasse, Linda; Seifer, Ronald; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada-Ellzey, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hinckley, Matt; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary

2014-01-01

57

Early Life Adversity Contributes to Impaired Cognition and Impulsive Behavior: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful early life experience may have adverse consequences in adulthood and may contribute to behavioral characteristics that increase vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined early life adverse experience in relation to cognitive deficits and impulsive behaviors with a reference to risk factors for alcoholism. Methods We tested 386 healthy young adults (18 – 30 years of age; 224 women; 171 family history positive for alcoholism) using a composite measure of adverse life experience (low socioeconomic status plus personally experienced adverse events including physical and sexual abuse and separation from parents) as a predictor of performance on the Shipley Institute of Living scale, the Stroop color-word task, and a delay-discounting task assessing preference for smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. Body mass index was examined as an early indicator of altered health behavior. Results Greater levels of adversity predicted higher Stroop interference scores (F = 3.07, p = .048), faster discounting of delayed rewards (F = 3.79, p = .024), lower Shipley mental age scores (F = 4.01, p = .019), and higher body mass indexes in those with a family history of alcoholism (F = 3.40, p = .035). These effects were not explained by age, sex, race, education, or depression. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on cognitive function, impulsive behaviors, and early health indicators that may contribute to risk in persons with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23126641

Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

2012-01-01

58

Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context  

PubMed Central

This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

2014-01-01

59

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.  

PubMed

In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

2014-10-01

60

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

Krogh, Carmen ME

2014-01-01

61

Altered Fetal Skeletal Muscle Nutrient Metabolism Following an Adverse In Utero Environment and the Modulation of Later Life Insulin Sensitivity  

PubMed Central

The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F.; Regnault, Timothy R.H.

2015-01-01

62

Altered fetal skeletal muscle nutrient metabolism following an adverse in utero environment and the modulation of later life insulin sensitivity.  

PubMed

The importance of the in utero environment as a contributor to later life metabolic disease has been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. In this review, we consider how disruption of normal fetal growth may impact skeletal muscle metabolic development, ultimately leading to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity, a key precursor to later life metabolic disease. In cases of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) associated with hypoxia, where the fetus fails to reach its full growth potential, low birth weight (LBW) is often the outcome, and early in postnatal life, LBW individuals display modifications in the insulin-signaling pathway, a critical precursor to insulin resistance. In this review, we will present literature detailing the classical development of insulin resistance in IUGR, but also discuss how this impaired development, when challenged with a postnatal Western diet, may potentially contribute to the development of later life insulin resistance. Considering the important role of the skeletal muscle in insulin resistance pathogenesis, understanding the in utero programmed origins of skeletal muscle deficiencies in insulin sensitivity and how they may interact with an adverse postnatal environment, is an important step in highlighting potential therapeutic options for LBW offspring born of pregnancies characterized by placental insufficiency. PMID:25685986

Dunlop, Kristyn; Cedrone, Megan; Staples, James F; Regnault, Timothy R H

2015-01-01

63

Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice  

EPA Science Inventory

In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

64

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-12-01

65

Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments  

PubMed Central

A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

2013-01-01

66

Early environment affects neuroendocrine regulation in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Animal and human research indicates that the early environment can exert effects on hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning across the lifespan. Using data from the National Study of Midlife Development in the United States and the National Study of Daily Experience substudy, we identified curvilinear relations between adult reports of parental affection in childhood and adult diurnal cortisol rhythms. Reports of both very affectionate and very unaffectionate parental relations in childhood were associated with flatter diurnal rhythms, suggesting potential dysregulation of the HPA axis at both extremes of family environment. Participants in the bottom tertile showed more signs of HPA axis dysregulation than those in the top tertile. We discuss processes that may underlie these effects, with reference to the theory of allostatic load. PMID:20400490

Karlamangla, Arun S.; Friedman, Esther M.; Seeman, Teresa E.

2011-01-01

67

INVESTIGATING ALTERNATIVES TO THE FISH EARLY-LIFE STAGE TEST: A STRATEGY FOR DISCOVERING AND ANNOTATING ADVERSE OUTCOME PATHWAYS FOR EARLY FISH DEVELOPMENT  

PubMed Central

The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence–based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:158–169. © 2013 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:24115264

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

68

KCTD8 Gene and Brain Growth in Adverse Intrauterine Environment: A Genome-wide Association Study  

PubMed Central

The most dramatic growth of the human brain occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of postnatal life. Genesis of the cerebral cortex involves cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, all of which may be influenced by prenatal environment. Here, we show that variation in KCTD8 (potassium channel tetramerization domain 8) is associated with brain size in female adolescents (rs716890, P = 5.40 × 10?09). Furthermore, we found that the KCTD8 locus interacts with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking vis-à-vis cortical area and cortical folding: In exposed girls only, the KCTD8 locus explains up to 21% of variance. Using head circumference as a proxy of brain size at 7 years of age, we have replicated this gene–environment interaction in an independent sample. We speculate that KCTD8 might modulate adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on brain development via apoptosis triggered by low intracellular levels of potassium, possibly reducing the number of progenitor cells. PMID:22156575

Bernard, Manon; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Davey Smith, George; Gillis, Jesse; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Melka, Melkaye G.; Leonard, Gabriel; Pavlidis, Paul; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Schumann, Gunter; Timpson, Nicholas; Toro, Roberto; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka

2012-01-01

69

Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is essential to the fitness of organisms. In some cases, adaptation of the parent alters the offspring’s phenotype[1-10]. Such parental effects are adaptive for the offspring if the future environment is similar to the current one, but can be maladaptive otherwise[11]. One mechanism by which adaptation occurs is altered provisioning of embryos by the parent[12-16]. Here we show that exposing adult Caenorhabditis elegans to hyperosmotic conditions protects their offspring from the same, but causes sensitivity to anoxia exposure. We show that this alteration of survival is correlated to changes in the sugar content of adults and embryos. In addition, mutations in gene products which alter sugar homeostasis also alter the ability of embryos to survive in hyperosmotic and anoxic conditions and engage in the adaptive parental effect. Our results indicate that there is a physiological trade-off between the presence of glycerol, which protects animals from hyperosmotic conditions, and glycogen, which is consumed during anoxia. These two metabolites play an essential role in the survival of worms in these adverse environments, and the adaptive parental effect we describe is mediated by the provisioning of these metabolites to the embryo. PMID:19398339

Frazier, Harold N.; Roth, Mark B.

2009-01-01

70

Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A.

2013-01-01

71

Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments  

SciTech Connect

An optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses was developed. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

1984-01-01

72

Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE\\/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings or a predictable appearance of signs and symptoms present with exposure to

Robert Y. McMurtry

2011-01-01

73

Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

McMurtry, Robert Y.

2011-01-01

74

A mechanistic look at the effects of adversity early in life on cardiovascular disease risk during adulthood  

PubMed Central

Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (Mat-Sep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) Mat-Sep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood. PMID:24330084

Loria, A. S.; Ho, D. H.; Pollock, J. S.

2014-01-01

75

Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and childhood adversity are associated with depression: New evidence for a gene-environment interaction.  

PubMed

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis regulates the response to stressful events and is expected to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) regulates the activity of the HPA-axis. Both GR gene polymorphisms and childhood adversity are known to be associated with increased risk for depression. In the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a large population based sample of older men and women, 906 subjects were genotyped. An association study was performed to determine the relationship between GR gene polymorphisms, childhood adversity, HPA-axis markers and depressive symptoms. A gene-environment interaction between the GR polymorphisms 22/23EK and 9beta and childhood adversity resulted in an increased risk of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Without childhood adversity no increased risk was present. The 22/23EK variant was also associated with a lower Free Cortisol Index in the presence of childhood adversity. Persons that are heterozygous for the BclI variant, in contrast with wild-type and BclI-homozygotes, had lower serum levels of cortisol binding globulin and had no increased risk of recurrent depressive symptoms in the presence of childhood adversity. We found a gene-environment (G x E) interaction between common variants of the GR gene and childhood adversity, demonstrating a vulnerable phenotype for developing clinically relevant depressive symptoms at old age. This G x E interaction also influenced HPA-axis markers providing support for the involvement of the HPA-axis in both stress regulation and the pathogenesis of depression. PMID:19051288

Bet, Pierre M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Uitterlinden, André G; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Schoor, Natasja M; Deeg, Dorly J H; Hoogendijk, Witte J G

2009-07-01

76

Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

2013-01-01

77

Early recognition of risk factors for adverse outcomes during hospitalization among Medicare patients: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a persistently high incidence of adverse events during hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries. Attributes of vulnerability are prevalent, readily apparent, and therefore potentially useful for recognizing those at greatest risk for hospital adverse events who may benefit most from preventive measures. We sought to identify patient characteristics associated with adverse events that are present early in a hospital stay. Methods An interprofessional panel selected characteristics thought to confer risk of hospital adverse events and measurable within the setting of acute illness. A convenience sample of 214 Medicare beneficiaries admitted to a large, academic medical center were included in a quality improvement project to develop risk assessment protocols. The data were subsequently analyzed as a prospective cohort study to test the association of risk factors, assessed within 24 hours of hospital admission, with falls, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) and infections (HAI), adverse drug reactions (ADE) and 30-day readmissions. Results Mean age?=?75(±13.4) years. Risk factors with highest prevalence included >4 active comorbidities (73.8%), polypharmacy (51.7%), and anemia (48.1%). One or more adverse hospital outcomes occurred in 46 patients (21.5%); 56 patients (26.2%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cluster analysis described three adverse outcomes: 30-day readmission, and two groups of in-hospital outcomes. Distinct regression models were identified: Weight loss (OR?=?3.83; 95% CI?=?1.46, 10.08) and potentially inappropriate medications (OR?=?3.05; 95% CI?=?1.19, 7.83) were associated with falls, HAPU, procedural complications, or transfer to intensive care; cognitive impairment (OR?=?2.32; 95% CI?=?1.24, 4.37), anemia (OR?=?1.87; 95% CI?=?1.00, 3.51) and weight loss (OR?=?2.89; 95% CI?=?1.38, 6.07) were associated with HAI, ADE, or length of stay >7 days; hyponatremia (OR?=?3.49; 95% CI?=?1.30, 9.35), prior hospitalization within 30 days (OR?=?2.66; 95% CI?=?1.31, 5.43) and functional impairment (OR?=?2.05; 95% CI?=?1.02, 4.13) were associated with 30-day readmission. Conclusions Patient characteristics recognizable within 24 hours of admission can be used to identify increased risk for adverse events and 30-day readmission. PMID:23834816

2013-01-01

78

Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

2014-01-01

79

Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

2011-01-01

80

Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2007-01-01

81

Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

1989-01-01

82

Early environment influences later performance in fishes.  

PubMed

Conditions fish encounter during embryogenesis and early life history can leave lasting effects not only on morphology, but also on growth rate, life-history and behavioural traits. The ecology of offspring can be affected by conditions experienced by their parents and mother in particular. This review summarizes such early impacts and their ecological influences for a variety of teleost species, but with special reference to salmonids. Growth and adult body size, sex ratio, egg size, lifespan and tendency to migrate can all be affected by early influences. Mechanisms behind such phenotypically plastic impacts are not well known, but epigenetic change appears to be one central mechanism. The thermal regime during development and incubation is particularly important, but also early food consumption and intraspecific density can all be responsible for later life-history variation. For behavioural traits, early experiences with effects on brain, sensory development and cognition appear essential. This may also influence boldness and other social behaviours such as mate choice. At the end of the review, several issues and questions for future studies are given. PMID:24961386

Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N

2014-08-01

83

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

84

Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.  

PubMed

Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span. PMID:22201148

Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

2012-01-01

85

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

86

Identifying Predictors of Early Growth Response and Adverse Radiation Effects of Vestibular Schwannomas to Radiosurgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether pre-treatment growth rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS) predict response to radiosurgery. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all VS patients treated with 12Gy prescription dose between September 2005 and June 2011 at our institution using the Leksell Model 4C Gamma Knife Unit was conducted. Patients who had a minimum of 12-months clinical and radiological assessment before and after radiosurgery were included in this study. Tumor growth rates were calculated using specific growth rate (SGR). Tumor volumes were measured on FIESTA-MRI scans using ITK-SNAP v2.2. Results Following radiosurgery, twenty-seven (42.9%) patients showed a significant decrease in volume after one year, twenty-nine (46.0%) stabilized, and seven (11.1%) continued to grow. There was no correlation between VS pre-treatment SGRs with post-treatment SGRs (p?=?0.34), and incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE). The reduction in tumors' SGRs after radiosurgery was proportional to pre-treatment SGRs, although this correlation was not statistically significant (p?=?0.19). Analysis of risk factors revealed a positive correlation between post-treatment SGRs and incidence of non-auditory complications, most of which were attributed to ARE (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Pre-treatment growth rate of VS does not predict tumor response to radiosurgery or incidence of ARE. VS with higher SGRs post-radiosurgery are more likely to experience ARE. PMID:25337892

Larjani, Soroush; Monsalves, Eric; Pebdani, Houman; Krischek, Boris; Gentili, Fred; Cusimano, Michael; Laperriere, Normand; Hayhurst, Caroline; Zadeh, Gelareh

2014-01-01

87

Fiber optics in adverse environments II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22-24, 1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements and characterization of fiber optics in radiation environments are considered, taking into account material dispersion measurements on fiber optic cables used at the Nevada Test Site, gamma-ray to Cerenkov light conversion efficiency for pure-silica-core optical fibers, the measurement of transient radiation effects in optical fibers, optical characterization of radiation-resistant fibers, and a high-bandwidth multichannel fiber optic system for measuring gamma rays. Other topics discussed are related to radiation test monitoring systems using fiber optics, fiber optic systems in adverse environments, fiber optics in the electromagnetic environment, environmental effects on fiber optic components, radiation effects in optical fibers, and radiation effects on fiber optic devices. Attention is given to the radiation response of optical fibers in a nuclear reactor, a fiber optic digital uplink for ocean-floor experimentation, fiber optic aircraft systems electromagnetic pulse (EMP) survivability, and transient attenuation in optical fibers.

Greenwell, R. A.

1984-01-01

88

Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence  

E-print Network

version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence ,http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/.. The written permission of Cambridge... events: changing schools, changes in family composition, moving house, disasters at home (fire, flood, or burglary), serious illness (either the stu- dent, family, or close friends), time spent in hospital (either the student, family, or close friends...

St Clair, Michelle C.; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J.; Jones, Peter B.; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M.

2014-07-24

89

Early-Type Galaxies in Extremely Isolated Environments: Typical Ellipticals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a BVR imaging survey of nine early-type galaxies previously verified to exist in extremely isolated environments. Our goals are to establish a baseline of morphological and photometric properties for spheroidal systems evolving in extremely low-density environments and to compare these properties with signatures predicted for merged galaxy groups. We find that these isolated systems are underluminous by

Pamela M. Marcum; Christian E. Aars; Michael N. Fanelli

2004-01-01

90

Life and the solar uv environment on the early Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest

A. Bérces; G. Kovács; G. Rontó; H. Lammer; G. Kargl; N. Kömle; S. Bauer

2003-01-01

91

Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children With Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized to a Web-based remedial early literacy program Living Letters or a

Verna A. C. van der Kooy-Hofland; Jacoba van der Kooy; Adriana G. Bus; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Gouke J. Bonsel

2012-01-01

92

Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

2013-01-01

93

Association between Plasma IL-6 Response to Acute Stress and Early-Life Adversity in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Increased production of peripheral cytokines and other pro-inflammatory markers has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has pointed to early-life stress, particularly childhood maltreatment, as an independent and preventable risk factor for systemic inflammation in adulthood. Some data suggest that adults with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit a heightened inflammatory response to acute stress challenge. To further elucidate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we examined plasma IL-6 response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 69 healthy adult subjects without depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Serial plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured during a standardized psychosocial stressor in n=19 subjects with moderate–severe childhood maltreatment (MAL), and n=50 controls without maltreatment (CTL), as indicated by self-ratings on the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ total scores were positively correlated with overall change in IL-6 response, as well as the maximum IL-6 concentration during the TSST. Greater acute IL-6 release and higher IL-6 concentrations over time were observed for the MAL group relative to the CTL group. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to poor adult physical and mental health. The results of this preliminary study warrant further investigation in a larger sample. PMID:20881945

Carpenter, Linda L; Gawuga, Cyrena E; Tyrka, Audrey R; Lee, Janet K; Anderson, George M; Price, Lawrence H

2010-01-01

94

Blazing the Tech Trail: Tips for Implementing New Technologies in a Risk-Adverse Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Provides good suggestions about how to introduce new and emerging technologies in public library environments that may not initially welcome change or new methods of doing things or utilizing technology more effectively.Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article is in the form of suggestion for actions. Findings – Trying different things is the key here and overcoming excuses about why it

Aimee Fifarek

2007-01-01

95

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*  

E-print Network

a significant detrimental effect on cognitive functioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse abuse, cognition, ApoE, gene-environment interaction inserm-00584172,version1-7Apr2011 Author manuscript, for women, loss of a parent, were associated with poorer verbal retrieval whereas being sent to a foster

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

96

Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

2008-01-01

97

The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: removing the brakes on infant fear memories  

PubMed Central

Mental health problems are often assumed to have their roots in early-life experiences. However, memories acquired in infancy are rapidly forgotten in nearly all species (including humans). As yet, a testable mechanism on how early-life experiences have a lasting impact on mental health is lacking. In these experiments, we tested the idea that infant adversity leads to an early transition into adult-like fear retention, allowing infant memories to have a longer-lasting influence. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (3?h per day) across postnatal days (P) 2–14, or their mother was given corticosterone in her drinking water across the same period. Infant rats were then trained to fear a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) on P17. Retention of the fear association was then tested 1–55 days later. When tested one day after the CS–US association was formed, both standard-reared (SR) and maternally-separated (MS) rats exhibited strong memory. However, when tested 10 days later, SR rats exhibited robust forgetting, whereas MS rats exhibited near-perfect retention. These effects were mimicked by exposing the mother to the stress hormone corticosterone in the drinking water. Finally, fear associations in P17 MS rats were retained for up to 30 days. Our findings point to differences in retention of fear as one factor that might underlie the propensity of stress-exposed individuals to exhibit early anxiety symptoms and suggest that manipulations of the corticosterone system may hold the key to ameliorating some of the effects of early stress on persistent retention of fear. PMID:22781171

Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

2012-01-01

98

Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age?=?24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

2014-01-01

99

Maternal Serum Disintegrin and Metalloprotease Protein-12 in Early Pregnancy as a Potential Marker of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine whether the concentration of disintegrin and metalloprotease protein12 (ADAM12) in first trimester maternal serum can be used as a marker for first-trimester complete spontaneous abortions, missed abortions, ectopic pregnancies and hydatidiform moles. Methods The maternal serum concentrations of ADAM12 were measured in the range of 5–9+6 weeks of gestation using an automated AutoDelfia immunoassay platform in 9 cases of complete spontaneous abortion, 27 cases of missed abortions, 56 cases of ectopic pregnancies, 12 cases of hydatidiform moles, and 100 controls. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant factors for predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes in early pregnancy. Screening performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves. Results Two hundred and four women were enrolled in the study. In the control group, the level of ADAM12 increased with gestational age. The median ADAM12 levels in the spontaneous abortion (0.430 MoM), ectopic pregnancy (0.460 MoM) and hydatidiform mole (0.037 MoM) groups were lower than that in the control group, while the median ADAM12 level in the missed abortion group (1.062 MoM) was not significant from the controls (1.002 MoM). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the level of ADAM12 in maternal serum facilitated the detection of ectopic pregnancies (OR?=?0.909; 95% CI?=?0.841?0.982) and complete spontaneous abortion (OR?=?0.863; 95% CI?=?0.787?0.946). Conclusions In complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy, ADAM12 maintained at low levels in early pregnancies, and there were significant differences compared to normal pregnancies. ADAM12 is a promising marker for the diagnosis of complete spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy in symptomatic women, and under certain conditions, ADAM12 can diagnose ectopic pregnancy and spontaneous abortion before an ultrasonographic detection of the conditions. PMID:24830297

Yang, Jiexia; Wu, Jing; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Keyi; Li, Jie; Du, Li; Yin, Aihua

2014-01-01

100

Comparison of the Four Proposed Apgar Scoring Systems in the Assessment of Birth Asphyxia and Adverse Early Neurologic Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. Results The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). Conclusions The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:25811904

Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh

2015-01-01

101

Incidence of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction and other adverse events in elderly patients undergoing elective total hip replacement (THR).  

PubMed

In elderly patients cognitive dysfunction and other adverse events (AEs) can impair the outcome of surgical procedures. As THR is performed with increasing frequency in aging populations, it is important to know the impact of these problems on the postoperative result. In this prospective cohort study 60 patients older than 65 years (66.7% female, 33.3% male) who received THR were included. The cognitive function was measured preoperatively, one week and six months postoperatively by the mini-mental state test (MMSE). Shortly after surgery 4 patients (6.7%) developed postoperative cognitive dysfunction, which has recovered at six-months-follow-up. In 41 patients (68.3%) AEs were recorded. Postoperative anemia occurred as the most common AE (n=32; 53.3%). During hospital stay older patients are at an increased risk for AEs. The incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction was observed less often than expected. Further research is necessary to assess the effect of early interventions in case of cognitive dysfunction. With use of a simple and quickly performed test like the MMSE patients can be effectively screened for impaired cognitive function. Secure identification of those patients is mandatory to avoid complications with harmful long-term effects. PMID:21288579

Postler, A; Neidel, J; Günther, K-P; Kirschner, S

2011-01-01

102

Indirect comparisons of adverse events and dropout rates in early Parkinson's disease trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline.  

PubMed

The comparative safety profiles of monotherapeutic treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD) can provide valuable therapeutic information. The objective of this study was to perform an indirect comparison of Adverse Events (AEs) and Dropout Rates (DRs) among clinical trials of pramipexole, ropinirole, and rasagiline. Outcomes analyzed included DRs, total AEs, and AE categories: Cognitive (CG), Gastrointestinal (GI), and Sleep/Fatigue (SF). The odds-ratio (OR) and Credible Interval (CrI) of outcomes between products using placebo as common comparator was calculated using indirect meta-analytical methods. AEs incidences for subjects receiving rasagiline were not significantly different from placebo, whereas DRs were significantly lower than for placebo (OR = 0.55; 95% CrI = 0.34-0.88). Patients receiving pramipexole or ropinirole had higher incidence of all AEs and DRs than patients taking rasagiline, except for the nonsignificant incidence of CG for ropinirole vs. rasagiline (1.76; 0.69-4.70). The incidence of GI (2.11; 1.13-4.06) and SF (2.75; 1.42-5.47) was significantly higher for ropinirole than for pramipexole, whereas the incidence of CG was significantly lower for ropinirole than for pramipexole (0.22; 0.07-0.69). Findings suggest that subjects with early PD treated with rasagiline have fewer AEs and DRs than those treated with pramipexole or ropinirole. GI and SF AEs were highest for subjects treated with ropinirole, while individuals treated with pramipexole exhibited the highest incidence of cognitive AEs. PMID:22304415

Zagmutt, Francisco J; Tarrants, Marcy L

2012-07-01

103

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

E-print Network

early family environment is related to mental and physical health in adulthood. An important question responses to stress, and, in males only, elevated cardiovascular responses This research was supported the fit of our model to autonomic and neuroendocrine stress responses and to self-rated health. In doing

Lehman, Barbara J.

104

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harsh early family environment is related to mental and physical health in adulthood. An important question is why family en- vironment in childhood is associated with these outcomes so long after its initial occurrence. We describe a program of research that evaluates a model linking these variables to each other. Specifically, we hypothesize that low social competence and negative

Shelley E. Taylor; Jennifer S. Lerner; Rebecca M. Sage; Barbara J. Lehman; Teresa E. Seeman

2004-01-01

105

Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

2014-01-01

106

34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

2012-07-01

107

34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

2013-07-01

108

34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

2014-07-01

109

A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

2012-04-01

110

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

111

2010 Mid-America Orthopaedic Association Physician in Training Award: Predictors of Early Adverse Outcomes after Knee and Hip Arthroplasty in Geriatric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Geriatric patients experience more adverse events owing to early complications after TKA or THA related to preexisting comorbidities.\\u000a However, associations between patient and surgery variables, including age, BMI, and comorbidities with complications are\\u000a unclear. Knowing these relationships is necessary for developing risk stratification, defining contraindications, and predicting\\u000a complications and adverse outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We wished to establish and quantify the associations among

Carlos A. Higuera; Karim Elsharkawy; Alison K. Klika; Matthew Brocone; Wael K. Barsoum

2011-01-01

112

Early Permian Carbonitidae (Ostracoda): ontogeny, affinity, environment and systematics  

E-print Network

Early Permian Carbonitidae (Ostracoda): ontogeny, a?nity, environment and systematics JULIE B. RETRUM 1 & ROGER L. KAESLER 1, 2 1 Department of Geology, University of Kansas, 1475 Jawhawk Blvd., Room 120, Lawrence KS 66045-7613, USA 2..., but research has produced mixed results regarding its evolutionary relationships, ontogeny and palaeoenvironmental significance. Di?erences of opinion regarding these aspects of the Carbonitidae have been attributed to poorly preserved specimens (Bless...

Retrum, Julie Beth; Kaesler, R. L.

2005-10-01

113

Maternal Vitamin D Status Related to Triacylglycerol in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

E-print Network

, gestational diabetes (GDM), and cesarean delivery. Findings on the effects of vitamin D on these adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. To our knowledge, no studies have examined maternal vitamin D status with circulating triacylglycerol (TAG...

Chan, Ka Ian

2011-04-25

114

Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty  

PubMed Central

Purpose Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects. Methods This retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate) at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate. Results Six serious side effects (0.9%) were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621). Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy. Conclusion Sterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP. PMID:25346917

Lee, Ji Woo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Choe, Yun Mee; Kang, Hee Suk; Kim, Soon Ki; Jun, Yong Hoon

2014-01-01

115

Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

2015-01-01

116

Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5–7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge

2015-01-01

117

A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

2003-01-01

118

Early-type galaxy star formation histories in different environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use very high signal-to-noise ratio stacked spectra of ˜29 000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane. We define three classifications of local group environment based on the `identities' of galaxies within their dark matter haloes: central `Brightest Group Galaxies' (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those `most massive' in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters ? and ?Ie. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; differences in Fe enrichment with local group environment are consistent with zero (<2?); there are no differences in Mg enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy's initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick J.; Graves, Genevieve J.

2015-02-01

119

Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood  

PubMed Central

The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

2014-01-01

120

The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the prediction of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: a multiple regression analysis.  

PubMed

Sensitization of stress-responsive neurobiological systems as a possible consequence of early adverse experience has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to early adversities, adulthood stressors are also known to precipitate the manifestation of these disorders. The present study sought to evaluate the relative role of early adverse experience vs. stress experiences in adulthood in the prediction of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women. A total of 49 women (normal volunteers, depressed patients, and women with a history of early abuse) underwent a battery of interviews and completed dimensional rating scales on stress experiences and psychopathology, and were subsequently exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor. Outcome measures were plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol responses to the stress test. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify the impact of demographic variables, childhood abuse, adulthood trauma, major life events in the past year, and daily hassles in the past month, as well as psychopathology on hormonal stress responsiveness. Peak ACTH responses to psychosocial stress were predicted by a history of childhood abuse, the number of separate abuse events, the number of adulthood traumas, and the severity of depression. Similar predictors were identified for peak cortisol responses. Although abused women reported more severe negative life events in adulthood than controls, life events did not affect neuroendocrine reactivity. The regression model explained 35% of the variance of ACTH responses. The interaction of childhood abuse and adulthood trauma was the most powerful predictor of ACTH responsiveness. Our findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse per se is related to increased neuroendocrine stress reactivity, which is further enhanced when additional trauma is experienced in adulthood. PMID:12001180

Heim, Christine; Newport, D Jeffrey; Wagner, Dieter; Wilcox, Molly M; Miller, Andrew H; Nemeroff, Charles B

2002-01-01

121

Evolution and Environment of Early-Type Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical abundance indicators are studied using composite spectra, which we provide in tabular form. Tables of line strengths measured from these spectra and parameters derived from these line strengths are also provided. From these we find that at fixed luminosity, early-type galaxies in low-density environments are slightly bluer, with stronger O II emission and stronger H? and H? Balmer absorption lines, indicative of star formation in the not very distant past. These galaxies also tend to have systematically weaker D4000 indices. The Lick indices and ?-element abundance indicators correlate weakly but significantly with environment. For example, at fixed velocity dispersion, Mg is weaker in early-type galaxies in low-density environments by 30% of the rms scatter across the full sample, whereas most Fe indicators show no significant environmental dependence. The galaxies in our sample span a redshift range that corresponds to look-back times of ~1 Gyr. We see clear evidence for evolution of line-index strengths over this time. Since the low-redshift population is almost certainly a passively aged version of the more distant population, age is likely the main driver for any observed evolution. We use the observed redshift evolution as a model-independent clock to identify indicators that are more sensitive to age than to other effects such as metallicity. In principle, for a passively evolving population, comparison of the trends with redshift and environment constrain how strongly the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities depend on environment. We develop a method for doing this that does not depend on the details of stellar population synthesis models. Our analysis suggests that the galaxies that populate the densest regions in our sample are older by ~1 Gyr than objects of the same luminosity in the least dense regions, and that metallicity differences are negligible. We also use single-burst stellar population synthesis models, which allow for nonsolar ?-element abundance ratios, to interpret our data. The combination of H?, Mg b, and lines suggests that age, metallicity, and ?-enhancement all increase with velocity dispersion. The objects at lower redshifts are older but have the same metallicities and ?-enhancements as their counterparts of the same ? at higher redshifts, as expected if the low-redshift sample is a passively aged version of the sample at higher redshifts. In addition, objects in dense environments are less than 1 Gyr older and ?-enhanced by ~0.02 relative to their counterparts of the same velocity dispersion in less dense regions, but the metallicities show no dependence on environment. This suggests that in dense regions, the stars in early-type galaxies formed at slightly earlier times and on a slightly shorter timescale than in less dense regions. Using H?F instead of H? leads to slightly younger ages but the same qualitative differences between environments. In particular, we find no evidence that objects in low-density regions are more metal-rich.

Bernardi, Mariangela; Nichol, Robert C.; Sheth, Ravi K.; Miller, C. J.; Brinkmann, J.

2006-03-01

122

Early-type galaxies in different environments: an HI view  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the neutral hydrogen in 33 nearby early-type galaxies selected from a representative sample studied earlier at optical wavelengths with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. This is the deepest homogeneous set of HI imaging data available for this class of objects. The sample covers both field environments and the Virgo cluster. Our analysis shows that gas accretion plays a role in the evolution of field early-type galaxies, but less so for those in clusters. The HI properties of SAURON early-type galaxies strongly depend on environment. For detection limits of a few times 106 Msolar, HI is detected in about 2/3 of the field galaxies, while <10 per cent of the Virgo objects are detected. In about half of the detections, the HI forms a regularly rotating disc or ring. In many galaxies unsettled tails and clouds are seen. All HI discs have counterparts of ionized gas, and inner HI discs are also detected in molecular gas. The cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions is dominated by molecular gas (). Assuming our sample is representative, we conclude that accretion of HI is very common for field early-type galaxies, but the amount of material involved is usually small and the effects on the host galaxy are, at most, subtle. Cluster galaxies appear not to accrete HI, or the accreted material gets removed quickly by environmental effects. The relation between HI and stellar population is complex. The few galaxies with a significant young sub-population all have inner gas discs, but for the remaining galaxies there is no trend between stellar population and HI properties. A number of early-type galaxies are very gas rich, but only have an old population. The stellar populations of field galaxies are typically younger than those in Virgo. This is likely related to differences in accretion history. There is no obvious overall relation between gas HI content and global dynamical characteristics except that the fastest rotators all have an HI disc. This confirms that if fast and slow rotators are the result of different evolution paths, this is not strongly reflected in the current HI content. In about 50 per cent of the galaxies we detect a central radio continuum source. In many objects this emission is from a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), and in some it is consistent with the observed star formation. Galaxies with HI in the central regions are more likely detected in continuum. This is due to a higher probability for star formation to occur in such galaxies and not to HI-related AGN fuelling.

Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Crocker, Alison; Jütte, Eva; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Krajnovi?, Davor; McDermid, Richard; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

2010-12-01

123

Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

2010-01-01

124

Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults: The Influences of the Early Home Environment and Early Educational Child Care  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between depressive symptoms in young adults, the quality of the early home environment, and early educational child care was investigated in young adults randomly assigned to receive early childhood intervention in the Abecedarian study. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98 percent African American), 104 participated in an…

Mclaughlin, Andrea E.; Campbell, Frances A.; Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Skinner, Martie

2007-01-01

125

Early-Type Galaxies in Extremely Isolated Environments: Typical Ellipticals?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a BVR imaging survey of nine early-type galaxies previously verified to exist in extremely isolated environments. Our goals are to establish a baseline of morphological and photometric properties for spheroidal systems evolving in extremely low-density environments and to compare these properties with signatures predicted for merged galaxy groups. We find that these isolated systems are underluminous by at least a magnitude compared with objects identified as merged group remnants in other studies. Image processing techniques sensitive to shell features produced no detections, a result in strong contrast to the high frequency of such structures found in other isolated elliptical galaxies. Two objects, KIG 164 and KIG 870, appear to be merger remnants, as indicated by their disturbed morphology, apparent tidal features, and blue colors. KIG 164 exhibits an asymmetric nuclear morphology and a low surface brightness ``bridge'' between it and a possible dwarf satellite. KIG 870 shows both fan-shaped emission at large radii and a possible double nucleus. Two other galaxies, KIG 412 and KIG 792, are also blue, but without any morphological peculiarities, suggesting that these systems are advanced mergers, older than KIG 164 and KIG 870. Two systems appear to be isolated lenticular galaxies with no evidence of a merger history. Based on their red colors, good fit to a R1/4-law light distribution, and the lack of morphological peculiarities, two other galaxies, KIG 557 and KIG 824, are found to be excellent candidates for passively evolving primordial elliptical galaxies formed early in cosmic time. Optical data were obtained with the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin.

Marcum, Pamela M.; Aars, Christian E.; Fanelli, Michael N.

2004-06-01

126

CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2013-08-20

127

Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…

Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

2013-01-01

128

Early-Type Galaxy Star Formation Histories in Different Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use very high-S/N stacked spectra of ˜29,000 nearby quiescent early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to investigate variations in their star formation histories (SFHs) with environment at fixed position along and perpendicular to the Fundamental Plane (FP). We separate galaxies in the three-dimensional FP space defined by galaxy effective radius Re, central stellar velocity dispersion ?, and surface brightness residual from the FP, ?Ie. We use the SDSS group catalogue of Yang et al. to further separate galaxies into three categories by their “identities” within their respective dark matter halos: central “Brightest Group Galaxies” (BGGs); Satellites; and Isolateds (those which are “most massive” in a dark matter halo with no Satellites). Within each category, we construct high-S/N mean stacked spectra to determine mean singleburst ages, [Fe/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on the stellar population synthesis models of R. Schiavon. This allows us to study variations in the stellar population properties (SPPs) with local group environment at fixed structure (i.e., fixed position in FP-space). We find that the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are almost entirely determined by their structural parameters ? and ?Ie. Any variation with local group environment at fixed structure is only slight: Satellites have the oldest stellar populations, 0.02 dex older than BGGs and 0.04 dex older than Isolateds; BGGs have the highest Fe-enrichments, 0.01 dex higher than Isolateds and 0.02 dex higher than Satellites; there are no differences in Mg-enhancement between BGGs, Isolateds, and Satellites. Our observation that, to zeroth-order, the SFHs of quiescent ETGs are fully captured by their structures places important qualitative constraints on the degree to which late-time evolutionary processes (those which occur after a galaxy’s initial formation and main star-forming lifetime) can alter their SFHs/structures.

Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Graves, G.

2014-01-01

129

The early home environment and developmental outcomes for young children in the child welfare system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of the early home environment is predictive of young children's subsequent cognitive, academic, and behavioral functioning. Limited research has focused on the effects of the early caregiving environment on the functioning of young children involved with the child welfare system. This study investigated the influence of children's home environments (i.e., number of children in the home, number of

Brenda Jones Harden; Jessica Vick Whittaker

2011-01-01

130

Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068

Punzo, F

2004-10-01

131

Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

2014-01-01

132

Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments.  

PubMed

Infants and young children spend as much as 50h per week in child care and preschool. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend some time each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available about environmental exposures in these environments. We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California ECE facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. Low levels of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and four non-PBDE flame retardants were present in air, including two constituents of Firemaster 550 and two tris phosphate compounds [tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)]. Tris phosphate, Firemaster 550 and PBDE compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples. BDE47, BDE99, and BDE209 comprised the majority of the PBDE mass measured in dust. The median concentrations of TCEP (319 ng g(-1)) and TDCIPP (2265 ng g(-1)) were similar to or higher than any PBDE congener. Levels of TCEP and TDCIPP in dust were significantly higher in facilities with napping equipment made out of foam (Mann-Whitney p-values<0.05). Child BDE99 dose estimates exceeded the RfD in one facility for children<3 years old. In 51% of facilities, TDCIPP dose estimates for children<6 years old exceeded age-specific "No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs)" based on California Proposition 65 guidelines for carcinogens. Given the overriding interest in providing safe and healthy environments for young children, additional research is needed to identify strategies to reduce indoor sources of flame retardant chemicals. PMID:24835158

Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Gaspar, Fraser; Nishioka, Marcia; Colón, Maribel; Weathers, Walter; Egeghy, Peter P; Maddalena, Randy; Williams, Jeffery; Jenkins, Peggy L; McKone, Thomas E

2014-12-01

133

Early adverse rearing experiences alter sleep-wake patterns and plasma cortisol levels in juvenile rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Monkeys separated from their mothers soon after birth and raised with peers display many disturbances in emotional behavior that are similar to human mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to emotional disturbances, both mood and anxiety disorders are often characterized by disruptions in normal sleep-wake cycles, a behavior that has not been well characterized in adversely reared non-human primates. Because polysomnographic measures are difficult to obtain in unrestrained monkeys we used 24-h actigraphy measures to assess probable sleep-wake patterns in juvenile nursery- and mother-reared rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, N=16) over several days in the home cage. In addition we assayed plasma cortisol in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Relative to mother-reared (MR) monkeys, actigraphic algorithms indicated that nursery-reared (NR) animals had shorter durations of nocturnal sleep, earlier morning waking, and longer periods of sleep during the active period, specifically in the mid morning. No shift in diurnal patterns of cortisol was observed, but NR animals displayed an overall elevation in cortisol. Finally a significant interaction was found between cortisol and actigraphic determination of sleep efficiency in the two groups. A strong positive relationship (r(2)>0.8) was found between mean cortisol levels and sleep efficiency for the MR monkeys, but a significant negative relationship was found between these same variables for the NR monkeys, indicating a fundamentally different relationship between waking cortisol and actigraphy patterns in these two groups. PMID:19268477

Barrett, Catherine E; Noble, Pamela; Hanson, Erin; Pine, Daniel S; Winslow, James T; Nelson, Eric E

2009-08-01

134

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp. PMID:22958647

2012-01-01

135

Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters  

PubMed Central

Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

2012-01-01

136

Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

2003-01-01

137

Measurement of the influence of the physical environment on adverse health outcomes: technical report from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging.  

PubMed

A paucity of information exists to characterize the relationship between the health status of elderly people and their physical environment. The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) is a multicenter study of the distribution of dementia among community-dwelling and institutionalized Canadians aged 65 years and older. The study also provides the opportunity to examine issues such as the physical environment which may be related to the health of elderly people. Six items were used to assess the cleanliness, neatness, and maintenance of the inside and outside of the homes of 8,134 community-dwelling individuals. Data were also obtained to evaluate cognition, physical health, and functional capacity. Five years after the original survey, information pertaining to subsequent institutionalization and/or mortality was obtained. A significant relationship was found between classification of physical environment and the outcomes of institutionalization and mortality. The likelihood of both adverse outcomes was notably higher for individuals living in a "less than ideally maintained environment" compared to an "ideally maintained environment." Limitations of the six items used to assess the physical environment and ways in which to improve the sensitivity of the items, consequently avoiding measurement bias, are discussed. PMID:11892969

Wentzel, C; Rose, H; Rockwood, K

2001-01-01

138

Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78%) and home remedy (74.8%) groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001), more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001), and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001). Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073). Conclusion There are negative outcomes when patients delay conventional medical therapy in favour of home remedies to treat diabetic foot infections. These treatments need not be mutually exclusive. We encourage persons with diabetes who wish to try home remedies to seek medical advice in addition as a part of holistic care. PMID:25473322

Cawich, Shamir O; Harnarayan, Patrick; Islam, Shariful; Budhooram, Steve; Ramsewak, Shivaa; Naraynsingh, Vijay

2014-01-01

139

Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. METHODS: We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and

Chris J Packard; Vladimir Bezlyak; Jennifer S McLean; G David Batty; Ian Ford; Harry Burns; Jonathan Cavanagh; Kevin A Deans; Marion Henderson; Agnes McGinty; Keith Millar; Naveed Sattar; Paul G Shiels; Yoga N Velupillai; Carol Tannahill

2011-01-01

140

Maternal Cocaine Use and the Caregiving Environment During Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the caregiving environment for young children of polydrug cocaine-using mothers. Three aspects of the caregiving environment were examined: physical and social settings for development, maternal psychosocial functioning, and child rearing customs and attitudes. It was hypothesized that maternal cocaine use would be associated with more negative caregiving environments. Results

Rina Das Eiden; Melissa Peterson; Tamaira Coleman

1999-01-01

141

Monitoring Children's Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined the benefits of providing kindergarten teachers with feedback about students' performance on early literacy progress-monitoring probes. Students were administered the "Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS)" in fall, winter, and spring; classroom environment was evaluated using the "Early Language and…

Ball, Carrie; Gettinger, Maribeth

2009-01-01

142

Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

LeVota, Sheryl

2010-01-01

143

Early School Leavers and Sustainable Learning Environments in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of their diverse…

Mahlomaholo, Sechaba M. G.

2012-01-01

144

Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored. PMID:22280100

Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

2013-01-01

145

Online Learning Environments: What Early Childhood Teacher Education Students Say  

Microsoft Academic Search

As online environments gain an increasing presence in higher education for both on-campus students and distance learners, there is a need to examine how effective these environments are for student learning. Online environments require essentially different teaching and learning strategies from those used in the traditional face-to-face contexts (for on-campus students) or with print-based material (for distance learners). This article

Ann Heirdsfield; Julie Davis; Sandra Lennox; Sue Walker; Weihong Zhang

2007-01-01

146

Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

147

Dysfunctional astrocytic and synaptic regulation of hypothalamic glutamatergic transmission in a mouse model of early-life adversity: relevance to neurosteroids and programming of the stress response.  

PubMed

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?(0/0)) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?(0/0) offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?(0/0) pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A; Corteen, Nicole L; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D; Lambert, Jeremy J; Belelli, Delia

2013-12-11

148

Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional studies on the combined effects of genetics and the environment on individual variation in disease susceptibility primarily focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence toxicant uptake and metabolism. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are also influenced by the environment, and play an important role

Dana C. Dolinoy; Jennifer R. Weidman; Randy L. Jirtle

2007-01-01

149

Radiation environment and shielding for early manned Mars missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of shielding a crew during early manned Mars missions is discussed. Requirements for shielding are presented in the context of current astronaut exposure limits, natural ionizing radiation sources, and shielding inherent in a particular Mars vehicle configuration. An estimated range for shielding weight is presented based on the worst solar flare dose, mission duration, and inherent vehicle shielding.

Hall, Stephen B.; Mccann, Michael E.

1986-01-01

150

Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments  

EPA Science Inventory

Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

151

Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

2012-01-01

152

The black–white test score gap and early home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black–white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black–white test score differences among children of all ages even before children

Wei-Jun Jean Yeung; Kathryn M. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

153

Functional Analysis of the Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: Incorporating Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper…

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2008-01-01

154

Prenatal and early postnatal environments are significant predictors of total immunoglobulin E concentration in Filipino adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Recent evidence suggests that atopic disease may in part be mediated by fetal growth, as well as exposure to infectious disease early in life. Few studies have been able to evaluate these associations simultaneously, or to investigate prospectively the long-term effects of early environments while adequately controlling for potentially confounding variables. Objective To examine how prenatal growth and

T. W. Mcdade; C. W. Kuzawa; L. S. Adairwz; M. A. Beckz

2004-01-01

155

Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to affect DNA methylation of the corticotropin-releasing factor gene promoter region in the adult rat brain.  

PubMed

The interaction between childhood maltreatment and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene linked polymorphic region has been associated with increased risk to develop major depression. This Gene × Environment interaction has furthermore been linked with increased levels of anxiety and glucocorticoid release upon exposure to stress. Both endophenotypes are regulated by the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or hormone, which is expressed by the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the central amygdala (CeA). Therefore, we hypothesized that altered regulation of the expression of CRF in these areas represents a major neurobiological mechanism underlying the interaction of early life stress and 5-HTT gene variation. The programming of gene transcription by Gene × Environment interactions has been proposed to involve epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. In this study, we report that early life stress and 5-HTT genotype interact to affect DNA methylation of the Crf gene promoter in the CeA of adult male rats. Furthermore, we found that DNA methylation of a specific site in the Crf promoter significantly correlated with CRF mRNA levels in the CeA. Moreover, CeA CRF mRNA levels correlated with stress coping behavior in a learned helplessness paradigm. Together, our findings warrant further investigation of the link of Crf promoter methylation and CRF expression in the CeA with behavioral changes that are relevant for psychopathology. PMID:25640835

van der Doelen, Rick H A; Arnoldussen, Ilse A; Ghareh, Hussein; van Och, Liselot; Homberg, Judith R; Kozicz, Tamás

2015-02-01

156

Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have explicit foci on (1) integrating physical and social vulnerability indicators across timescales, (2) analytical capacity to generate local scenarios of risk using both analogs and projections, (3) the communication of risk-based information, and (4) the support and governance of a collaborative framework for early warning structures across spatial scales.

Pulwarty, R. S.

2011-12-01

157

Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…

Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

2013-01-01

158

Early Family Environments of Obese and Non-Obese College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although case studies and anecdotal information have suggested that differences exist between the early family environments of obese and non-obese individuals, no experimental research exists. Undergraduates completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a questionnaire concerning past and present weight information. Subjects were classified as…

Hailey, B. Jo; Sison, Gustave F. P., Jr.

159

An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

Maddox, Richard S.

2010-01-01

160

Early stages of biofilm succession in a lentic freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Initial events of biofilms development and succession were studied in a freshwater environment at Kalpakkam, East Coast of\\u000a India. Biofilms were developed by suspending Perspex (Plexiglass) panels for 15 days at bimonthly intervals from January 1996\\u000a to January 1997. Changes in biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density, chlorophyll a concentration and species composition\\u000a were monitored. The biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density

R. Sekar; V. P. Venugopalan; K. Nandakumar; K. V. K. Nair; V. N. R. Rao

161

The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil assemblage is at treeline and higher on Isla Navarino (55°S) at the southern tip of South America. By mid-Miocene, the upland tundra biota was less diverse, most notably in the number of angiosperm taxa. Based on the autecology and geographic distributions of the descendants of the fossil biota which survive in the subantarctic islands, South America and Tasmania, there was a decline of mean summer temperatures from c. 6°C to c. 4°C from the early to the mid-Miocene. During the early Miocene, the MST of the TAM was c.19°C warmer than today. A paleotemperature estimate based on leaf waxes from a Ross Sea core is for a MST 11°C warmer than today which seems low considering it is based on a near sea-level vegetation. A recent paper utilizing a salt-hydration process to provide adequate moisture to support a Miocene tundra biota is based on erroneous data. The Miocene climate was wet with an annual precipitation of at least 3000 mm. A recent report of the possible survival of vegetation in the Taylor Valley until the Pliocene, based on the discovery of 5 Ma wood-like forms in a DVDP core, is improbable. Even if wood can be definitively identified from the Pliocene deposits it is likely to be reworked Miocene wood from uplands in the TAM (e.g. Friis Hills). Research supported by NSF OPP 0739693.

Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

2012-12-01

162

Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

163

Early oxygenation of the terrestrial environment during the Mesoproterozoic.  

PubMed

Geochemical data from ancient sedimentary successions provide evidence for the progressive evolution of Earth's atmosphere and oceans. Key stages in increasing oxygenation are postulated for the Palaeoproterozoic era (?2.3?billion years ago, Gyr ago) and the late Proterozoic eon (about 0.8?Gyr ago), with the latter implicated in the subsequent metazoan evolutionary expansion. In support of this rise in oxygen concentrations, a large database shows a marked change in the bacterially mediated fractionation of seawater sulphate to sulphide of ?(34)S?environment was sufficiently oxygenated to support a biota that was adapted to an oxygen-rich atmosphere, but had also penetrated into subsurface sediment. PMID:21068840

Parnell, John; Boyce, Adrian J; Mark, Darren; Bowden, Stephen; Spinks, Sam

2010-11-11

164

Supporting the Sytematization of Early-Stage-Innovation by Means of Collaborative Working Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of the early-stage of innovation concentrates on non-linear innovation environments constituted by the\\u000a nature of the “fuzzy front end” of innovations in which there are no well-defined problems or goals at that point in time\\u000a [1,2]. Early-stage-innovation requirements are the general applicability and the support of iterations within the software tools\\u000a to be developed within future

Alexander Hesmer; Karl. A. Hribernik; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Klaus-Dieter Thoben

165

The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-type galaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populations in local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices that account for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, total metallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high- and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by

Daniel Thomas; Claudia Maraston; Ralf Bender; Claudia Mendes de Oliveira

2005-01-01

166

Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

167

Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning in subduction and strike-slip environments  

E-print Network

], and Southern ItalyApplication of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning in subduction and strike-slip environments; accepted 6 June 2013; published 3 July 2013. [1] We explore the application of GPS data to earthquake early

Allen, Richard M.

168

The effects of early social environments on the behavioral development of pigs and raccoons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation I tested the hypothesis that early social environments could affect behavioral development in two species, domestic swine ( Sus scrofa domesticus) and wild raccoons (Procyon lotor). Allowing two or more litters of pigs in production systems to co-mingle during the lactation period, as it occurs in nature, improves responses to social and non-social challenges after weaning. In

Vanessa Tavares Kanaan

2008-01-01

169

Social Factors in the Development of Early Executive Functioning: A Closer Look at the Caregiving Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated prospective links between quality of the early caregiving environment and children's subsequent executive functioning (EF). Sixty-two families were met on five occasions, allowing for assessment of maternal interactive behavior, paternal interactive behavior, and child attachment security between 1 and 2 years of age, and…

Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Deschenes, Marie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

2012-01-01

170

Providing Early Intervention within Natural Environments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the state of current practice in early intervention in Finland and to compare them to American data. Professional women (N = 52), representing child care, elementary school, healthcare, and social work, completed the Families in Natural Environments Scale of Service Evaluation, a 34-item questionnaire…

Rantala, Anja; Uotinen, Sanna; McWilliam, R. A.

2009-01-01

171

Those Who Have, Receive: The Matthew Effect in Early Childhood Intervention in the Home Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are preventive early childhood interventions effective in improving home environments, as assessed with the HOME inventory (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984)? The authors traced 48 published articles, presenting 56 intervention effects (N = 7,350). The combined effect size on the HOME total score was d = 0.20 (p less than 0.001). Randomized intervention…

Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bradley, Robert H.

2005-01-01

172

Exploring Early Evaluation Techniques of Ambient Health Promoting Devices in Home Environments of Senior  

E-print Network

Exploring Early Evaluation Techniques of Ambient Health Promoting Devices in Home Environments of Senior Citizens Living Independently Rajasee Rege School of Informatics Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47408 rrege@indiana.edu Heekyoung Jung School of Informatics Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47408

Connelly, Kay

173

Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

Hadeed, Julie

2014-01-01

174

Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

Hunter, Jodie

2014-12-01

175

Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved Oâ, NO⁻â, NO⁻â, and SO²⁻â were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several

T. J. Shaw; J. M. Gieskes; R. A. Jahnke

1990-01-01

176

Early environment and major depression in young adults: A longitudinal study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-natal incubator care represents an early specific environment that may affect the risk for major depression later in life. A subsample of 1212 young adults from the French-speaking general population of the region of Quebec were selected from an ongoing longitudinal study that started during their kindergarten years. Information on peri-natal condition, obstetrical complications and incubator care was collected by

David Gourion; Louise Arseneault; Frank Vitaro; Jelena Brezo; Gustavo Turecki; Richard E. Tremblay

2008-01-01

177

Quantitative trait loci for early plant vigour of maize grown in chilly environments.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is particularly sensitive to chilling in the early growth stages. The objective of this study was to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for early plant vigour of maize grown under cool and moderately warm conditions in Central Europe. A population of 720 doubled haploid (DH) lines was derived from a cross between two dent inbred lines contrasting in early vigour and were genotyped with 188 SSR markers. The DH lines per se and their testcrosses with a flint line were evaluated in field experiments across 11 environments in 2001 and 2002. Plants were harvested after six to eight leaves had been fully developed to assess fresh matter yield as a criterion of early vigour. Seven QTL were detected for line performance and ten QTL for testcross performance, explaining 64 and 49% of the genetic variance. Six out of seven QTL detected in the lines per se were also significant in their testcrosses. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed, but no relationship existed between the size of the QTL effects and the mean temperature in the individual environment. The correlation between fresh matter yield and days to silking was non-significant, indicating that differences in early plant vigour were not simply caused by maturity differences. For three additional chilling-related traits, leaf chlorosis, leaf purpling, and frost damage seven, six, and five QTL were detected, respectively. Three QTL for leaf chlorosis, two for leaf purpling, and two for frost damage co-localized with QTL for fresh matter yield. Results are considered as a reliable basis for further genetic, molecular, and physiological investigations. PMID:17340099

Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Schmidt, Walter; Möller, Evelyn M; Röber, Frank K; Knaak, Carsten; Ernst, Karin; Westhoff, Peter; Geiger, Hartwig H

2007-04-01

178

Color Gradients in Early-type Galaxies: Dependence on Environment and Redshift  

E-print Network

Color gradients in early-type galaxies contain valuable clues about their formation and evolutionary histories and mechanisms. We examine color gradients in 1,700 early-type galaxies in 159 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.2. We find that color gradients strongly depend on the environment where galaxies reside, with steeper color gradients in poor rather than rich clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is found in either rich or poor clusters. The difference in color gradients can be explained by a change in the internal metallicity and/or an age gradient in these galaxies. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

F. La Barbera; R. R. de Carvalho; R. Gal; G. Busarello; P. Merluzzi; M. Capaccioli; S. G. Djorgovski

2005-04-28

179

Gene–Environment Interactions and Intermediate Phenotypes: Early Trauma and Depression  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

Hornung, Orla P.; Heim, Christine M.

2013-01-01

180

Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

181

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2013-04-01

182

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2012-04-01

183

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2014-04-01

184

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2011-04-01

185

Profiles of Family-focused Adverse Experiences through Childhood and Early Adolescence: The ROOTS Project, a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

E-print Network

environment persists over the first 15 years of life. Different profiles of family risk may be associated with specific mental disorders in young people. Sex differences in psychopathologies may be most pronounced in those exposed to low levels of family...

Dunn, Valerie J; Abbott, Rosemary A; Croudace, Tim J; Wilkinson, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

2011-07-07

186

Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation  

PubMed Central

The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

2015-01-01

187

Early Social Environment Affects the Endogenous Oxytocin System: A Review and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation, and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g., genetic variation (of the OXTR), age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences, such as social experiences, stress, or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences, and function. Second, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention. PMID:25814979

Alves, Emily; Fielder, Andrea; Ghabriel, Nerelle; Sawyer, Michael; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.

2015-01-01

188

Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development  

EPA Science Inventory

The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

189

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

190

The experiential impact of hospitalisation in early psychosis: service-user accounts of inpatient environments.  

PubMed

Early Intervention in Psychosis services aim to keep young people out of hospital, but this is not always possible. This research used in-depth interviews to explore the experience of hospitalisation amongst young people with psychosis. Findings describe fear and confusion at admission, conflicting experiences of the inpatient unit as both safe and containing, and unsafe and chaotic, and the difficult process of maintaining identity in light of the admission. We discuss the need to move from construing psychiatric hospitals as places for 'passive seclusion', to developing more permeable and welcoming environments that can play an active role in recovery. PMID:25460906

Fenton, Kelly; Larkin, Michael; Boden, Zoë V R; Thompson, Jessica; Hickman, Gareth; Newton, Elizabeth

2014-11-01

191

Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

1993-01-01

192

Parent-directed approaches to enrich the early language environments of children living in poverty.  

PubMed

Children's early language environments are critical for their cognitive development, school readiness, and ultimate educational attainment. Significant disparities exist in these environments, with profound and lasting impacts upon children's ultimate outcomes. Children from backgrounds of low socioeconomic status experience diminished language inputs and enter school at a disadvantage, with disparities persisting throughout their educational careers. Parents are positioned as powerful agents of change in their children's lives, however, and evidence indicates that parent-directed intervention is effective in improving child outcomes. This article explores the efficacy of parent-directed interventions and their potential applicability to the wider educational achievement gap seen in typically developing populations of low socioeconomic status and then describes efforts to develop such interventions with the Thirty Million Words Project and Project ASPIRE (Achieving Superior Parental Involvement for Rehabilitative Excellence) curricula. PMID:24297619

Leffel, Kristin; Suskind, Dana

2013-11-01

193

Childhood adversities and psychosocial disorders.  

PubMed

Adverse childhood experiences--especially inadequacies in early parental care--are associated with elevated rates of both acute and chronic psychosocial disorders in adult life. In most instances, adverse outcomes are confined to a minority of children exposed; variations in the severity or pervasiveness of early risk, individual differences in susceptibility, and interactions with later stressors are all thus likely to be important in mediating effects. At present, knowledge of intervening processes is limited, and dependent on retrospective studies of adult samples or short-term longitudinal findings in childhood. We review current evidence on the long-term outcomes of prenatal divorce, childhood maltreatment, and institutional rearing, and on the early antecedents of depression and antisocial behaviour in adult life, to highlight possible interviewing mechanisms. Most long-term sequelae seem likely to depend on a series of shorter-term links, some running through elevated risks of continued environmental adversity, others through psychological vulnerabilities and problems in social relationships. PMID:9158291

Maughan, B; McCarthy, G

1997-01-01

194

Early nutritional environment: focus on health effects of microbiota and probiotics.  

PubMed

Balanced maternal nutrition during pregnancy ensures both the growth and development of the foetus and the well-being of the mother. Recent evidence supports the programming theory, which envisages long-lasting effects on later risk of chronic life-style-related diseases by early nutrition. The increasing problem of overweight, affecting almost half of the female population in Western societies, sets off adverse programming effects in the offspring manifested in subsequent health effects. To combat this problem, new tools involving life-style modifications are being actively sought to increment the traditional approaches. Immunonutrition, the ability of nutrients to influence the activities of cells in the immune system, may be one answer in combating low-grade systemic inflammation, the key underlying determinant in the obesity epidemic. Further, microbial compounds possess immunomodulatory properties which may be utilised to improve immune responses in clinically meaningful ways. Aberrant microbiota compositions have been detected during critical periods when early programming occurs, including pregnancy and infancy. Such alterations may regulate the health of the infant and the risk of subsequent disease, as demonstrated by the divergence in gut microbiota composition between healthy and overweight individuals. It may thus be hypothesised that the composition of the gut microbiota could be used as a target for intervention. Probiotics interact with the mucosal immune system via the same pathways as commensal bacteria to influence both innate and adaptive immune responses. In consequence, interventions with immunomodulatory diets, including certain nutrients and probiotics, may be critical in coordinating the adaptive function necessary for the formation of tolerance and thus in the prevention of undesirable metabolic consequences. PMID:21831777

Laitinen, K; Collado, M C; Isolauri, E

2010-11-01

195

Reproductive development and parental investment during pregnancy: moderating influence of mother's early environment.  

PubMed

The association between a woman's age at menarche and the birth weight of her children is highly variable across human populations. Life history theory proposes that a woman's early environment may moderate this association and thus account for some of the variation between populations. According to one life history theory model, for individuals who develop in a childhood environment of high local mortality rates (experienced subjectively as psychosocial stress), it can be adaptive to mature earlier, have more offspring during their reproductive lifetime, and reduce investment in each offspring. In an environment of low psychosocial stress, however, it may be adaptive to mature later, have fewer offspring, and invest more in each. In this study, birth weight and proportionate birth weight (neonate's birth weight as a percentage of its mother's prepregnancy weight) were used as measures of parental investment during pregnancy. In a sample of 580 first-time mothers, we tested the hypothesis that the psychosocial stress experienced as a child would moderate the association between age at menarche and investment during pregnancy. We found that earlier menarche in those women who experienced stressful life events before 15 years of age was associated with a lower birth weight and proportionate birth weight. Conversely, in those who reported no childhood stressors, earlier menarche was associated with increased birth weight and proportionate birth weight. Our data suggest that the moderating influence of the childhood psychosocial environment on the association between age at menarche and parental investment throughout gestation operates in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:19536836

Coall, David A; Chisholm, James S

2010-01-01

196

Early and 1-year outcome and predictors of adverse outcome following monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction for patients with tetralogy of Fallot: A prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: Repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with monocusp pulmonary valve reconstruction prevents pulmonary regurgitation (PR) for a variable period. Since postoperative outcome is governed by PR and right ventricular function, we sought to assess the severity of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular outflow (RVOT) gradient in the immediate postoperative period and at 1 year and attempted to identify the anatomical substrates responsible for adverse outcomes. Methods: The study included 30 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed before surgery, within 5 days of surgery, and 1 year later. Presence and severity of PR, RVOT gradient, and residual branch pulmonary stenosis were assessed. Right ventricular and monocusp valve functions were studied. Results: Median age was 36.5 months (3-444 months). There were no deaths. Pulmonary regurgitation was mild in 18, moderate in 10, and severe in 2 patients immediately following surgery. At 1 year, 10 patients had severe PR and one had significant RVOT gradient. None of the variables like age, presence of supravalvar pulmonary branch stenosis, main pulmonary artery diameter, or mobility of monocusp valve was found to have any significant association with the progression of PR. McGoon index <1.5 showed a trend toward more PR, while patients with more residual RVOT gradient had lesser regurgitation. Conclusions: Repair of TOF with monocusp pulmonary valve reduces immediate postoperative PR. At 1 year, the monocusp valve underwent loss of function in a significant proportion and PR also progressed. This study could not identify any predictors of progression of PR, though patients with McGoon index <1.5 tended to have more PR while those with more outflow gradient had lesser PR. PMID:24701078

Sasikumar, Deepa; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Dharan, Baiju S; Mathew, Thomas; Karunakaran, Jayakumar

2014-01-01

197

ne morning Sharon woke up early. She wanted to find the environment. Her teacher, Miss Clark, had told her that  

E-print Network

#12;ne morning Sharon woke up early. She wanted to find the environment. Her teacher, Miss Clark and healthy. But sometimes it can make us sick. The environment is the air, the water, the soil, and our food can get too much sun. You can get a sunburn. You can even get badly sick from too much sun. That's why

Bandettini, Peter A.

198

Developmental plasticity of human reproductive development: effects of early family environment in modern-day France.  

PubMed

In a first study, we investigated how the absence of a father and the presence of a stepfather during early childhood affected physiological and behavioral traits related to reproductive development (such as age of menarche, age of first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners) in a large sample set of male and female French university students. We evaluated which ages were sensitive to modifications in the family composition and found that menarche occurred earlier when the father was absent, particularly when the child was between 0 and 5 years of age. Father absence during early adolescence was associated with a younger age at first sexual intercourse and an increased number of sexual partners, for both sexes. The presence of a stepfather during this period further advanced the age of first sexual intercourse. We also measured testosterone levels in both sexes and analyzed their association with parental separation, and found that young women with separated parents had significantly higher afternoon levels of testosterone. In a second study, we analyzed direct fitness measures (such as number of children and grandchildren) in a large sample of French workers and found that parental separation during childhood was not associated with fitness variation. We discuss whether the reproductive outcomes of individuals having experienced modifications in the early family environment are the expression of costs or adaptive strategies. PMID:18822309

Alvergne, Alexandra; Faurie, Charlotte; Raymond, Michel

2008-12-15

199

Depositional environments of the Kurnub group (Early Cretaceous) in northern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven facies associations comprise the Early Cretaceous Kurnub Group (KG) in northern Jordan. They are assigned to the following five depositional environments: proximal to distal alluvial braidplain; tidal flat; tidal marsh-coastal swamp; inner shelf; and meandering river. According to the evolution of these depositional facies associations, the KG can be split into three regressive-transgressive depositional sequences. This development of the depositional environment of the KG through the Early Cretaceous Epoch is portrayed as a six-block depositional model. The depositional history of the KG began with the first regression, when a conglomerate and sandstone facies association of a proximal to distal alluvial braidplain system was deposited above a regional angular unconformity, truncating Triassic and Jurassic strata. Afterwards, the Tethys Seaway inundated northern Jordan, giving rise to the first transgressive sequence, consisting of a tidal flat-mixed carbonate-siliciclastic and coastal swamp-carbonaceous shalelignite facies association. Due to the second regression of the sea, a medial to distal unconfined braided river system resumed in northern Jordan. The second transgression of the Tethys covered most of the region during the middle interval of the KG, and deposited a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sequence with interbedded inner shelf carbonates, subtidal oolitic ironstones and tidal marsh-coastal swamp black shales and lignites. During the next interval of the KG, the Tethys regressed from the area and was replaced by a moderate sinuosity meandering river system that deposited the third regressive fluvial sequence. The third transgression of the sea developed a marginal to shallow marine depositional system, which affected northernmost Jordan, giving rise to a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic tidal flat and an inner shelf carbonate sequence. The climate in Jordan during the Early Cretaceous Epoch was generally humid and temperate.

Amireh, Belal S.; Abed, Abdulkadr M.

1999-10-01

200

Readily available phosphate from minerals in early aqueous environments on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the chemistry essential to life was present in water-containing environments on Mars, the processes that led to life on Earth may have also occurred on the red planet. Phosphate is one of the chemical nutrients thought to be essential for life and is also considered critical to reactions that may have led to life on Earth. However, low prebiotic availability of phosphate may have been a complicating factor in terrestrial abiogenesis, suggesting that a similar hurdle may have confronted the development of life on Mars. Phosphate available for biological reactions can be introduced into aqueous environments through dissolution of primary phosphate minerals during water-rock interactions, but little is known about the dissolution of the dominant phosphate minerals found in martian meteorites and presumably on Mars. Here we present dissolution rates, phosphate release rates and solubilities of phosphate minerals found in martian rocks as determined from laboratory measurements. Our experimental findings predict phosphate release rates during water-rock interactions on Mars that are as much as 45 times higher than on Earth and phosphate concentrations of early wet martian environments more than twice those of Earth. We suggest that available phosphate may have mitigated one of the hurdles to abiogenesis on Mars.

Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E. M.; Forster, P. M.

2013-10-01

201

Early geochemical environment of Mars as determined from thermodynamics of phyllosilicates.  

PubMed

Images of geomorphological features that seem to have been produced by the action of liquid water have been considered evidence for wet surface conditions on early Mars. Moreover, the recent identification of large deposits of phyllosilicates, associated with the ancient Noachian terrains suggests long-timescale weathering of the primary basaltic crust by liquid water. It has been proposed that a greenhouse effect resulting from a carbon-dioxide-rich atmosphere sustained the temperate climate required to maintain liquid water on the martian surface during the Noachian. The apparent absence of carbonates and the low escape rates of carbon dioxide, however, are indicative of an early martian atmosphere with low levels of carbon dioxide. Here we investigate the geochemical conditions prevailing on the surface of Mars during the Noachian period using calculations of the aqueous equilibria of phyllosilicates. Our results show that Fe3+-rich phyllosilicates probably precipitated under weakly acidic to alkaline pH, an environment different from that of the following period, which was dominated by strongly acid weathering that led to the sulphate deposits identified on Mars. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate that the oxidation state of the martian surface was already high, supporting early escape of hydrogen. Finally, equilibrium with carbonates implies that phyllosilicate precipitation occurs preferentially at a very low partial pressure of carbon dioxide. We suggest that the possible absence of Noachian carbonates more probably resulted from low levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, rather than primary acidic conditions. Other greenhouse gases may therefore have played a part in sustaining a warm and wet climate on the early Mars. PMID:17611538

Chevrier, Vincent; Poulet, Francois; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

2007-07-01

202

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2012-07-01

203

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2010-07-01

204

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2014-07-01

205

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2013-07-01

206

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2011-07-01

207

Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

2014-01-01

208

Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

2002-01-01

209

Vaccine Adverse Events  

MedlinePLUS

... Events Vaccine Adverse Events The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is a national vaccine safety surveillance program co-sponsored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The purpose of VAERS is ...

210

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments  

PubMed Central

The composition of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter’s Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Holland, Gregory P.; Williams, Lynda B.

2013-01-01

211

Gene-environment interaction during early development in the heterozygous reeler mouse: clues for modelling of major neurobehavioral syndromes.  

PubMed

Autism and schizophrenia are multifactorial disorders with increasing prevalence in the young population. Among candidate molecules, reelin (RELN) is a protein of the extracellular matrix playing a key role in brain development and synaptic plasticity. The heterozygous (HZ) reeler mouse provides a model for studying the role of reelin deficiency for the onset of these syndromes. We investigated whether early indices of neurobehavioral disorders can be identified in the infant reeler, and whether the consequences of ontogenetic adverse experiences may question or support the suitability of this model. A first study focused on the link between early exposure to Chlorpyryfos and its enduring neurobehavioral consequences. Our data are interesting in view of recently discovered cholinergic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia, and may suggest new avenues for early pharmacological intervention. In a second study, we analyzed the consequences of repeated maternal separation early in ontogeny. The results provide evidence of how unusual stress early in development are converted into altered behavior in some, but not all, individuals depending on gender and genetic background. A third study aimed to verify the reliability of the model at critical age windows. Data suggest reduced anxiety, increased impulsivity and disinhibition, and altered pain threshold in response to morphine for HZ, supporting a differential organization of brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems in this genotype. In conclusion, HZ exhibited a complex behavioral and psycho-pharmacological phenotype, and differential responsivity to ontogenetic adverse conditions. HZ may be used to disentangle interactions between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Such an approach could help to model the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental psychiatric diseases. PMID:18845182

Laviola, Giovanni; Ognibene, Elisa; Romano, Emilia; Adriani, Walter; Keller, Flavio

2009-04-01

212

Tidal Interaction as the Origin of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in Group Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a "smoking gun" example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s-1 to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

2014-11-01

213

Predictors of Exceptional Longevity: Effects of Early-Life Childhood Conditions, Midlife Environment and Parental Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of strong predictors of mortality and longevity is very important for actuarial science and practice. Earlier studies found that parental characteristics as well as early-life conditions and midlife environment play a significant role in survival to advanced ages. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of these three factors on longevity. This ongoing study attempts to fill this gap by comparing centenarians born in the United States in 1890–91 with peers born in the same years who died at age 65. The records for centenarians and controls were taken from computerized family histories, which were then linked to 1900 and 1930 U.S. censuses. As a result of this linkage procedure, 765 records of confirmed centenarians and 783 records of controls were obtained. Analysis with multivariate logistic regression found that parental longevity and some midlife characteristics proved to be significant predictors of longevity while the role of childhood conditions was less important. More centenarians were born in the second half of the year compared to controls, suggesting early origins of longevity. We found the existence of both general and gender-specific predictors of human longevity. General predictors common for men and women are paternal and maternal longevity. Gender-specific predictors of male longevity are the farmer occupation at age 40, Northeastern region of birth in the United States and birth in the second half of year. A gender-specific predictor of female longevity is surprisingly the availability of radio in the household according to the 1930 U.S. census. Given the importance of familial longevity as an independent predictor of survival to advanced ages, we conducted a comparative study of biological and nonbiological relatives of centenarians using a larger sample of 1,945 validated U.S. centenarians born in 1880–95. We found that male gender of centenarian has significant positive effect on survival of adult male relatives (brothers and fathers) but not female blood relatives. Life span of centenarian siblings-in-law is lower compared to life span of centenarian siblings and does not depend on centenarian gender. Wives of male centenarians (who share lifestyle and living conditions) have a significantly better survival compared to wives of centenarians' brothers. This finding demonstrates an important role of shared familial environment and lifestyle in human longevity. The results of this study suggest that familial background, early-life conditions and midlife characteristics play an important role in longevity. PMID:25664346

Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

2014-01-01

214

Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

Kartal, Hulya

2007-01-01

215

Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central part of the Dinarides in Croatia, the Early Triassic depositional sequence was investigated by means of litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy at locality Plavno (ca. 1.000m thick). Conodont and ?13C-isotope analysis were a powerfull tool to determine stage and substage boundaries. The succession begins with the second conodont zone of the Griesbachian Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica with low ?13C-values and a steadily increase towards the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. Around that boundary a minor, short, negative excursion occurs. In the Dienerian the ?13C-values increase with a steepening of the slope towards the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. Around that boundary a maximum of +5o in shallow water carbonate occurs followed by a steep and continuous drop to low, often negative values in the Smithian. Just before the Smithian-Spathian boundary a steep rise to a second maximum is documented. It is followed by decline in the Spathian and a gentle increase to a rounded peak at the Spathian-Anisian boundary. In lithological sense Plavno succession has threefold division: 1) carbonates representing the oldest Early Triassic strata (early Griesbachian); 2) dominantly red clastics (shales, siltstones and sandstones) with intercalation of oncoid/ooid or bioclast rich grainstones (uppermost Griesbachian, Dienerian and Smithian) and 3) dominantly grey carbonaceous lime mudstones, marls and calcisiltites with ammonoids representing Spathian strata. In the oldest strata (Griesbachian) in macrocrystalline subhedral dolomites rare microspheres and foraminifers Earlandia and Cornuspira point to the stressful conditions related to the end Permian mass extinction. In the uppermost Griesbachian and Dienerian strata, within dominantly clastic deposition, rare coarse oncoliths with typical microbial cortices occur. Their presence fits to the interpretation of biotical-induced precipitation related to PTB extinction and can suggest still stressful condition. The Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

Aljinovi?, Dunja; Smir?i?, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

2014-05-01

216

Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

1991-01-01

217

Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

218

Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

Inoue, Kenji

2014-01-01

219

Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shinji [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori [Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi (Japan); Nomura, Kuninori [Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Imai, Takashi, E-mail: imait@nirs.go.jp [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2011-11-15

220

Order in the House!: Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children's Early Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…

Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

221

Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

2013-04-01

222

Gene–environment interactions: early life stress and risk for depressive and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Rationale Prior reviews have examined how stress, broadly defined, interacts with genetic diathesis in the pathogenesis of internalizing (i.e., depressive and anxiety) disorders. Recent findings have suggested a unique role for early life stress (ELS) in the development of internalizing disorders, contributing to the rapid proliferation of research in this area. Objective This paper critically reviews studies in humans examining gene–environment interaction (GxE) effects of ELS on the risk for depression and anxiety, primarily from a candidate gene perspective. Major methodological challenges that are unique to such studies are considered. Results The majority of published studies have focused on candidates that regulate the serotonin system, especially the serotonin transporter. More recent work has addressed interactions of ELS with candidates from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotrophin system. Available studies vary greatly with respect to definitions of ELS, examination of gene–gene interactions, consideration of gender effects, and attention to analytic limitations. Conclusions Overall, there is support for GxE effects of ELS on the risk for depressive and anxiety outcomes. Future studies of ELS in this context will require careful attention to methodologic considerations. Such studies would benefit from more systematic assessment of positive environmental factors (e.g., social support) and greater utilization of developmentally sensitive paradigms. PMID:21225419

Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

2013-01-01

223

Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated whether neighborhood characteristics correlated with early neurodevelopment and whether these characteristics confounded the previously reported association between exposure to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate insecticide) and neurodevelopment. Methods. We obtained prenatal addresses, chlorpyrifos exposure data, and 36-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) scores for a birth cohort in New York City (born 1998–2002). We used data from the 2000 US Census to estimate measures of physical infrastructure, socioeconomic status, crowding, demographic composition, and linguistic isolation for 1-kilometer network areas around each child's prenatal address. Generalized estimating equations were adjusted for demographics, maternal education and IQ, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, caretaking environment quality, and building dilapidation. Results. Of 266 children included as participants, 47% were male, 59% were Dominican, and 41% were African American. For each standard deviation higher in neighborhood percent poverty, the PDI score was 2.6 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = ?3.7, ?1.5), and the MDI score was 1.7 points lower (95% CI = ?2.6, ?0.8). Neighborhood-level confounding of the chlorpyrifos-neurodevelopment association was not apparent. Conclusions. Neighborhood context and chlorpyrifos exposure were independently associated with neurodevelopment, thus providing distinct opportunities for health promotion. PMID:20299657

Quinn, James W.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew

2011-01-01

224

Restricting Microbial Exposure in Early Life Negates the Immune Benefits Associated with Gut Colonization in Environments of High Microbial Diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota in early life corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact of limiting microbial exposure after initial colonization on the development of adult gut immunity. Methodology/Principal Findings Piglets were born in indoor or outdoor rearing units, allowing natural colonization in the immediate period after birth, prior to transfer to high-health status isolators. Strikingly, gut closure and morphological development were strongly affected by isolator-rearing, independent of indoor or outdoor origins of piglets. Isolator-reared animals showed extensive vacuolation and disorganization of the gut epithelium, inferring that normal gut closure requires maturation factors present in maternal milk. Although morphological maturation and gut closure were delayed in isolator-reared animals, these hard-wired events occurred later in development. Type I IFN, IL-22, IL-23 and Th17 pathways were increased in indoor-isolator compared to outdoor-isolator animals during early life, indicating greater immune activation in pigs originating from indoor environments reflecting differences in the early microbiota. This difference was less apparent later in development due to enhanced immune activation and convergence of the microbiota in all isolator-reared animals. This correlated with elevation of Type I IFN pathways in both groups, although T cell pathways were still more affected in indoor-reared animals. Conclusions/Significance Environmental factors, in particular microbial exposure, influence expression of a large number of immune-related genes. However, the homeostatic effects of microbial colonization in outdoor environments require sustained microbial exposure throughout development. Gut development in high-hygiene environments negatively impacts on normal succession of the gut microbiota and promotes innate immune activation which may impair immune homeostasis. PMID:22216092

Mulder, Imke E.; Schmidt, Bettina; Lewis, Marie; Delday, Margaret; Stokes, Christopher R.; Bailey, Mick; Aminov, Rustam I.; Gill, Bhupinder P.; Pluske, John R.; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kelly, Denise

2011-01-01

225

From Toumai to Lucy: climate and orographic forcing on Environment and Early Human  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract will present a summary of several studies we conducted at LSCE to understand through modeling simulations how the climate and topography variations may drive the evolution/migration of Early Humans. Tectonics and orbital forcing are major forcing factors on environment which act at different time scales. African Uplift spans over Millions of years whereas at low latitudes precession cycles will produce drastic hydrologic variations at the pluri millennial time scale. Therefore, in a first step it is necessary to investigate the impact of long term topographic changes on climate and vegetation. The long term forcing of the African uplift has been first tested and investigated through a set of numerical experiments using different heights for the Rift. We pointed out that this issue was the key factor to explain the dryness of the East part of the Rift associated with the disappearance of the forests when the rift was uplifted during the late Pliocene. Prior to this, much more water penetrates from the Indian Ocean over East Africa and forests can sustain. Therefore, this pattern of Dry East of the Rift and Wet west of the Rift is driven by the uplift and consistent with the evolution of vegetation. On the other side, the Mega Lake Chad (MLC) region was not really sensitive to this topographic change but much more to orbital forcing. Two species of early hominids (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 3,6 Ma, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Toumai, 7 Ma) were found in this region, associated with other vertebrate fossil remains, which seem to be associated to the presence of the Mega Lake Chad. It is thus crucial to understand how it is possible to produce and sustain such a large lake (350 000 km2) at these latitudes. Through a second series of simulations, we demonstrated that during the Pliocene, occurrences of such megalake episodes were possible (similarly as during most recent Holocene) and may be sustained during half a precession cycle (10 kyr) allowing a vegetation that enabled hominin settings (Australopithecus) Therefore the orbital parameters, mainly the precession cycle, drives the hydrologic cycle, shifting the ITCZ and the Monsoon to produce oscillations between arid and wet phases. This second mechanism is responsible for the establishment of periodically favorable conditions that enable a large lake in the Chad area which may last several thousand years. To go a step further, we need to downscale our model results from 50 to 10 km. We need this spatial resolution to better catch the topography and to better compare climate and vegetation outputs to multiproxies.

Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Jost, Anne

2014-05-01

226

Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.  

PubMed

Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8 % female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

2015-03-01

227

Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

228

Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?  

PubMed Central

Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2014-01-01

229

Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and secure setting. Such an environment also…

Harrison, Linda

230

Prediction and evaluation method of wind environment in the early design stage using BIM-based CFD simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drastic urbanization and manhattanization are causing various problems in wind environment. This study suggests a CFD simulation method to evaluate wind environment in the early design stage of high-rise buildings. The CFD simulation of this study is not a traditional in-depth simulation, but a method to immediately evaluate wind environment for each design alternative and provide guidelines for design modification. Thus, the CFD simulation of this study to evaluate wind environments uses BIM-based CFD tools to utilize building models in the design stage. This study examined previous criteria to evaluate wind environment for pedestrians around buildings and selected evaluation criteria applicable to the CFD simulation method of this study. Furthermore, proper mesh generation method and CPU time were reviewed to find a meaningful CFD simulation result for determining optimal design alternative from the perspective of wind environment in the design stage. In addition, this study is to suggest a wind environment evaluation method through a BIM-based CFD simulation.

Lee, Sumi; Song, Doosam

2010-06-01

231

Helping Student Teachers Avoid Adverse Legal Actions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five areas of the school environment lending themselves to the possibility of teacher and student teacher liability: negligence, malpractice, rights to privacy, field trips, and search of students and school property. Suggests specific guidelines for decreasing the possibility of adverse legal action. (NEC)

Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

1984-01-01

232

Manchester asthma and allergy study: Low-allergen environment can be achieved and maintained during pregnancy and in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early exposure to dust mite allergens may be critical for primary sensitization. Reducing exposure may offer a realistic chance for primary prevention of sensitization and asthma, but it is essential to implement measures that can achieve and maintain the low-allergen environment.Objective: Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of mite allergen avoidance measures in achieving and maintaining a low-allergen

Adnan Custovic; Bridget M. Simpson; Angela Simpson; Claire Hallam; Mark Craven; Martin Brutsche; Ashley Woodcock

2000-01-01

233

Heredity—Environment Influences on Early Childhood Literacy: The Example of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to present some results from longitudinal twin research, illustrate these results in an educational interaction model and relate research on early childhood literacy to this model. It can be maintained that in a more permissive setting pupil factors such as genes and home background will be more influential on early literacy outcome than in

Siv Fischbein

234

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

235

Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes,\\u000a the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have\\u000a a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded\\u000a in some cases. Only the most

Bo Abrahamsen

2010-01-01

236

The effects of early and adult social environment on zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because early social experience can have a profound effect on later mate and social choices, the availability of options and\\u000a decisions made early in development can have major effects on adult behavior. Herein, we use strain differences among zebrafish,\\u000a Danio rerio, as an experimental tool to test the effects of social experience on behavior. By manipulating the strain composition of

Jason A. Moretz; Emília P. Martins; Barrie D. Robison

2007-01-01

237

The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.  

PubMed

A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. PMID:25459574

Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

2015-02-01

238

Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype.  

PubMed

Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior ("allostatic load"). The alternative "mismatch hypothesis" suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered. PMID:25784864

Bodden, Carina; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

2015-01-01

239

Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype  

PubMed Central

Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered. PMID:25784864

Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

2015-01-01

240

The HI content of early-type galaxies from the ALFALFA survey. II. The case of low density environments  

E-print Network

We present the analysis of the HI content of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in low-density environments (LDEs) using the data set provided by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We compare their properties to the sample in the Virgo cluster that we studied in a previous paper (di Serego Alighieri et al. 2007, Paper I). We have selected a sample of 62 nearby ETGs (V -17). In both cases it is 10 times higher than that of the Virgo cluster. The presence of gas can be related to a recent star formation activity: 60% of all ETGs with HI have optical emission line ratios typical of star-forming galaxies and blue colours suggesting the presence of young stellar populations, especially in the dwarf subsample. We show that the HI detection rate of ETGs depends both on the environment and mass. The fraction of early-type systems with neutral hy drogen is higher in more massive objects when compared to early-type dwarfs. The ETGs in LDEs seem to have more heterogeneous properties than their Virgo clus...

Grossi, M; Giovanardi, C; Gavazzi, G; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Kent, B R; Pellegrini, S; Stierwalt, S; Trinchieri, G

2009-01-01

241

GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Renzini, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Cimatti, A. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chary, R.-R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-08-01

242

40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been caused by the plant-incorporated...person or nontarget organism allegedly suffered a toxic or adverse effect due to exposure to (e.g., ingestion of) a...

2010-07-01

243

Developmental plasticity of human reproductive development: Effects of early family environment in modern-day France  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a first study, we investigated how the absence of a father and the presence of a stepfather during early childhood affected physiological and behavioral traits related to reproductive development (such as age of menarche, age of first sexual intercourse and number of sexual partners) in a large sample set of male and female French university students. We evaluated which

Alexandra Alvergne; Charlotte Faurie; Michel Raymond

2008-01-01

244

Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

2011-01-01

245

Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2012-01-01

246

What's Appropriate about Developmentally Appropriate Practices? Observing Early Childhood Development Center Classroom Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…

Ricard, Richard J.; Brown, Angela; Sanders, Jana

247

The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In…

Budros, Art

2005-01-01

248

Preservice early childhood educators’ perceptions of outdoor settings as learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they associate with them. Based on the results of 110 participants, this study suggests

Julie Ernst; Ladona Tornabene

2012-01-01

249

The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised as a Tool to Improve Child Care Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Of interest in this study were the factors that lead to quality child care centers. The Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) was examined for its utility as an effective training device to enlighten directors and classroom teachers of what constitutes quality classrooms. An experimental design was employed for this study.…

Warash, Bobbie G.; Markstrom, Carol A.; Lucci, Brittani

2005-01-01

250

Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes  

PubMed Central

During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

2012-01-01

251

A genetic study of the family environment in the transition to early adolescence.  

PubMed

The aim of this longitudinal sibling adoption study was to estimate genetic and environmental components of variance in parent- and child-reported measures of the family environment (parental negative affect, negative control, and achievement orientation). Participants included 85 adoptive and 106 nonadoptive sibling pairs from the Colorado Adoption Project. Parents and children completed annual assessments of the family environment when the children were 10, 11, and 12 years old, and genetic and environmental parameter estimates were derived. Genetic influences were found for parent-reported negativity and warmth and child-reported achievement orientation, suggesting child genetic effects on these measures of the family environment. Shared environmental influences were found for parent-reported negativity, inconsistent discipline, warmth, and child-reported positivity. Nonshared environmental variance was substantial for children's ratings, but modest for parents' ratings. PMID:10433410

Deater-Deckard, K; Fulker, D W; Plomin, R

1999-07-01

252

Evidence of Late Pliocene-Early Pleistocene marine environments in the deep subsurface of the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cuttings recovered from two deep exploratory wells in the Lihue Basin, Kauai, Hawaii, include fossiliferous marine deposits that offer an uncommon opportunity to study paleoenvironments from the deep subsurface in Hawaii and interpret the paleogeography and geologic history of Kauai. These deposits indicate that two marine incursions gave rise to protected shallow-water, low-energy embayments in the southern part of the Lihue Basin in the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene. During the first marine incursion, the embayment was initially zoned, with a variable-salinity environment nearshore and a normal-marine reef environment offshore. The offshore reef environment eventually evolved to a nearshore, variable-salinity environment as the outer part of the embayment shallowed. During the second marine incursion, the embayment had normal-marine to hypersaline conditions, which constitute a significant departure from the variable-salinity environment present during the first marine incursion. Large streams draining the southern Lihue Basin are a likely source of the freshwater that caused the salinity fluctuations evident in the fossils from the first marine incursion. Subsequent volcanic eruptions produced lava flows that buried the embayment and probably diverted much of the stream flow in the southern Lihue Basin northward, to its present point of discharge north of Kalepa Ridge. As a result, the embayment that formed during the second marine incursion received less freshwater, and a normal-marine to hypersaline environment developed. The shallow-water marine deposits, currently buried between 86 m and 185 m below present sea level, have implications for regional tectonics and global eustasy. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Izuka, S.K.; Resig, J.M.

2008-01-01

253

[Cutaneous adverse drug reactions].  

PubMed

Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR) represent a heterogeneous field including various clinical patterns without specific features suggesting drug causality. Exanthematous eruptions, urticaria and vasculitis are the most common forms of CADR. Fixed eruption is uncommon in western countries. Serious reactions (fatal outcome, sequelae) represent 2% of CADR: bullous reactions (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis), DRESS (drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms or drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome) and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP). These forms must be quickly diagnosed to guide their management. The main risk factors are immunosuppression, autoimmunity and some HLA alleles in bullous reactions and DRESS. Most systemic drugs may induce cutaneous adverse reactions, especially antibiotics, anticonvulsivants, antineoplastic drugs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol and contrast media. Pathogenesis includes immediate or delayed immunologic mechanism, usually not related to dose, and pharmacologic/toxic mechanism, commonly dose-dependent or time-dependent. In case of immunologic mechanism, allergologic exploration is possible to clarify drug causality, with a variable sensitivity according to the drug and to the CADR type. It includes epicutaneous patch testing, prick test and intradermal test. However, no in vivo or in vitro test can confirm the drug causality. To determine the cause of the eruption, a logical approach based on clinical characteristics, chronologic factors and elimination of differential diagnosis is required, completed with a literature search. A reporting to pharmacovigilance network is essential in case of a serious CADR whatever the suspected drug and in any case if the involved drug is a newly marketed one or unusually related to cutaneous reactions. PMID:25458866

Lebrun-Vignes, B; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

2015-04-01

254

Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

Hu, Bi Ying

2015-01-01

255

Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

256

Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

2014-01-01

257

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

258

Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

2013-01-01

259

Early Child Language Mediates the Relation between Home Environment and School Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…

Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

2009-01-01

260

A Hundred Ways of Listening: Gathering Children's Perspectives of Their Early Childhood Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how young children can play active roles as researchers, explorers, and designers of their outdoor environment. It introduces the Mosaic approach, a framework for listening and responding to young children's perspectives, first developed in a study in a London preschool in 1999 (Clark & Moss 2001). The author used this…

Clark, Alison

2007-01-01

261

The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

1993-01-01

262

AMUSE-Field. II. Nucleation of Early-type Galaxies in the Field versus Cluster Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical light profiles of nearby early-type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80% of the galaxies with stellar masses below 1010 M ? hosting a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field versus cluster early-type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W and F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early-type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra survey, and compare our results against the companion HST and Chandra surveys for a sample of 100 Virgo Cluster early-types (ACS Virgo Cluster and AMUSE-Virgo surveys, respectively). We model the two-dimensional light profiles of the field targets to identify and characterize NSCs, and find a field nucleation fraction of 26%^{+17%}_{-11%} (at the 1? level), consistent with the measured Virgo nucleation fraction across a comparable mass distribution (30%^{+17%}_{-12%}). Coupled with the Chandra result that SMBH activity is higher for the field, our findings indicate that, since the last epoch of star formation, the funneling of gas to the nuclear regions has been inhibited more effectively for Virgo galaxies, arguably via ram pressure stripping.

Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Treu, Tommaso; Valluri, Monica; Woo, Jong-Hak

2014-08-01

263

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition...requirement that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2010-04-01

264

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

265

Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [?/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [?/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

266

Nature and nurture of early-type dwarf galaxies in low density environments  

E-print Network

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [alpha/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

2010-01-01

267

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket success-fully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, Richard C.; Hine, Butler; Delory, Gregory T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-05-01

268

Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

2014-01-01

269

Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The protracted recovery of marine ecosystems following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, Guizhou Province, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (?13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (?34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental paleoredox and paleoproductivity proxies. The SSB at Shitouzhai is characterized by a +4‰ shift in ?13Ccarb and a -10 to -15‰ shift in ?34SCAS, recording negative covariation that diverges from the positive ?13Ccarb-?34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic. This pattern is inferred to reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with the oxidation of isotopically light H2S, as the result of enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deep waters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was likely a response to climatic cooling and the reinvigoration of global-ocean overturning circulation at the SSB. Coeval decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment flux at Shitouzhai are also consistent with climatic cooling. A decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum (LSTM) rather than with the SSB per se. The SSB thus marked the termination of the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian substages of the Early Triassic and is significant as a record of accompanying climatic, environmental, and biotic changes. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to a reduction in intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps large igneous province.

Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Li, Y.; Cao, L.

2015-03-01

270

Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life on Earth underwent a protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The slowness of the recovery process may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (?13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (?34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity proxies. Unlike the positive ?13Ccarb-?34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic, the SSB at Shitouzhai exhibits negative covariation between ?13Ccarb (+4‰) and ?34SCAS (-14‰). This relationship may reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with oxidation of isotopically light H2S, a pattern that we attribute to enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deepwaters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was a likely response to the well-documented climatic cooling event at the SSB that terminated the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian, a cooling that we infer to have transiently invigorated the global-ocean overturning circulation. Evidence at Shitouzhai for concurrent decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment influx are also consistent with climatic cooling. A penecontemporaneous decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum rather than the SSB event itself, and the affected marine faunas did not recover immediately in response to climatic and environmental amelioration at the SSB but, rather, underwent a stepwise recovery during the early to middle Spathian. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to reduced intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, R.; Chen, L.; Hou, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, H.; Feng, X.; Lu, Z.; Wang, X.; Huang, Y.

2014-11-01

271

Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination  

PubMed Central

This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

BURNEY, IAN

2013-01-01

272

Early Pennsylvanian paleotopography and depositional environments, Rock Island County, Illinois, guidebook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Society of America, North-Central Section, presents a one-day field trip to Rock Island County, Illinois, where there will be the opportunity to examine the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, overlying sediments, and an early Pennsylvanian upland compression flora. The guidebook itself is a reprint of Leary (1979). Some revisions have been made to update the guidebook with new exposures, new data, and new references. The geology of the field-trip area has been discussed by Leary (1981). Phillips and Pepers (1984) have summarized regional paleoenvironmental patterns of coal swamps and discussed the effect of climate on coal occurrence in Euramerican coal fields.

Leary, R. L.; Trask, C. B.

273

Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.  

PubMed

This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

2014-05-28

274

Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment  

PubMed Central

Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world’s ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools—Acheulean and Middle Stone Age—indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

2015-01-01

275

Social environment and weather during early life influence gastro-intestinal parasite loads in a group-living mammal.  

PubMed

Conditions experienced during early life have been frequently shown to exert long-term consequences on an animal's fitness. In mammals and birds, the time around and shortly after weaning is one of the crucial periods early in life. However, little is known about how social and abiotic environmental conditions experienced around this time affect fitness-related traits such as endoparasite loads. We studied consequences of social interactions and rainy weather conditions around and after weaning on gastro-intestinal nematode loads in juvenile European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Infestations with the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum and with the intestinal nematode Passalurus ambiguus were higher in animals experiencing more rain during early life. This might have been due to the higher persistence of nematodes' infective stages outside the host body together with the animals' lower energy allocation for immune defence under more humid and thus energetically challenging conditions. In contrast, infestations with P. ambiguus were lower in animals with more positive social interactions with mother and litter siblings. We propose that social support provided by familiar group members buffered negative stress effects on immune function, lowering endoparasite infestations. This is supported by the negative correlation between positive social behaviour and serum corticosterone concentrations, indicating lower stress in juveniles which integrated more successfully into the social network of their group. In conclusion, the findings offer a pathway showing how differences in the abiotic environment and social life conditions experienced early in life could translate into long-term fitness consequences via the effects on endoparasite loads. PMID:25004871

Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett

2014-10-01

276

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings  

E-print Network

,6]. In humans, early life exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), like trauma, abuse or maltreatmentRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings from the 1958,2,3 and Cyrille Delpierre1,2 Abstract Background: To analyse whether Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

A Model for the Early Identification of Sources of Airborne Pathogens in an Outdoor Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Source identification in areas with outbreaks of airborne pathogens is often time-consuming and expensive. We developed a model to identify the most likely location of sources of airborne pathogens. Methods As a case study, we retrospectively analyzed three Q fever outbreaks in the Netherlands in 2009, each with suspected exposure from a single large dairy goat farm. Model input consisted only of case residential addresses, day of first clinical symptoms, and human population density data. We defined a spatial grid and fitted an exponentially declining function to the incidence-distance data of each grid point. For any grid point with a fit significant at the 95% confidence level, we calculated a measure of risk. For validation, we used results from abortion notifications, voluntary (2008) and mandatory (2009) bulk tank milk sampling at large (i.e. >50 goats and/or sheep) dairy farms, and non-systematic vaginal swab sampling at large and small dairy and non-dairy goat/sheep farms. In addition, we performed a two-source simulation study. Results Hotspots – areas most likely to contain the actual source – were identified at early outbreak stages, based on the earliest 2–10% of the case notifications. Distances between the hotspots and suspected goat farms varied from 300–1500 m. In regional likelihood rankings including all large dairy farms, the suspected goat farms consistently ranked first. The two-source simulation study showed that detection of sources is most clear if the distance between the sources is either relatively small or relatively large. Conclusions Our model identifies the most likely location of sources in an airborne pathogen outbreak area, even at early stages. It can help to reduce the number of potential sources to be investigated by microbial testing and to allow rapid implementation of interventions to limit the number of human infections and to reduce the risk of source-to-source transmission. PMID:24324598

van Leuken, Jeroen P. G.; Havelaar, Arie H.; van der Hoek, Wim; Ladbury, Georgia A. F.; Hackert, Volker H.; Swart, Arno N.

2013-01-01

278

Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

2012-04-01

279

Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention. PMID:24847438

2014-01-01

280

Early-adolescents' reading comprehension and the stability of the middle school classroom-language environment.  

PubMed

This study examined teachers' language use across the school year in 6th grade urban middle-school classrooms (n = 24) and investigated the influence of this classroom-based linguistic input on the reading comprehension skills of the students (n = 851; 599 language minority learners and 252 English-only) in the participating classrooms. Analysis of speech transcripts revealed substantial variability in teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary and total amount of talk and that individual teacher's language use was consistent across the school year. Analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling showed that when controlling for students' reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge at the start of the year, teachers' use of sophisticated vocabulary was significantly related to students' reading comprehension outcomes, as was the time spent on vocabulary instruction. These findings suggest that the middle school classroom language environment plays a significant role in the reading comprehension of adolescent learners. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25688998

Gámez, Perla B; Lesaux, Nonie K

2015-04-01

281

Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study  

PubMed Central

Background Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities. PMID:23173879

2012-01-01

282

The First 18 Months Following Food and Drug Administration Approval of Lumbar Total Disc Replacement in the United States: Reported Adverse Events Outside an Investigational Device Exemption Study Environment  

PubMed Central

Background Introduction of a new surgical technology may result in higher rates of adverse events compared with rates reported in the study performed to gain regulatory approval. The purpose of our study was to describe the incidence of reported adverse events during the first 18 months following US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the first lumbar arthroplasty device available in the United States and to discern data trends. Methods Reports of adverse events submitted to the FDA in patients receiving the Charité artificial disc were reviewed and pooled by similarity. We analyzed 135 medical device reports filed with the FDA regarding the Charité artificial disc between October 26, 2004, and April 26, 2006. Sixteen reports were excluded for lack of information regarding cause or because described events were vague or unrelated to the procedure. Results Rate of adverse events reported to the FDA as a percentage of devices of which the device manufacturer was aware had been dispensed at 6, 12, and 18 months following approval was 0.58%, 2.34%, and 2.13%, respectively. The adverse event reported most frequently through 18 months was anterior migration with reoperation (0.65%); other reported adverse events were, in decreasing order, sizing and malposition errors resulting in reoperation (0.36%), posterior element fracture resulting in reoperation (0.30%), major vascular injury requiring a blood transfusion (0.23%), and subsidence requiring reoperation (0.20%). Three non–device-related patient deaths were reported following FDA approval. The reported rate of sizing/malposition errors leading to reoperation of 0.36% was the same rate as that seen in the investigational device exemption (IDE) study of the Charité artificial disc. All other reported rates were lower than rates of the same events reported in the study. Conclusions Medical device reporting is an important yet highly anecdotal and incomplete event-tracking process. However, it is the principal means available in the United States for obtaining information on the clinical performance of a device after its approval for sale and does provide some data, albeit imperfect, in this regard. The cumulative medical device reports through the 18 months following FDA approval, measured against the number of devices dispensed, suggests a rate of adverse events that either tracks or is somewhat less than that reported in the IDE study. This suggests that a repeat of the “cage rage,” a “lumbar arthroplasty rage,” has not yet occurred.

Guyer, Richard D.; Geisler, Fred H.; McAfee, Paul C.; Regan, John J.

2007-01-01

283

Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major rivers during early-middle Miocene. The younger Los Chorros sediments show Sr and Nd values comparable to those nowadays found in the Solimões region, indicating an Andean source existed already during early-middle Miocene times. Lipid biomarkers were identified and quantified and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter for whole samples were determined to identify the sources of organic matter. Ratio's between typically terrestrial and aquatic GDGTs indicate shifts between more terrestrial settings and more aquatic settings. Intervals which suggest a more aquatic setting often contain marine palynomorphs and thus could result from a marine incursion at the time. Changes in the overall composition of biomarker lipids at each site reflects the diversity and dynamic features of the wetland. Differences in both provenance and biomarker composition between the two sites demonstrate the diversity within the basin. This diversity could either be geographical diversity since the two sites are located about 380 km from each other. Or, considering the differences in age between the two sites of 2-5 Myrs, it could also reflect the fast changing environmental conditions as a result of Andean uplift. Hoorn, C. et al (2010). The Development of the Amazonian Mega-Wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia). In: C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh (eds) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 123- 142. Marshall, L.G., Lundberg, J.G. (1996) Miocene deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin. Science 273, 123-124.

van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2014-05-01

284

The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

2010-01-01

285

Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

286

Cretaceous to early tertiary continental and marginal marine sedimentary environments of southeastern Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a period of intense denudation persisting from the Late Carboniferous to the Late Jurassic, deposits of continental as well as of marine provenance accumulated in central and in south Egypt during the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary. The sediments filled up intracratonic basins which developed stepwise in connection with a rejuvenation of extensive pre-existing fault systems of Precambrian age accompanying the disintegration of Pangea. These deposits locally contain alkali-olivine basalts. The lateral and vertical evolution of facies reflects repeated transgressions and regressions which have been due to the combination of tectonic movements and of sea-level changes. The terrestrial sediments are mainly of fluvial origin. They have been accumulated by braided streams as well as by rather straight and low-sinuosity meandering rivers. The coastal deposits interfingering with marine sediments, frequently indicate the development of deltas. Additionally, however, also beach, estuarine, lacustrine, lagoonal and tidal-flat deposits appear. Aeolian sediments are documented from coastal plains without major vegetation.

Hendriks, F.; Kallenbach, H.; Philobbos, E. R.

287

Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

Margulis, L.

1981-01-01

288

Siderite in the Ivishak sandstone, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Is it an indicator of an early burial environment?  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic, elemental, and isotope data suggest that siderite in the Ivishalk Sandstone is not entirely an early diagenetic phase. Previous workers have used siderite cement in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone as an example of early diagenetic siderite from a fresh-water depositional environment. Abundant and ubiquitous siderite cement includes: porefilling, siderite replacement of framework chert grains, and wheat seed morphologies that include a later diagenetic phase. Petrographic data show that some siderite cement follows compaction. Burial history curves indicate that the Ivishalk was not buried to more than 2,000 ft. before it was uplifted and exposed in the Cretaceous. It was subsequently buried to its present burial depths of 8,000-1 0,000 ft. A siderite phase following compaction is probably post-Triassic in age. Elemental and isotopic analyses indicate distinct generations of siderite cement. Siderite compositions fall into a non-marine field with high Fe and low Mg and Ca concentrations. Zoned siderite shows lower Fe concentrations. Siderite cement in mudstones contain higher Fe concentrations than in sandstones and conglomerates. The isotopic compositions of siderite varies widely with {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of -1 3.7 to +1 7.4 PDB and -8.8 to 0.0 PDB, respectively. The {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of siderite is more enriched in the mudstones (0.0 to +1 7.4 and -5.0 to 0.0, respectively) than in the sand- stones and conglomerates (-1 3.7 to -1.6 and -8.8 to -5.0, respectively). Siderite in mudstones document precipitation under methanogenic conditions, whereas siderite in sandstones and conglomerates record precipitation in the suboxic environment.

Harun, N.T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

289

Siderite in the Ivishak sandstone, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Is it an indicator of an early burial environment  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic, elemental, and isotope data suggest that siderite in the Ivishalk Sandstone is not entirely an early diagenetic phase. Previous workers have used siderite cement in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone as an example of early diagenetic siderite from a fresh-water depositional environment. Abundant and ubiquitous siderite cement includes: porefilling, siderite replacement of framework chert grains, and wheat seed morphologies that include a later diagenetic phase. Petrographic data show that some siderite cement follows compaction. Burial history curves indicate that the Ivishalk was not buried to more than 2,000 ft. before it was uplifted and exposed in the Cretaceous. It was subsequently buried to its present burial depths of 8,000-1 0,000 ft. A siderite phase following compaction is probably post-Triassic in age. Elemental and isotopic analyses indicate distinct generations of siderite cement. Siderite compositions fall into a non-marine field with high Fe and low Mg and Ca concentrations. Zoned siderite shows lower Fe concentrations. Siderite cement in mudstones contain higher Fe concentrations than in sandstones and conglomerates. The isotopic compositions of siderite varies widely with [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of -1 3.7 to +1 7.4 PDB and -8.8 to 0.0 PDB, respectively. The [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of siderite is more enriched in the mudstones (0.0 to +1 7.4 and -5.0 to 0.0, respectively) than in the sand- stones and conglomerates (-1 3.7 to -1.6 and -8.8 to -5.0, respectively). Siderite in mudstones document precipitation under methanogenic conditions, whereas siderite in sandstones and conglomerates record precipitation in the suboxic environment.

Harun, N.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

290

Moving Upstream: Evaluating Adverse Upstream Endpoints for Improved Risk Assessment and Decision-Making  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and ...

291

Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

2013-01-01

292

Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the south where coal beds are preserved, and more arid in the north where evaporites and eolian deposits are common. Fluctuations in paleoclimate that caused lake levels to rise and fall in hydrologically closed basins are preserved as lacustrine cycles of various scales, including major shifts in the Late Triassic from a wet Carnian to an arid Norian. In contrast, fluvial deposits were mainly formed in response to the tectonic evolution of the basins, but to some extent also reflect climatic changes. The Newark Supergroup illustrates the complexity of rift-basin sedimentation and the problems that may arise from using a single modern analog for sedimentary deposition spanning millions of years. It also shows that a tremendous wealth of depositional, climatic, and tectonic information is preserved in ancient rift-basin deposits which can be recovered if the depositional processes of modern rift-basin deposits are understood. ?? 1991.

Smoot, J.P.

1991-01-01

293

Biomolecule-Mineral Interactions in the Geochemical Environment on Early Earth and in the Human Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We worked on four projects consistent with the broad goals of the grant to investigate (i) the potential impacts of mineral surface chemistry and particle size on the stability and viability of cell membranes, bacteria and human cells and (ii) the influence of biomolecules on mineral nucleation and growth. The projects are of relevance to the origin and early evolution of life, biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental biogeochemistry. The freedom enabled by the five-year grant to explore high-risk scientific areas, and the resulting high impact outcomes, cannot be overstated. We developed an almost entirely new field of Medical Mineralogyy and extended our concepts and knowledge-base to the potential roles of mineral surfaces in the evolution of protocells and the earliest cells. These exciting connections to medical mineralogy, and to the origin and evolution of life on early Earth are fascinating topics to the general public and even to other scientists, especially when the links to mineralogy and geochemistry are highlighted. In brief, we examined the stability of lipid bilayers representing model protocell membranes comprised of phospholipid bilayers with mineral surfaces. We found that the stability of lipid bilayers depends on mineral surface charge and increases as silica glass ~ quartz < rutile ~ mica < corundum. In a second project, we investigated whether the evolution of bacterial extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) may have been driven by nanomineral toxicity. Results showed that EPS does protect against mineral toxicity, and toxicity increases as amorphous SiO2 < ?-TiO2 (anatase) < ?-Al2O3. A commonly accepted mechanism for Biomineralization is protein-templated nucleation. We used Molecular Dynamics and Bioinformatics computational chemistry approaches and showed that the random coil structure of a specific peptide promotes formation of an amorphous Ca-PO4 cluster, but not direct templation of hydroxyapatite. The consistency between our Ca-PO4 and previous experimental Ca-CO3 studies indicates that universal principles underly biomineralization processes of relevance to environmental biogeochemistry as well as to medical mineralogy. Minerals can enter the human either inadvertently as inhaled dusts or are inserted by design such as in components of orthopedic implants. It is important to know how the mineral surface properties affect the body's immune system response. We found that adhesion/detachment force of the Jurkat -line of T-lymphocytes increased as SiO2 glass ~ quartz < rutile (100) ~ mica (001) < polycrystalline corundum, and was related to the unraveling of cell surface glycoproteins, and to mineral surface charge. The studies described above have resulted in 23 peer-reviewed publications to date (published or in review or in prep.); one MSA volume and one Elements issue edited by the P.I.; trained five graduate students, three post-doctoral research scientists and 4 undergraduate students; numerous invited presentations at international conferences and at Universities; and numerous outreach activities including interviews on National Public Radio and on Hungarian national newspapers and television at the International Mineralogical Association's Annual Meeting.

Sahai, N.

2011-12-01

294

Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens  

PubMed Central

Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

2014-01-01

295

The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the Prospective Adoption Design to Examine Genotype–Environment Interplay  

PubMed Central

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption design consisting of 360 linked sets of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children followed from 3 months postpartum through child age 7 years, and an additional 200 linked sets for whom recruitment is underway. The EGDS brings together the study of genotype–environment correlation (rGE) and Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction to inform intervention development by examining mechanisms whereby family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences. Participants in the EGDS are recruited through domestic adoption agencies located throughout the United States of America. The assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 4-½ years and at ages 6 and 7, when the children are in their 1st and 2nd years of formal schooling (kindergarten and first grade). The data collection includes measures of child characteristics, birth and adoptive parent characteristics, adoptive parenting, prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress, birth parent and adopted child salivary cortisol reactivity, and DNA from all participants. The preliminary analyses suggest evidence for GxE interaction beginning in infancy. An intervention perspective on future developments in the field of behavioral genetics is described. PMID:19458782

Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

2009-01-01

296

Inattention/hyperactivity and aggression from early childhood to adolescence: Heterogeneity of trajectories and differential influence of family environment characteristics  

PubMed Central

In attention/hyperactivity and aggressive behavior problems were measured in 335 children from school entry throughout adolescence, at 3-year intervals. Children were participants in a high-risk prospective study of substance use disorders and comorbid problems. A parallel process latent growth model found aggressive behavior decreasing throughout childhood and adolescence, whereas inattentive/hyperactive behavior levels were constant. Growth mixture modeling, in which developmental trajectories are statistically classified, found two classes for inattention/hyperactivity and two for aggressive behavior, resulting in a total of four trajectory classes. Different influences of the family environment predicted development of the two types of behavior problems when the other behavior problem was held constant. Lower emotional support and lower intellectual stimulation by the parents in early childhood predicted membership in the high problem class of inattention/hyperactivity when the trajectory of aggression was held constant. Conversely, conflict and lack of cohesiveness in the family environment predicted membership in a worse developmental trajectory of aggressive behavior when the inattention/hyperactivity trajectories were held constant. The implications of these findings for the development of inattention/hyperactivity and for the development of risk for the emergence of substance use disorders are discussed. PMID:15971762

JESTER, JENNIFER M.; NIGG, JOEL T.; ADAMS, KENNETH; FITZGERALD, HIRAM E.; PUTTLER, LEON I.; WONG, MARIA M.; ZUCKER, ROBERT A.

2008-01-01

297

Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-? (ESR1)  

PubMed Central

Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

2010-01-01

298

Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the significance of worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-Stage over the last three decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local vs. global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area, the so-called Gutland. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7 ‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global T-CIE with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6 ‰) that is expressed by four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses. With the ongoing effort of high-resolution studies of the Meso-Cenozoic eras, further CIEs are likely to be found, but it has to be remembered that their (global) significance can only be determined via an integrated sedimentological, mineralogical, micropalaeontological and geochemical approach.

Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

2014-04-01

299

Adverse possession of subsurface minerals  

SciTech Connect

Concepts applicable to adverse possession of subsurface minerals are generally the same as those that apply to adverse possession of all real estate. However, special requirements must be satisfied in order to perfect title to subsurface minerals by adverse possession, particularly when there has been a severance of the true title between surface and subsurface minerals. In those jurisdictions where senior and junior grants came from the state or commonwealth covering the same or some of the same land and in those areas where descriptions of land were vague or not carefully drawn, adverse possession serves to solidify land and mineral ownership. There may be some public, social, and economic justification in rewarding, with good title, those who take possession and use real estate for its intended use, including the extraction of subsurface minerals. 96 refernces.

Bowles, P.N.

1983-01-01

300

Cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide.  

PubMed

Lenalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) used principally in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), myelodysplastic syndromes (MS) and amyloidosis. Adverse reactions related to lenalidomide include myelosuppression (mainly neutropenia but also thrombocytopenia), gastrointestinal problems, skin eruption, atrial fibrillation and asthenia, decreased peripheral blood stem cell yield during stem cell collection, venous thromboembolism, and secondary malignances. In this review we focused our attention on the cutaneous adverse reactions to lenalidomide. PMID:24998775

Imbesi, S; Allegra, A; Calapai, G; Musolino, C; Gangemi, S

2015-01-01

301

[Metabolism of xenobiotics: beneficial and adverse effects].  

PubMed

The systems developed by living organisms for the metabolism of xenobiotics play a key role in the adaptation of living species to their chemical environment. Recent data about mammalian cytochrome P450 structures have led to a better understanding of the molecular basis for the adaptability of these enzymes to xenobiotics exhibiting highly variable structures. The action of these enzymes on xenobiotics leads to other beneficial effects such as the bioactivation of some drugs, but also to adverse effects with the formation of aggressive metabolites for the cell that are responsible for the appearance of many toxicities. PMID:23694723

Mansuy, Daniel

2013-01-01

302

A New Approach to Predicting the Thermal Environment in Buildings at the Early Design Stage. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 2/74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that existing computer programs for thermal predictions do not produce suitable information for architects, particularly at the early stages of design. It reviews the important building features that determine the thermal environment and the need for heating and cooling plant. Graphical design aids are proposed, with examples to…

Milbank, N. O.

303

The epidemiology of disasters and adverse reproductive outcomes: lessons learned.  

PubMed Central

A disaster has been defined as a disruption of human ecology that exceeds the capacity of the community to function normally. Little is known about the adverse effects of natural disasters on reproductive outcomes. Important lessons can be derived from several disasters caused by human factors, such as the Minamata Bay disaster. Adverse reproductive outcomes include infertility, early pregnancy loss, stillbirths, congenital malformations, and serious developmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. Recent disasters like the Chernobyl and Bhopal explosions have provided important lessons on the need for accurate and sound information about the risk of prenatal exposures for adverse reproductive outcomes. To study questions of adverse reproductive outcomes and disasters requires a well-planned approach. It should include early development of surveillance for adverse reproductive outcomes, analytic studies on the risk of disasters from direct and indirect effects, sensitive methods to measure early pregnancy loss, and long-term follow-up programs to assess outcomes such as developmental disabilities. PMID:8243383

Cordero, J F

1993-01-01

304

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

305

Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

1991-07-31

306

Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through 10 lessons and more than 20 hands-on activities, students are introduced to the concept of an environment and the many interactions within it. As they learn about natural and human-made environments, as well as renewable and non-renewable natural resources, they see how people use our planet's natural resources and the many resulting environmental issues that exist in our world today. Topics include: solid waste disposal; the concepts of reduce, reuse, recycle and compost; the causes and effects of water pollution and the importance of water treatment and clean-up methods; air pollution and air quality and the many engineering technologies to prevent it and clean it up; land use and community planning, seeing how decisions made by people have a long-term impact on our natural world; and renewable energy sources, seeing how solar, water and wind energy can be transformed into electricity. In the hands-on activities, students: create a yarn "web" to identify environmental interactions, which they tally and graph; use Moebius strips (loops of paper with a half twist) to demonstrate the environmental interconnectedness and explore natural cycles (water, oxygen/carbon dioxide, carbon, nitrogen); conduct an environmental issue survey to gather and graph data and use an opinion spectrum; brainstorm ways that they use and waste natural resources; use cookies to simulate the distribution of nonrenewable resources; collect, categorize, weigh and analyze classroom solid waste for a week; build and observe a model landfill; evaluate alternative product packaging; use models to investigate the process and consequences of water contamination; design and build water filters; observe and discuss a balloon model of an electrostatic precipitator; build particulate matter collectors; observe and discuss a model of a wet scrubber; dig into the newspaper's daily air quality index; act as community planning engineers to determine optimal structure placement in a community; investigate the thermal storage properties of sand, salt, water and paper to evaluate their suitability as passive solar thermal mass; design and create models for new waterwheels within time and material constraints; build model anemometers; and create publications to communicate what they have learned.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

307

Early Enriched Environment Exposure Protects Spatial Memory and Accelerates Amyloid Plaque Formation in APPSwe/PS1L166P Mice  

PubMed Central

Enriched environment exposure improves several aspects of cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease patients and in animal models and, although the role of amyloid plaques is questionable, several studies also assessed their response to enriched environment, with contrasting results. Here we report that rearing APPSwe/PS1L166P mice in an enriched environment since birth rescued the spatial memory impairment otherwise present at 6 months of age. At the same time, the exposure to the enriched environment caused a transient acceleration of plaque formation, while there was no effect on intracellular staining with the 6E10 antibody, which recognizes ?-amyloid, full length amyloid precursor protein and its C-terminal fragments. The anticipation of plaque formation required exposure during early development, suggesting an action within critical periods for circuits formation. On the other hand, chronic neuronal activity suppression by tetrodotoxin decreased the number of plaques without affecting intracellular amyloid. These results indicate that enriched environment exposure since early life has a protective effect on cognitive deterioration although transiently accelerates amyloid deposition. In addition, the effects of the enriched environment might be due to increased neuronal activity, because plaques were reduced by suppression of electrical signaling by tetrodotoxin. PMID:23894463

Montarolo, Francesca; Parolisi, Roberta; Hoxha, Eriola; Boda, Enrica; Tempia, Filippo

2013-01-01

308

Adverse Selection in Health Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual choice among health insurance policies may result in risk-based sorting across plans. Such adverse selection induces three types of losses: efficiency losses from individuals' being allocated to the wrong plans; risk-sharing losses, because premium variability is increased; and losses from insurers' distorting their policies to improve their mix of insureds. We discuss the potential for these losses and present

David M. Cutler; Richard J. Zeckhauser

1998-01-01

309

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

2005-01-01

310

Environment Environment  

E-print Network

Delivery Economy Community Environment Economy Community Environment Economy Community Environment Environment Climate change programme EconomyCommunity #12;Climate change programme | 2 Climate change is one are described. Finally, the programme explains how the commitments will be delivered and monitored. Environment

311

Constructing Stage-Environment Fit: Early Adolescents' Psychological Development and their Attitudes Towards School in English Middle and Secondary School Environments  

E-print Network

This longitudinal multiple methods study used an ethnographic approach to examine the development of early adolescents’ psychology during pubertal and school transitions. It explored potential associations between attitudes to school, perceptions...

Symonds, Jenny

2009-12-04

312

Adverse effects of statins - myths and reality.  

PubMed

Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as cardiovascular events in patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and also in subjects with high or moderate risk by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although they are considered to be drugs with a very good safety profile, because of their wide use there are many concerns that their adverse effects might compromise their proven beneficial effects. Therefore this article reviews all the data and provides an evidence- based insight what are the proven adverse effects of statins and what are the "myths" about them. The most important side effects include myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Another side effect is increased activity of liver tests which occurs occasionally and is reversible. However, recent studies even suggest that statin therapy can improve hepatic steatosis. It is beyond any doubt that statins do slightly increase the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with two or more components of metabolic syndrome but the cardiovascular benefits of such a treatment by far exceed this risk. Statin therapy has also been associated with some adverse renal effects, eg. acute renal failure, but recent data suggest even a possible protective effect of these drugs on renal dysfunction. Concerns that statins might increase cancer have not been proven. On the contrary, several studies have indicated a possible benefit of these drugs in patients with different types of cancer. Early concerns about cognitive dysfunction and memory loss associated with statins use could not be proven and most recent data even suggest a possible beneficial effect of statins in the prevention of dementia. Systematic reviews and clinical guidelines suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of statins by far out-weight non-cardiovascular harms in patients with cardiovascular risk. PMID:25312733

Šimi?, Iveta; Reiner, Željko

2015-01-01

313

Childhood Adversity and Inflammation in Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective Elevated inflammation predicts behavioral symptoms, disease progression, and mortality in patients with breast cancer and breast cancer survivors, although predictors of inflammation remain largely unknown. Adverse experiences in childhood have been associated with higher rates of psychological and physical illness, and elevated inflammatory activity in studies of healthy adults. However, little research has examined the association between childhood adversity and inflammation in the context of cancer, where inflammation is particularly relevant for health. Methods The current study examined the association between three types of childhood adversity—abuse, neglect, and a chaotic home environment—and inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and C-reactive protein), in breast cancer survivors who had completed primary cancer treatment 1 year earlier (n = 152). Results The combined measure of childhood adversity was associated with elevations in plasma levels of IL-6 (B = 0.009, p = .027, ?2 = 0.027, after controlling for age, body mass index, ethnicity, alcohol use, and cancer treatment (surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy). Examination of individual types of adversity demonstrated a positive association between abuse and IL-6 (B = 0.043, p = .030, ?2 = 0.026), chaotic home environment and IL-6 (B = 0.031, p = .005, ?2 = 0.043), and chaotic home environment and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (B = 0.012, p = .009, ?2 = 0.037), after controlling for relevant confounds. Conclusion Childhood adversity was associated with elevated markers of inflammation in breast cancer survivors, with potential negative implications for health and well-being. In particular, chaotic home environment showed unique links with inflammatory outcomes. PMID:24632893

Crosswell, Alexandra D.; Bower, Julienne E.; Ganz, Patricia A.

2015-01-01

314

Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

2014-07-01

315

Consideration of individual susceptibility in adverse pesticide effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern environmental awareness leads to the realisation that the human metabolism is stressed by a huge number of chemical substances. Generally, these background exposures, consisting predominantly from natural and partly from industrial as well as life style sources, are tolerated without any adverse effects. Pesticides are chemicals intentionally introduced to the environment and have become necessities in modern agriculture

J. Lewalter; G. Leng

1999-01-01

316

A novel model of early experiences involving neonatal learning of a T-maze using maternal contact as a reward or its denial as an event of mild emotional adversity.  

PubMed

We developed a novel animal model of early life experiences in which rat pups are trained during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 in a T-maze with maternal contact as a reward (RER group) or its denial (DER group) as a mildly aversive event. Both groups of animals learn the T-maze, albeit the RER do so more efficiently. Training results in activation of the basal ganglia in the RER and of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in the DER. Moreover, on PND10 DER training leads to increased corticosterone levels and activation of the amygdala. In adulthood, male DER animals show better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze while the RER exhibit enhanced fear memory. Furthermore, DER animals have a hypofunctioning serotonergic system and express depressive-like behavior and increased aggression. However, they have increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, indicative of efficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and an adaptive pattern of stress-induced corticosterone response. The DER experience with its relatively negative emotional valence results in a complex behavioral phenotype, which cannot be considered simply as adaptive or maladaptive. PMID:25231083

Stamatakis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Raftogianni, Androniki; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

2014-12-01

317

Research review: the neurobiology and genetics of maltreatment and adversity.  

PubMed

The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in turn sets the stage for a child's psychological and emotional development. This review provides a concise synopsis of those studies investigating the neurobiological and genetic factors associated with childhood maltreatment and adversity. We first provide an overview of the neuroendocrine findings, drawing from animal and human studies. These studies indicate an association between early adversity and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response, which can predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then review the neuroimaging findings of structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. These studies offer evidence of several structural differences associated with early stress, most notably in the corpus callosum in children and the hippocampus in adults; functional studies have reported atypical activation of several brain regions, including decreased activity of the prefrontal cortex. Next we consider studies that suggest that the effect of environmental adversity may be conditional on an individual's genotype. We also briefly consider the possible role that epigenetic mechanisms might play in mediating the impact of early adversity. Finally we consider several ways in which the neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention. PMID:20546078

McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A; Viding, Essi

2010-10-01

318

The Old Man and the SNI: A review of advance and adversity in Hueting's research in economic growth and the new scarcity from the environment and sustainable national income (SNI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Roefie Hueting (1929), recently turned 79 years of age, has been working on the subject of economics and the environment since around 1965. Seminal results are his notion of environmental functions (WWF, 1969), his Ph.D. thesis “New Scarcity and Economic Growth. More welfare through less production ?” (1974), the definition of (environmentally) sustainable national income (eSNI, UNEP\\/Worldbank 1989), the eSNI

Thomas Colignatus

2008-01-01

319

Adverse Effects of Plasma Transfusion  

PubMed Central

Plasma utilization has increased over the last two decades, and there is a growing concern that many plasma transfusions are inappropriate. Plasma transfusion is not without risk, and certain complications are more likely with plasma than other blood components. Clinical and laboratory investigations of the patients suffering reactions following infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) define the etiology and pathogenesis of the panoply of adverse effects. We review here the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of the risks associated with plasma transfusion. Risks commonly associated with FFP include: (1) transfusion related acute lung injury; (2) transfusion associated circulatory overload, and (3) allergic/anaphylactic reactions. Other less common risks include (1) transmission of infections, (2) febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions, (3) RBC allo-immunization, and (4) hemolytic transfusion reactions. The affect of pathogen inactivation/reduction methods on these risks are also discussed. Fortunately, a majority of the adverse effects are not lethal and are adequately treated in clinical practice. PMID:22578374

Pandey, Suchitra; Vyas, Girish N.

2012-01-01

320

Do Maternal Stress and Home Environment Mediate the Relation between Early Income-to-Need and 54-Months Attentional Abilities?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using Ecological Systems Theory and stage sequential modelling procedures for detecting mediation, this study examined how early developmental contexts impact preschoolers' performances on a measure of sustained attention and impulse control. Data from 1273 European-American and African-American participants in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care…

Dilworth-Bart, Janean E.; Khurshid, Ayesha; Vandell, Deborah Lowe

2007-01-01

321

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glu- cose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter (0.4 mmol per liter)), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter (1.7 mmol per liter)), and an in-

E. Metzger; Lynn P. Lowe; Alan R. Dyer; Elisabeth R. Trimble; Udom Chaovarindr; David R. McCance; Moshe Hod; Helen Schneider; Harold David McIntyre; Jeremy J. N. Oats; B. Persson; M. S. Rogers; D. A. Sacks

2009-01-01

322

Allergic adverse reactions to sulfonamides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial sulfonamides were the first antimicrobial agents used effectively to treat infectious diseases. However, because\\u000a they may cause severe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and because more effective agents have since been developed, sulfonamides\\u000a now are used for only a few indications in specific groups, such as AIDS patients. Skin reactions, from benign rash to potentially\\u000a lethal toxidermias, are the most

Geneviève Choquet-Kastylevsky; Thierry Vial; Jacques Descotes

2002-01-01

323

Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

2013-01-01

324

[Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].  

PubMed

The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

325

Effect of Two Different Methods of Initiating Atomoxetine on the Adverse Event Profile of Atomoxetine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods for initiating atomoxetine in terms of the incidence of early adverse events. Method: Data on atomoxetine treatment-emergent adverse events in youths, ages 6 to 18 years, were analyzed from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute-phase studies. Two studies involve…

Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao; Feldman, Peter D.

2007-01-01

326

Experimental Approaches to Systematic Discovery and Development of Reproductive Adverse Outcome Pathways in Fish  

EPA Science Inventory

Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that portray causal and predictive linkages between key events at multiple scales of biological organization that connect molecular initiating events and early cellular perturbations (e.g., initiation of toxicity pathways)...

327

Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc. Resource Book Series No. 1. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, revised from the March 1990 version, provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and…

Harrison, Linda

328

Early Life History Variation among Hatchery and Wild-Origin Lake Trout Reared in a Hatchery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatcheries play a key role in augmenting populations for conservation, harvest, or both, although rapid domestication and adaptation to hatchery conditions may lead to fish that are maladapted to natural environments. Three processes may lead to domestication: (1) negative selection against fish adapted to wild environments, (2) positive selection for fish that thrive in artificial conditions, or (3) relaxation of

Jenni L. McDermid; William N. Sloan; Chris C. Wilson; Brian J. Shuter

2010-01-01

329

The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.  

PubMed

The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed. PMID:23824554

Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

2014-01-01

330

Cutaneous Adverse Reactions of Amiodarone  

PubMed Central

Dermatological complications of amiodarone are commonly encountered problems in therapy. The incidence in the population of patients with prolonged use of amiodarone reaches nearly 75% according to various sources. Nevertheless, they are often misdiagnosed or overlooked. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about skin changes induced by amiodarone, including phototoxic and photoallergic reactions, as well as hyperpigmentation. In most cases, the adverse effects are reversible and disappear after discontinuation of the drug. Although the dermatological complications usually do not influence the outcome of the therapy and rarely cause discontinuation of treatment, they have a great impact on patient quality of life. PMID:25413691

Jaworski, Krzysztof; Walecka, Irena; Rudnicka, Lidia; Gnatowski, Maciej; Kosior, Dariusz A.

2014-01-01

331

Cutaneous adverse reactions of amiodarone.  

PubMed

Dermatological complications of amiodarone are commonly encountered problems in therapy. The incidence in the population of patients with prolonged use of amiodarone reaches nearly 75% according to various sources. Nevertheless, they are often misdiagnosed or overlooked. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about skin changes induced by amiodarone, including phototoxic and photoallergic reactions, as well as hyperpigmentation. In most cases, the adverse effects are reversible and disappear after discontinuation of the drug. Although the dermatological complications usually do not influence the outcome of the therapy and rarely cause discontinuation of treatment, they have a great impact on patient quality of life. PMID:25413691

Jaworski, Krzysztof; Walecka, Irena; Rudnicka, Lidia; Gnatowski, Maciej; Kosior, Dariusz A

2014-01-01

332

16 CFR 901.7 - Adverse determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Adverse determination. 901.7 Section 901.7 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION...APPLICATION FOR EXEMPTION FROM THE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT § 901.7 Adverse determination. (a) If, after...

2010-01-01

333

Adverse drug reactions in dermatology.  

PubMed

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) - that is, unintended and harmful responses to medicines - are important to dermatologists because many present with cutaneous signs and because dermatological treatments can cause serious ADRs. The detection of ADRs to new drugs is often delayed because they have a long latency or are rare or unexpected. This means that ADRs to newer agents emerge only slowly after marketing. ADRs are part of the differential diagnosis of unusual rashes. A good drug history that includes details of drug dose, time-course of the reaction and factors that may make the patient more susceptible, will help. For example, Stevens-Johnson syndrome with abacavir is much commoner in patients with HLA-B*5701, and has a characteristic time course. Newer agents have brought newer reactions; for example, acneiform rashes associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as erlotinib. Older systemic agents used to treat skin disease, including corticosteroids and methotrexate, cause important ADRs. The adverse effects of newer biological agents used in dermatology are becoming clearer; for example, hypersensitivity reactions or loss of efficacy from antibody formation and progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy due to reactivation of latent JC (John Cunningham) virus infections during efalizumab treatment. Unusual or serious harm from medicines, including ADRs, medication errors and overdose, should be reported. The UK Yellow Card scheme is online, and patients can report their own ADRs. PMID:25622648

Ferner, R E

2015-03-01

334

Monitoring for adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Monitoring describes the prospective supervision, observation, and testing of an ongoing process. The result of monitoring provides reassurance that the goal has been or will be achieved, or suggests changes that will allow it to be achieved. In therapeutics, most thought has been given to Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, that is, monitoring of drug concentrations to achieve benefit or avoid harm, or both. Patients and their clinicians can also monitor the progress of a disease, and adjust treatment accordingly, for example, to achieve optimum glycaemic control. Very little consideration has been given to the development of effective schemes for monitoring for the occurrence of adverse effects, such as biochemical or haematological disturbance. Significant harm may go undetected in controlled clinical trials. Even where harm is detected, published details of trials are usually insufficient to allow a practical monitoring scheme to be introduced. The result is that information available to prescribers, such as the Summary of Product Characteristics, frequently provides advice that is incomplete or impossible to follow. We discuss here the elements of logical schemes for monitoring for adverse drug reactions, and the possible contributions that computerized decision support can make. We should require evidence that if a monitoring scheme is proposed, it can be put into practice, will prove effective, and is affordable. PMID:16542197

Coleman, J J; Ferner, R E; Evans, S J W

2006-01-01

335

Adverse Selection in the Credit Card Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse selection is one of the most celebrated phenomena in the economics of information. Yet despite a burgeoning economics and finance literature consisting of literally hundreds of articles exploring the implications of adverse selection in credit markets, there remains little in the way of empirical studies which convincingly document the existence of adverse selection in credit markets as a real-world

Lawrence M. Ausubel

1999-01-01

336

Development of a computerized adverse drug event monitor.  

PubMed Central

Adverse events during drug therapy are receiving renewed attention. Some adverse drug events (ADEs) are identified only after the widespread clinical use of a drug. The Food and Drug Administration advocates post-marketing surveillance systems to provide early warnings of previously undetected ADEs. The identification of ADEs by U.S. hospitals is now required by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. We developed a series of computer programs and data files on the HELP System to help identify ADEs. The HELP System monitors laboratory test results, drug orders, and data entered through a computerized ADE reporting program. A nurse or pharmacist verifies computer alerts of possible ADEs. The computerized system identified 401 ADEs during the first year of use compared to 9 by voluntary reporting methods during the previous year (p less than 0.001). This paper describes the development and early use of the computerized ADE surveillance system. PMID:1807594

Evans, R. S.; Pestotnik, S. L.; Classen, D. C.; Bass, S. B.; Menlove, R. L.; Gardner, R. M.; Burke, J. P.

1991-01-01

337

VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

338

Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical-water platform environment (Mljet Island, southern Croatia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Cretaceous shallow-marine succession of Mljet Island in Croatia records the geological history of the southern part of the Adriatic Platform during its last tectonically quiet period, prior to the Late Cretaceous collision processes between the Adria Microplate and the Eurasian Plate. We studied the Early Cretaceous biostratigraphy of benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae in order to establish a

Antun Husinec; Branko Soka?

2006-01-01

339

How Does a Neuron “know” to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

340

The Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment Project: Theory and Methodology  

PubMed Central

Objective: To describe the theory and methodology of the multi-wave, prospective Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study. The goal of MAVAN is to examine the pre- and postnatal influences, and their interaction, in determining individual differences in mental health. Method: MAVAN is a community-based, birth cohort study of pregnant Canadian mothers and their offspring. Dyads are assessed longitudinally, with multiple assessments of both mother and child in home and laboratory across the child’s development. Study measures, including assessments of cognitive and emotional function, are described. The study uses a candidate gene approach to examine gene–environment interdependence in specific developmental outcomes. Finally, the study includes measures of both brain-based phenotypes and metabolism to explore comorbidities associated with child obesity. One of the unique features of the MAVAN protocol is the extensive measures of the mother–child interaction. The relation between these measures will be discussed. Results: Evidence from the MAVAN project shows interesting results about maternal care, families, and child outcomes. In our review, preliminary analyses showing the correlations between measures of maternal care are reported. As predicted, early evidence suggests that maternal care measures are positively correlated, over time. Conclusions: This review provides evidence for the feasibility and value of laboratory-based measures embedded within a longitudinal birth cohort study. Though retention of the samples has been a challenge of MAVAN, they are within a comparable range to other studies of this nature. Indeed, the trade-off of somewhat greater participant burden has allowed for a rich database. The results yielded from the MAVAN project will not only describe typical development but also possible targets for intervention. Understanding certain endophenotypes will shed light on the pathogenesis of various mental and physical disorders, as well as their interrelation. PMID:25565695

O’Donnell, Katherine A; Gaudreau, Hélène; Colalillo, Sara; Steiner, Meir; Atkinson, Leslie; Moss, Ellen; Goldberg, Susan; Karama, Sherif; Matthews, Stephen G; Lydon, John E; Silveira, Patricia P; Wazana, Ashley D; Levitan, Robert D; Sokolowski, Marla B; Kennedy, James L; Fleming, Alison; Meaney, Michael J

2014-01-01

341

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in\\u000apoor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages,\\u000ametallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta,\\u000aMgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population\\u000a(SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial\\u000asubsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive

F. Annibali; R. Grutzbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2010-01-01

342

Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration  

PubMed Central

Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

2015-01-01

343

Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.  

PubMed

Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

Larsen, Martin H; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D M; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

2015-01-01

344

The environment of early humans in Southern Caucasus - High-resolution reconstruction of climate and vegetation in Armenia at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern Caucasus is the area of earliest human occupation in Eurasia, proven by findings of Homo fossils in Georgia with an age of ca. 1.8 Ma. The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Lake sediments from Sisian Formation, Vorotan River Basin, southern Armenia, provide detailed information on environmental changes during late Early Pleistocene. Based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric dating, the exposed part of the succession covers a stratigraphic age from ca. 1.3 to 0.9 Ma and includes the Jaramillo subchron. Due to the precise age control high-resolution pollen analysis was conducted at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal spanning from 1.12 to 1.035 Ma (MIS 33 - MIS 30) with a mean resolution of ca. 250 years per samples. Results document a clear vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic changes with open vegetation during the less pronounced cycles MIS 33/34, the expansion of broadleaved deciduous forests during the very warm and humid MIS 31, and the expansion of needleleaved forests during the long, cool and humid MIS 30. Furthermore, the age of the numerous macro floral assemblages could be constrained to warm and humid parts of the climatic phases, most of them connected to MIS 31 confirming the dominance of mosaic vegetation at that time. Plant species compositions show strong relations to Euxinian and Hycanian forests occurring today at the coasts of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, respectively, which must have been expanded considerably during warmer and more humid periods of the Early Pleistocene. Climate quantifications show substantially warmer and 50-100% more humid conditions for most pronounced interglacials. Based on those results we extrapolate the distribution of forests and mosaic landscapes in Southern Caucasus for different climatic phases during Early Pleistocene as a prerequisite for the reconstruction of early human environments in this region.

Bruch, Angela; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Scharrer, Steffen; Teodoridis, Vasilis

2014-05-01

345

Lateglacial and early-Holocene environments of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region of the Russian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen and radiocarbon data from Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region suggest that the hypo thetical Panarctic Ice Sheet (Denton and Hughes, 1981) never existed in this area, at least during the last 16 000 years. Lateglacial tundra environments were slightly cooler and drier than the present ones, but there were also warmer intervals such as the Allerød, which

Leonid Serebryanny; Andrei Andreev; Evgeniya Malyasova; Pavel Tarasov; Fedor Romanenko

1998-01-01

346

The Children's Learning Center: A Study of a Self-Manipulative Physical Environment on Early Childhood Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Learning Center in Providence, Rhode Island, is a prototypical teaching/learning environment for preschool children aged 3-5. The center represents the first prototypical application of the Multi-Activity Zones for Education (MAZE) system. This study attempts to demonstrate and test the physical and operational performances of the…

Studio of Environmental Technology, Providence, RI.

347

The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

2012-01-01

348

Early and Middle Jurassic mires of Bornholm and the Fennoscandian Border Zone: a comparison of depositional environments and vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suitable climatic conditions for peat formation existed during Early-Middle Jurassic times in the Fennoscandian Border Zone. Autochthonous peat and allochthonous organic matter were deposited from north Jylland, south-east through the Kattegat and Øresund area, to Skåne and Bornholm. The increase in coal seam abundance and thickness from north Jylland to Bornholm indicates that the most favourable peat-forming conditions were present

Henrik I. Petersen; Lars H. Nielsen; Eva B. Koppelhus; Henning S. Sørensen

2003-01-01

349

A "tropical" Early Eocene marine environment on the Antarctic margin: TEX86 results from IODP expedition 318  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early Eocene was characterised by high pCO2 (ca.1,000 to more than 2,000ppm) and mean global temperatures that reached a long-term maximum. Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients were unusually low, with warmer equatorial regions and much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. Yet global climatic conditions during this pre-glacial interval have remained poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and organic geochemical tetraether based sea-surface temperature estimates from IODP expedition 318, extracted from bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated, late early to early middle Eocene sediments recovered at Site U1356. For the first time, we reconstruct marine temperatures and ecological conditions from the Eocene Greenhouse world in direct proximity to the Antarctic continent. Early Eocene dinocyst assemblages are dominated by tropical dinocyst genus Apectodinium, whilst TEX86 results indicate persistent and remarkable warmth, with the magnitude of the reconstructed SSTs dependent on the applied calibration: TEX86-L = 20 - 26°C (Av. 23°C); TEX86-H = 27 - 33°C (Av. 32°C). Our marine based proxies are just several strands from multiple independent lines of evidence emerging from the Early Eocene of the Wilkes Land Antarctic margin, including: pollen, terrestrial biomarkers (e.g. MBT/CBT-MAT estimates of 22 - 27°C , Av. 26°C), compound specific plant wax D/H measurements and clay minerals. Taken together, this evidence of very high temperatures, thermophilic fauna, an invigorated hydrological cycle, chemically weathered soils and well developed wetlands gives a very compelling picture of environmental conditions comparable to the modern tropics. These results confirm that exceptionally warm polar-regions are a feature common to reconstructed Greenhouse periods. Such temperatures are substantially higher than can be simulated by most models without assuming exceptionally high pCO2 levels. Recent model runs of the Eocene climate using the Community Climate System Model version 3 forced by 4480ppm pCO2 go someway to resolving this mismatch, with summer month temperatures on the Wilkes margin of 25 - 27°C. However, even the 4480ppm runs do not agree with the mean annual TEX86-H estimates of 27 - 33°C (Av. 32°C).

Bendle, J. A.; Bijl, P.; Toney, J. L.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Schouten, S.; Roehl, U.; Tauxe, L.; Huber, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Leg 318

2011-12-01

350

The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis overprints the primary environmental signals in Challenger mound, with extensive coral dissolution and the genesis of small-scaled semi-lithified layers in the Ca-rich intervals. The low cementation rates compared to the extensive dissolution patterns can be explained by an open-system diagenetic model. Moreover, Pirlet et al. (2009) emphasizes the occurrence of gypsum and dolomite in another mound system (Mound Perseverance) in Porcupine Seabight, which might be also related with fluid oxidation events in a semi-open diagenetic system. Along the Moroccan margins, fluid seepage and fluxes in pore water transport affect the development of mound structures, enhancing extensive cold-water coral dissolution and precipitation of diagenetic minerals such as dolomite, calcite, pyrite, etc. (Foubert et al., 2008). Recent carbonate mounds provide indeed an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic processes in carbonate systems without the complications of burial and/or later meteoric diagenesis. References Foubert, A. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Nature and Significance of the Recent Carbonate Mound Record: The Mound Challenger Code. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 126. Springer, 298 pp. ISBN: 978-3-642-00289-2. Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L., Brunner, B., Frank, N., Dewanckele, J., Van Rooij, D., Foubert, A., Swennen, R., Naudts, L., Boone, M., Cnudde, V. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Diagenetic formation of gypsum and dolomite in a cold-water coral mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off Ireland. Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01119.x. Titschack, J., Thierens, M., Dorschel, B., Schulbert, C., Freiwald, A., Kano, A., Takashima, C., Kawagoe, N., Li, X. and the IODP Expedition 307 Scientific Party (2009) Carbonate budget of a cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound, IODP Exp. 307). Marine Geology, 259, 36-46.

Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

2010-05-01

351

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

E-print Network

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 \\pm 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 \\pm 0.28, and -0.04 \\pm 0.33 for age, log Z/Zsun, and [alpha/Fe], respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Annibali et al.2007 sample residing in comparable environment we derive median values of 9.8 \\pm 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 \\pm 0.16, and 0.18 \\pm 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the alpha-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low mass regime of the scaling relations der...

Annibali, F; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

2010-01-01

352

Adverse reactions and interactions with theophylline.  

PubMed

Despite the trend towards newer therapeutic agents, theophylline continues to play a major role in the treatment of reversible airway obstruction. Clinical use of the drug is complicated by a relatively narrow therapeutic range and a large pharmacokinetic variability between patients. Generally, however, theophylline toxicity is foreseeable and preventable. Most cases can be attributed to either inadvertent or intentional overdosing of the drug. Age, disease state and drug interactions are other factors which may contribute to its toxicity. Nausea, vomiting and tachycardia are common signs of mild theophylline toxicity; seizures, ventricular arrhythmias and hypotension are life-threatening manifestations of severe toxicity which may respond poorly to standard therapy. Although serum theophylline concentration correlates with toxicity in a general fashion, life-threatening adverse reactions are not readily predictable from the drug concentration alone. Treatment of theophylline toxicity primarily involves supportive care along with gastric lavage and administration of activated charcoal to facilitate drug removal. The early use of haemoperfusion may be life-saving in cases of severe toxicity. PMID:2198052

Skinner, M H

1990-01-01

353

2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: Placental programming: how the maternal environment can impact placental function.  

PubMed

Proper establishment of the placenta is important for fetal survival; however, placental adaptations to inadequate maternal nutrition or other stressors are imperative for fetal growth to be optimal. The effects of maternal nutritional status and activity level on placental vascular function and uteroplacental blood flows are important to understand as improper placental function leads to reduced growth of the fetus. In environments where fetal growth can be compromised, potential therapeutics may augment placental function and delivery of nutrients to improve offspring performance during postnatal life. Factors that could enhance placental function include supplementation of specific nutrients, such as protein, hormone supplements, such as indolamines, and increased activity levels of the dam. To understand the mechanism of how the maternal environment can impact uterine or umbilical blood flows, assessment of placental vascular reactivity has been studied in several large animal models. As we begin to understand how the maternal environment impacts uterine and umbilical blood flows and other uteroplacental hemodynamic parameters, development of management methods and therapeutics for proper fetal growth can be achieved. PMID:23307854

Vonnahme, K A; Lemley, C O; Shukla, P; O'Rourke, S T

2013-06-01

354

Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Severe cutaneous drug reactions are one of the commonest medical challenges presenting to an emergency room in any hospital. The manifestations range from maculopapular rash to severe systemic symptoms like renal failure and cardiovascular compromise. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythroderma, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced vasculitis are the common cutaneous drug reactions which can have severe morbidity and even mortality. Careful history taking of the lag period after drug intake and associated symptoms, along with detailed examination of the skin, mucosa and various systems, help in early diagnosis of these reactions. Early stoppage of the incriminating drug, specific therapy including corticosteroids, cyclosporine and intravenous immunoglobulin depending on the case along with supportive therapy and local measures help in salvaging most patients. An overview of these important cutaneous drug reactions along with their management is being reviewed in this article. PMID:24600147

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran

2013-01-01

355

A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the expression of many ornamental traits is dependent on the current condition of the bearer. However, conditions experienced in early life are also known to be important for an individual's subsequent fitness and therefore, directly or indirectly, for the fitness of their mate. Specifically, a recent hypothesis suggests that sexually selected traits might be sensitive to conditions experienced during early-life development and thereby function as honest indicators of developmental history. Whether this applies to colourful male plumage, however, is largely unknown. We tested this idea with a field experiment by manipulating neonatal nutrition in a sexually dichromatic passerine, the hihi (Notymystis cincta). We found that carotenoid supplementation increased nestling plasma carotenoid concentration, which was in turn correlated with increased yellow saturation in male breeding plumage after moulting. We also found that the post-moult luminance (lightness) of the white ear-tufts tended to be reduced in males that had received an all-round nutritional supplement as nestlings. Black breeding plumage was not affected by neonatal nutritional treatment. Although the mechanisms that generate colourful plumage are evidently diverse, our results show that at least some parts of this display are accurate indicators of environmental conditions during development. PMID:23407833

Walker, Leila K.; Stevens, Martin; Karada?, Filiz; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Ewen, John G.

2013-01-01

356

Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103) and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103). Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43) and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23) between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events. PMID:21929810

2011-01-01

357

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment  

PubMed Central

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-01-01

358

The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da/dN), and the effect of cold loading environment provide the means to validate mechanism-based modeling. Both pristine and corroded (L-S surface) 7075-T651 specimens were fatigued at 23°C, -50°C and -90°C under various applied stresses. Microscopy of programmed loading-induced crack surface marks produced an unparalleled Ni and small crack da/dN database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to elimination of H-enhanced cracking by reduced external water vapor pressure, lower crack tip reaction rate (to produce atomic-H), and slower H diffusion. Engineering level modeling approaches are validated using these high fidelity experimental results, informing next generation prognosis methods for realistic airframe environments.

Burns, James T.

359

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C.

2005-04-01

360

Page 1 of 5 Adverse Weather Policy  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 Adverse Weather Policy Including Guidelines on Attendance at Work During Adverse Weather 1. Policy Statement The University has a responsibility to provide high quality services and ensure business continuity during periods of bad weather. It is, therefore, necessary that plans are put

Edinburgh, University of

361

Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice  

PubMed Central

Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

Becker, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

362

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

363

Adverse Drug Events in Ambulatory Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Adverse events related to drugs occur frequently among inpatients, and many of these events are preventable. However, few data are available on adverse drug events among outpatients. We conducted a study to determine the rates, types, severity, and preventabil- ity of such events among outpatients and to identify preventive strategies. methods We performed a prospective cohort study, including a

Tejal K. Gandhi; Saul N. Weingart; Joshua Borus; Andrew C. Seger; Josh Peterson; Elisabeth Burdick; Diane L. Seger; Kirstin Shu; Frank Federico; Lucian L. Leape; David W. Bates

2003-01-01

364

Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness  

PubMed Central

Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society. PMID:19059871

McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.

2009-01-01

365

ON THE RADIAL STELLAR CONTENT OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF MASS AND ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Using optical-optical and optical-NIR colors, we analyze the radial dependence of age and metallicity inside massive (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), residing in both high-density group regions and the field. On average, internal color gradients of ETGs are mainly driven by metallicity, consistent with previous studies. However, we find that group galaxies feature positive age gradients, {nabla} {sub t}, i.e., a younger stellar population in the galaxy center, and steeper metallicity gradients, compared to the field sample, whose {nabla} {sub t} ranges from negative in lower mass galaxies to positive gradients at higher mass. These dependencies yield new constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution. We speculate that age and metallicity gradients of group ETGs result from (either gas-rich or minor-dry) mergers and/or cold-gas accretion, while field ETGs exhibit the characteristic flatter gradients expected from younger, more metal-rich stars formed inside-out by later gas cooling.

La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Carvalho, R. R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil); Lopes, P. A. A. [Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pasquali, A. [Astronomisches Rechen Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); De la Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); De Lucia, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 1-34143 Triste (Italy)

2011-10-20

366

Multiple sulfur isotopes in Paleoarchean barites identify an important role for microbial sulfate reduction in the early marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedded barites from the Barberton greenstone belt (South Africa and Swaziland) preserve a comprehensive record of atmospheric, oceanic and microbial processes involved in the formation and evolution of the Paleoarchean (3.6-3.2 Ga) oceanic sulfate reservoir. Here, we report multiple sulfur isotopic compositions from four of these barite occurrences. Relatively constant mass-independent signatures (?36S/?33S = - 1.0 ± 0.2) within deposits support an important role for atmospheric photolysis in the production of oxidized sulfur, whereas 34S enrichments relative to the inferred composition of photolytic sulfate suggest drawdown of 34S by microbial sulfate reduction. Strong compositional overlap with barites from India and Western Australia indicates the presence of a large-scale and well-mixed marine sulfate pool. Covariation between ?34S and ?33S within individual deposits also suggests a role for processes occurring in semi-closed basins fed by this global reservoir. Based on modeling results, we interpret variations in ?34S by local microbial sulfate reduction and correlations with ?33S by weak inputs of sulfur from magmatic sources, microbial sulfide oxidation or sulfur disproportionation. This agrees with the early occurrence of sulfate reducers in the geological record as inferred from published microscopic pyrite data, and identifies their role as important in both global oceans and local basins in the Paleoarchean.

Roerdink, Desiree L.; Mason, Paul R. D.; Farquhar, James; Reimer, Thomas

2012-05-01

367

Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

2007-01-01

368

Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.  

PubMed

Specialized pastoralism developed ?3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ?2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9-1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

Chritz, Kendra L; Marshall, Fiona B; Zagal, M Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E

2015-03-24

369

Early detection of production deficit hot spots in semi-arid environment using FAPAR time series and a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timely information on vegetation development at regional scale is needed in arid and semiarid African regions where rainfall variability leads to high inter-annual fluctuations in crop and pasture productivity, as well as to high risk of food crisis in the presence of severe drought events. The present study aims at developing and testing an automatic procedure to estimate the probability of experiencing a seasonal biomass production deficit solely on the basis of historical and near real-time remote sensing observations. The method is based on the extraction of vegetation phenology from SPOT-VEGTATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and the subsequent computation of seasonally cumulated FAPAR as a proxy for vegetation gross primary production. Within season forecasts of the overall seasonal performance, expressed in terms of probability of experiencing a critical deficit, are based on a statistical approach taking into account two factors: i) the similarity between the current FAPAR profile and past profiles observable in the 15 years FAPAR time series; ii) the uncertainty of past predictions of season outcome as derived using jack-knifing technique. The method is applicable at the regional to continental scale and can be updated regularly during the season (whenever a new satellite observation is made available) to provide a synoptic view of the hot spots of likely production deficit. The specific objective of the procedure described here is to deliver to the food security analyst, as early as possible within the season, only the relevant information (e.g., masking out areas without active vegetation at the time of analysis), expressed through a reliable and easily interpretable measure of impending risk. Evaluation of method performance and examples of application in the Sahel region are discussed.

Meroni, M.; Fasbender, D.; Kayitakire, F.; Pini, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Verstraete, M. M.

2013-12-01

370

Early diagenetic production and sediment-water exchange of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluorescence at wavelengths characteristic of humic substances (excitation 350 nm, emission 450 nm) have been used in this study to approximate concentrations of fluorescent dissolved organic material (FDOM). In situ regulated and unregulated benthic chambers, sediment cores, and laboratory tank incubations were used to study early diagenesis of FDOM in coastal marine sediments of the Gullmar Fjord, western Sweden. In the regulated in situ chambers, pH and oxygen were kept at relatively stable levels, while in the unregulated in situ chambers, pH and oxygen were left to decrease as a result of biological activity. FDOM porewater distributions and correlation between FDOM and parameters indicating mineralization showed that FDOM was formed in the sediment and should flux across the sediment-water interface. A substantial flux of FDOM was also observed during winter and spring conditions and during anoxic conditions fall. However, no flux was observed during oxic conditions fall. Modeling indicated that oxygen penetration depth was deeper during winter than during fall, i.e., the oxygen penetration depth increased during fall towards winter values. We suggest that as FeOOH was formed when oxygen penetration depths increased, FROM was sorbed to newly formed FeOOH, inhibiting FDOM flux over the sediment-water interface. In addition, at onset of anoxic conditions in the sediment surface layer in fall incubations, FDOM flux from sediment to overlying water increased substantially. Increases in anoxic FDOM fluxes were accompanied by increases in Fe and phosphate fluxes. We suggest that reductively dissolved FeOOH released sorbed FDOM. FDOM released from FeOOH by anoxic conditions was not resorbed when oxic conditions were resumed. This could be an effect of higher pH in overlying water as compared with porewater, inhibiting FeOOH sorption of FDOM.

Skoog, Annelie; Hall, Per O. J.; Hulth, Stefan; Paxéus, Nicklas; Van Der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Westerlund, Stig

1996-10-01

371

Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary depositional environments of the northern Sacramento basin revealed by seismic-stratigraphic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of regional seismic data across the Willows-Beehive Bend gas field reveals a prograding shelf-slope depositional sequence, including basic submarine-fan, slope, and shelf deltaic deposits, that progressively infilled the northern Sacramento forearc basin during the Campanian. The base of the Forbes Formation and the base of the Princeton Gorge fill form the lower and upper boundaries, respectively, of this sequence. Upper Cretaceous submarine-fan and basin-plain deposit form the strata between the Sierran basement and the base of the Forbes and progressively onlap the basement from west to east. The lower to middle Forbes Formation is characterized by high-amplitude discontinuous reflections and consists of mud-rich submarine-fan deposit with laterally restricted, sand-prone channel/levee complexes and broader depositional lobes. In contrast the upper Forbes consist of mud-rich slope deposits characterized by broad, southward-dipping clinoforms. Submarine-canyon/gully fills are common and return discordant hummocky to chaotic reflections. The overlying Kione Formation consists of sand-rich, delta-front deposits that return high amplitude, gently dipping subparallel reflections and are transitional into the slope deposits of the uppermost Forbes. The Kione was partially eroded during cutting of the Princeton Gorge submarine canyon in the early Tertiary. The lower (Eocene) Princeton Gorge fill shows highly variable reflection character and seismic facies that suggest multiple episodes of submarine erosion and deposition. At least three northwest-southeast-striking fault zones, including the Willows fault, disrupt these formations and appear to have strike-slip components.

Damuth, J.E.; Link, M.H.; Gabay, S.H. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

372

Environmental Transport and Fate - Minimizing Adverse Effects from the Use of Agrochemical Pest Control Agents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Predicting how chemicals behave in the environment is a major task facing science today. Society calls for premarket or preuse tests which can lead to prediction, with a high degree of certainty, that the chemical in question will not pose adverse risks to man or the environment. Such processes as...

373

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-06-01

374

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

375

Orofacial adverse effects of biological agents.  

PubMed

Biological agents (BA) are increasingly used effectively in the treatment of a range of disorders, but to date, their application in diseases affecting the orofacial region has been fairly limited. Several orofacial adverse effects related to BA have been recently reported. However, the evidence for such adverse reactions is not always strong, and some of the adverse effects of BA have only been reported in case reports or case series. Most reactions to BA reported thus far have been in association with antitumor necrosis factor-? agents, which is not surprising, as these are the most widely-used BA. In the present study, the orofacial adverse effects are reported with various BA in order to sensitize clinicians to the possibilities. In addition, we briefly summarize the mode of action and indications of these BA. As the use and range of BA increases, the number and diversity of adverse effects might well increase. Despite the adverse effects of biological agents, these may often be less serious than the adverse effects of the more traditional immunosuppressive agents. PMID:24850782

Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Scully, Crispian

2014-05-22

376

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

2011-04-01

377

Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during the winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be employed to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and wind chill. The above-mentioned weather events suggest that there are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize impact of environmental stress. Caretakers need a greater understanding of animal responses to weather challenges to help animals cope with adverse climatic conditions. PMID:25414102

Mader, T L

2014-12-01

378

Overview of medical errors and adverse events  

PubMed Central

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

2012-01-01

379

RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

380

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2010-07-01

381

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2010-04-01

382

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2011-07-01

383

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-07-01

384

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2012-07-01

385

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2012-04-01

386

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-04-01

387

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2014-07-01

388

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2014-04-01

389

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2011-04-01

390

Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application  

EPA Science Inventory

A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

391

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, Texas ? Texas Medical Association has adopted resolutions... ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

392

Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used as ergogenic aids by athletes and non-athletes to enhance performance by augmenting muscular development and strength. AAS administration is often associated with various adverse effects that are generally dose related. High and multi-doses of AAS used for athletic enhancement can lead to serious and irreversible organ damage. Among the most common adverse effects of AAS

C. Maravelias; A. Dona; M. Stefanidou; C. Spiliopoulou

2005-01-01

393

Effect of parental mate choice and semi-natural early rearing environment on the growth performance and seawater tolerance of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

To assess whether parental mate choice and early rearing in a semi-natural spawning channel may benefit the culture of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 90 day growth trials were conducted using hatchery O. tshawytscha (hatchery), mate choice O. tshawytscha (i.e. the offspring of parents allowed to choose their own mate) that spent 6 months in a spawning channel prior to hatchery rearing (channel) and mate choice O. tshawytscha transferred to the hatchery as fertilized eggs (transfer). During the growth trials, all O. tshawytscha stocks were reared separately or in either mixed channel and hatchery or transfer and hatchery groups for comparison of performance to traditional practices. After 60 days in fresh water, all O. tshawytscha were transferred to seawater for an additional 30 days. Reared separately, all stocks grew c. 4.5 fold over 90 days but specific growth rate (G) and food conversion efficiency were higher in fresh water than after seawater transfer on day 60. In contrast, hatchery O. tshawytscha from mixed hatchery and channel and hatchery and transfer growth trials had a larger mass and length gain than their counterparts on day 60, but reduced G in seawater. In general, plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol did not differ among any O. tshawytscha groups in either the separate or mixed growth trials. Despite some differences in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, all O. tshawytscha had a high degree of seawater tolerance and experienced virtually no perturbation in plasma chloride following seawater transfer. Overall, all O. tshawytscha exhibited similar growth and seawater performance under traditional hatchery conditions and any benefit derived from either parental mate choice or semi-natural early rearing environment was only observed in the presence of mutual competition with hatchery O. tshawytscha. PMID:23398072

Madison, B N; Heath, J W; Heath, D D; Bernier, N J

2013-02-01

394

Evolution of habitat and environment of deer during the Late-glacial and early Holocene: the case of red deer in French Jura.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late-glacial and early Holocene transition is a key period of environmental changes in a context of to a global warming. In northwestern Europe, extensive studies have documented the vegetation and faunal recomposition with the replacement of the cold steppe-tundra ecosystem by the forested temperate ecosystem we can still observe. Paleoecological interest focused on the extinct large mammals species like the Mammoth. In comparison, little has been done to decipher the ecological adaptation of the surviving species, especially those that are still present in the very same region than in the past. A better knowledge of the impact of changing environmental conditions on the ecology would be useful to define the degree of selective pressure. Thus, we have studied the habitat and environment evolution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the Late-glacial and early Holocene using stable isotopes and radiocarbon investigations. The analyzed bone material was selected from archaeological sites in French Jura. Performing direct radiocarbon dating on the bone collagen of the selected remains solved the problem of possible chronological uncertainties of the stratigraphical record of the sites. The same bone collagen samples were used for stable isotope measurements. We investigated the relative abundances in 13C to examine changes in habitat closure (canopy effect), in 15N to decipher changes in pedogenic activities (soil maturation) of the animals dwelling, and in 18O to track changes in altitude and/or local temperatures of the occupied territories. The results demonstrate that the stable isotopic composition of red deer bone collagen can be a valuable and sensitive indicator of habitat use and environmental conditions. The associated direct dating allows us to reconstruct the chronology of ecological changes. The combined chronological and ecological results evidence local differences in red deer adaptation at a small geographical scale.

Drucker, Dorothée.; Bridault, Anne; Hujic, Alisa; Bocherens, Hervé

2010-05-01

395

Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

396

Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference (Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" (Alma Fleet and Janet Robertson), discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the…

Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

397

Reflective function as a mediator between childhood adversity, personality disorder and symptom distress.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature has indicated the central role of childhood adversity for the development in later life of personality disorder (PD) and psychiatric distress. In this investigation, we examine the role of reflective function (RF) as a mediator between childhood adversity, subsequent development of PD and psychiatric morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that adversity leads to decreased RF, which in turn is associated with PD, and both increase the likelihood of psychiatric distress. The study sample consisted of 234 individuals, drawn from a clinical PD group (n?=?112) and one demographically matched non-psychiatric group (n?=?122) using a shared battery of measures, which included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess RF levels. The results indicated that childhood adversity predicted low level of RF, which in turn was associated with PD onset later in life. A combination of different early adverse experiences had a significantly greater impact on lowering RF scores than experiencing either neglect or abuse alone. Mediation analyses confirmed that RF was a significant mediator between adversity and PD diagnoses and between adversity and psychiatric distress. PMID:24532555

Chiesa, Marco; Fonagy, Peter

2014-02-01

398

Adverse events in emerging adulthood are associated with increases in neuroticism.  

PubMed

Previous studies have produced mixed results when examining whether experiencing an adverse event can lead to changes in Neuroticism. We sought to examine this effect when (a) the event was relatively recent, (b) the event occurred during a relatively early development stage (i.e., emerging adulthood), and (c) the event was severely adverse. A sample of 1,108 undergraduates completed three measures of Neuroticism twice, separated by approximately 3 months, and indicated the most traumatic or adverse event they experienced during the intervening 3 months. We examined two operationalizations of adverse events: one that is more objectively defined (indicated experiencing a trauma listed on a trauma history measure) and another more subjectively defined (participant ratings of event centrality). The results revealed that high Neuroticism at Time 1 predicted future exposure to both types of adverse events. Critically, participants who experienced either type of adverse event during the semester reported significant increases in Neuroticism. Experiencing a high event centrality event was also associated with small increases in the personality traits Openness to Experience and Conscientiousness. The results are discussed in terms of the conditions necessary for adverse events to affect personality traits. PMID:24635490

Boals, Adriel; Southard-Dobbs, Shana; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

2015-04-01

399

36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Assessment of adverse effects. 800.5 Section 800.5 Parks, Forests...Process § 800.5 Assessment of adverse effects. (a) Apply criteria of adverse effect. In consultation with the...

2010-07-01

400

36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Resolution of adverse effects. 800.6 Section 800.6 Parks...Process § 800.6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue consultation...avoid, minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties. (1)...

2010-07-01

401

The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H I in early-type galaxies as a function of environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the ATLAS3D H I survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H I down to 5 × 106-5 × 107 M? within the survey volume. We detect ˜40 per cent of all ETGs outside the Virgo galaxy cluster and ˜10 per cent of all ETGs inside it. This demonstrates that it is common for non-cluster ETGs to host H I. The morphology of the detected gas varies in a continuous way from regular, settled H I discs and rings to unsettled gas distributions (including tidal or accretion tails) and systems of clouds scattered around the galaxy. The majority of the detections consist of H I discs or rings (1/4 of all ETGs outside Virgo) so that if H I is detected in an ETG it is most likely distributed on a settled configuration. These systems come in two main types: small discs [? M?], which are confined within the stellar body and share the same kinematics of the stars; and large discs/rings [M(H I) up to 5 × 109 M?], which extend to tens of kpc from the host galaxy and are in half of the cases kinematically decoupled from the stars. Neutral hydrogen seems to provide material for star formation in ETGs. Galaxies containing H I within ˜1Re exhibit signatures of on-going star formation in ˜70 per cent of the cases, approximately five times more frequently than galaxies without central H I. The interstellar medium (ISM) in the centre of these galaxies is dominated by molecular gas, and in ETGs with a small gas disc the conversion of H I into H2 is as efficient as in spirals. The ETG H I mass function is characterized by M*˜ 2 × 109 M? and by a slope ?˜-0.7. Compared to spirals, ETGs host much less H I as a family. However, a significant fraction of all ETGs are as H I-rich as spiral galaxies. The main difference between ETGs and spirals is that the former lack the high-column-density H I typical of the bright stellar disc of the latter. The ETG H I properties vary with environment density in a more continuous way than suggested by the known Virgo versus non-Virgo dichotomy. We find an envelope of decreasing M(H I) and M(H I)/LK with increasing environment density. The gas-richest galaxies live in the poorest environments (as found also with CO observations), where the detection rate of star formation signatures is higher. Galaxies in the centre of Virgo have the lowest H I content, while galaxies at the outskirts of Virgo represent a transition region and can contain significant amounts of H I, indicating that at least a fraction of them has joined the cluster only recently after pre-processing in groups. Finally, we find an H I morphology-density relation such that at low environment density (measured on a local scale) the detected H I is mostly distributed on large, regular discs and rings, while more disturbed H I morphologies dominate environment densities typical of rich groups. This confirms the importance of processes occurring on a galaxy-group scale for the evolution of ETGs.

Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

2012-05-01

402

Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contact angles on intermediate surfaces; changes in PDMS film thickness with n-hexane immersion; the chemical stability of surfaces with (C3) and without PDMS film (C2) and the impalement pressure balance. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01368a

Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

2014-07-01

403

Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

2015-01-01

404

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR.  

PubMed

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in "street" families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the "code of the street." Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A; Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A; Gibbons, Frederick X

2012-01-01

405

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2011-01-01

406

[Adverse reaction to not iodinated contrast].  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to drugs are relatively frequent in clinical practice, and some of them can be life threatening. Reactions to contrast material (CM) represent an important percentage of these adverse reactions. It has been found that 70% of reactions to contrast material happen within the first five minutes of their administration. Despite the fact that hypersensitivity reactions are traditionally classified as non-allergic, in recent years investigators have reported positive skin prick tests in patients with immediate and late reactions to contrast material. This paper reports the case of a female patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has presented on two distinct occasions adverse reactions to contrast material. We discuss on the type of reaction, severity, suggested prophylaxis, prognosis and recommendations, keeping in mind the underlying disease and the need to have further image studies performed. PMID:25473874

Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

2014-01-01

407

Adverse drug events in the oral cavity.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions to medications are common and may have a variety of clinical presentations in the oral cavity. Targeted therapies and the new biologic agents have revolutionized the treatment of cancers, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory and rheumatologic diseases but have also been associated with adverse events in the oral cavity. Some examples include osteonecrosis, seen with not only bisphosphonates but also antiangiogenic agents, and the distinctive ulcers caused by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. As newer therapeutic agents are approved, it is likely that more adverse drug events will be encountered. This review describes the most common clinical presentations of oral mucosal reactions to medications, namely, xerostomia, lichenoid reactions, ulcers, bullous disorders, pigmentation, fibrovascular hyperplasia, white lesions, dysesthesia, osteonecrosis, infection, angioedema, and malignancy. Oral health care providers should be familiar with such events, as they will encounter them in their practice. PMID:25442252

Yuan, Anna; Woo, Sook-Bin

2015-01-01

408

Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.  

PubMed

The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

2013-03-16

409

Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience  

PubMed Central

Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

2012-01-01

410

Microbial ooids and cortoids from the Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone, Nevada, USA: Evidence for an Early Triassic microbial bloom in shallow depositional environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Triassic sedimentary rocks contain a variety of unusual facies and fabrics, with microbialites being a distinctive component of many carbonates deposited following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. Coated grains are common in shallow water facies from the upper Lower Triassic (Spathian) Virgin Limestone (Moenkopi Formation) in southern Nevada, and were investigated in order to determine their origin. Petrographic analysis reveals that the majority of the coated grains found within the Virgin Limestone are micritic ooids with a concentric fabric, or with a homogenous fabric composed of dense, often cloudy micrite. In addition, asymmetric ooids, aggregate grains, and distorted ooids are also locally common in some oolitic units; low-Mg calcite ooids and bimineralic ooids composed of low-Mg calcite and dense, cloudy micrite are less commonly found, but are also documented from the Virgin Limestone. Cortoids (i.e., grains that are coated with constructive micrite envelopes) are a minor component of oolitic grainstones and packstones (typically 10-15% of the grains), although they may also comprise entire beds. The cortoids are coated with micrite similar to that which comprises the ooid cortices, and may be finely laminated or dense and cloudy in nature. The micrite ooids and constructive micrite envelopes are interpreted as microbial in origin based on the finely laminated or cloudy, dense nature of the micrite, as well as coatings that are uneven, or often of greater thickness on one side of elongate nuclei, such as bivalve shells or phylliod algae blades. The origin of the low-Mg calcite ooids and layers is less certain, but may also be microbial. The results of this study suggest that a microbial bloom occurred in shallow water environments, which was the result of 3 factors: (1) the unusual chemistry of Early Triassic oceans; (2) runoff of nutrient-rich waters, which enhanced microbialite growth; and, (3) wave agitation and warm waters that led to CO2 degassing and further supersaturation of shallow waters with respect to calcium carbonate.

Woods, Adam D.

2013-06-01

411

Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

Prewitt, Jeff

412

Adverse events in surgical patients in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine the adverse event (AE) rate for surgical patients in Australia. Design. A two-stage retrospective medical record review was conducted to determine the occurrence of AEs in hospital admissions. Medical records were screened for 18 criteria and positive records were reviewed by two medical officers using a structured questionnaire. Setting. Admissions in 1992 to 28 randomly selected hospitals

A. K. KABLE; R. W. GIBBERD; A. D. SPIGELMAN

2002-01-01

413

Adverse skin reactions following intravitreal bevacizumab injection  

PubMed Central

The authors describe two separate cases of skin eruption following intravitreal bevacizumab injection with evidence to suggest that these were adverse drug reactions to bevacizumab. The authors also discuss how each case was treated and report on the final outcome. PMID:22715260

Ameen, S; Entabi, M; Lee, N; Stavrakoglou, A

2011-01-01

414

Nurse Staffing and Adverse Patient Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge regarding the influence of nurse staffing on patient outcomes provides information to nurse administrators for determining numbers of nurs- ing personnel in each units in order to promote a quality of care in nursing care. The purposes of this study is to identify the relationships between nurse staffing and adverse patient outcomes. Data were received from the documentation of

Bunpitcha Chitpakdee; Wipada Kunaviktikul; Wichit Srisuphan

2008-01-01

415

Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price  

E-print Network

Introduction Risk associated with an adverse price change (price risk) is a normal part commodities are sold suggests price risk is an unavoidable part of being involved in the industry. Producers that have significant price variability. Recent domestic farm policy changes and trade barrier reductions

O'Laughlin, Jay

416

The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base  

EPA Science Inventory

The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

417

Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

2014-01-01

418

Speech recognition in adverse conditions: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of the effects of adverse conditions (ACs) on the perceptual, linguistic, cognitive, and neurophysiological mechanisms underlying speech recognition. The review starts with a classification of ACs based on their origin: Degradation at the source (production of a noncanonical signal), degradation during signal transmission (interfering signal or medium-induced impoverishment of the target signal), receiver limitations (peripheral,

Sven L. Mattys; Matthew H. Davis; Ann R. Bradlow; Sophie K. Scott

2012-01-01

419

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: A Clinicoepidemiological Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Drug eruptions range from transient erythema to the life threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) that encompass Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms complex (DRESS). Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. All patients admitted in the Dermatology ward of our tertiary care hospital with CADR (those who fit in the category of probable or possible drug reaction as per WHO casuality assessment) from first September 2011 to 31st August 2012 were included in this cross sectional study after obtaining written informed consent. The drug reaction patterns observed in the study population were determined and the common offending drugs were identified. Results: In the study, population of males outnumbered females and the majority were between 46 and 60 years of age. The commonest reaction pattern observed was SJS- TEN spectrum of illness and aromatic anticonvulsants were the common offending drugs. Prompt withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids with or without I/V Ig reverted the adverse reaction in all except one. Conclusion: Severe drug reactions predominated as the study population was comprised of inpatients of a tertiary referral centre. Though; previous authors had reported a mortality rate of up to 20% in DRESS, all our patients with this reaction pattern, responded well to treatment. The mortality rate among TEN cases was much lower than the previous reports. Early diagnosis, prompt withdrawal of the suspected drug, careful monitoring for development of complications and immediate intervention can improve the prognosis of CADR. PMID:25657416

Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Riyaz, Najeeba; Khader, Anza; Rajan, Uma; Binitha, Manikoth P; Sureshan, Deepthi N

2015-01-01