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Sample records for adverse early environment

  1. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'. PMID:19939573

  2. Early Life in a Barren Environment Adversely Affects Spatial Cognition in Laying Hens (Gallus gallus domesticus)

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Nordgreen, Janicke; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition in vertebrates is adversely affected by a lack of environmental complexity during early life. However, to our knowledge, no previous studies have tested the effect of early exposure to varying degrees of environmental complexity on specific components of spatial cognition in chickens. There are two main rearing systems for laying hens in the EU: aviaries and cages. These two systems differ from one another in environmental complexity. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that rearing in a barren cage environment relative to a complex aviary environment causes long-lasting deficits in the ability to perform spatial tasks. For this purpose, 24 white Dekalb laying hens, half of which had been reared in an aviary system and the other half in a conventional cage system, were tested in a holeboard task. Birds from both treatment groups learnt the task; however, the cage-reared hens required more time to locate rewards and had poorer levels of working memory. The latter finding supports the hypothesis that rearing in a barren environment causes long-term impairment of short-term memory in chickens.

  3. Early Adverse Experiences and the Developing Brain.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Children exposed to various forms of adversity early in life are at increased risk for a broad range of developmental difficulties, affecting both cognitive and emotional adjustment. We review a growing body of evidence suggesting that exposure to adverse circumstances affects the developing brain in ways that increase risk for a myriad of problems. We focus on two forms of adversity, one in which children are exposed to childhood maltreatment in family environments, and another in which children are exposed to extreme psychosocial deprivation in contexts of institutional rearing. We discuss ways in which each of these experiences represent violations of species-expected caregiving conditions, thereby imposing challenges to the developing brain. We also review emerging data pointing to the effectiveness of early intervention in remediating neurodevelopmental consequences associated with maltreatment or institutional rearing. We conclude by discussing implications of this work for public health efforts and highlight important directions for the field. PMID:26334107

  4. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N?=?3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Results Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (?2????=?21.41, p?adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR?=?1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR?=?1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Conclusions Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional family environments cannot be ruled out. PMID:25089128

  5. Early adversity, immunity and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, Ronit; Levy, Sigal; Goren, Naama; Grinshpahet, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between biological, behavioral and environmental factors are involved in mediating individual differences in health and disease. In this review, we present evidence suggesting that increased vulnerability to infectious disease may be at least, in part, due to long-lasting effects of early life psychosocial adversities. Studies have shown that maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with long lasting changes in immune function and disease resistance in the offspring. Studies further indicated that harsh environmental conditions during the neonatal period may also cause lasting changes in host response to infectious disease. Although the mechanisms involved in these effects have not been fully examined, several potential mediators have been described, including changes in the development of the offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, alterations in epigenetic pathways, stress-related maternal health risk behavior and infection during pregnancy. Although there are ample literature indicating that perinatal psychosocial stress increases vulnerability to disease, other reports suggest that mild predictable stressors may benefit the organism and allow better coping with future stressors. Thus, understanding the possible consequences of perinatal adversities and the mechanisms that are involved in immune regulation is important for increasing awareness to the potential outcomes of early negative life events and providing insight into potential therapies to combat infection in vulnerable individuals. PMID:25721541

  6. Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

    2005-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

  7. Nurse-perceived Patient Adverse Events and Nursing Practice Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung; Lee, Sang-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of patient adverse events in Korean hospitals as perceived by nurses and examine the correlation between patient adverse events with the nurse practice environment at nurse and hospital level. Methods: In total, 3096 nurses working in 60 general inpatient hospital units were included. A two-level logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: At the hospital level, patient adverse events included patient falls (60.5%), nosocomial infections (51.7%), pressure sores (42.6%) and medication errors (33.3%). Among the hospital-level explanatory variables associated with the nursing practice environment, ‘physician- nurse relationship’ correlated with medication errors while ‘education for improving quality of care’ affected patient falls. Conclusions: The doctor-nurse relationship and access to education that can improve the quality of care at the hospital level may help decrease the occurrence of patient adverse events. PMID:25284199

  8. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  9. Early Learning Environments That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

    Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment…

  10. Duration of early adversity and structural brain development in post-institutionalized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Hunt, Ruskin H; Cowell, Raquel A; Van Den Heuvel, Sara E; Gunnar, Megan R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2015-01-15

    For children reared in institutions for orphaned or abandoned children, multiple aspects of the early environment deviate from species-typical experiences, which may lead to alterations in neurobehavioral development. Although the effects of early deprivation and early life stress have been studied extensively in animal models, less is known about implications for human brain development. This structural neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing environments in a large sample of 12-14 year old children (N = 110) who were internationally adopted from institutional care as young children (median age at adoption = 12 months) relative to a same age, comparison group reared with their biological families in the United States. History of institutional rearing was associated with broad changes in cortical volume even after controlling for variability in head size. Results suggested that prefrontal cortex was especially susceptible to early adversity, with significant reductions in volume (driven primarily by differences in surface area rather than cortical thickness) in post-institutionalized youth. Hippocampal volumes showed an association with duration of institutional care, with later-adopted children showing the smallest volumes relative to non-adopted controls. Larger amygdala volumes were not detected in this sample of post-institutionalized children. These data suggest that this temporally discrete period of early deprivation is associated with persisting alterations in brain morphology even years after exposure. Furthermore, these alterations are not completely ameliorated by subsequent environmental enrichment by early adolescence. PMID:25451478

  11. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Nicholas D.; Dalgleish, Tim; Lombardo, Michael V.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Ban, Maria; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to childhood adversities (CA) is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV). Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4) with (n = 27) or without (n = 31) CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE) recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life. PMID:25061568

  12. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications—a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  13. The long-term impact of adverse caregiving environments on epigenetic modifications and telomeres.

    PubMed

    Blaze, Jennifer; Asok, Arun; Roth, Tania L

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood is a sensitive period in which infant-caregiver experiences have profound effects on brain development and behavior. Clinical studies have demonstrated that infants who experience stress and adversity in the context of caregiving are at an increased risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Animal models have helped to elucidate some molecular substrates of these risk factors, but a complete picture of the biological basis remains unknown. Studies continue to indicate that environmentally-driven epigenetic modifications may be an important mediator between adverse caregiving environments and psychopathology. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, which normally represses gene transcription, and microRNA processing, which interferes with both transcription and translation, show long-term changes throughout the brain and body following adverse caregiving. Recent evidence has also shown that telomeres (TTAGGG nucleotide repeats that cap the ends of DNA) exhibit long-term changes in the brain and in the periphery following exposure to adverse caregiving environments. Interestingly, telomeric enzymes and subtelomeric regions are subject to epigenetic modifications-a factor which may play an important role in regulating telomere length and contribute to future mental health. This review will focus on clinical and animal studies that highlight the long-term epigenetic and telomeric changes produced by adverse caregiving in early-life. PMID:25904853

  14. Epigenetics and life-long consequences of an adverse nutritional and diabetic intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Nady; Schneider, Eberhard; Lehnen, Harald; Haaf, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The phenomenon that adverse environmental exposures in early life are associated with increased susceptibilities for many adult, particularly metabolic diseases, is now referred to as 'developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD)' or 'Barker' hypothesis. Fetal overnutrition and undernutrition have similar long-lasting effects on the setting of the neuroendocrine control systems, energy homeostasis, and metabolism, leading to life-long increased morbidity. There are sensitive time windows during early development, where environmental cues can program persistent epigenetic modifications which are generally assumed to mediate these gene-environment interactions. Most of our current knowledge on fetal programing comes from animal models and epidemiological studies in humans, in particular the Dutch famine birth cohort. In industrialized countries, there is more concern about adverse long-term consequences of fetal overnutrition, i.e. by exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and/or maternal obesity which affect 10-20% of pregnancies. Epigenetic changes due to maternal diabetes/obesity may predispose the offspring to develop metabolic disease later in life and, thus, transmit the adverse environmental exposure to the next generation. This vicious cycle could contribute significantly to the worldwide metabolic disease epidemics. In this review article, we focus on the epigenetics of an adverse intrauterine environment, in particular gestational diabetes, and its implications for the prevention of complex disease. PMID:25187623

  15. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    PubMed

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health. PMID:22201156

  16. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  17. A MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    A MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS K In this paper, we study the problem of robust speech recognition in adverse environments. We focus our atten microphone [2]. In the present paper, our aim is to study the problem of robust speech recognition in adverse

  18. Early Adverse Events, HPA Activity and Rostral Anterior Cingulate Volume in MDD

    PubMed Central

    Treadway, Michael T.; Grant, Merida M.; Ding, Zhaohua; Hollon, Steven D.; Gore, John C.; Shelton, Richard C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. Methods/Results Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. Conclusions These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD. PMID:19325704

  19. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents: FKBP5 genotype-early life adversity interaction effects.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gustafsson, Per A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Agnafors, Sara; Aho, Nikolas; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5 genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). The FKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health. PMID:26424511

  20. Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment.

    PubMed

    Oh, J-E; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20-80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety. PMID:23340501

  1. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  2. Optical fibers in the adverse space environment - The Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, Roger A.; Barnes, Charles E.; Scott, David M.; Biswas, Dipak R.

    1990-01-01

    On the NASA Space Station, the requirement for high speed data transfer between the exterior experimental bays and the interior research facilities has generated the need for fiberoptics. The adverse vacuum effects in space, temperature extremes, and natural space radiation place extreme conditions on optical fiber interconnects. This report addresses the adverse space environmental effects of temperature and radiation on optical fibers.

  3. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  4. Early Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult SpragueDawley Rats

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    in rats. These behavioral outcomes are known to be affected in human populations suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Robbins, 2000) as well as in those raised under adverse environmental conditionsEarly Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult Sprague­Dawley Rats Christie Burton

  5. The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants.

  6. Early adversity disrupts the adult use of aversive prediction errors to reduce fear in uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kristina M.; DiLeo, Alyssa; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Early life adversity increases anxiety in adult rodents and primates, and increases the risk for developing post-traumatic disorder (PTSD) in humans. We hypothesized that early adversity impairs the use of learning signals -negative, aversive prediction errors–to reduce fear in uncertainty. To test this hypothesis, we gave adolescent rats a battery of adverse experiences then assessed adult performance in probabilistic Pavlovian fear conditioning and fear extinction. Rats were confronted with three cues associated with different probabilities of foot shock: one cue never predicted shock, another cue predicted shock with uncertainty, and a final cue always predicted shock. Control rats initially acquired fear to all cues, but rapidly reduced fear to the non-predictive and uncertain cues. Early adversity rats were slower to reduce fear to the non-predictive cue and never fully reduced fear to the uncertain cue. In extinction, all cues were presented in the absence of shock. Fear to the uncertain cue in discrimination, but not early adversity itself, predicted the reduction of fear in extinction. These results demonstrate early adversity impairs the use of negative aversive prediction errors to reduce fear, especially in situations of uncertainty. PMID:26379520

  7. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  8. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn…

  9. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  10. Blunt splenic injury: are early adverse events related to trauma, nonoperative management, or surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Frandon, Julien; Rodiere, Mathieu; Arvieux, Catherine; Vendrell, Anne; Boussat, Bastien; Sengel, Christian; Broux, Christophe; Bricault, Ivan; Ferretti, Gilbert; Thony, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and early adverse events of operative management (OM), nonoperative management (NOM), and NOM with splenic artery embolization (SAE) in blunt splenic injury (BSI) and identify the prognostic factors. METHODS Medical records of 136 consecutive patients with BSI admitted to a trauma center from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were separated into three groups: OM, NOM, and SAE. We focused on associated injuries and early adverse events. Multivariate analysis was performed on 23 prognostic factors to find predictors. RESULTS The total survival rate was 97.1%, with four deaths all occurred in the OM group. The spleen salvage rate was 91% in NOM and SAE. At least one adverse event was observed in 32.8%, 62%, and 96% of patients in NOM, SAE, and OM groups, respectively (P < 0.001). We found significantly more deaths, infectious complications, pleural drainage, acute renal failures, and pancreatitis in OM and more pseudocysts in SAE. Six prognostic factors were statistically significant for one or more adverse events: simplified acute physiology score 2 ?25 for almost all adverse events, age ?50 years for acute respiratory syndrome, limb fracture for secondary bleeding, thoracic injury for pleural drainage, and at least one associated injury for pseudocyst. Adverse events were not related to the type of BSI management. CONCLUSION Patients with BSI present worse outcome and more adverse events in OM, but this is related to the severity of injury. The main predictor of adverse events remains the severity of injury. PMID:26081719

  11. Broken or maladaptive? Altered trajectories in neuroinflammation and behavior after early life adversity.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Prabarna; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2015-02-01

    Exposure to adversity and stress early in development yields vulnerability to mental illnesses throughout the lifespan. Growing evidence suggests that this vulnerability has mechanistic origins involving aberrant development of both neurocircuitry and neuro-immune activity. Here we review the current understanding of when and how stress exposure initiates neuroinflammatory events that interact with brain development. We first review how early life adversity has been associated with various psychopathologies, and how neuroinflammation plays a role in these pathologies. We then summarize data and resultant hypotheses describing how early life adversity may particularly alter neuro-immune development with psychiatric consequences. Finally, we review how sex differences contribute to individualistic vulnerabilities across the lifespan. We submit the importance of understanding how stress during early development might cause outright neural or glial damage, as well as experience-dependent plasticity that may insufficiently prepare an individual for sex-specific or life-stage specific challenges. PMID:25081071

  12. Maternal Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Henriquez-Sanchez, Patricia; Alemán-Perez, Nestor; Garcia-Salvador, Jose J.; Gonzalez-Quesada, Alicia; García-Hernández, Jose A.; Serra-Majem, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the role of the health consequences of maternal overweight and obesity at the start of pregnancy on gestational pathologies, delivery and newborn characteristics. Methods A cohort of pregnant women (n?=?6.558) having delivered at the Maternal & Child University Hospital of Gran Canaria (HUMIGC) in 2008 has been studied. Outcomes were compared using multivariate analyses controlling for confounding variables. Results Compared to normoweight, overweight and obese women have greater risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR?=?2.13 (95% CI: 1.52–2.98) and (RR?=?2.85 (95% CI: 2.01–4.04), gestational hypertension (RR?=?2.01 (95% CI: 1.27–3.19) and (RR?=?4.79 (95% CI: 3.13–7.32) and preeclampsia (RR?=?3.16 (95% CI: 1.12–8.91) and (RR?=?8.80 (95% CI: 3.46–22.40). Obese women have also more frequently oligodramnios (RR?=?2.02 (95% CI: 1.25–3.27), polyhydramnios. (RR?=?1.76 (95% CI: 1.03–2.99), tearing (RR?=?1.24 (95% CI: 1.05–1.46) and a lower risk of induced deliveries (RR?=?0.83 (95% CI: 0.72–0.95). Both groups have more frequently caesarean section (RR?=?1.36 (95% CI: 1.14–1.63) and (RR?=?1.84 (95% CI: 1.53–2.22) and manual placenta extraction (RR?=?1.65 (95% CI: 1.28–2.11) and (RR?=?1.77 (95% CI: 1.35–2.33). Newborns from overweight and obese women have higher weight (p<0.001) and a greater risk of being macrosomic (RR?=?2.00 (95% CI: 1.56–2.56) and (RR?=?2.74 (95% CI: 2.12–3.54). Finally, neonates from obese mother have a higher risk of being admitted to special care units (RR?=?1.34 (95% CI: 1.01–1.77). Apgar 1 min was significantly higher in newborns from normoweight mothers: 8.65 (95% CI: 8.62–8.69) than from overweight: 8.56 (95% CI: 8.50–8.61) or obese mothers: 8.48 (95% CI: 8.41–8.54). Conclusion Obesity and overweight status at the beginning of pregnancy increase the adverse outcomes of the pregnancy. It is important to promote the normalization of bodyweight in those women who intend to get pregnant and to provide appropriate advice to the obese women of the risks of obesity at the start of the pregnancy. PMID:24278281

  13. The Environment of Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yo

    A hydrologic routing model was applied to the Noachian cratered highlands to establish the climatic conditions required to maintain lakes and valley networks on early Mars. We used the ratio of precipitation and evaporation (the X-ratio) to express climatic conditions. Simulations were conducted using various X-ratios. The results from the lake analysis showed that many of the lakes that were not identified as overflowing probably overflowed as well. Because overflowing lakes can place constrain on possible climatic condition of early Mars, it is essential to identify as many overflowing craters as possible to understand the environment of early Mars. The multiple regression analyses indicate that incision depth is strongly influenced by gradient and weakly related to discharge. The factors determining incision depend partly on the type of channel bed. However, post-flow modification of the valleys precludes direct determination of bed morphology. We found through both lake and incision depth analysis that climatic conditions on early Mars were at least as moist as those that occurred in the Great Basin region during the Pleistocene (X ? 4). We also report on two studies motivated by the occurrence of sinuous paleochannels on Mars. Unconfined meanders require cohesive channel banks, which is obtained commonly by a vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment load. The Quinn River, Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through lacustrine sediments resulting in the river having both bed and banks composed of sediment containing at least 40% mud. In addition, ion chromatography data and SEM images indicate the presence of high solute concentrations. In the absence of vegetation, bank cohesion is provided by mud with salts aiding flocculation and possibly providing additional cohesion through cementation. A 1D depth-averaged linearized meander evolution model was calibrated using the field data collected at the Quinn River. Both approaches gave similar results for the best fit parameter values. The model sufficiently replicated 38 years of channel migration. Topographic profiles across point bars are essentially invariant over a wide range of migration rates, suggesting that the traditional formulation that cut bank erosion processes govern migration rates is appropriate for the Quinn River.

  14. Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Patrick O.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms. PMID:24133457

  15. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    PubMed

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

  16. Cortisol Reactivity to Social Stress as a Mediator of Early Adversity on Risk and Adaptive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African-Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

  17. Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function

    PubMed Central

    Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

  18. Psychosocial Working Environment and Risk of Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients Treated for Coronary Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Biering, Karin; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Lund, Thomas; Hjollund, Niels Henrik

    2015-12-01

    Introduction During the last decades a possible association between psychosocial working environment and increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been debated and moderate evidence supports that high psychological demands, lack of social support and iso-strain (the combination of high job strain and lack of social support) is associated with primary CHD. Whether psychosocial working environment plays a role as risk factor for new cardiac events and readmissions in patients with existing cardiovascular disease is less studied. Methods A cohort of patients <67 years treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was established in 2006. Three months after PCI patients answered a questionnaire about their psychosocial working environment. Patients were followed in the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish Civil Registration System for 3+ years to identify adverse cardiac events and death. We analysed the association between psychosocial working environment and adverse cardiac events by Cox Regression. Results A number of 528 patients had returned to work 12 weeks after PCI, while 97 were still sick-listed. We identified 12 deaths and 211 other events during follow-up. We found no statistically significant associations between psychosocial working environment and risk of adverse cardiac events and readmissions or mortality. Conclusion The psychosocial working environment was not associated with adverse cardiac events. PMID:26044947

  19. Examining the Relationships Between Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Early Adversity, and Child Neurobehavioral Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L.; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M; Huestis, Marilyn; Neal, Charles; DeRauf, Chris; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Grotta, Sheri Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Lester, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother–infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23067308

  20. Examining the relationships between prenatal methamphetamine exposure, early adversity, and child neurobehavioral disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2013-09-01

    Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother-infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23067308

  1. Creating Music Environments in Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Elayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips…

  2. Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment could benefit from using Lewin’s force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. In this article, authors describe how they used Lewin’s Model of Change to retrospectively examine recruitment strategies from five cancer control studies conducted in an adverse environment that had resulted from well-known researcher misconduct and rural suspicion of outsiders.

  3. Rational therapy for diabetes: early recognition of adverse effects and avoidance of disruptive false alarms.

    PubMed

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Corresponding to the uncontrolled diabetes pandemic, significant effort has been invested in developing new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, all medicines have possible adverse effects. Recently, a trend of 'scrutinizing' novel hypoglycaemic drug side effects based on scant scientific data has emerged. With recent publications highlighting possible dangers of rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, exenatide and, most recently, pioglitazone, it seems that all means are valid and that every database is suitable, even if specifically defined as inadequate for the purpose of data analysis. The use of such data may lead authors to draw erroneous conclusions that may be granted unwarranted impact upon publication in leading scientific journals and eventually lead patients and misinformed physicians to wrongly change beneficial medication regimes. Adherence to strict scientific methodology, ongoing large clinical trials and creating adjudicated patient databases may facilitate early recognition of adverse effects while avoiding disruptive false alarms. PMID:22173845

  4. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

  5. Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

  6. Early adversity, elevated stress physiology, accelerated sexual maturation, and poor health in females.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L; Boyce, W Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for increased probability of reproducing before dying via a process of accelerated reproductive maturation. Using data from 73 females, we test the following propositions using path analysis: (a) greater exposure to prenatal stress predicts greater maternal depression and negative parenting in infancy, (b) which predicts elevated basal cortisol at 4.5 years, (c) which predicts accelerated adrenarcheal development, (d) which predicts more physical and mental health problems at age 18. Results prove generally consistent with these propositions, including a direct link from cortisol to mental health problems. DOoHaD investigators should consider including early sexual maturation as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health later in life in females. PMID:25915592

  7. The Linguistic Environment of Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Rosalind G.; Snow, Catherine E.

    1995-01-01

    Compared social-linguistic experiences of six early readers (ERs) and six prereading (PRs) matched-age peers in interactions with their middle-class parents. Found that ER parents created an even more enriched language environment for their children than PR parents. Differences on decontextualized language tasks favored ER families, and ERs gave…

  8. Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis in Early Galactic Environments #

    E-print Network

    Cowan, John

    Neutron Capture Nucleosynthesis in Early Galactic Environments # James W. Truran 1 , John J. Cowan we can extract useful clues to and constraints upon the star formation and nucleosynthesis history that provide the site for s­process nucleosynthesis during the AGB phase of their evolution. We review recent

  9. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  10. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  11. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  12. Early Socioeconomic Adversity and Young Adult Physical Illness: The Role of Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Kwon, Josephine A.; Oshri, Assaf; Lee, Tae Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study investigated the psycho-physiological inter and intra-individual processes that mediate the linkage between childhood/adolescent socioeconomic adversities and adult health outcomes. Specifically, the proposed model examined the roles of youth depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as mediators that explain the link between early adversity and young adults’ general health and physical illnesses after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and earlier general health reports. Methods Using a nationally representative sample of 12,424 from National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), this study used growth curve modeling to consider both the severity (initial level) as well as the change over time (deterioration or elevation) as psycho-physiological mediators, thereby acknowledging multiple facets of depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories as psych-physiological mediators of early adversity to adult health. Results Results provide evidence for (a) the influence of early childhood and early adolescent cumulative socioeconomic adversity on both the initial levels and changes over time of depressive symptoms and BMI and (b) the independent influences depressive symptoms and BMI trajectories on the general health and the physical illnesses of young adults Conclusions These findings contribute valuable knowledge to existing research by elucidating how early adversity exerts an enduring long-term influence on physical health problems in young adulthood; further, this information suggests effective intervention and prevention programs should incorporate multiple facets (severity and change over time) of multiple mechanisms (psychological and physiological). PMID:24856408

  13. Elimination of the adverse effects of urea fertilizer on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil

    PubMed Central

    Bremner, John M.; Krogmeier, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    The rapidly increasing importance of urea fertilizer in world agriculture has stimulated research to find methods of reducing the problems associated with the use of this fertilizer. One of these problems is that urea has adverse effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil. Because there is evidence that these adverse effects are caused largely, if not entirely, by ammonia produced through hydrolysis of urea fertilizer by soil urease, we explored the possibility that they could be reduced or eliminated by amending urea fertilizer with a small amount of a urease inhibitor. Studies with seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oats (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) showed that phenylphosphorodiamidate and N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide were the most effective of 10 urease inhibitors evaluated for reduction of the adverse effect of urea on seed germination. N-(n-butyl)-thiophosphoric triamide was superior to phenylphosphorodiamidate for reducing the adverse effects of urea solutions on seed germination and seedling growth in soil, and it completely eliminated the adverse effect of urea granules on early plant growth in soil. The data reported indicate that the adverse effects of urea fertilizer on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil could be eliminated or markedly reduced by amending the fertilizer with as little as 0.01% (wt/wt) of N-(n-butyl)thiophosphoric triamide. Images PMID:16593951

  14. Early Life Adversity Contributes to Impaired Cognition and Impulsive Behavior: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    PubMed Central

    Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stressful early life experience may have adverse consequences in adulthood and may contribute to behavioral characteristics that increase vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined early life adverse experience in relation to cognitive deficits and impulsive behaviors with a reference to risk factors for alcoholism. Methods We tested 386 healthy young adults (18 – 30 years of age; 224 women; 171 family history positive for alcoholism) using a composite measure of adverse life experience (low socioeconomic status plus personally experienced adverse events including physical and sexual abuse and separation from parents) as a predictor of performance on the Shipley Institute of Living scale, the Stroop color-word task, and a delay-discounting task assessing preference for smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. Body mass index was examined as an early indicator of altered health behavior. Results Greater levels of adversity predicted higher Stroop interference scores (F = 3.07, p = .048), faster discounting of delayed rewards (F = 3.79, p = .024), lower Shipley mental age scores (F = 4.01, p = .019), and higher body mass indexes in those with a family history of alcoholism (F = 3.40, p = .035). These effects were not explained by age, sex, race, education, or depression. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on cognitive function, impulsive behaviors, and early health indicators that may contribute to risk in persons with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23126641

  15. Development of a Virtual Learning Environment addressing adverse events in nursing.

    PubMed

    Xelegati, Rosicler; Évora, Yolanda Dora Martinez

    2011-01-01

    The authors have developed a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) addressing the management of adverse events to promote continuing education for nurses, including the following themes: pressure ulcer, medication errors, phlebitis, fall, and loss of nasogastroenteral probes. The pedagogical framework was grounded on the information processing theory and this applied study used the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) model to develop the program. The environment was developed with HTML language through Microsoft Office Word 2003®. The authors developed evaluation exercises in each module through the Hot Potatoes program, version 6.0 for Windows. The conclusion is that the methodology utilized was appropriate for achieving the proposed objectives. In the future, the authors will assess the developed product and verify the possibility of using it in nursing services. PMID:22030583

  16. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

  17. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

  18. Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice

    EPA Science Inventory

    In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

  19. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  20. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences. PMID:25627018

  1. Autonomic reactivity in relation to attachment and early adversity among foster children.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Mirjam; De Schipper, J Clasien; Fisher, Philip; Dozier, Mary; Schuengel, Carlo

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the quality of relationships with foster caregivers was associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity of children during separation and reunion with their foster caregiver. Moreover, effects of early adversity were examined in relation to attachment and autonomic nervous system reactivity. The sample included 60 children between 26 and 88 months of age, who participated with their primary foster caregivers in the Strange Situation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period were measured as indicators of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity, respectively. Attachment quality (ordered/disordered and secure/insecure attachment), was coded on the basis of children's behavior in the Strange Situation using the Cassidy and Marvin coding system. Children with a background of neglect and those with disordered (disorganized-controlling or insecure-other) attachment showed most sympathetic reactivity during the procedure. Moreover, children with disordered attachment showed less vagal regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases on separation and increases on reunion) than children with ordered attachment. The findings show that the quality of relationships with current caregivers, and to a lesser extent specific experiences of neglect, may have an impact on children's abilities to regulate emotions in the context of environmental stress and challenges. PMID:20102650

  2. 5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

  3. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  4. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  5. Space-time clusters of adverse health events as a means of early detection of departure from planned containment

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, T.E.; Easterly, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of rare health events offer a novel means for assessing community health impacts from excursions of hazardous contaminants into the ambient environment. Clusters of these infrequent, adverse health occurrences provide sentinel phenomena to epidemiologists for the purpose of formulating preventive strategies and decision rules. The goal of early identification and interpretation of these case clusters has led to the development of a variety of statistical methods. This presentation provides an overview of these techniques, many of which assume infectious disease processes that may reasonably be translated as a common source exposure. Population-based disease registries are substantial sources of data for conducting studies of small area case clusters near contaminated waste sites. The strategy of population surveillance has found initial acceptance as a means of directing environmental health actions and providing a safeguard for public health. The methods discussed are possible choices for analyses directed to cancer or birth defect data in order to identify possible case clusters of rare events. Suggestions are offered for interpreting case clusters of disease and a model, semiquantitative decision process is proposed for use in determining public health action or policy. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    PubMed

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  7. Association of SLC6A4 methylation with early adversity, characteristics and outcomes in depression.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Jae-Min; Stewart, Robert; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Shin, Myung-Geun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-07-01

    Childhood adversities have been associated with onset and worse clinical presentations of depression. Epigenetic changes may reflect childhood adversities, while their effects on clinical characteristics of depression are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether epigenetic changes were associated with childhood adversities, pretreatment characteristics, and treatment outcomes in depressive patients. In 108 patients with major depressive disorders, the methylation status in the promoter of gene encoding serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) was measured. Childhood adversities, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics including assessment scales for depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, HAMD), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, HAMA), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, SOFAS), disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-12, WHODAS-12), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated form, WHOQOL-BREF) were evaluated at baseline. After a 12-week treatment with antidepressants, the assessment scales were reevaluated. To avoid type I error by multiple comparisons, Bonferroni corrections were applied. Higher SLC6A4 promoter methylation status was significantly associated with childhood adversities, worse clinical presentation (family history of depression, higher perceived stress, and more severe psychopathology assessed by SOFAS, WHODAS-12, and WHOQOL-BREF), but was not associated with treatment outcomes after considering multiple comparisons. SLC6A4 methylation status could be a proxy marker for childhood adversities and a clinical biomarker for certain presentations of depression. PMID:23333376

  8. A mechanistic look at the effects of adversity early in life on cardiovascular disease risk during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Loria, A. S.; Ho, D. H.; Pollock, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Early origins of adult disease may be defined as adversity or challenges during early life that alter physiological responses and prime the organism to chronic disease in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences or early life stress (ELS) may be considered a silent independent risk factor capable of predicting future cardiovascular disease risk. Maternal separation (Mat-Sep) provides a suitable model to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the links between behavioural stress early in life and chronic cardiovascular disease risk in adulthood. We will discuss the following: (i) adult cardiovascular outcomes in humans subjected to ELS, (ii) Mat-Sep as an animal model of ELS as well as the limitations and advantages of this model in rodents and (iii) possible ELS-induced mechanisms that predispose individuals to greater cardiovascular risk. Overall, exposure to a behavioural stressor early in life sensitizes the response to a second stressor later in life, thus unmasking an exaggerated cardiovascular dysfunction that may influence quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood. PMID:24330084

  9. Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    We have developed and used an optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per/sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. We have also measured the sensitivity of the optical pins to slowly-moving projectiles and found that a 200 m/sec projectile impacting the microballoon sensor produces a flash having a risetime less than 100 ns and a pulse duration (FWHM) of less than 300 ns. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

  10. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  11. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

  12. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  13. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  14. Early martian environments: the Antarctic and other terrestrial analogs.

    PubMed

    Wharton, R A; McKay, C P; Mancinelli, R L; Simmons, G M

    1989-01-01

    The comparability of the early environments of Mars and Earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on Earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the Polar Deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments. PMID:11537365

  15. Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

  16. Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed. PMID:18311323

  17. Causal effects of the early caregiving environment on development of stress response systems in children

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Tibu, Florin; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in stress response system functioning are thought to be a central mechanism by which exposure to adverse early-life environments influences human development. Although early-life adversity results in hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in rodents, evidence from human studies is inconsistent. We present results from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project examining whether randomized placement into a family caregiving environment alters development of the autonomic nervous system and HPA axis in children exposed to early-life deprivation associated with institutional rearing. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, and neuroendocrine data were collected during laboratory-based challenge tasks from children (mean age = 12.9 y) raised in deprived institutional settings in Romania randomized to a high-quality foster care intervention (n = 48) or to remain in care as usual (n = 43) and a sample of typically developing Romanian children (n = 47). Children who remained in institutional care exhibited significantly blunted SNS and HPA axis responses to psychosocial stress compared with children randomized to foster care, whose stress responses approximated those of typically developing children. Intervention effects were evident for cortisol and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity only among children placed in foster care before age 24 and 18 months, respectively, providing experimental evidence of a sensitive period in humans during which the environment is particularly likely to alter stress response system development. We provide evidence for a causal link between the early caregiving environment and stress response system reactivity in humans with effects that differ markedly from those observed in rodent models. PMID:25902515

  18. Causal effects of the early caregiving environment on development of stress response systems in children.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Tibu, Florin; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-05-01

    Disruptions in stress response system functioning are thought to be a central mechanism by which exposure to adverse early-life environments influences human development. Although early-life adversity results in hyperreactivity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rodents, evidence from human studies is inconsistent. We present results from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project examining whether randomized placement into a family caregiving environment alters development of the autonomic nervous system and HPA axis in children exposed to early-life deprivation associated with institutional rearing. Electrocardiogram, impedance cardiograph, and neuroendocrine data were collected during laboratory-based challenge tasks from children (mean age = 12.9 y) raised in deprived institutional settings in Romania randomized to a high-quality foster care intervention (n = 48) or to remain in care as usual (n = 43) and a sample of typically developing Romanian children (n = 47). Children who remained in institutional care exhibited significantly blunted SNS and HPA axis responses to psychosocial stress compared with children randomized to foster care, whose stress responses approximated those of typically developing children. Intervention effects were evident for cortisol and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity only among children placed in foster care before age 24 and 18 months, respectively, providing experimental evidence of a sensitive period in humans during which the environment is particularly likely to alter stress response system development. We provide evidence for a causal link between the early caregiving environment and stress response system reactivity in humans with effects that differ markedly from those observed in rodent models. PMID:25902515

  19. Young Children and the Environment: Early Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    "Young Children and the Environment" is intended for tertiary students in Early Childhood Education and as a reference for child care practitioners and primary school teachers to promote education for sustainability (EfS) from birth to 8 years. The focus is on early education services, including day care centres, kindergartens, preschools,…

  20. Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    Publishing 2004 #12;to stress. We discuss how the social context of early life (such as SES) may affect family life. Through relationships, infants learn to form ties with others, which may become comfortingEarly Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health Shelley E. Taylor University

  1. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  2. DNA methylation of BDNF as a biomarker of early-life adversity

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    disrupt epigenetic programming in the brain, with lasting conse- quences for gene expression and behavior mechanism(s) is unknown, but epigenetic variation represents a plausible candidate. Early-life exposures can blood of psychiatric patients, a fundamental question remains as to whether epigenetic markers

  3. 3 PARENTING BEGETS PARENTING: A NEUROBIOLOGICAL 4 PERSPECTIVE ON EARLY ADVERSITY AND THE TRANSMISSION

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    and early experience interact to predict mothering behavior, including the involvement of epigenetic is associated with adjustment problems and a higher risk of developing mood and behavioral disorders. Impor- tantly, there is a growing literature showing that an important predictor of parenting behavior is how

  4. Early metazoan life: divergence, environment and ecology.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Douglas H

    2015-12-19

    Recent molecular clock studies date the origin of Metazoa to 750-800 million years ago (Ma), roughly coinciding with evidence from geochemical proxies that oxygen levels rose from less than 0.1% present atmospheric level (PAL) to perhaps 1-3% PAL O2. A younger origin of Metazoa would require greatly increased substitution rates across many clades and many genes; while not impossible, this is less parsimonious. Yet the first fossil evidence for metazoans (the Doushantuo embryos) about 600 Ma is followed by the Ediacaran fossils after 580 Ma, the earliest undisputed bilaterians at 555 Ma, and an increase in the size and morphologic complexity of bilaterians around 542 Ma. This temporal framework suggests a missing 150-200 Myr of early metazoan history that encompasses many apparent novelties in the early evolution of the nervous system. This span includes two major glaciations, and complex marine geochemical changes including major changes in redox and other environmental changes. One possible resolution is that animals of these still unknown Cryogenian and early Ediacaran ecosystems were relatively simple, with highly conserved developmental genes involved in cell-type specification and simple patterning. In this model, complex nervous systems are a convergent phenomenon in bilaterian clades which occurred close to the time that larger metazoans appeared in the fossil record. PMID:26554036

  5. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  6. Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

  7. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches To Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  8. Early Intervention Practitioner Approaches to Natural Environment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Practitioner beliefs about and understanding of natural environment interventions were examined. Sixteen early intervention practitioners from two programs in a southeastern state were interviewed about their understanding and use of natural environments as sources of learning opportunities for young children. Practitioners in one program had…

  9. Serotonin deficiency alters susceptibility to the long-term consequences of adverse early life experience.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Tran, Ha L; Iyer, Akshita; Wetsel, William C; Caron, Marc G

    2015-03-01

    Brain 5-HT deficiency has long been implicated in psychiatric disease, but the effects of 5-HT deficiency on stress susceptibility remain largely unknown. Early life stress (ELS) has been suggested to contribute to adult psychopathology, but efforts to study the long-term consequences of ELS have been limited by a lack of appropriate preclinical models. Here, we evaluated the effects of 5-HT deficiency on several long-term cellular, molecular, and behavioral responses of mice to a new model of ELS that combines early-life maternal separation (MS) of pups and postpartum learned helplessness (LH) training in dams. Our data demonstrate that this paradigm (LH/MS) induces depressive-like behavior and impairs pup retrieval in dams. In addition, we show that brain 5-HT deficiency exacerbates anxiety-like behavior induced by LH/MS and blunts the effects of LH/MS on acoustic startle responses in adult offspring. Although the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear, following LH/MS, 5-HT-deficient animals had significantly less mRNA expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the amygdala than wild-type animals. In addition, 5-HT-deficient mice exhibited reduced mRNA levels of the 5-HT2a receptor and p11 in the hippocampus regardless of stress. LH/MS decreased the number of doublecortin+ immature neurons in the hippocampus in both wild-type (WT) and 5-HT-deficient animals. Our data emphasize the importance of complex interactions between genetic factors and early life experience in mediating long-term changes in emotional behavior. These findings may have important implications for our understanding of the combinatorial roles of 5-HT deficiency, ELS, and postpartum depression in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25602134

  10. Early life adversity increases foraging and information gathering in European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Clare; Viviani, Jérémie; Egan, Emily; Bedford, Thomas; Brilot, Ben; Nettle, Daniel; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Animals can insure themselves against the risk of starvation associated with unpredictable food availability by storing energy reserves or gathering information about alternative food sources. The former strategy carries costs in terms of mass-dependent predation risk, while the latter trades off against foraging for food; both trade-offs may be influenced by an individual's developmental history. Here, we consider a possible role of early developmental experience in inducing different mass regulation and foraging strategies in European starlings. We measured the body mass, body condition, foraging effort, food consumption and contrafreeloading (foraging for food hidden in sand when equivalent food is freely available) of adult birds (?10 months old) that had previously undergone a subtle early life manipulation of food competition (cross-fostering into the highest or lowest ranks in the brood size hierarchy when 2–12 days of age). We found that developmentally disadvantaged birds were fatter in adulthood and differed in foraging behaviour compared with their advantaged siblings. Disadvantaged birds were hyperphagic compared with advantaged birds, but only following a period of food deprivation, and also spent more time contrafreeloading. Advantaged birds experienced a trade-off between foraging success and time spent contrafreeloading, whereas disadvantaged birds faced no such trade-off, owing to their greater foraging efficiency. Thus, developmentally disadvantaged birds appeared to retain a phenotypic memory of increased nestling food competition, employing both energy storage and information-gathering insurance strategies to a greater extent than their advantaged siblings. Our results suggest that subtle early life disadvantage in the form of psychosocial stress and/or food insecurity can leave a lasting legacy on foraging behaviour and mass regulation even in the absence of food insufficiency during development or adulthood. PMID:26566292

  11. Exposure to socioeconomic adversity in early life and risk of depression at 18 years: The mediating role of locus of control

    PubMed Central

    Culpin, Iryna; Stapinski, Lexine; Miles, Ömür Budanur; Araya, Ricardo; Joinson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have linked exposure to early socioeconomic adversity to depression, but the mechanisms of this association are not well understood. Locus of control (LoC), an individual's control-related beliefs, has been implicated as a possible mechanism, however, longitudinal evidence to support this is lacking. Methods The study sample comprised 8803 participants from a UK cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Indicators of early socioeconomic adversity were collected from the antenatal period to 5 years and modelled as a latent factor. Depression was assessed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) at 18 years. LoC was assessed with the Nowicki–Strickland Internal–External (CNSIE) scale at 16 years. Results Using structural equation modelling, we found that 34% of the total estimated association between early socioeconomic adversity and depression at 18 years was explained by external LoC at 16 years. There was weak evidence of a direct pathway from early socioeconomic adversity to depression after accounting for the indirect effect via external locus of control. Socioeconomic adversity was associated with more external LoC, which, in turn, was associated with depression. Limitations Attrition may have led to an underestimation of the direct and indirect effect sizes in the complete case analysis. Conclusions Results suggest that external LoC in adolescence is one of the factors mediating the link between early adversity and depression at 18 years. Cognitive interventions that seek to modify maladaptive control beliefs in adolescence may be effective in reducing risk of depression following early life adversity. PMID:26047304

  12. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross-alpha coupling was estimated in this group compared to the other two groups at 96 months, suggesting impaired suppression of alpha-theta and alpha-delta activity, which has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. Age at foster care placement had a significant positive modulatory effect on alpha and beta trajectories and their mutual coupling, although by 96 months these trajectories remained distinct from those of never-institutionalized children. Overall, these findings suggest that early psychosocial neglect may profoundly impact neural maturation, particularly the evolution of neural oscillations and their interactions across a broad frequency range. These differences may result in widespread deficits across multiple cognitive domains. PMID:26351990

  13. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

    2014-11-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  14. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Hammond, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

  15. Skeletal adverse effects with aromatase inhibitors in early breast cancer: evidence to date and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Servitja, Sonia; Martos, Tamara; Rodriguez Sanz, Maria; Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Garrigos, Laia; Nogues, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are routinely used in the adjuvant treatment of women with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer. Patients who receive AIs have an increased risk of bone loss and arthralgia compared with those treated with tamoxifen. In addition to the effects of AIs, the population of women with early breast cancer has a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency. In our experience 88% of patients had concentrations lower than 30 ng/ml. Vitamin D supplementation should be adapted to the baseline concentration. Another relevant finding in our research program was the close relationship between 25(OH)D levels and intensity of AI-related arthralgia (AIrA). A target concentration of 40 ng/ml 25(OH)D may prevent development of AIrA. We also demonstrate that AIrA is genetically determined: single nucleotide polymorphisms located in genes encoding key factors for the metabolism of estrogens and vitamin D (CYP17A1, VDR, and CYP27B1) are associated with self-reported arthralgia during AI therapy. We recommend establishing an individualized protocol of bone-health surveillance based on baseline and evolutionary clinical variables. PMID:26327926

  16. The international society for developmental psychobiology Sackler symposium: early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits--a cross-species analysis.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Bridget L; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

    2014-12-01

    Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from four different research laboratories, using three different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behavior with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. PMID:25290865

  17. The effect of audible alarms on anaesthesiologists' response times to adverse events in a simulated anaesthesia environment: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    de Man, F R; Erwteman, M; van Groeningen, D; Ziedses des Plantes, P V; Boer, C; Loer, S A; Krage, R

    2014-06-01

    Alarms are ubiquitous in anaesthetic practice, but their net effect on anaesthesiologists' performance and patient safety is debated. In this study, 27 anaesthesiologists performed two simulation sessions in random order; one session was programmed to include an alarm condition, with a standard, frequent, clearly audible alarm sound. During these sessions, adverse events were simulated and anaesthesiologists' response times to these events were recorded. Perceived workload was assessed with the NASA Task Load Index. Response times to adverse events and perceived workload were similar in both groups. Pooled response times to atrial fibrillation and desaturation were fast, with a median (range [IQR]) of 8 (4-14 [1-41]) s and 9 (6-16 [1-44]) s, respectively. Pooled response times to an ST segment elevation on the ECG and an obstructed intravenous line were significantly slower, with median (IQR[range]) times of 34 (21-76[4-300]) s and 227 (95-399 [2-600]) s, respectively (p < 0.001). This study shows that in a simulated anaesthesia environment, response times to adverse events are similar in the absence or presence of an audible alarm, and that response times to various critical events differ. PMID:24750038

  18. The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children?

    PubMed

    Berens, Anne E; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-07-25

    It has been more than 80 years since researchers in child psychiatry first documented developmental delays among children separated from family environments and placed in orphanages or other institutions. Informed by such findings, global conventions, including the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, assert a child's right to care within a family-like environment that offers individualised support. Nevertheless, an estimated 8 million children are presently growing up in congregate care institutions. Common reasons for institutionalisation include orphaning, abandonment due to poverty, abuse in families of origin, disability, and mental illness. Although the practice remains widespread, a robust body of scientific work suggests that institutionalisation in early childhood can incur developmental damage across diverse domains. Specific deficits have been documented in areas including physical growth, cognitive function, neurodevelopment, and social-psychological health. Effects seem most pronounced when children have least access to individualised caregiving, and when deprivation coincides with early developmental sensitive periods. Offering hope, early interventions that place institutionalised children into families have afforded substantial recovery. The strength of scientific evidence imparts urgency to efforts to achieve deinstitutionalisation in global child protection sectors, and to intervene early for individual children experiencing deprivation. PMID:25638660

  19. Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

  20. Impact of Early Environment on Children's Mental Health: Lessons From DNA Methylation Studies With Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Chiarella, Julian; Tremblay, Richard E; Szyf, Moshe; Provençal, Nadine; Booij, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, epigenetic analyses have made important contributions to our understanding of healthy development and a wide variety of adverse conditions such as cancer and psychopathology. There is increasing evidence that DNA methylation is a mechanism by which environmental factors influence gene transcription and, ultimately, phenotype. However, differentiating the effects of the environment from those of genetics on DNA methylation profiles remains a significant challenge. Monozygotic (MZ) twin study designs are unique in their ability to control for genetic differences because each pair of MZ twins shares essentially the same genetic sequence with the exception of a small number of de novo mutations and copy number variations. Thus, differences within twin pairs in gene expression and phenotype, including behavior, can be attributed in the majority of cases to environmental effects rather than genetic influence. In this article, we review the literature showing how MZ twin designs can be used to study basic epigenetic principles, contributing to understanding the role of early in utero and postnatal environmental factors on the development of psychopathology. We also highlight the importance of initiating longitudinal and experimental studies with MZ twins during pregnancy. This approach is especially important to identify: (1) critical time periods during which the early environment can impact brain and mental health development, and (2) the specific mechanisms through which early environmental effects may be mediated. These studies may inform the optimum timing and design for early preventive interventions aimed at reducing risk for psychopathology. PMID:26608878

  1. The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: removing the brakes on infant fear memories.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

    2012-01-01

    Mental health problems are often assumed to have their roots in early-life experiences. However, memories acquired in infancy are rapidly forgotten in nearly all species (including humans). As yet, a testable mechanism on how early-life experiences have a lasting impact on mental health is lacking. In these experiments, we tested the idea that infant adversity leads to an early transition into adult-like fear retention, allowing infant memories to have a longer-lasting influence. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (3 h per day) across postnatal days (P) 2-14, or their mother was given corticosterone in her drinking water across the same period. Infant rats were then trained to fear a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) on P17. Retention of the fear association was then tested 1-55 days later. When tested one day after the CS-US association was formed, both standard-reared (SR) and maternally-separated (MS) rats exhibited strong memory. However, when tested 10 days later, SR rats exhibited robust forgetting, whereas MS rats exhibited near-perfect retention. These effects were mimicked by exposing the mother to the stress hormone corticosterone in the drinking water. Finally, fear associations in P17 MS rats were retained for up to 30 days. Our findings point to differences in retention of fear as one factor that might underlie the propensity of stress-exposed individuals to exhibit early anxiety symptoms and suggest that manipulations of the corticosterone system may hold the key to ameliorating some of the effects of early stress on persistent retention of fear. PMID:22781171

  2. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  3. Developmental toxicity of PAH mixtures in fish early life stages. Part II: adverse effects in Japanese medaka.

    PubMed

    Le Bihanic, Florane; Clérandeau, Christelle; Le Menach, Karyn; Morin, Bénédicte; Budzinski, Hélène; Cousin, Xavier; Cachot, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    In aquatic environments, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mostly occur as complex mixtures, for which risk assessment remains problematic. To better understand the effects of PAH mixture toxicity on fish early life stages, this study compared the developmental toxicity of three PAH complex mixtures. These mixtures were extracted from a PAH-contaminated sediment (Seine estuary, France) and two oils (Arabian Light and Erika). For each fraction, artificial sediment was spiked at three different environmental concentrations roughly equivalent to 0.5, 4, and 10 ?g total PAH g(-1) dw. Japanese medaka embryos were incubated on these PAH-spiked sediments throughout their development, right up until hatching. Several endpoints were recorded at different developmental stages, including acute endpoints, morphological abnormalities, larvae locomotion, and genotoxicity (comet and micronucleus assays). The three PAH fractions delayed hatching, induced developmental abnormalities, disrupted larvae swimming activity, and damaged DNA at environmental concentrations. Differences in toxicity levels, likely related to differences in PAH proportions, were highlighted between fractions. The Arabian Light and Erika petrogenic fractions, containing a high proportion of alkylated PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs, were more toxic to Japanese medaka early life stages than the pyrolytic fraction. This was not supported by the toxic equivalency approach, which appeared unsuitable for assessing the toxicity of the three PAH fractions to fish early life stages. This study highlights the potential risks posed by environmental mixtures of alkylated and low molecular weight PAHs to early stages of fish development. PMID:24595754

  4. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age?=?24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  5. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

  6. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

  7. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

  8. Early-life adversity and orbitofrontal and cerebellar volumes in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder: voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Samantha J; Naidoo, Vanesh; Roos, Annerine; Fouché, Jean-Paul; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundEarly-life adversity is a risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but the impact at the neural level is less clear.AimsTo investigate the association between brain volumes and early-life adversity in individuals with a diagnosis of OCD only.MethodThe Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) was used to assess early-life adversity in 21 participants with OCD and 25 matched healthy controls. The relationship between global and regional brain volume and early-life adversity was measured using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). All data were corrected for multiple comparisons using family-wise error (FWE) at P<0.05.ResultsIn the OCD group, correlations with total CTQ scores were positively associated with a larger right orbitofrontal cortex volume. Physical neglect was higher in the OCD group than in controls and was positively associated with larger right cerebellum volume in the OCD group only.ConclusionsLarger brain volumes may reflect underlying developmental neuropathology in adults with OCD who also have experience of childhood trauma. PMID:26338992

  9. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  10. Comparison of the Four Proposed Apgar Scoring Systems in the Assessment of Birth Asphyxia and Adverse Early Neurologic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, Hosein; Nili, Firouzeh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Hardani, Amir Kamal; Shariat, Mamak; Nayeri, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Conventional, Specified, Expanded and Combined Apgar scoring systems in predicting birth asphyxia and the adverse early neurologic outcomes. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted on 464 admitted neonates. In the delivery room, after delivery the umbilical cord was double clamped and a blood samples was obtained from the umbilical artery for blood gas analysis, meanwhile on the 1- , 5- and 10- minutes Conventional, Specified, Expanded, and Combined Apgar scores were recorded. Then the neonates were followed and intracranial ultrasound imaging was performed, and the following information were recorded: the occurrence of birth asphyxia, hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and neonatal seizure. Results The Combined-Apgar score had the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) in predicting birth asphyxia, followed by the Specified-Apgar score that was also highly sensitive (95%) and specific (97%). The Expanded-Apgar score was highly specific (95%) but not sensitive (67%) and the Conventional-Apgar score had the lowest sensitivity (81%) and low specificity (81%) in predicting birth asphyxia. When adjusted for gestational age, only the low 5-minute Combined-Apgar score was independently associated with the occurrence of HIE (B = 1.61, P = 0.02) and IVH (B = 2.8, P = 0.01). Conclusions The newly proposed Combined-Apgar score is highly sensitive and specific in predicting birth asphyxia and also is a good predictor of the occurrence of HIE and IVH in asphyxiated neonates. PMID:25811904

  11. Investigating alternatives to the fish early-life stage test: a strategy for discovering and annotating adverse outcome pathways for early fish development.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C; Embry, Michelle R; Ankley, Gerald T; Belanger, Scott E; Léonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

    2014-01-01

    The fish early-life stage (FELS) test (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] test guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an ongoing effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, the authors outline and illustrate an overall strategy for the discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swim bladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge was explored and, in the process, important knowledge gaps were identified. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal-use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. PMID:24115264

  12. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

  13. Interferometric Tomographic Measurement of an Instataneous Flow Field Under Adverse Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, En-Xi; Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Burner, Alpheus W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a three-dimensional refractive-index field from multi-directional projection data, has been conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four-bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques. Keywords: interferometry, tomography, phase stepping

  14. Interferometric tomographic measurement of an instantaneous flow field under adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, E.; Cha, S.S.; Burner, A.W.

    1995-12-31

    Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a three-dimensional refractive-index field from multi-directional projection data, has been conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four-bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques.

  15. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  16. Early life adversities and adolescent antisocial behavior: The role of cardiac autonomic nervous system reactivity in the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Sijtsema, J J; Van Roon, A M; Groot, P F C; Riese, H

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, the role of pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was studied in the association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior in adolescence. PEP and RSA task reactivity and recovery to a public speaking task were assessed in adolescents from a longitudinal population-based study (N=624, Mage=16.14 years, 49.2% boys). Perinatal adversities were unrelated to antisocial behavior, but experiencing more stressful adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior at age 16 in boys with blunted PEP reactivity and smaller PEP differences from rest to recovery. Number of adversities between age 0 and 15 was associated with antisocial behavior in boys with blunted and girls with heightened RSA reactivity and larger PEP differences from rest to recovery. The association between prior adversities and antisocial behavior were small in effect size and depended upon sex and PEP and RSA reactivity and recovery. PMID:26164813

  17. Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

    2011-10-01

    The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water. PMID:21461648

  18. Early Olfactory Environment Influences Social Behaviour in Adult Octodon degus

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A.; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5–7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus. PMID:25671542

  19. Maternal Vitamin D Status Related to Triacylglycerol in Early Pregnancy and Subsequent Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    E-print Network

    Chan, Ka Ian

    2011-04-25

    , gestational diabetes (GDM), and cesarean delivery. Findings on the effects of vitamin D on these adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. To our knowledge, no studies have examined maternal vitamin D status with circulating triacylglycerol (TAG...

  20. Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;…

  1. A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

  2. Early-type galaxies in different environments: an HI view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Crocker, Alison; Jütte, Eva; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Krajnovi?, Davor; McDermid, Richard; Kuntschner, Harald; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2010-12-01

    We present an analysis of deep Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the neutral hydrogen in 33 nearby early-type galaxies selected from a representative sample studied earlier at optical wavelengths with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph. This is the deepest homogeneous set of HI imaging data available for this class of objects. The sample covers both field environments and the Virgo cluster. Our analysis shows that gas accretion plays a role in the evolution of field early-type galaxies, but less so for those in clusters. The HI properties of SAURON early-type galaxies strongly depend on environment. For detection limits of a few times 106 Msolar, HI is detected in about 2/3 of the field galaxies, while <10 per cent of the Virgo objects are detected. In about half of the detections, the HI forms a regularly rotating disc or ring. In many galaxies unsettled tails and clouds are seen. All HI discs have counterparts of ionized gas, and inner HI discs are also detected in molecular gas. The cold interstellar medium (ISM) in the central regions is dominated by molecular gas (). Assuming our sample is representative, we conclude that accretion of HI is very common for field early-type galaxies, but the amount of material involved is usually small and the effects on the host galaxy are, at most, subtle. Cluster galaxies appear not to accrete HI, or the accreted material gets removed quickly by environmental effects. The relation between HI and stellar population is complex. The few galaxies with a significant young sub-population all have inner gas discs, but for the remaining galaxies there is no trend between stellar population and HI properties. A number of early-type galaxies are very gas rich, but only have an old population. The stellar populations of field galaxies are typically younger than those in Virgo. This is likely related to differences in accretion history. There is no obvious overall relation between gas HI content and global dynamical characteristics except that the fastest rotators all have an HI disc. This confirms that if fast and slow rotators are the result of different evolution paths, this is not strongly reflected in the current HI content. In about 50 per cent of the galaxies we detect a central radio continuum source. In many objects this emission is from a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN), and in some it is consistent with the observed star formation. Galaxies with HI in the central regions are more likely detected in continuum. This is due to a higher probability for star formation to occur in such galaxies and not to HI-related AGN fuelling.

  3. Effects of early and late adverse experiences on morphological characteristics of Sprague-Dawley rat liver subjected to stress during adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Bélgica; Sandoval, Cristian; Smith, Ricardo Luiz; del Sol, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The literature indicates that early rupture of the maternal bond and social isolation are variables involved in social and emotional behaviors and in increase in anxiety, particularly in stressful situations. The liver plays a role in the adaptation to stress, yet the possible morphologic changes that its structure can suffer have been studied very little. Therefore, the aim here was to ascertain, through the model of altering the early mother-infant bond and the late social bond through isolation, the effect on the stereologic characteristics of the liver in adult Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to intermittent chronic stress. Twenty-five newborn female rats were used, distributed into 5 groups, under standardized lactation and feeding conditions. The experimental groups were exposed to early (E1), late (E2), and early-late (E3) adverse experiences and then subjected to intermittent chronic stress in adulthood. The liver of each animal was isolated, and the stereologic characteristics of Nv, Vv, and Sv of the hepatocytes were determined. The results from the experimental groups were significantly higher than those obtained in the control groups. The highest values were found in group E3 (Nv = 4.43 ± 0.89 x 105/mm3, Vv = 68.74 ± 2.01%, Sv = 68.78 ± 3.77 mm2/mm3). Considering these results, the hepatic morphology can be affected by exposure to chronic stress; however, when the individuals have been subjected to previous adverse experiences, the changes are more evident. PMID:25197335

  4. A single-center study evaluating the effect of the controlled adverse environment (CAESM) model on tear film stability

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Richard; Lane, Keith J; Rodriguez, John; Johnston, Patrick; Angjeli, Endri; Ousler, George; Montgomery, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate use of an improved ocular tear film analysis protocol (OPI 2.0) in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM) model of dry eye disease, and to examine the utility of new metrics in the identification of subpopulations of dry eye patients. Methods Thirty-three dry eye subjects completed a single-center, single-visit, pilot CAE study. The primary endpoint was mean break-up area (MBA) as assessed by the OPI 2.0 system. Secondary endpoints included corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time, and OPI 2.0 system measurements. Subjects were also asked to rate their ocular discomfort throughout the CAE. Dry eye endpoints were measured at baseline, immediately following a 90-minute CAE exposure, and again 30 minutes after exposure. Results The post-CAE measurements of MBA showed a statistically significant decrease from the baseline measurements. The decrease was relatively specific to those patients with moderate to severe dry eye, as measured by baseline MBA. Secondary endpoints including palpebral fissure size, corneal staining, and redness, also showed significant changes when pre- and post-CAE measurements were compared. A correlation analysis identified specific associations between MBA, blink rate, and palpebral fissure size. Comparison of MBA responses allowed us to identify subpopulations of subjects who exhibited different compensatory mechanisms in response to CAE challenge. Of note, none of the measures of tear film break-up time showed statistically significant changes or correlations in pre-, versus post-CAE measures. Conclusion This pilot study confirms that the tear film metric MBA can detect changes in the ocular surface induced by a CAE, and that these changes are correlated with other, established measures of dry eye disease. The observed decrease in MBA following CAE exposure demonstrates that compensatory mechanisms are initiated during the CAE exposure, and that this compensation may provide the means to identify and characterize clinically relevant subpopulations of dry eye patients. PMID:23185114

  5. Early-Type Galaxies in Extremely Isolated Environments: Typical Ellipticals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, Pamela M.; Aars, Christian E.; Fanelli, Michael N.

    2004-06-01

    We have conducted a BVR imaging survey of nine early-type galaxies previously verified to exist in extremely isolated environments. Our goals are to establish a baseline of morphological and photometric properties for spheroidal systems evolving in extremely low-density environments and to compare these properties with signatures predicted for merged galaxy groups. We find that these isolated systems are underluminous by at least a magnitude compared with objects identified as merged group remnants in other studies. Image processing techniques sensitive to shell features produced no detections, a result in strong contrast to the high frequency of such structures found in other isolated elliptical galaxies. Two objects, KIG 164 and KIG 870, appear to be merger remnants, as indicated by their disturbed morphology, apparent tidal features, and blue colors. KIG 164 exhibits an asymmetric nuclear morphology and a low surface brightness ``bridge'' between it and a possible dwarf satellite. KIG 870 shows both fan-shaped emission at large radii and a possible double nucleus. Two other galaxies, KIG 412 and KIG 792, are also blue, but without any morphological peculiarities, suggesting that these systems are advanced mergers, older than KIG 164 and KIG 870. Two systems appear to be isolated lenticular galaxies with no evidence of a merger history. Based on their red colors, good fit to a R1/4-law light distribution, and the lack of morphological peculiarities, two other galaxies, KIG 557 and KIG 824, are found to be excellent candidates for passively evolving primordial elliptical galaxies formed early in cosmic time. Optical data were obtained with the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory, which is operated by the University of Texas at Austin.

  6. Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…

  7. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg; Tumlinson, Jason

    2013-08-20

    Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

  8. Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. PMID:24931559

  9. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  10. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  11. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention services in natural environments. 303... environments. Each system must include policies and procedures to ensure, consistent with §§ 303.13(a)(8) (early intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and 303.344(d)(1)(ii) (content of an...

  12. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia, high temperatures, and acidification impacted biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. Our findings of protracted early Mesozoic reef recovery suggest that the causal links between environmental disturbance and biotic recovery extended into Middle Triassic time.

  13. Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

  14. Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppänen, Jouni K.; Schönauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

  15. Early-type galaxies in low-density environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Smith, Russell J.; Colless, Matthew; Davies, Roger L.; Kaldare, Raven; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2002-11-01

    We describe the construction and study of an objectively defined sample of early-type galaxies in low-density environments. The sample galaxies are selected from a recently completed redshift survey using uniform and readily quantified isolation criteria, and are drawn from a sky area of ~700 deg2, to a depth of 7000 km s-1 and an apparent magnitude limit of bJ<= 16.1. Their early-type (E/S0) morphologies are confirmed by subsequent CCD imaging. Five out of the nine sample galaxies show signs of morphological peculiarity such as tidal debris or blue circumnuclear rings. We confirm that E/S0 galaxies are rare in low-density regions, accounting for only ~8 per cent of the total galaxy population in such environments. We present spectroscopic observations of nine galaxies in the sample, which are used, in conjunction with updated stellar population models, to investigate star formation histories. Our line-strength analysis is conducted at the relatively high spectral resolution of 4.1 Å. Environmental effects on early-type galaxy evolution are investigated by comparison with a sample of Fornax cluster E/S0s (identically analysed). Results from both samples are compared with predictions from semi-analytic galaxy formation models. From the strength of [OII]?3727 emission we infer only a low level of ongoing star formation (<0.15 Msolar yr-1). Relative to the Fornax sample, a larger fraction of the galaxies exhibit [OIII]?5007 nebular emission and, where present, these lines are slightly stronger than typical for cluster E/S0s. The Mg-? relation of E/S0s in low-density regions is shown to be indistinguishable from that of the Fornax sample. Luminosity-weighted stellar ages and metallicities are determined by considering various combinations of line-indices; in particular the H?F versus Fe5015 diagram cleanly resolves the age-metallicity degeneracy at the spectral resolution of our analysis. At a given luminosity, the E/S0 galaxies in low-density regions are younger than the E/S0s in clusters (by ~2-3 Gyr), and also more metal-rich (by ~0.2 dex). We infer that an anti-correlation of age and metallicity effects is responsible for maintaining the zero-point of the Mg-? relation. The youngest galaxies in our sample show clear morphological signs of interaction. The lower mean age of our sample, relative to cluster samples, confirms, at least qualitatively, a robust prediction of hierarchical galaxy formation models. By contrast, the enhanced metallicity in the field is contrary to the predictions and highlights shortcomings in the detailed treatment of star formation processes in current models. The [Mg/Fe] abundance ratio appears to span a similar, mostly super-solar, range both in low-density regions and in Fornax cluster galaxies. This result is quite unexpected in simple hierarchical models.

  16. Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

  17. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  18. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  19. Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

  20. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  1. Expert Practitioner's Views about the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-ieng; Chen, Yuewen; Li, Kejian

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the views of 176 expert practitioners on the relevance and feasibility of applying the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS), which is developed based on the Chinese version of Harms, Clifford, and Cryer's (2005) world renowned Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-revised (ECERS-R). The CECERS…

  2. Feeding Disorders in Infancy: A Case for Early Intervention in Natural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVota, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is to express the importance of early referral to early intervention in the natural environment of a child with feeding disorder. It is also to get the facts about treating feeding disorders early, in order to prevent long-term problems with feeding, to the people who are in any way involved in the life and care of an…

  3. Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effec...

  4. Adverse events in diabetic foot infections: a case control study comparing early versus delayed medical treatment after home remedies

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O; Harnarayan, Patrick; Islam, Shariful; Budhooram, Steve; Ramsewak, Shivaa; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of conventional medical therapy in diabetic foot infections is to control infection, thereby reducing amputation rates, infectious morbidity, and death. Any delay incurred during a trial of home remedies could allow an infection to progress unchecked, increasing the risk of these adverse outcomes. This study sought to determine the effects of delayed operative interventions and amputations in these patients. Methods A questionnaire study targeting all consecutive patients admitted with diabetic foot infection was carried out over 1 year. Two groups were defined, ie, a medical therapy group comprising patients who sought medical attention after detecting their infection and a home remedy group comprising those who voluntarily chose to delay medical therapy in favor of home remedies. The patients were followed throughout their hospital admissions. We recorded the duration of hospitalization and number of operative debridements and amputations performed. Results There were 695 patients with diabetic foot infections, comprising 382 in the medical therapy group and 313 in the home remedy group. Many were previously hospitalized for foot infections in the medical therapy (78%) and home remedy (74.8%) groups. The trial of home remedies lasted for a mean duration of 8.9 days. The home remedy group had a longer duration of hospitalization (16.3 versus 8.5 days; P<0.001), more operative debridements (99.7% versus 94.5%; P<0.001), and more debridements per patient (2.85 versus 2.45; P<0.001). Additionally, in the home remedy group, there was an estimated increase in expenditure of US $10,821.72 US per patient and a trend toward more major amputations (9.3% versus 5.2%; P=0.073). Conclusion There are negative outcomes when patients delay conventional medical therapy in favour of home remedies to treat diabetic foot infections. These treatments need not be mutually exclusive. We encourage persons with diabetes who wish to try home remedies to seek medical advice in addition as a part of holistic care. PMID:25473322

  5. Genetic variants in Nogo receptor signaling pathways may be associated with early life adversity in schizophrenia susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Jessica L.; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder thought to result from abnormal brain development. Nogo, an oligodendrocyte bound molecule, signals by binding to the Nogo receptor (NgR) located on axonal membranes. The NgR co-receptors include p75 neurotrophin receptor or TNF receptor orphan Y (TROY). Nogo signaling is responsible for central nervous system myelin regulation and neurite outgrowth during neurodevelopment, and plasticity in the mature brain. Methods We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NgR, p75, and TROY receptor genes and downstream signaling partner With No Lysine (K) (WNK1) and Myelin transcription factor 1-like (Myt1l) genes in an Australian case–control schizophrenia cohort (n = 268/group). High-throughput SNP genotyping was performed using the MassARRAY® genotyping assay. Results Analysis revealed a significant association between the Myt1l SNP rs2304008 and female schizophrenia subjects. The WNK1 SNP rs1468326 and the Myt1l SNP rs3748988 showed significant associations with schizophrenia in subjects with a maternal mental history and in subjects who experienced childhood trauma respectively. Following Bonferroni correction, all significance was lost. Conclusions Despite the lack of positive findings in our population after correction for multiple testing, previous gene expression and association studies in schizophrenia suggest the implication of NgR signaling pathway genes in the etiology of schizophrenia remains topical and timely. General significance Further investigations will be necessary to fully assess the role of these genes in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However these genes may prove useful in further understanding the mechanism by which negative experiences early in life can affect myelin-related processes in the context of schizophrenia. PMID:26673096

  6. Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

  7. Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

  8. Challenges in Early Childhood Environments: Voices from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Celia E.; Lee, Hwa; Templeton, Rosalyn Anstine

    Advocating for young children is a primary focus of professionals in early childhood education (ECE). The complex nature of the EC profession requires comprehensive and multidimensional professional development opportunities. The purpose of this study was to identify current challenges faced by ECE professionals. The intent was to gather…

  9. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  10. Functional Analysis of the Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: Incorporating Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper…

  11. The Impact of the in utero and Early Postnatal Environments on Grey and White Matter Volume: A Study with Adolescent Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Levesque, Melissa L; Fahim, Cherine; Ismaylova, Elmira; Verner, Marie-Pier; Casey, Kevin F; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal and early postnatal adversities have been shown to be associated with brain development. However, we do not know how much of this association is confounded by genetics, nor whether the postnatal environment can moderate the impact of in utero adversity. This study used a monozygotic (MZ) twin design to assess (1) the association between birth weight (BW) and brain volume in adolescence, (2) the association between within-twin-pair BW discordance and brain volume discordance in adolescence, and (3) whether the association between BW and brain volume in adolescence is mediated or moderated by early negative maternal parenting behaviours. These associations were assessed in a sample of 108 MZ twins followed longitudinally since birth and scanned at age 15. The total grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were obtained using the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) toolbox in the Statistical Parametric Mapping version 8 (SPM8). We found that the BW was significantly associated with the total GM and WM volumes, particularly in the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus. Within-twin-pair discordance in BW was also significantly associated with within-pair discordance in both the GM and the WM volumes, supporting the hypothesis that the specific in utero environment is associated with brain development independently of genetics. Early maternal hostile parenting behaviours and depressive symptoms were associated with total GM volume but not WM volume. Finally, greater early maternal hostility may moderate the association between the BW and GM volume in adolescence, since the positive association between the BW and total GM volume appeared stronger at higher levels of maternal hostility (trend). Together, these findings support the importance of the in utero and early environments for brain development. PMID:26279175

  12. Increasing Quality in Early Care and Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Nancy S.; Torre, L. Dee; Grafwallner, Rolf; Underhill, Brian

    2006-01-01

    High-quality care is essential to the optimal development of young children. While many children attend childcare away from the home for an average of six hours per day, the environment is not necessarily of the highest quality. An assessment of the indoor and outdoor space, curriculum and activities, teacher and child interactions, materials,…

  13. Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…

  14. An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

  15. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil assemblage is at treeline and higher on Isla Navarino (55°S) at the southern tip of South America. By mid-Miocene, the upland tundra biota was less diverse, most notably in the number of angiosperm taxa. Based on the autecology and geographic distributions of the descendants of the fossil biota which survive in the subantarctic islands, South America and Tasmania, there was a decline of mean summer temperatures from c. 6°C to c. 4°C from the early to the mid-Miocene. During the early Miocene, the MST of the TAM was c.19°C warmer than today. A paleotemperature estimate based on leaf waxes from a Ross Sea core is for a MST 11°C warmer than today which seems low considering it is based on a near sea-level vegetation. A recent paper utilizing a salt-hydration process to provide adequate moisture to support a Miocene tundra biota is based on erroneous data. The Miocene climate was wet with an annual precipitation of at least 3000 mm. A recent report of the possible survival of vegetation in the Taylor Valley until the Pliocene, based on the discovery of 5 Ma wood-like forms in a DVDP core, is improbable. Even if wood can be definitively identified from the Pliocene deposits it is likely to be reworked Miocene wood from uplands in the TAM (e.g. Friis Hills). Research supported by NSF OPP 0739693.

  16. Change of School in Early Adolescence and Adverse Obesity-Related Dietary Behavior: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, Victoria, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environments that facilitate energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets are associated with childhood obesity. We examined the effect of a change of school environment on the prevalence of obesity and related dietary behavior in early adolescence. Methods Fifteen schools in Victoria, Australia, were recruited at random from the bottom 2 strata of a 5-level socioeconomic scale. In 9 schools, students in grade 6 primary school transitioned to different schools for grade 7 secondary school, whereas in 6 schools, students remained in the same school from grade 6 to grade 7. Time 1 measures were collected from students (N = 245) in grade 6 (aged 11–13 y). Time 2 data were collected from 243 (99%) of the original cohort in grade 7. Data collected were dietary recall self-reported by students via questionnaire, measured height and weight of students, and aspects of the school food environment via school staff survey. Comparative and mixed model regression analyses were conducted. Results Of 243 students, 63% (n= 152) changed schools from time 1 to time 2, with no significant difference in weight status. Students who changed schools reported an increase in purchases of after-school snack food, greater sweetened beverage intake, fewer fruit-and-vegetable classroom breaks, and less encouragement for healthy eating compared with students who remained in the same school. School staff surveys showed that more primary than secondary schools had written healthy canteen policies and fewer days of canteen or food services operation. Conclusion A change of school environment has negative effects on children’s obesity-related dietary behavior. Consistent policy is needed across school types to support healthy eating in school environments. PMID:26355826

  17. Thymosin beta 4 ophthalmic solution for dry eye: a randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase II clinical trial conducted using the controlled adverse environment (CAE™) model

    PubMed Central

    Sosne, Gabriel; Ousler, George W

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of thymosin beta 4 ophthalmic solution (RGN-259; T?4) in subjects with moderate to severe dry eye using the CAE™ model. Methods This single-center, prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase II study randomized 72 qualifying subjects 1:1 to receive either 0.1% T?4 or placebo treatment for a total of 28 days. The study consisted of six visits over a 32-day period, including a screening visit (day –1), controlled adverse environment challenge (CAE) visits (day 1, day 28), and follow-up visits (days 14, 29, and 30). The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular discomfort scores and inferior corneal staining measured at visit 5 on day 29. Secondary endpoints included central and superior corneal staining, conjunctival staining, conjunctival redness, tear-film break-up time, and daily symptom scores recorded over the course of the study. Safety measures included visual acuity, slit-lamp evaluation, conjunctival redness, tear film break-up time, intraocular pressure, dilated funduscopy, and corneal sensitivity. Results Neither of the primary endpoints, ie, ocular discomfort or inferior corneal staining, showed a significant difference between treatment and control groups at visit 5. Despite this, significant differences between treatment groups were observed for a number of secondary endpoints. The discomfort scores in the CAE on day 28 were reduced by 27% in 0.1% T?4-treated subjects compared with the placebo group (P=0.0244). Subjects in the 0.1% T?4 treatment group also showed statistically significant improvements in central and superior corneal staining compared with staining scores in the control group (P=0.0075 and P=0.0210). No adverse events were observed. Conclusion This study confirms the efficacy of 0.1% T?4 as a topical treatment for relief of signs and symptoms of dry eye. Significant improvements in both signs and symptoms of dry eye were observed, and the treatment exhibited a large safety window, with no adverse events reported by any subjects enrolled in the study. PMID:26056426

  18. Optical Flashes and Very Early Afterglows in Wind Environments

    E-print Network

    X. F. Wu; Z. G. Dai; Y. F. Huang; T. Lu

    2003-04-07

    The interaction of a relativistic fireball with its ambient medium is described through two shocks: a reverse shock that propagates into the fireball, and a forward shock that propagates into the medium. The observed optical flash of GRB 990123 has been considered to be the emission from such a reverse shock. The observational properties of afterglows suggest that the progenitors of some GRBs may be massive stars and their surrounding media may be stellar winds. We here study very early afterglows from the reverse and forward shocks in winds. An optical flash mainly arises from the relativistic reverse shock while a radio flare is produced by the forward shock. The peak flux densities of optical flashes are larger than 1 Jy for typical parameters, if we do not take into account some appropriate dust obscuration along the line of sight. The radio flare always has a long lasting constant flux, which will not be covered up by interstellar scintillation. The non-detections of optical flashes brighter than about 9th magnitude may constrain the GRBs isotropic energies to be no more than a few $10^{52}$ ergs and wind intensities to be relatively weak.

  19. The star formation history of early-type galaxies as a function of mass and environment

    E-print Network

    M. S. Clemens; A. Bressan; B. Nikolic; P. Alexander; F. Annibali; R. Rampazzo

    2006-05-17

    Using the third data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) we have rigorously defined a volume limited sample of early-type galaxies in the redshift range z environment for each galaxy using a method which takes account of the redshift bias introduced by survey boundaries if traditional methods are used. At luminosities greater than our absolute r-band magnitude cutoff of -20.45 the mean density of environment shows no trend with redshift. We calculate the Lick indices for the entire sample and correct for aperture effects and velocity dispersion in a model independent way. Although we find no dependence of redshift or luminosity with environment we do find that the mean velocity dispersion, sigma, of early-type galaxies in dense environments tends to be higher than in low density environments. Taking account of this effect we find that several indices show small but very significant trends with environment that are not the result of the correlation between indices and velocity dispersion. The statistical significance of the data is sufficiently high to reveal that models accounting only for alpha-enhancement struggle to produce a consistent picture of age and metallicity of the sample galaxies, whereas a model that also includes carbon enhancement fares much better. We find that early-type galaxies in the field are younger than those in environments typical of clusters but that neither metallicity, alpha-enhancement nor carbon enhancement are influenced by the environment. The youngest early-type galaxies in both field and cluster environments are those with the lowest sigma. However, there is some evidence that the objects with the largest sigma are slightly younger, especially in denser environments.

  20. Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchfield, Carol D.

    1998-07-01

    There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high salt, low water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life.

  1. Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

  2. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Application of Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warash, Barbara G.; Ward, Corina; Rotilie, Sally

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether attending a one day training on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) corresponded to pre-k classroom changes. Teachers attended an ECERS-R module training and six months later completed a questionnaire to report any classroom changes. The questionnaire consisted of listing the subscales and…

  4. Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

  5. A Longitudinal Assessment of the Home Literacy Environment and Early Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.; Friend, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal assessment concentrated on the relation between the home literacy environment (HLE) and early language acquisition during infancy and toddlerhood. In study 1, after controlling for socio-economic status, a broadly defined HLE predicted language comprehension in 50 infants. In study 2, 27 children returned for further analyses.…

  6. Providing Early Intervention within Natural Environments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantala, Anja; Uotinen, Sanna; McWilliam, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the state of current practice in early intervention in Finland and to compare them to American data. Professional women (N = 52), representing child care, elementary school, healthcare, and social work, completed the Families in Natural Environments Scale of Service Evaluation, a 34-item questionnaire…

  7. 3B.2. Environment and early evolution of the 8 May 2009 "Super Derecho" Stephen F. Corfidi*

    E-print Network

    3B.2. Environment and early evolution of the 8 May 2009 "Super Derecho" Stephen F. Corfidi* 1 the complex environment and early evolution of the remarkable derecho-producing convective system that crossed part of the central United States on 8 May 2009 (Fig. 1a). The derecho (Johns and Hirt 1987) severely

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadeed, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

  9. The influence of the neighborhood physical environment on early child health and development: A review and call for research.

    PubMed

    Christian, Hayley; Zubrick, Stephen R; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bull, Fiona; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew; Brinkman, Sally; Houghton, Stephen; Boruff, Bryan

    2015-05-01

    This review examines evidence of the association between the neighborhood built environment, green spaces and outdoor home area, and early (0-7 years) child health and development. There was evidence that the presence of child relevant neighborhood destinations and services were positively associated with early child development domains of physical health and wellbeing and social competence. Parents? perceptions of neighborhood safety were positively associated with children?s social-emotional development and general health. Population representative studies using objective measures of the built environment and valid measures of early child development are warranted to understand the impact of the built environment on early child health and development. PMID:25744220

  10. Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, C D

    1998-07-01

    There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high-salt, low-water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life. PMID:11543079

  11. Early and adult social environments have independent effects on individual fitness in a social vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Berger, Vérane; Lemaître, Jean-François; Allainé, Dominique; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Cohas, Aurélie

    2015-08-22

    Evidence that the social environment at critical stages of life-history shapes individual trajectories is accumulating. Previous studies have identified either current or delayed effects of social environments on fitness components, but no study has yet analysed fitness consequences of social environments at different life stages simultaneously. To fill the gap, we use an extensive dataset collected during a 24-year intensive monitoring of a population of Alpine marmots (Marmota marmota), a long-lived social rodent. We test whether the number of helpers in early life and over the dominance tenure length has an impact on litter size at weaning, juvenile survival, longevity and lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of dominant females. Dominant females, who were born into a group containing many helpers and experiencing a high number of accumulated helpers over dominance tenure length showed an increased LRS through an increased longevity. We provide evidence that in a wild vertebrate, both early and adult social environments influence individual fitness, acting additionally and independently. These findings demonstrate that helpers have both short- and long-term effects on dominant female Alpine marmots and that the social environment at the time of birth can play a key role in shaping individual fitness in social vertebrates. PMID:26246552

  12. Developing learning environments which support early algebraic reasoning: a case from a New Zealand primary classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Jodie

    2014-12-01

    Current reforms in mathematics education advocate the development of mathematical learning communities in which students have opportunities to engage in mathematical discourse and classroom practices which underlie algebraic reasoning. This article specifically addresses the pedagogical actions teachers take which structure student engagement in dialogical discourse and activity which facilitates early algebraic reasoning. Using videotaped recordings of classroom observations, the teacher and researcher collaboratively examined the classroom practices and modified the participatory practices to develop a learning environment which supported early algebraic reasoning. Facilitating change in the classroom environment was a lengthy process which required consistent and ongoing attention initially to the social norms and then to the socio-mathematical norms. Specific pedagogical actions such as the use of specifically designed tasks, materials and representations and a constant press for justification and generalisation were required to support students to link their numerical understandings to algebraic reasoning.

  13. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color – a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) – is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  14. Quantitative genetics of plumage color: lifetime effects of early nest environment on a colorful sexual signal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joanna K; Jenkins, Brittany R; Safran, Rebecca J

    2015-08-01

    Phenotypic differences among individuals are often linked to differential survival and mating success. Quantifying the relative influence of genetic and environmental variation on phenotype allows evolutionary biologists to make predictions about the potential for a given trait to respond to selection and various aspects of environmental variation. In particular, the environment individuals experience during early development can have lasting effects on phenotype later in life. Here, we used a natural full-sib/half-sib design as well as within-individual longitudinal analyses to examine genetic and various environmental influences on plumage color. We find that variation in melanin-based plumage color - a trait known to influence mating success in adult North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster) - is influenced by both genetics and aspects of the developmental environment, including variation due to the maternal phenotype and the nest environment. Within individuals, nestling color is predictive of adult color. Accordingly, these early environmental influences are relevant to the sexually selected plumage color variation in adults. Early environmental conditions appear to have important lifelong implications for individual reproductive performance through sexual signal development in barn swallows. Our results indicate that feather color variation conveys information about developmental conditions and maternal care alleles to potential mates in North American barn swallows. Melanin-based colors are used for sexual signaling in many organisms, and our study suggests that these signals may be more sensitive to environmental variation than previously thought. PMID:26380676

  15. Early-type galaxies: mass-size relation at z ˜ 1.3 for different environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data of the Lynx superstructure and GOODS/CDF-S to build a sample of 75 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs), spanning different environments (cluster/group/field) at z ˜ 1.3. By estimating their mass, age (SED fitting, with a careful attention to the stellar population model used) and size, we are able to probe the dependence on the environment of the mass-size relation. We find that, for ETGs with 10^{10} < M / M_? < 10^{11.5}, (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ˜ 1.3 to present; (2) the mass-size relation in cluster/group environments at z ˜ 1.3 lies at smaller sizes than the local mass-size relation (R_{e,z ˜ 1.3}/R_{e,z = 0} ˜ 0.6-0.8).

  16. Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Öhlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy. PMID:19633051

  17. Strategic approaches to adverse outcome pathway development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge in a manner that supports extrapolation of data pertaining to the initiation or early progression of toxicity to an apical adverse outcome that occurs at a level of org...

  18. Early Social Environment Affects the Endogenous Oxytocin System: A Review and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Emily; Fielder, Andrea; Ghabriel, Nerelle; Sawyer, Michael; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous oxytocin plays an important role in a wide range of human functions including birth, milk ejection during lactation, and facilitation of social interaction. There is increasing evidence that both variations in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and concentrations of oxytocin are associated with differences in these functions. The causes for the differences that have been observed in tonic and stimulated oxytocin release remain unclear. Previous reviews have suggested that across the life course, these differences may be due to individual factors, e.g., genetic variation (of the OXTR), age or sex, or be the result of early environmental influences, such as social experiences, stress, or trauma partly by inducing epigenetic changes. This review has three aims. First, we briefly discuss the endogenous oxytocin system, including physiology, development, individual differences, and function. Second, current models describing the relationship between the early life environment and the development of the oxytocin system in humans and animals are discussed. Finally, we describe research designs that can be used to investigate the effects of the early environment on the oxytocin system, identifying specific areas of research that need further attention. PMID:25814979

  19. Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

  20. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  1. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  2. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  3. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  4. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

  5. The Exposure Advantage: Early Exposure to a Multilingual Environment Promotes Effective Communication.

    PubMed

    Fan, Samantha P; Liberman, Zoe; Keysar, Boaz; Kinzler, Katherine D

    2015-07-01

    Early language exposure is essential to developing a formal language system, but may not be sufficient for communicating effectively. To understand a speaker's intention, one must take the speaker's perspective. Multilingual exposure may promote effective communication by enhancing perspective taking. We tested children on a task that required perspective taking to interpret a speaker's intended meaning. Monolingual children failed to interpret the speaker's meaning dramatically more often than both bilingual children and children who were exposed to a multilingual environment but were not bilingual themselves. Children who were merely exposed to a second language performed as well as bilingual children, despite having lower executive-function scores. Thus, the communicative advantages demonstrated by the bilinguals may be social in origin, and not due to enhanced executive control. For millennia, multilingual exposure has been the norm. Our study shows that such an environment may facilitate the development of perspective-taking tools that are critical for effective communication. PMID:25956911

  6. Operational characterisation of requirements and early validation environment for high demanding space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barro, E.; Delbufalo, A.; Rossi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of some modern high demanding space systems requires a different approach to system definition and design from that adopted for traditional missions. System functionality is strongly coupled to the operational analysis, aimed at characterizing the dynamic interactions of the flight element with its surrounding environment and its ground control segment. Unambiguous functional, operational and performance requirements are to be defined for the system, thus improving also the successive development stages. This paper proposes a Petri Nets based methodology and two related prototype applications (to ARISTOTELES orbit control and to Hermes telemetry generation) for the operational analysis of space systems through the dynamic modeling of their functions and a related computer aided environment (ISIDE) able to make the dynamic model work, thus enabling an early validation of the system functional representation, and to provide a structured system requirements data base, which is the shared knowledge base interconnecting static and dynamic applications, fully traceable with the models and interfaceable with the external world.

  7. Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

  8. Home Numeracy Environments of Preschoolers: Examining Relations among Mathematical Activities, Parent Mathematical Beliefs, and Early Mathematical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missall, Kristen; Hojnoski, Robin L.; Caskie, Grace I. L.; Repasky, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Early mathematical skills and knowledge are strongly related to long-term achievement, and yet the knowledge base regarding the mechanisms through which young children develop these skills and knowledge is limited. Although research has examined the relation of the home numeracy environment and children's early mathematics…

  9. Vaccine Adverse Events

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability ( ... Center for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  10. Tectonics and depositional environments in early Pennsylvanian of south-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kalesky, J. )

    1987-02-01

    The Pennsylvanian Magdalena Group unconformably overlies Precambrian to Mississippian strata throughout south-central New Mexico. Regional southward tilting, warping, and erosion resulted in progressively older pre-Pennsylvanian subcrop relations from south to north. Normal marine shelf sedimentation was represented by upward shoaling cycles containing mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. Channels cut into Ordovician strata in the southern Caballo Mountain area suggest that this area was a relatively deep valley or trough during Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian erosion. Marine transgression from the south backfilled the preexisting stream valleys with sequences of packstone, wackestone, shale, and coarse quartzarenite. Topographically higher areas were blanketed with thin beds of laminated bioclastic packstone, grainstone, lime mudstone, and shale. Semirestricted tidal to nearshore environments are reflected in local sections by finely laminated hematitic dolomites, oncolitic wackestones, limestone conglomerates containing reworked Mississippian chert, and terrigenous shales supporting petrified wood float. Depositional onlap farther north resulted in a thinner and younger sequence. The cyclic nature of these deposits reflects a proximity to the shoreline and suggests an abruptly shifting base level, possibly controlled by Early Pennsylvanian glacial eustasy. The time-stratigraphic position of the valley-fill depositional unit may be broadly correlated to other Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian valley-fill sequences recognized in the Delaware basin and Grand Canyon.

  11. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J.; Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Postman, M.; White, R. L.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  12. Early-type Galaxies at z ~ 1.3. IV. Scaling Relations in Different Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M ? < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M <~ 2 × 1011 M? and those with masses M ~ 1011 M? follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ~35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

  13. Early prediction of student goals and affect in narrative-centered learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoung

    Recent years have seen a growing recognition of the role of goal and affect recognition in intelligent tutoring systems. Goal recognition is the task of inferring users' goals from a sequence of observations of their actions. Because of the uncertainty inherent in every facet of human computer interaction, goal recognition is challenging, particularly in contexts in which users can perform many actions in any order, as is the case with intelligent tutoring systems. Affect recognition is the task of identifying the emotional state of a user from a variety of physical cues, which are produced in response to affective changes in the individual. Accurately recognizing student goals and affect states could contribute to more effective and motivating interactions in intelligent tutoring systems. By exploiting knowledge of student goals and affect states, intelligent tutoring systems can dynamically modify their behavior to better support individual students. To create effective interactions in intelligent tutoring systems, goal and affect recognition models should satisfy two key requirements. First, because incorrectly predicted goals and affect states could significantly diminish the effectiveness of interactive systems, goal and affect recognition models should provide accurate predictions of user goals and affect states. When observations of users' activities become available, recognizers should make accurate early" predictions. Second, goal and affect recognition models should be highly efficient so they can operate in real time. To address key issues, we present an inductive approach to recognizing student goals and affect states in intelligent tutoring systems by learning goals and affect recognition models. Our work focuses on goal and affect recognition in an important new class of intelligent tutoring systems, narrative-centered learning environments. We report the results of empirical studies of induced recognition models from observations of students' interactions in narrative-centered learning environments. Experimental results suggest that induced models can make accurate early predictions of student goals and affect states, and they are sufficiently efficient to meet the real-time performance requirements of interactive learning environments.

  14. Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's Plasma Environment during Rosetta's Early Comet Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Martin; Combi, M. R.; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, K. C.; Tenishev, V. M.

    2010-10-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft is on its way to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to accompany it from roughly 3 AU all the way to perihelion at a heliocentric distance of 1.3 AU. During this journey the comet's gas production rate varies over several orders of magnitude and also the composition of the released material will likely change. Whereas the production of H2O has been derived from observations the relative abundance of CO as well as CO2 is still subject of discussion, especially during Rosetta's early comet phase around 3 AU. The neutral gas is ionized by mostly solar photons and electron-impact and then picked-up by the solar wind. This mass loading slows down the solar wind as momentum is transferred to the cometary ions and the bow shock appears where the solar wind transitions from supersonic to subsonic speeds. In case of a high enough production rate also a magnetic cavity can form close to nucleus. Here the coupled cometary neutrals and ions flowing out from the nucleus prevent the penetration of solar wind particles that carry the sun's magnetic field. With respect to the wide range of neutral gas production rates anticipated in the early comet phase we will show results of our magentohydrodynamics (SWMF/BATSRUS) code modeling the plasma environment of the comet. For 2.7 and 3.0 AU we identified 8 different sets of relative and absolute gas production rates injected spherically symmetric as well as in form of jets. We will show our model results thereof and discuss the expected plasma environment for Rosetta during the period of rendezvous and lander deployment. [This work has been supported by JPL subcontract 1266313 under NASA grant NMO710889 and NSF Planetary Astronomy grant AST0707283. We also acknowledge the support from the ISSI comet-modeling group.

  15. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  16. Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments

    PubMed Central

    Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Holland, Gregory P.; Williams, Lynda B.

    2013-01-01

    The composition of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter’s Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

  17. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  18. Beneficial Effects of Highly Palatable Food on the Behavioral and Neural Adversities induced by Early Life Stress Experience in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Soung-Min; Koo, JaeHyung; Jahng, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of highly palatable food during adolescence on the psycho-emotional and neural disturbances caused by early life stress experience in female rats. Female Sprague-Dawley pups were separated from dam for 3 h daily during the first two weeks of birth (MS) or left undisturbed (NH). Half of MS females received free access to chocolate cookies in addition to ad libitum chow from postnatal day 28. Pups were subjected to the behavioral tests during young adulthood. The plasma corticosterone response to acute stress, ?FosB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the brain regions were analyzed. Total caloric intake and body weight gain during the whole experimental period did not differ among the experimental groups. Cookie access during adolescence and youth improved anxiety-/depression-like behaviors by MS experience. ?FosB expression was decreased, but BDNF was increased in the nucleus accumbens of MS females, and ?FosB expression was normalized and BDNF was further increased following cookie access. Corticosterone response to acute stress was blunted by MS experience and cookie access did not improve it. Results suggest that cookie access during adolescence improves the psycho-emotional disturbances of MS females, and ?FosB and/or BDNF expression in the nucleus accumbens may play a role in its underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:26327809

  19. Adverse childhood experiences in the lives of female sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of early trauma in a sample of U.S. female sexual offenders (N = 47) using the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale. Compared with females in the general population, sex offenders had more than three times the odds of child sexual abuse, four times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than three times the odds of emotional neglect and having an incarcerated family member. Half of the female sex offenders had been sexually abused as a child. Only 20% endorsed zero adverse childhood experiences (compared with 35% of the general female population) and 41% endorsed four or more (compared with 15% of the general female population). Higher ACE scores were associated with having younger victims. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred in households with other types of dysfunction, suggesting that many female sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment by adults with problems of their own who were ill-equipped to protect their daughters from harm. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of female sex offender clients. PMID:25210107

  20. TIDAL INTERACTION AS THE ORIGIN OF EARLY-TYPE DWARF GALAXIES IN GROUP ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

    2014-11-20

    We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a ''smoking gun'' example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s{sup –1} to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

  1. Enriched Environment Protects the Optic Nerve from Early Diabetes-Induced Damage in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Damián; Aranda, Marcos L.; Rosenstein, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of reduced visual acuity and acquired blindness. Axoglial alterations of the distal (close to the chiasm) optic nerve (ON) could be the first structural change of the visual pathway in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. We analyzed the effect of environmental enrichment on axoglial alterations of the ON provoked by experimental diabetes. For this purpose, three days after vehicle or STZ injection, animals were housed in enriched environment (EE) or remained in a standard environment (SE) for 6 weeks. Anterograde transport, retinal morphology, optic nerve axons (toluidine blue staining and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity), microglia/macrophages (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) immunoreactivity), astrocyte reactivity (glial fibrillary acid protein-immunostaining), myelin (myelin basic protein immunoreactivity), ultrastructure, and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assessed in non-diabetic and diabetic animals housed in SE or EE. No differences in retinal morphology or retinal ganglion cell number were observed among groups. EE housing which did not affect the STZ-induced weight loss and hyperglycemia, prevented a decrease in the anterograde transport from the retina to the superior colliculus, ON axon number, and phosphorylated neurofilament heavy immunoreactivity. Moreover, EE housing prevented an increase in Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and astrocyte reactivity, as well as ultrastructural myelin alterations in the ON distal portion at early stages of diabetes. In addition, EE housing avoided a decrease in BDNF levels induced by experimental diabetes. These results suggest that EE induced neuroprotection in the diabetic visual pathway. PMID:26312758

  2. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  3. Studies of volatiles and organic materials in early terrestrial and present-day outer solar system environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid; Chyba, Christopher F.; Khare, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    A review and partial summary of projects within several areas of research generally involving the origin, distribution, chemistry, and spectral/dielectric properties of volatiles and organic materials in the outer solar system and early terrestrial environments are presented. The major topics covered include: (1) impact delivery of volatiles and organic compounds to the early terrestrial planets; (2) optical constants measurements; (3) spectral classification, chemical processes, and distribution of materials; and (4) radar properties of ice, hydrocarbons, and organic heteropolymers.

  4. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed anger/aggression, extrinsic focus, agreeableness, and engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower agreeableness and to higher anger/aggression and extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection. PMID:25484874

  5. Evolution of the Early Triassic marine depositional environment in the Croatian Dinarides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljinovi?, Dunja; Smir?i?, Duje; Horacek, Micha; Richoz, Sylvain; Krystyn, Leopold; Kolar-Jurkovšek, Tea; Jurkovšek, Bogdan

    2014-05-01

    In the central part of the Dinarides in Croatia, the Early Triassic depositional sequence was investigated by means of litho-, bio- and chemostratigraphy at locality Plavno (ca. 1.000m thick). Conodont and ?13C-isotope analysis were a powerfull tool to determine stage and substage boundaries. The succession begins with the second conodont zone of the Griesbachian Isarcicella staeschei and I. isarcica with low ?13C-values and a steadily increase towards the Griesbachian-Dienerian boundary. Around that boundary a minor, short, negative excursion occurs. In the Dienerian the ?13C-values increase with a steepening of the slope towards the Dienerian-Smithian boundary. Around that boundary a maximum of +5o in shallow water carbonate occurs followed by a steep and continuous drop to low, often negative values in the Smithian. Just before the Smithian-Spathian boundary a steep rise to a second maximum is documented. It is followed by decline in the Spathian and a gentle increase to a rounded peak at the Spathian-Anisian boundary. In lithological sense Plavno succession has threefold division: 1) carbonates representing the oldest Early Triassic strata (early Griesbachian); 2) dominantly red clastics (shales, siltstones and sandstones) with intercalation of oncoid/ooid or bioclast rich grainstones (uppermost Griesbachian, Dienerian and Smithian) and 3) dominantly grey carbonaceous lime mudstones, marls and calcisiltites with ammonoids representing Spathian strata. In the oldest strata (Griesbachian) in macrocrystalline subhedral dolomites rare microspheres and foraminifers Earlandia and Cornuspira point to the stressful conditions related to the end Permian mass extinction. In the uppermost Griesbachian and Dienerian strata, within dominantly clastic deposition, rare coarse oncoliths with typical microbial cortices occur. Their presence fits to the interpretation of biotical-induced precipitation related to PTB extinction and can suggest still stressful condition. The Dienerian and Smithian are characterized by strong siliciclastic input and deposition of red shales, siltstones and sandstones with intercalation of oolithic and bioclastic grainstones. Hummocky-cross-strata witness the importance of storms. Presence of loadcasts and abundant casts of bivalve shells suggest quick deposition of terrigenous material and instant burying of epifauna during storms. Abundant trace fossils preserved in shales evidence intensive life activity in an overall shallow depositonal environment. During the Spathian deposition of lime mudstones and marls prevails. Two Spathian intervals bear ammonoid fauna suggest deposition in slightly deeper environment and a connection with the open sea testifying a transgression at the beginning of Spathian. Even in deeper environment storms play a significant role assuming deposition above storm wave base. The influence of storms in this deeper environment is recognized as accumulation of coarsegrained bioclastic lag at the base of storm beds, graded calcisiltites, gutter casts and hummocky-cross-stratified beds. Intense bioturbation suggest colonization by organisms between storms. Pending from nature and distribution of facies the Plavno sequence has been interpreted as epeiric ramp. An epeiric ramp is defined here as having a very low bathymetric slope (negligible in its inner regions), no grainy shoreface facies, water depths of tens of meters, a width of many hundreds of kilometers and depositional processes dominated by storms.

  6. Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

  7. Relationship between the Linguistic Environments and Early Bilingual Language Development of Hearing Children in Deaf-Parented Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-01-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's "productive vocabulary" (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and "syntactic complexity" (measured with…

  8. Plio-Pleistocene vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic cycles in Southern Europe - implications for early human environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Angela; Bertini, Adele

    2013-04-01

    The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Plant fossils usually are rare or even absent at hominin sites. Thus, direct evidence on local vegetation and environment is generally missing. Independent from such localities, pollen profiles from the Mediterranean realm show the response of regional vegetation on global climate changes and cyclicity, with distinct spatial and temporal differences. Furthermore, plant fossils provide proxies for climate quantification that can be compared to the global signal, and add data to understanding the regional differentiation of Mediterranean environments. In this presentation we will discuss various palaeobotanical data from Southern Europe to assess Early Pleistocene climate and vegetation in time and space as part of the environment during the first expansions of early humans out of Africa.

  9. Order in the House!: Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children's Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…

  10. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life.

    PubMed

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J; Bottjer, David J; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic. PMID:26054731

  11. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J.; Bottjer, David J.; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-06-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic.

  12. Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.

    PubMed

    George, David; Blieck, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

  13. Palynostratigraphy and depositional environment of Vastan Lignite Mine (Early Eocene), Gujarat, western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M. R.; Sahni, Ashok; Rana, R. S.; Verma, Poonam

    2013-04-01

    Early Eocene sedimentary successions of south Asia, are marked by the development of extensive fossil-bearing, lignite-rich sediments prior to the collision of India with Asia and provide data on contemporary equatorial faunal and vegetational assemblages. One such productive locality in western India is the Vastan Lignite Mine representing approximately a 54-52 Ma sequence dated by the presence of benthic zone marker species, Nummulites burdigalensis burdigalensis. The present study on Vastan Lignite Mine succession is based on the spore-pollen and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and documents contemporary vegetational changes. 86 genera and 105 species belonging to algal remains (including dinoflagellate cysts), fungal remains, pteridophytic spores and angiospermous pollen grains have been recorded. On the basis of first appearance, acme and decline of palynotaxa, three cenozones have been recognized and broadly reflect changing palaeodepositional environments. These are in ascending stratigraphic order (i) Proxapertites Spp. Cenozone, (ii) Operculodinium centrocarpum Cenozone and (iii) Spinizonocolpites Spp. Cenozone. The basal sequence is lagoonal, palm-dominated and overlain by more open marine conditions with dinoflagellate cysts and at the top, mangrove elements are dominant. The succession has also provided a unique record of fish, lizards, snakes, and mammals.

  14. Early Triassic wrinkle structures on land: stressed environments and oases for life

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Daoliang; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Haijun; Benton, Michael J.; Bottjer, David J.; Song, Huyue; Tian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Wrinkle structures in rocks younger than the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) extinction have been reported repeatedly in marine strata, but rarely mentioned in rocks recording land. Here, three newly studied terrestrial P-Tr boundary rock succession in North China have yielded diverse wrinkle structures. All of these wrinkles are preserved in barely bioturbated shore-shallow lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the Liujiagou Formation. Conversely, both the lacustrine siliciclastic deposits of the underlying Sunjiagou Formation and the overlying Heshanggou Formation show rich bioturbation, but no wrinkle structures or other microbial-related structures. The occurrence of terrestrial wrinkle structures in the studied sections reflects abnormal hydrochemical and physical environments, presumably associated with the extinction of terrestrial organisms. Only very rare trace fossils occurred in the aftermath of the P-Tr extinction, but most of them were preserved together with the microbial mats. This suggests that microbial mats acted as potential oases for the surviving aquatic animals, as a source of food and oxygen. The new finds suggests that extreme environmental stresses were prevalent both in the sea and on land through most of the Early Triassic. PMID:26054731

  15. Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi; Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Yoshinaga, Shinji; Ohara, Kiyoshi; Ariga, Hisanori; Nomura, Kuninori; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi; Imai, Takashi

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

  16. Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

  17. From Toumai to Lucy: climate and orographic forcing on Environment and Early Human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Jost, Anne

    2014-05-01

    This abstract will present a summary of several studies we conducted at LSCE to understand through modeling simulations how the climate and topography variations may drive the evolution/migration of Early Humans. Tectonics and orbital forcing are major forcing factors on environment which act at different time scales. African Uplift spans over Millions of years whereas at low latitudes precession cycles will produce drastic hydrologic variations at the pluri millennial time scale. Therefore, in a first step it is necessary to investigate the impact of long term topographic changes on climate and vegetation. The long term forcing of the African uplift has been first tested and investigated through a set of numerical experiments using different heights for the Rift. We pointed out that this issue was the key factor to explain the dryness of the East part of the Rift associated with the disappearance of the forests when the rift was uplifted during the late Pliocene. Prior to this, much more water penetrates from the Indian Ocean over East Africa and forests can sustain. Therefore, this pattern of Dry East of the Rift and Wet west of the Rift is driven by the uplift and consistent with the evolution of vegetation. On the other side, the Mega Lake Chad (MLC) region was not really sensitive to this topographic change but much more to orbital forcing. Two species of early hominids (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 3,6 Ma, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Toumai, 7 Ma) were found in this region, associated with other vertebrate fossil remains, which seem to be associated to the presence of the Mega Lake Chad. It is thus crucial to understand how it is possible to produce and sustain such a large lake (350 000 km2) at these latitudes. Through a second series of simulations, we demonstrated that during the Pliocene, occurrences of such megalake episodes were possible (similarly as during most recent Holocene) and may be sustained during half a precession cycle (10 kyr) allowing a vegetation that enabled hominin settings (Australopithecus) Therefore the orbital parameters, mainly the precession cycle, drives the hydrologic cycle, shifting the ITCZ and the Monsoon to produce oscillations between arid and wet phases. This second mechanism is responsible for the establishment of periodically favorable conditions that enable a large lake in the Chad area which may last several thousand years. To go a step further, we need to downscale our model results from 50 to 10 km. We need this spatial resolution to better catch the topography and to better compare climate and vegetation outputs to multiproxies.

  18. Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

  19. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment...researchers performing field experiments, breeders making crosses... (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment...information about incidents affecting humans or other nontarget...

  20. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment...researchers performing field experiments, breeders making crosses... (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment...information about incidents affecting humans or other nontarget...

  1. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment...researchers performing field experiments, breeders making crosses... (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment...information about incidents affecting humans or other nontarget...

  2. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment...researchers performing field experiments, breeders making crosses... (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment...information about incidents affecting humans or other nontarget...

  3. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment...researchers performing field experiments, breeders making crosses... (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment...information about incidents affecting humans or other nontarget...

  4. Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frédéric E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

  5. A new approach to detect early or hidden fungal development in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Anton, Rukshala; Moularat, Stéphane; Robine, Enric

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the biodegradation problems encountered in buildings, exposure of their occupants to mold is responsible for numerous diseases such as respiratory infections, immediate or delayed allergies and different types of irritations. However, current techniques are unable to detect mold at an early stage of development or hidden contaminants. Moularat et al., in 2008 has established chemical fingerprints of moldy growth from Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) arising specifically from fungal metabolism and developed the Fungal Contamination Index (FCI) (Moularat et al., 2008a,b). This index has the advantage of detecting fungal development both reliably and rapidly before any visible signs of contamination could be detected. However, even though the FCI has been widely tested, VOCs' analysis by GC/MS, which is required for index calculation, is incompatible with real-time monitoring strategy for indoor environments. In this context, researches around FCI exploitation have been followed up in order to provide a monitoring device widely deployable which is the result of the miniaturization of an analytical chain for portable, reliable and low-cost applications. This device is based on one hand the selection and concentration of chemical compounds from the sample of interest and on the other hand the development of an array of different conducting polymer based sensors in order to obtain a specific footprint. This fungal contamination detection device was the subject of patent applications by the CSTB. The modularity of the system (ability to vary both the elements of detection polymers and retention time of interest) allows for expansion of its use to other pollutants. PMID:26169910

  6. Developmental differences in early adolescent aggression: a gene × environment × intervention analysis.

    PubMed

    Schlomer, Gabriel L; Cleveland, H Harrington; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark E; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

    2015-03-01

    Aggression-related problems such as assault and homicide among adolescents and young adults exact considerable social and economic costs. Although progress has been made, additional research is needed to help combat this persistent problem. Several lines of research indicate that parental hostility is an especially potent predictor of adolescent aggression, although most longitudinal research has focused on clarifying the direction of effects. In this study, we used longitudinal data from the PROSPER project (N = 580; 54.8% female), a primarily rural Caucasian preventative intervention sample, to examine developmental change in early- to mid-adolescent aggressive behavior problems (age 11-16 years). In addition, we examined maternal hostility as a predictor of developmental change in aggression and the PROSPER preventative intervention, designed to reduce substance use and aggression, as a potential influence on this association. Lastly, several studies indicate that variation in the DRD4 7-repeat gene moderates both parenting and intervention influences on externalizing behavior. Accordingly, we examined the potential moderating role of DRD4. As hypothesized, there was a significant maternal hostility by intervention interaction indicating that the intervention reduced the negative impact of maternal hostility on adolescent change in aggressive behavior problems. DRD4 7-repeat status (7+ vs. 7-) further conditioned this association whereby control group 7+ adolescents with hostile mothers showed increasing aggressive behavior problems. In contrast, aggression decreased for 7+ adolescents with similarly hostile mothers in the intervention. Implications for prevention are discussed as well as current perspectives in candidate gene-by-environment interaction research. PMID:25319639

  7. Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2014-01-01

    Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

  8. Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    This booklet provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and secure setting. Such an environment also…

  9. The Regulatory Environment: A Source of Job (Dis)Satisfaction for Early Childhood Professionals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Robertson, Greg; Goodfellow, Joy

    2008-01-01

    This article extends current understandings of sources of job (dis)satisfaction for childcare staff by investigating the hypothesis that early childhood professionals' satisfaction with regulatory requirements is a predictor of job satisfaction. Findings show that for early childhood professionals in New South Wales, Australia, satisfaction with…

  10. The Top 10 Mistakes in Early Intervention in Natural Environments--And the Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families has strayed from its conceptual roots and the intent of the original legislation. The author describes the top 10 mistakes commonly made in early intervention, including what happens at intake, assessment, plan development, and delivery of services. He proposes five…

  11. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  12. The complement system and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Regal, Jean F; Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Burwick, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality for mother and child, with lifelong health consequences for both. The innate and adaptive immune system must be regulated to insure survival of the fetal allograft, and the complement system is no exception. An intact complement system optimizes placental development and function and is essential to maintain host defense and fetal survival. Complement regulation is apparent at the placental interface from early pregnancy with some degree of complement activation occurring normally throughout gestation. However, a number of pregnancy complications including early pregnancy loss, fetal growth restriction, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and preterm birth are associated with excessive or misdirected complement activation, and are more frequent in women with inherited or acquired complement system disorders or complement gene mutations. Clinical studies employing complement biomarkers in plasma and urine implicate dysregulated complement activation in components of each of the adverse pregnancy outcomes. In addition, mechanistic studies in rat and mouse models of adverse pregnancy outcomes address the complement pathways or activation products of importance and allow critical analysis of the pathophysiology. Targeted complement therapeutics are already in use to control adverse pregnancy outcomes in select situations. A clearer understanding of the role of the complement system in both normal pregnancy and complicated or failed pregnancy will allow a rational approach to future therapeutic strategies for manipulating complement with the goal of mitigating adverse pregnancy outcomes, preserving host defense, and improving long term outcomes for both mother and child. PMID:25802092

  13. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  14. Classroom Writing Environments and Children's Early Writing Skills: An Observational Study in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Chenyi; Hur, Jinhee; Diamond, Karen E.; Powell, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the classroom writing environment in 31 Head Start classrooms, and explored the relations between the writing environment, children's (N = 262) name-writing, and children's letter knowledge using pathway analysis. Our analyses showed that Head Start classrooms provided opportunities (i.e., writing materials and teachers'…

  15. Temperament and peer problems from early to middle childhood: Gene-environment correlations with negative emotionality and sociability.

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, Liat; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Steinberg, Tami; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-11-01

    Based in a transactional framework in which children's own characteristics and the social environment influence each other to produce individual differences in social adjustment, we investigated relationships between children's peer problems and their temperamental characteristics, using a longitudinal and genetically informed study of 939 pairs of Israeli twins followed from early to middle childhood (ages 3, 5, and 6.5). Peer problems were moderately stable within children over time, such that children who appeared to have more peer problems at age 3 tended to have also more peer problems at age 6.5. Children's temperament accounted for 10%-22% of the variance in their peer problems measured at the same age and for 2%-7% of the variance longitudinally. It is important that genetic factors accounted for the association between temperament and peer problems and were in line with a gene-environment correlation process, providing support for the proposal that biologically predisposed characteristics, particularly negative emotionality and sociability, have an influence on children's early experiences of peer problems. The results highlight the need for early and continuous interventions that are specifically tailored to address the interpersonal difficulties of children with particular temperamental profiles. PMID:26439064

  16. The HI content of early-type galaxies from the ALFALFA survey. II. The case of low density environments

    E-print Network

    Grossi, M; Giovanardi, C; Gavazzi, G; Giovanelli, R; Haynes, M P; Kent, B R; Pellegrini, S; Stierwalt, S; Trinchieri, G

    2009-01-01

    We present the analysis of the HI content of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in low-density environments (LDEs) using the data set provided by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We compare their properties to the sample in the Virgo cluster that we studied in a previous paper (di Serego Alighieri et al. 2007, Paper I). We have selected a sample of 62 nearby ETGs (V -17). In both cases it is 10 times higher than that of the Virgo cluster. The presence of gas can be related to a recent star formation activity: 60% of all ETGs with HI have optical emission line ratios typical of star-forming galaxies and blue colours suggesting the presence of young stellar populations, especially in the dwarf subsample. We show that the HI detection rate of ETGs depends both on the environment and mass. The fraction of early-type systems with neutral hy drogen is higher in more massive objects when compared to early-type dwarfs. The ETGs in LDEs seem to have more heterogeneous properties than their Virgo clus...

  17. GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Onodera, M.; Carollo, M.; Dickinson, M.; Renzini, A.; Arimoto, N.; Cimatti, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Chary, R.-R.

    2013-08-01

    We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

  18. Benefits of adversity?! How life history affects the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter genotype

    PubMed Central

    Bodden, Carina; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Gerß, Joachim; Palme, Rupert; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewejohann, Lars; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral profiles are influenced by both positive and negative experiences as well as the genetic disposition. Traditionally, accumulating adversity over lifetime is considered to predict increased anxiety-like behavior (“allostatic load”). The alternative “mismatch hypothesis” suggests increased levels of anxiety if the early environment differs from the later-life environment. Thus, there is a need for a whole-life history approach to gain a deeper understanding of how behavioral profiles are shaped. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of life history on the behavioral profile of mice varying in serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype, an established mouse model of increased anxiety-like behavior. For this purpose, mice grew up under either adverse or beneficial conditions during early phases of life. In adulthood, they were further subdivided so as to face a situation that either matched or mismatched the condition experienced so far, resulting in four different life histories. Subsequently, mice were tested for their anxiety-like and exploratory behavior. The main results were: (1) Life history profoundly modulated the behavioral profile. Surprisingly, mice that experienced early beneficial and later escapable adverse conditions showed less anxiety-like and more exploratory behavior compared to mice of other life histories. (2) Genotype significantly influenced the behavioral profile, with homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice displaying highest levels of anxiety-like and lowest levels of exploratory behavior. Our findings concerning life history indicate that the absence of adversity does not necessarily cause lower levels of anxiety than accumulating adversity. Rather, some adversity may be beneficial, particularly when following positive events. Altogether, we conclude that for an understanding of behavioral profiles, it is not sufficient to look at experiences during single phases of life, but the whole life history has to be considered. PMID:25784864

  19. The Pattern of Adipose Tissue Accumulation during Early Infancy Provides an Environment for the Development of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Libraty, Daniel H.; Wang, Pengyan; Guo, Zhiru; Bigcas, Venelle; Brion, Job D.; Capeding, Rosario Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans with half of the world’s population at risk. During early infancy, severe dengue can develop after a primary dengue virus infection. There has been a clinical observation that severe dengue during the first year of life is seen only in chubby infants. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the associations between the development of severe dengue and adipose tissue accumulation patterns during the first year of life in a prospective observational clinical study of infants and dengue virus infections. We found that adipose tissue contains two potential targets for dengue virus infection and production- adipocytes and adipose tissue macrophages. During the first year of life, total body adiposity and visceral adipose tissue stores were at their highest levels in early infancy. Early infancy was also characterized by a relative decrease in alternatively activated (anti-inflammatory) macrophages, and a relative increase in circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions/Significance The data has been used to propose a model where the adipose tissue accumulation pattern and pro-inflammatory environment during early infancy provide the conditions for the potential development of severe dengue in immune-susceptible infants. PMID:26636570

  20. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  1. Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentzou, Konstantina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

  2. The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budros, Art

    2005-01-01

    Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In…

  3. Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

  4. Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

    2012-01-01

    In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

  5. Factors Influencing Overall Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Early Childhood Work Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorde-Bloom, Paula

    1988-01-01

    A fairly stable set of job clusters was identified as contributing sources of satisfaction and frustration to early childhood edcators in center-based programs. These job clusters were: co-worker relations; supervisor relations; the nature of the work; pay and opportunities for promotion; and general working conditions. Related findings are…

  6. Thermal and maternal environments shape the value of early hatching in a natural population of a strongly cannibalistic freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Thilo; Bekkevold, Dorte; Pohlmeier, Stefan; Wolter, Christian; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hatching early in the season is often assumed to elevate fitness, particularly in cannibalistic fish in which size-dependent predation mortality is a major selective force. While the importance of the thermal environment for the growth of fish is undisputed, the relevance of maternal effects for offspring growth in the wild is largely unknown. Otoliths of 366 age-0 pike (Esox lucius L.) were sampled in a natural lake over three seasons. All offspring were assigned to more than 330 potential mothers using 16 informative microsatellites. We found temperature and past maternal environment (as represented by juvenile growth rate), but not female total length, to jointly contribute to explain within- and among-season size variation in juvenile pike. While there was no statistical evidence for maternal effects on offspring growth rate, fast female juvenile growth positively correlated with the offspring length in early summer. One mechanism could be related to fast-growing females spawning somewhat earlier in the season. However, the more likely mechanism emerging in our study was that fast-growing females could have been in better condition prior to spawning, in turn possibly producing higher numbers of high-quality eggs. Our study is among the few to reveal carry-over effects related to past maternal environments on offspring performance in a naturally reproducing fish stock. At the same time, our study underscores recent arguments that size-dependent maternal effects may not be expressed in the wild and that early hatching does not generally produce size advantages in light of stochastically varying temperature conditions. PMID:25894093

  7. Tracing the evolution of nearby early-type galaxies in low density environments. The Ultraviolet view from GALEX

    E-print Network

    Rampazzo, R; Marino, A; Bianchi, L; Bressan, A; Buson, L M; Clemens, M; Panuzzo, P; Zeilinger, W W; 10.1007/s10509-010-0586-5

    2011-01-01

    We detected recent star formation in nearby early-type galaxies located in low density environments, with GALEX Ultraviolet (UV) imaging. Signatures of star formation may be present in the nucleus and in outer rings/arm like structures. Our study suggests that such star formation may be induced by different triggering mechanisms, such as the inner secular evolution driven by bars, and minor accretion phenomena. We investigate the nature of the (FUV-NUV) color vs. Mg2 correlation, and suggest that it relates to "downsizing" in galaxy formation.

  8. Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

  9. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent…

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Use of Natural Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments: An Exploratory Study of Beliefs, Practices, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In efforts to encourage use of natural outdoor settings as learning environments within early childhood education, survey research was conducted with 46 early childhood educators from northern Minnesota (United States) to explore their beliefs and practices regarding natural outdoor settings, as well investigate predictors of and barriers to the…

  11. Environment and ecology of East Asian dinosaurs during the Early Cretaceous inferred from stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, Romain; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Zhonghe; Wang, Xiaolin; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Fluteau, Frédéric; Ding, Zhongli; Kusuhashi, Nao; Mo, Jinyou; Philippe, Marc; Suteethorn, Varavudh; Wang, Yuanqing; Xu, Xing

    2015-02-01

    During the cold Late Barremian-Early Albian interval, terrestrial environments in East Asia were populated by rich and diverse vertebrate faunas characterized by a strong provincialism. The latitudinal gradient of temperature and the existence of geographic barriers likely accounted for some aspects of this heterogeneous distribution of faunas. Other factors, however, such as local environmental conditions and interactions within vertebrate communities, which could have influenced their distribution, have not yet been fully identified and understood. Therefore, new and published oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of apatite from Chinese and Thai reptiles (dinosaurs, crocodilians and turtles) have been analyzed and interpreted in terms of ecology, local air temperature and precipitation amounts. Differences in carbon and oxygen isotope compositions between various groups of sympatric plant-eating dinosaurs (sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) indicate food resources partitioning among them most likely to avoid competition. Mid-latitude environments, where the Jehol Biota flourished, were submitted to cool temperate climatic conditions with Mean Air Temperature (MAT) of 10 ± 4 °C and Mean Annual Precipitations (MAP) of about 600 mm/yr compatible with the existence of forest environments. By contrast, sub-tropical regions, characterized by MAT of about 20-25 °C were either submitted to high amounts of seasonal precipitations (of about 1200 mm/yr in Thailand) or to significant aridity (MAP of about 400 mm/yr in South China). This difference in precipitation regime between Thailand and South China may be attributed to the occurrence of the Coastal Cordillera extending along the East margin of the South China block. These mountain ranges likely prevented humid air masses from the Pacific to penetrate some parts of South China, thus generating a "rain shadow effect". Mosaic environments characterizing East Asia during the Late Early Cretaceous may have acted as a cradle for the origination of advanced dinosaur taxa that subsequently radiated over Eurasia and North America during the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Early environments drive diversity and floristic composition in Mediterranean old fields: Insights from a long-term experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayuela, Luis; Rey Benayas, José María; Maestre, Fernando T.; Escudero, Adrián

    2008-11-01

    While many studies have explored how previous and current environmental conditions affect the performance of individual organisms, their relative importance as drivers of current diversity and composition of communities is virtually unknown. We evaluated the response of herbaceous communities to previous (experienced during early establishment) and current environmental conditions by comparing their composition and diversity in an abandoned Mediterranean cropland planted with Quercus ilex subsp. ballota L. seedlings. These seedlings received different experimental treatments (summer irrigation and artificial shading) during the first three years after planting, and were interrupted from then on. We tested two complementary hypotheses: (i) the previous environments experienced by the herbaceous communities during their establishment have a long-term carry-over effect on diversity and composition of species assemblages and (ii) these communities are influenced by their current environment, particularly by the woody layer and the soil conditions. Overall, we observed an important contribution of initial environmental conditions in determining the current diversity and composition of herbaceous communities. Amelioration of environmental conditions, particularly water stress, during community establishment resulted in a decrease in alpha and beta diversity, possibly as a consequence of decreasing environmental heterogeneity. Previous environments accounted for 26.3% of the explained variance in current community composition. Annuals, legumes and forbs also responded significantly to previous environments, which explained 27.9%, 36.2% and 30.1%, respectively, of the variance in their composition. Our results suggest that those species present at a particular site early in succession pre-empt the site and influence vegetation dynamics on that site for a long time. This study provides important insights for understanding the mechanisms underlying the ecological effects of issues like cropland reforestation and woody vegetation encroachment.

  13. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  14. AMUSE-Field. II. Nucleation of early-type galaxies in the field versus cluster environment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Valluri, Monica; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-08-20

    The optical light profiles of nearby early-type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80% of the galaxies with stellar masses below 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} hosting a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field versus cluster early-type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W and F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early-type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra survey, and compare our results against the companion HST and Chandra surveys for a sample of 100 Virgo Cluster early-types (ACS Virgo Cluster and AMUSE-Virgo surveys, respectively). We model the two-dimensional light profiles of the field targets to identify and characterize NSCs, and find a field nucleation fraction of 26%{sub ?11%}{sup +17%} (at the 1? level), consistent with the measured Virgo nucleation fraction across a comparable mass distribution (30%{sub ?12%}{sup +17%}). Coupled with the Chandra result that SMBH activity is higher for the field, our findings indicate that, since the last epoch of star formation, the funneling of gas to the nuclear regions has been inhibited more effectively for Virgo galaxies, arguably via ram pressure stripping.

  15. AMUSE-Field II. Nucleation of early-type galaxies in the field vs. cluster environment

    E-print Network

    Baldassare, Vivienne F; Miller, Brendan P; Plotkin, Richard M; Treu, Tommaso; Valluri, Monica; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2014-01-01

    The optical light profiles of nearby early type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80 per cent of the galaxies with stellar masses below 10^10 Msun hosting a massive nuclear star cluster. At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear super-massive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field vs. cluster early type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W & F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra surv...

  16. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  17. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  18. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  19. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  20. 40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section... RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State emergency response commission shall identify...

  1. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  2. Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

  3. Effects of Early Home Environment on the Mental Development of Down Syndrome Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Martha C.; Ramsay, Maria K.

    1980-01-01

    Changes in the mental development as assessed with the Griffiths Mental Development Scales, of 37 Down's syndrome infants (mean age 8.9 months at outset of study) over a 6-month period were correlated with scores obtained on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory. (Author/PHR)

  4. A Hundred Ways of Listening: Gathering Children's Perspectives of Their Early Childhood Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Alison

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how young children can play active roles as researchers, explorers, and designers of their outdoor environment. It introduces the Mosaic approach, a framework for listening and responding to young children's perspectives, first developed in a study in a London preschool in 1999 (Clark & Moss 2001). The author used this…

  5. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  6. Early Child Language Mediates the Relation between Home Environment and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…

  7. Amelioration of marine environments at the Smithian-Spathian boundary, Early Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z.-Q.; Algeo, T. J.; Chen, J.; Wang, R.; Chen, L.; Hou, J.; Li, Y.; Qiu, H.; Feng, X.; Lu, Z.; Wang, X.; Huang, Y.

    2014-11-01

    Life on Earth underwent a protracted recovery following the Permian-Triassic mass extinction. The slowness of the recovery process may have been caused, in part, by episodic environmental and climatic crises during the Early Triassic, among which the Smithian-Spathian boundary (SSB) event is conspicuous. Here, we investigate the SSB event in the Shitouzhai section, South China, using a combination of carbonate carbon (?13Ccarb) and carbonate-associated sulfate sulfur isotopes (?34SCAS), rare earth elements, and elemental palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity proxies. Unlike the positive ?13Ccarb-?34SCAS covariation that characterizes most of the Early Triassic, the SSB at Shitouzhai exhibits negative covariation between ?13Ccarb (+4‰) and ?34SCAS (-14‰). This relationship may reflect an increase in organic carbon burial (e.g., due to elevated marine productivity) concurrently with oxidation of isotopically light H2S, a pattern that we attribute to enhanced vertical advection of nutrient- and sulfide-rich deepwaters to the ocean-surface layer. Enhanced upwelling was a likely response to the well-documented climatic cooling event at the SSB that terminated the extreme hothouse conditions of the Griesbachian-Smithian, a cooling that we infer to have transiently invigorated the global-ocean overturning circulation. Evidence at Shitouzhai for concurrent decreases in chemical weathering intensity and detrital sediment influx are also consistent with climatic cooling. A penecontemporaneous decline in marine biodiversity was probably associated with the late Smithian thermal maximum rather than the SSB event itself, and the affected marine faunas did not recover immediately in response to climatic and environmental amelioration at the SSB but, rather, underwent a stepwise recovery during the early to middle Spathian. The ultimate cause of the SSB event is uncertain but may have been related to reduced intrusive magmatic activity in the Siberian Traps Large Igneous Province.

  8. Bringing the environment in: Early Central European contributions to an ecologically oriented psychology of perception.

    PubMed

    Radler, Jan

    2015-11-01

    This article explores the Central European philosophical roots of perceptual psychology from a historical perspective. It will be shown that Alexius Meinong's notion of a forum of perception is the point of departure for a beginning inclusion of external factors in explaining perception. This conclusion is mainly because of Fritz Heider's early contributions on perception and its influence on Egon Brunswik. In addition, the impact of Meinong and Edmund Husserl-both students of Franz Brentano-on Brunswik's teacher, Karl Bühler, is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25893848

  9. Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination

    PubMed Central

    BURNEY, IAN

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

  10. Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [?/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [?/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

  11. Nature and nurture of early-type dwarf galaxies in low density environments

    E-print Network

    Grützbauch, R; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [alpha/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [alpha/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

  12. Early Results from the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Hine, B.; Delory, G. T.; Mahaffy, Paul; Benna, Mehdi; Horanyi, Mihaly; Colaprete, Anthony; Noble, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    On 6 September, 2013, a near-perfect launch of the first Minotaur V rocket successfully carried NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a high-eccentricity geocentric orbit. After 30 days of phasing, LADEE arrived at the Moon on 6 October, 2013. LADEE's science objectives are twofold: (1) Determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere, investigate processes controlling its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions; (2) Characterize the lunar exospheric dust environment, measure its spatial and temporal variability, and effects on the lunar atmosphere, if any. After a successful commissioning phase, the three science instruments have made systematic observations of the lunar dust and exospheric environment. These include initial observations of argon, neon and helium exospheres, and their diurnal variations; the lunar micrometeoroid impact ejecta cloud and its variations; spatial and temporal variations of the sodium exosphere; and the search for sunlight extinction caused by dust. LADEE also made observations of the effects of the Chang'e 3 landing on 14 December 2013.

  13. Paleosol stable isotope evidence for early hominid occupation of East Asian temperate environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Hongfang; Ambrose, S.H.; Liu, Chen; Follmer, L.R.

    1997-01-01

    Hominids left Africa and occupied mainland Asia by 1.8 myr ago. About 1.15 myr ago Homo erectus and an associated Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna migrated from subtropical China across the Qinling Mountains into the temperate Loess Plateau. This migration may be an evolutionary milestone in human adaptability because it may represent the first occupation of a nontropical environment. Loess-paleosol stable isotope ratios from the last interglacial-glacial cycle provide comparative data for reconstructing the hominid paleoenvironments. The climate during Gongwangling hominid occupation about 1.15 myr ago was influenced by both Siberian-Mongolian winter and Indian summer monsoon systems characterized as a cold/cool, dry winter and warm/mild, semihumid summer and fall. The Gongwangling hominids preyed mainly on warm-climate-adapted animals such as Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna, suggesting a warm season occupation. The stable isotope ratios also indicate that the Chenjiawo hominids occupied an environment similar to that of the Gongwangling about 650,000 yr ago. The associated fauna, with a mixture of forest and steppe, warm-and cold/cool-climate-adapted animal assemblage's, suggests a permanent occupation by this time. Thus, the reliable earliest and permanent occupation of temperate environments may have occurred 150,000 yr earlier in eastern Asia rather than in Europe. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  14. Paleosol Stable Isotope Evidence for Early Hominid Occupation of East Asian Temperate Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong; Ambrose, Stanley H.; Liu, Chao-Li Jack; Follmer, Leon R.

    1997-09-01

    Hominids left Africa and occupied mainland Asia by 1.8 myr ago. About 1.15 myr ago Homo erectusand an associated Stegodon-Ailuropodafauna migrated from subtropical China across the Qinling Mountains into the temperate Loess Plateau. This migration may be an evolutionary milestone in human adaptability because it may represent the first occupation of a nontropical environment. Loess-paleosol stable isotope ratios from the last interglacial-glacial cycle provide comparative data for reconstructing the hominid paleoenvironments. The climate during Gongwangling hominid occupation about 1.15 myr ago was influenced by both Siberian-Mongolian winter and Indian summer monsoon systems characterized as a cold/cool, dry winter and warm/mild, semihumid summer and fall. The Gongwangling hominids preyed mainly on warm-climate-adapted animals such as Stegodon-Ailuropodafauna, suggesting a warm season occupation. The stable isotope ratios also indicate that the Chenjiawo hominids occupied an environment similar to that of the Gongwangling about 650,000 yr ago. The associated fauna, with a mixture of forest and steppe, warm- and cold/cool-climate-adapted animal assemblage's, suggests a permanent occupation by this time. Thus, the reliable earliest and permanent occupation of temperate environments may have occurred 150,000 yr earlier in eastern Asia rather than in Europe.

  15. Social environment and weather during early life influence gastro-intestinal parasite loads in a group-living mammal.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Heiko G; Starkloff, Anett

    2014-10-01

    Conditions experienced during early life have been frequently shown to exert long-term consequences on an animal's fitness. In mammals and birds, the time around and shortly after weaning is one of the crucial periods early in life. However, little is known about how social and abiotic environmental conditions experienced around this time affect fitness-related traits such as endoparasite loads. We studied consequences of social interactions and rainy weather conditions around and after weaning on gastro-intestinal nematode loads in juvenile European rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Infestations with the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum and with the intestinal nematode Passalurus ambiguus were higher in animals experiencing more rain during early life. This might have been due to the higher persistence of nematodes' infective stages outside the host body together with the animals' lower energy allocation for immune defence under more humid and thus energetically challenging conditions. In contrast, infestations with P. ambiguus were lower in animals with more positive social interactions with mother and litter siblings. We propose that social support provided by familiar group members buffered negative stress effects on immune function, lowering endoparasite infestations. This is supported by the negative correlation between positive social behaviour and serum corticosterone concentrations, indicating lower stress in juveniles which integrated more successfully into the social network of their group. In conclusion, the findings offer a pathway showing how differences in the abiotic environment and social life conditions experienced early in life could translate into long-term fitness consequences via the effects on endoparasite loads. PMID:25004871

  16. The Ribosome-Sec61 Translocon Complex Forms a Cytosolically Restricted Environment for Early Polytopic Membrane Protein Folding.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Melissa A; Bandyopadhyay, Anannya; Devaraneni, Prasanna K; Woodward, Josha; Rooney, LeeAnn; Yang, Zhongying; Skach, William R

    2015-11-27

    Transmembrane topology of polytopic membrane proteins (PMPs) is established in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the ribosome Sec61-translocon complex (RTC) through iterative cycles of translocation initiation and termination. It remains unknown, however, whether tertiary folding of transmembrane domains begins after the nascent polypeptide integrates into the lipid bilayer or within a proteinaceous environment proximal to translocon components. To address this question, we used cysteine scanning mutagenesis to monitor aqueous accessibility of stalled translation intermediates to determine when, during biogenesis, hydrophilic peptide loops of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel are delivered to cytosolic and lumenal compartments. Results showed that following ribosome docking on the ER membrane, the nascent polypeptide was shielded from the cytosol as it emerged from the ribosome exit tunnel. Extracellular loops followed a well defined path through the ribosome, the ribosome translocon junction, the Sec61-translocon pore, and into the ER lumen coincident with chain elongation. In contrast, intracellular loops (ICLs) and C-terminalresidues exited the ribosome into a cytosolically shielded environment and remained inaccessible to both cytosolic and lumenal compartments until translation was terminated. Shielding of ICL1 and ICL2, but not the C terminus, became resistant to maneuvers that disrupt electrostatic ribosome interactions. Thus, the early folding landscape of polytopic proteins is shaped by a spatially restricted environment localized within the assembled ribosome translocon complex. PMID:26254469

  17. What a general paediatrician needs to know about early life programming.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas C; Drake, Amanda J

    2015-11-01

    The process whereby early exposure to an adverse environment has an influence on later life outcomes has been called 'early life programming'. While epidemiological evidence for this has been available for decades, only in recent years have the mechanisms, in particular epigenetic modifications, for this process begun to be elucidated. We discuss the evidence for early life programming, the possible mechanisms, how effects may be transmitted across generations, and conclude by looking at some examples relevant to general paediatrics. PMID:25990501

  18. Adversity, attachment, and mentalizing.

    PubMed

    Fonagy, Peter; Bateman, Anthony W

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this special issue offer evidence of personality disorder as a dysfunction of higher-order cognition, which is conceptualized variously as a disorder of mentalizing, metacognition, mindfulness, social cognition and reflective function. While there may be differences in the scope of these concepts, they all imply that higher-order mental processing is at the core of personality function. In this commentary, the authors use mentalizing as an umbrella term for these concepts, and argue that it is the complex interaction of adversity, attachment and mentalizing that leads to the characteristic symptoms of borderline personality disorder and other personality disorders. Evidence is provided from the papers in this special issue, comments made on the findings and further avenues for research are recommended. PMID:26654293

  19. Lithic Landscapes: Early Human Impact from Stone Tool Production on the Central Saharan Environment

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world’s ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools—Acheulean and Middle Stone Age—indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

  20. Lithic landscapes: early human impact from stone tool production on the central Saharan environment.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2015-01-01

    Humans have had a major impact on the environment. This has been particularly intense in the last millennium but has been noticeable since the development of food production and the associated higher population densities in the last 10,000 years. The use of fire and over-exploitation of large mammals has also been recognized as having an effect on the world's ecology, going back perhaps 100,000 years or more. Here we report on an earlier anthropogenic environmental change. The use of stone tools, which dates back over 2.5 million years, and the subsequent evolution of a technologically-dependent lineage required the exploitation of very large quantities of rock. However, measures of the impact of hominin stone exploitation are rare and inherently difficult. The Messak Settafet, a sandstone massif in the Central Sahara (Libya), is littered with Pleistocene stone tools on an unprecedented scale and is, in effect, a man-made landscape. Surveys showed that parts of the Messak Settafet have as much as 75 lithics per square metre and that this fractured debris is a dominant element of the environment. The type of stone tools--Acheulean and Middle Stone Age--indicates that extensive stone tool manufacture occurred over the last half million years or more. The lithic-strewn pavement created by this ancient stone tool manufacture possibly represents the earliest human environmental impact at a landscape scale and is an example of anthropogenic change. The nature of the lithics and inferred age may suggest that hominins other than modern humans were capable of unintentionally modifying their environment. The scale of debris also indicates the significance of stone as a critical resource for hominins and so provides insights into a novel evolutionary ecology. PMID:25760999

  1. Formic Acid and Monmorillonite Clay in an Early Earth Environment (<10 GPa, <1000K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, W.; Tuff, J. R.; Kohn, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    Ambient temperature experiments have shown that silicate minerals such as Na-montmorillonite clay ((Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O) can act as templates for the creation of ordered organic macro-molecules, a mechanism promoted for the origin of replication and chirality of prebiotic molecules. As montmorillonite clay is a weathering product of mafic and intermediate rocks, it was present early in Earth's history, along with organic material delivered by meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and as such both materials would have been subject to high pressures and temperatures due to burial, subduction or impacts. Infrared spectroscopy of the reaction between montmorillonite and formic acid (HCOOH) in the diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 10 GPa has shown the irreversible formation of peaks not seen in either material. Larger volumes of reacted sample for quantitative analytical study can be created in the piston-cylinder press.

  2. The scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies across a range of environments

    E-print Network

    Penny, Samantha J; Forbes, Duncan A; Benson, Andrew J; Mould, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of a Keck-ESI study of dwarf galaxies across a range of environment: the Perseus Cluster, the Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 group, and the NGC 1023 group. Eighteen dEs are targeted for spectroscopy, three for the first time. We confirm cluster membership for one Virgo dE, and group membership for one dE in the NGC 1023 group, and one dE in the NGC 1407 group for the first time. Regardless of environment, the dEs follow the same size-magnitude and $\\sigma$-luminosity relation. Two of the Virgo dwarfs, VCC 1199 and VCC 1627, have among the highest central velocity dispersions ($\\sigma_{0}$ = 58.4 km s$^{-1}$ and 49.2 km s$^{-1}$) measured for dwarfs of their luminosity ($M_{R}\\approx -17$). Given their small sizes ($R_{e} < 300$ pc) and large central velocity dispersions, we classify these two dwarfs as compact ellipticals rather than dEs. Group dEs typically have higher mean dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios than the cluster dEs, with $M_{dyn}/M_{\\star} = 5.1\\pm0.6$ for the group dwarfs,...

  3. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  4. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  5. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  6. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  7. 18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211... for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the environment... that it has no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in § 292.208(b)(1). (b)...

  8. Challenges and Early Results: Interactive benthic experiments in hydrate environments of Barkley Canyon, NEPTUNE Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Thomsen, L.; de Beer, D.

    2012-04-01

    NEPTUNE Canada, operating and online since 2009, is an 800km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network across the northern Juan de Fuca Plate, northeastern Pacific, part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. One of 15 study areas is an environment of exposed hydrate mounds along the wall of Barkley Canyon, at ~865m water depth. This is the home of a benthic crawler developed by Jacobs University of Germany, who is affectionately known as Wally. Wally is equipped with a range of sensors including a camera, methane sensor, current meter, fluorometer, turbidity meter, CTD, and a sediment microprofiler developed at the Max Planck Institute with probes for oxygen, methane, sulphide, pH, temperature, and conductivity. In conjunction with this sensor suite, a series of experiments have been designed to assess the cycling of biogenic carbon and carbonate in this complex environment. The biota range from microbes, to molluscs, to large fish, and therefore the carbon inputs include both a range of organic carbon compounds as well as the complex materials that are "biogenic carbonate". Controlled experimental specimens were deployed of biogenic carbonate (Mytilus edulis fresh shells) and cellulose (pieces of untreated pine lumber) that had been previously well characterized (photographed, weighed, and numbered, matching valves and lumber kept as controls). Deployment at the sediment/water interface was in such a way to maximize natural burial exhumation cycles but to minimize specimen interaction. 10 replicate specimens of each material were deployed in two treatments: 1) adjacent to a natural life and death assemblage of chemosynthetic bivalves and exposed hydrate on a hydrate mound and 2) on the muddy seafloor at a distance from the mound. In order to quantify and track the rates and processes of modification of the natural materials, and their possible environmental/ecological correlates, observations of the experimental specimens are being made on a regular basis using the crawler camera and sensors. On retrieval, the specimens will be further studied for net material loss, surface alteration, microbial recruitment, endo- and epibionts, and microstructural and chemical modification. The complex coordination of hardware, software, and people is challenging such that the ideal of frequent and timely observations of these poorly known processes is realized. Understanding the production and cycling of carbon across the sediment/water interface in this environment will help elucidate the formation and evolution of these hydrate deposits, their distribution through time, and the ecological and taphonomic feedbacks they generate.

  9. Role of early life exposure and environment on neurodegeneration: implications on brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and retinal degeneration have been studied extensively and varying molecular mechanisms have been proposed for onset of such diseases. Although genetic analysis of these diseases has also been described, yet the mechanisms governing the extent of vulnerability to such diseases remains unresolved. Recent studies have, therefore, focused on the role of environmental exposure in progression of such diseases especially in the context of prenatal and postnatal life, explaining how molecular mechanisms mediate epigenetic changes leading to degenerative diseases. This review summarizes both the animal and human studies describing various environmental stimuli to which an individual or an animal is exposed during in-utero and postnatal period and mechanisms that promote neurodegeneration. The SNPs mediating gene environment interaction are also described. Further, preventive and therapeutic strategies are suggested for effective intervention. PMID:24847438

  10. The scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies across a range of environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Samantha J.; Janz, Joachim; Forbes, Duncan A.; Benson, Andrew J.; Mould, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a Keck-ESI study of dwarf galaxies across a range of environment: the Perseus Cluster, the Virgo Cluster, the NGC 1407 group, and the NGC 1023 group. 18 dwarf ellipticals (dEs) are targeted for spectroscopy, three for the first time. We confirm cluster membership for one Virgo dE, and group membership for one dE in the NGC 1023 group, and one dE in the NGC 1407 group for the first time. Regardless of environment, the dEs follow the same size-magnitude and ?-luminosity relation. Two of the Virgo dwarfs, VCC 1199 and VCC 1627, have among the highest central velocity dispersions (?0 = 58.4 and 49.2 km s-1) measured for dwarfs of their luminosity (MR ? -17). Given their small sizes (Re < 300 pc) and large central velocity dispersions, we classify these two dwarfs as compact ellipticals (cEs) rather than dEs. Group dEs typically have higher mean dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios than the cluster dEs, with Mdyn/M? = 5.1 ± 0.6 for the group dwarfs, versus Mdyn/M? = 2.2 ± 0.5 for the cluster sample, which includes two cEs. We also search for trends in Mdyn/M? versus distance from M87 for the Virgo Cluster population, and find no preference for dwarfs with high values of Mdyn/M? to reside in the cluster outskirts dyn centre.

  11. Symbiosis in cell evolution: Life and its environment on the early earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats cell evolution from the viewpoint of the serial endosymbiosis theory of the origin of organelles. Following a brief outline of the symbiotic theory, which holds that eukaryotes evolved by the association of free-living bacteria with a host prokaryote, the diversity of life is considered, and five kingdoms of organisms are distinguished: the prokaryotic Monera and the eukaryotic Protoctista, Animalia, Fungi and Plantae. Symbiotic and traditional direct filiation theories of cell evolution are compared. Recent observations of cell structure and biochemistry are reviewed in relation to early cell evolution, with attention given to the geological context for the origin of eukaryotic cells, the origin of major bacterial anaerobic pathways, the relationship between aerobic metabolism and atmospheric oxygen, criteria for distinguishing symbiotic organelles from those that originated by differentiation, and the major classes of eukaryotic organelles: mitochondria, cilia, microtubules, the mitotic and meiotic apparatuses, and pastids. Cell evolution during the Phanerozoic is also discussed with emphasis on the effects of life on the biosphere

  12. The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

    2010-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

  13. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment.

    PubMed

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-09-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations. PMID:26380685

  14. Early subtropical forest growth is driven by community mean trait values and functional diversity rather than the abiotic environment

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Li, Ying; Härdtle, Werner; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Schmidt, Karsten; Scholten, Thomas; Seidler, Gunnar; von Oheimb, Goddert; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2015-01-01

    While functional diversity (FD) has been shown to be positively related to a number of ecosystem functions including biomass production, it may have a much less pronounced effect than that of environmental factors or species-specific properties. Leaf and wood traits can be considered particularly relevant to tree growth, as they reflect a trade-off between resources invested into growth and persistence. Our study focussed on the degree to which early forest growth was driven by FD, the environment (11 variables characterizing abiotic habitat conditions), and community-weighted mean (CWM) values of species traits in the context of a large-scale tree diversity experiment (BEF-China). Growth rates of trees with respect to crown diameter were aggregated across 231 plots (hosting between one and 23 tree species) and related to environmental variables, FD, and CWM, the latter two of which were based on 41 plant functional traits. The effects of each of the three predictor groups were analyzed separately by mixed model optimization and jointly by variance partitioning. Numerous single traits predicted plot-level tree growth, both in the models based on CWMs and FD, but none of the environmental variables was able to predict tree growth. In the best models, environment and FD explained only 4 and 31% of variation in crown growth rates, respectively, while CWM trait values explained 42%. In total, the best models accounted for 51% of crown growth. The marginal role of the selected environmental variables was unexpected, given the high topographic heterogeneity and large size of the experiment, as was the significant impact of FD, demonstrating that positive diversity effects already occur during the early stages in tree plantations. PMID:26380685

  15. Moving Upstream: Evaluating Adverse Upstream Endpoints for Improved Risk Assessment and Decision-Making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and ...

  16. Biomolecule-Mineral Interactions in the Geochemical Environment on Early Earth and in the Human Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, N.

    2011-12-01

    We worked on four projects consistent with the broad goals of the grant to investigate (i) the potential impacts of mineral surface chemistry and particle size on the stability and viability of cell membranes, bacteria and human cells and (ii) the influence of biomolecules on mineral nucleation and growth. The projects are of relevance to the origin and early evolution of life, biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental biogeochemistry. The freedom enabled by the five-year grant to explore high-risk scientific areas, and the resulting high impact outcomes, cannot be overstated. We developed an almost entirely new field of Medical Mineralogyy and extended our concepts and knowledge-base to the potential roles of mineral surfaces in the evolution of protocells and the earliest cells. These exciting connections to medical mineralogy, and to the origin and evolution of life on early Earth are fascinating topics to the general public and even to other scientists, especially when the links to mineralogy and geochemistry are highlighted. In brief, we examined the stability of lipid bilayers representing model protocell membranes comprised of phospholipid bilayers with mineral surfaces. We found that the stability of lipid bilayers depends on mineral surface charge and increases as silica glass ~ quartz < rutile ~ mica < corundum. In a second project, we investigated whether the evolution of bacterial extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) may have been driven by nanomineral toxicity. Results showed that EPS does protect against mineral toxicity, and toxicity increases as amorphous SiO2 < ?-TiO2 (anatase) < ?-Al2O3. A commonly accepted mechanism for Biomineralization is protein-templated nucleation. We used Molecular Dynamics and Bioinformatics computational chemistry approaches and showed that the random coil structure of a specific peptide promotes formation of an amorphous Ca-PO4 cluster, but not direct templation of hydroxyapatite. The consistency between our Ca-PO4 and previous experimental Ca-CO3 studies indicates that universal principles underly biomineralization processes of relevance to environmental biogeochemistry as well as to medical mineralogy. Minerals can enter the human either inadvertently as inhaled dusts or are inserted by design such as in components of orthopedic implants. It is important to know how the mineral surface properties affect the body's immune system response. We found that adhesion/detachment force of the Jurkat -line of T-lymphocytes increased as SiO2 glass ~ quartz < rutile (100) ~ mica (001) < polycrystalline corundum, and was related to the unraveling of cell surface glycoproteins, and to mineral surface charge. The studies described above have resulted in 23 peer-reviewed publications to date (published or in review or in prep.); one MSA volume and one Elements issue edited by the P.I.; trained five graduate students, three post-doctoral research scientists and 4 undergraduate students; numerous invited presentations at international conferences and at Universities; and numerous outreach activities including interviews on National Public Radio and on Hungarian national newspapers and television at the International Mineralogical Association's Annual Meeting.

  17. Parents and early life environment affect behavioral development of laying hen chickens.

    PubMed

    de Haas, Elske N; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G G; Rodenburg, T Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings' SFP at one week and offsprings' anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  18. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  19. Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L

    2013-08-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

  20. Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia

    SciTech Connect

    Yavuz, H.H.; Oercen, S.

    1988-08-01

    The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts of the Tethys Sea and Indian-Pacific Oceans. The clastic lower part of the succession is characterized by sheet flow and braided-stream deposits of an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex. Marine carbonates overlie these deposits, but in some places a transgressive lag deposit lies between the unconformity surface and the carbonates. The lag deposit unit corresponds to the Gastropoda biozone, including Ostrea, Terebralia, and Pecten. Four carbonate facies are recognized: (1) Clayey limestones with ahermatypic corals, ostracods, macrofossils, and foraminifers. This facies corresponds to the Textularia-Rotalia biozone. (2) Packstones and grainstones with abundant nearshore and some offshore foraminifers, corresponding to the Miliolidae biozone. (3) Packstones and wackestones with offshore foraminifers. This facies includes the Miogypsina irregularis-Miogypsina intermedia biozone. (4) Boundstones and very poorly sorted reef-talus conglomerates including hermatypic corals, foraminifers, and binding foraminifers. This facies is the coral biozone. These sediments define the northern extent of the Tethys Sea in the investigated area during the Burdigalian. They were deposited in a shallow carbonate platform at the southern margin of the Anatolian mainland, which had a steep coast characterized by an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex.

  1. Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

  2. Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-? (ESR1)

    PubMed Central

    Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

  3. Relationship between the linguistic environments and early bilingual language development of hearing children in deaf-parented families.

    PubMed

    Kanto, Laura; Huttunen, Kerttu; Laakso, Marja-Leena

    2013-04-01

    We explored variation in the linguistic environments of hearing children of Deaf parents and how it was associated with their early bilingual language development. For that purpose we followed up the children's productive vocabulary (measured with the MCDI; MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory) and syntactic complexity (measured with the MLU10; mean length of the 10 longest utterances the child produced during videorecorded play sessions) in both Finnish Sign Language and spoken Finnish between the ages of 12 and 30 months. Additionally, we developed new methodology for describing the linguistic environments of the children (N = 10). Large variation was uncovered in both the amount and type of language input and language acquisition among the children. Language exposure and increases in productive vocabulary and syntactic complexity were interconnected. Language acquisition was found to be more dependent on the amount of exposure in sign language than in spoken language. This was judged to be related to the status of sign language as a minority language. The results are discussed in terms of parents' language choices, family dynamics in Deaf-parented families and optimal conditions for bilingual development. PMID:23349396

  4. Transition from arid to hyper-arid environment in the southern Levant deserts as recorded by early Pleistocene cummulic Aridisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Rivka; Simhai, Ori; Ayalon, Avner; Enzel, Yehouda; Matmon, Ari; Crouvi, Onn; Porat, Naomi; McDonald, Eric

    2011-02-01

    The time at which deserts established their current arid or hyper-arid conditions remains a fundamental question regarding the history of Earth. Cosmogenic isotope exposure ages of desert pavement and welded, calcic-gypsic-salic Reg soils that developed on relatively flat alluvial surfaces ˜2 Ma ago in the Negev Desert indicate long geomorphic stability under extremely dry conditions. Over a short interval during their initial stage of development between 1-2 Ma, these cumulative soils are characterized by calcic soils reaching maximum stage III of carbonate morphology. This interval is the only period when calcic soil horizons formed on stable abandoned alluvial surfaces in the southern Negev Desert. Since ˜1 Ma pedogenesis changed toward more arid soil environment and the formation of gypsic-salic soil horizons that were later followed by dust accumulation. The dichotomy of only moderately-developed calcic soil (stages II-III) during a relatively long time interval (10 5-10 6 years) indicates an arid environment that does not support continuous development but only occasional calcic soil formation. The very low ?18O and relatively high ?13C values of these early pedogenic carbonates support soil formation under arid climatic conditions. Such an environment was probably characterized by rare and relatively longer duration rainstorms which occasionally allowed deeper infiltration of rainwater and longer retention of soil moisture. This, in turn enabled the growth of sparse vegetation that enhanced deposition of pedogenic carbonate. At ˜1 Ma these rare events of slightly wetter conditions ceased and less atmospheric moisture reached the southern Negev Desert leading to deposition of soluble salts and dust deposited in the soils. The combination of long-term hyperaridity, scarcity of vegetation and lack of bioturbation, salts cementation, dust accumulation and tight desert pavement cover, has protected the surfaces from erosion forming one of the most remarkably stable landscapes on Earth, a landscape that essentially has not eroded, but accumulated salt and dust for more than 10 6 yr.

  5. Identifying Adverse Drug Events

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish K.; Kuperman, Gilad J.; Teich, Jonathan M.; Leape, Lucian; Shea, Brian; Rittenberg, Eve; Burdick, Elisabeth; Seger, Diane Lew; Vliet, Martha Vander; Bates, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adverse drug events (ADEs) are both common and costly. Most hospitals identify ADEs using spontaneous reporting, but this approach lacks sensitivity; chart review identifies more events but is expensive. Computer-based approaches to ADE identification appear promising, but they have not been directly compared with chart review and they are not widely used. Objectives: To develop a computer-based ADE monitor, and to compare the rate and type of ADEs found with the monitor with those discovered by chart review and by stimulated voluntary report. Design: Prospective cohort study in one tertiary-care hospital. Participants: All patients admitted to nine medical and surgical units in a tertiary-care hospital over an eight-month period. Main Outcome Measure: Adverse drug events identified by the computer-based monitor, by chart review, and by stimulated voluntary report. Methods: A computer-based monitoring program identified alerts, which were situations suggesting that an ADE might be present (e.g., an order for an antidote such as naloxone). A trained reviewer then examined patients' hospital records to determine whether an ADE had occurred. The results of the computer-based monitoring strategy were compared with two other ADE detection strategies: intensive chart review and stimulated voluntary report by nurses and pharmacists. The monitor and the chart review strategies were independent, and the reviewers were blinded. Results: The computer monitoring strategy identified 2,620 alerts, of which 275 were determined to be ADEs. The chart review found 398 ADEs, whereas voluntary report detected 23. Of the 617 ADEs detected by at least one method, 76 ADEs were detected by both computer monitor and chart review. The computer monitor identified 45 percent; chart review, 65 percent; and voluntary report, 4 percent. The ADEs identified by computer monitor were more likely to be classified as “severe” than were those identified by chart review (51 versus 42 percent, p =.04). The positive predictive value of computer-generated alerts was 16 percent during the first eight weeks of the study; rule modifications increased this to 23 percent in the final eight weeks. The computer strategy required 11 person-hours per week to execute, whereas chart review required 55 person-hours per week and voluntary report strategy required 5. Conclusions: The computer-based monitor identified fewer ADEs than did chart review but many more ADEs than did stimulated voluntary report. The overlap among the ADEs identified using different methods was small, suggesting that the incidence of ADEs may be higher than previously reported and that different detection methods capture different events. The computer-based monitoring system represents an efficient approach for measuring ADE frequency and gauging the effectiveness of ADE prevention programs. PMID:9609500

  6. Early pregnancy vitamin D status and risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes in a bi-ethnic cohort: the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You (B.A.B.Y.) Study.

    PubMed

    Nobles, Carrie J; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy and higher in Hispanic as compared with non-Hispanic white women. However, the association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse pregnancy outcomes remains unclear and may vary across ethnic groups, in part because of genetic variation in the metabolism of vitamin D. Few studies have included Hispanic women. Therefore, we investigated this association among 237 participants in the Behaviors Affecting Baby and You Study, a randomised trial of an exercise intervention among ethnically diverse prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 15·2 (sd 4·7) weeks' gestation. Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes was abstracted from medical records. Mean 25(OH)D was 30·4 (sd 12·0) ng/ml; 53·2 % of participants had insufficient (<30 ng/ml) and 20·7 % had deficient (<20 ng/ml) 25(OH)D levels. After adjusting for month of blood draw, gestational age at blood draw, gestational age at delivery, age, BMI and Hispanic ethnicity, women with insufficient and deficient vitamin D had infants with birth weights 139·74 (se 69·16) g (P=0·045) and 175·52 (se 89·45) g (P=0·051) lower compared with women with sufficient vitamin D levels (?30 ng/ml). Each 1 ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D was associated with an increased risk for gestational diabetes mellitus among Hispanic women only (relative risk 1·07; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·11) in multivariable analysis. We did not observe statistically significant associations between maternal vitamin D status and other pregnancy outcomes. Our findings provide further support for an adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on birth weight in Hispanic women. PMID:26507186

  7. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  8. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  9. The resilience of face recognition to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin; McLaughlin, Katie; Wilmer, Jeremy; Smoller, Jordan

    2015-09-01

    Individuals vary substantially in their ability to recognize faces, and these differences affect social functioning. But which aspects of nature and nurture impact face recognition? Early life stress is a likely candidate, as adverse childhood environments impact the development of many major cognitive, social, and affective functions. At the same time, evidence from twins suggests that variation in face recognition ability is due primarily to variations in genes and not environments. Here, we use a combined individual differences and epidemiological approach to directly assess whether variations in early life stress are linked with face recognition ability. We define early life stress as exposure to one of 25 forms of common childhood adversity before the age of 18. In approximately 4,000 adults, we show that face recognition ability is not significantly associated with variations in early life stress (including neglect, socioeconomic deprivation, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). Complex emotion perception ability, on the other hand, was reduced among individuals with a range of early life stress experiences. Our findings indicate that face recognition ability is uniquely resilient to variations in early life stress and childhood environment, thus ruling out domain general and process general accounts of the impact of early life stress on cognitive development. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325886

  10. Stable isotope and trace element proxy data from aragonite cements of stressed reef environments (early Messinian, Mediterranean Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachert, Thomas; Bosellini, Francesca R.; Reuter, Markus; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Vescogni, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    Early Messinian coral reefs of the Mediterranean area are among the classical examples of Neogene reefs in the world and, according to the ecology of their biota, do not exhibit compelling evidence for significant salinity stress prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). Because of excellent outcrop conditions and preservation, these reefs have become prototypes of Neogene reefs worldwide. Here we present stable oxygen isotope (IRMS) and trace element data (LA-ICP-MS) from marine aragonite cement in biogenic frameworks of some Mediterranean reefs. The reworking of the cements by intraformational breccias clearly supports petrographic evidence of "syndepositional" precipitation. Reported values of 18O/16O translate into peak sea surface salinity of 50 to 60 permil, which is a lethal value for most members of the reef community. Therefore, additional proxies have been evaluated to constrain the environment in which the cements formed. 13C/12C signatures are fully within the range of marine cement, however, systematic excursions exist on outcrop-scaple over the geological sections which may suggest episodic influx of terrestrial organic matter brought in by rivers or episodic upwelling of deep water masses with CO2 enriched in 12C. Intra-cement 13C/12C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca measured along transects exhibits co-variant changes which are incompatible with temperature effects and more plausibly document the mixing of different fluids, or the evolution of the pore fluids upon continuing precipitation. Although the final cause underlying the discrepant aspect of biological and various inorganic proxy data remains not yet fully understood, this study shows that evaluation of one single proxy may lead to more misleading than helpful concepts of palaeoenvironments and environment change.

  11. Are the Indicators for the Language and Reasoning Subscale of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised Psychometrically Appropriate for Caribbean Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Michael Canute; Williams, Sian G.; Morrison, Johnetta W.; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen E.; Mayfield, Wayne A.; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the psychometric properties of the indicators that comprise the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) language-reasoning scale from an item response theory (IRT) perspective on a sample of observations from 334 Caribbean classrooms, Stout's procedure revealed that all indicators on this dimension are not part of a…

  12. An Evaluation of China's Kindergarten Quality Rating System through the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale--The Zhejiang Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Bi Ying; Vong, Keang-Ieng; Mak, Miranda Chi Kuan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of one province's Kindergarten Quality Rating System in differentiating quality levels using the Chinese Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (CECERS). Results confirmed that, except for the difference between the Standard and Level-3 Kindergartens, the CECERS was successful in detecting the…

  13. A New Approach to Predicting the Thermal Environment in Buildings at the Early Design Stage. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 2/74.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    The paper argues that existing computer programs for thermal predictions do not produce suitable information for architects, particularly at the early stages of design. It reviews the important building features that determine the thermal environment and the need for heating and cooling plant. Graphical design aids are proposed, with examples to…

  14. Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

    2012-01-01

    As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

  15. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  16. Early-life stress and antidepressant treatment involve synaptic signaling and Erk kinases in a gene-environment model of depression.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Mallei, Alessandra; Tardito, Daniela; Gruber, Susanne H M; El Khoury, Aram; Racagni, Giorgio; Mathé, Aleksander A; Popoli, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    Stress has been shown to interact with genetic vulnerability in pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Here we investigated the outcome of interaction between genetic vulnerability and early-life stress, by employing a rodent model that combines an inherited trait of vulnerability in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, with early-life stress (maternal separation). Basal differences in synaptic signaling between FSL rats and their controls were studied, as well as the consequences of early-life stress in adulthood, and their response to chronic antidepressant treatment (escitalopram). FSL rats showed basal differences in the activation of synapsin I and Erk1/2, as well as in alpha CaM kinase II/syntaxin-1 and alpha CaM kinase II/NMDA-receptor interactions in purified hippocampal synaptosomes. In addition, FSL rats displayed a blunted response of Erk-MAP kinases and other differences in the outcome of early-life stress in adulthood. Escitalopram treatment restored some but not all alterations observed in FSL rats after early-life stress. The marked alterations found in key regulators of presynaptic release/neurotransmission in the basal FSL rats, and as a result of early-life stress, suggest synaptic dysfunction. These results show that early gene-environment interaction may cause life-long synaptic changes affecting the course of depressive-like behavior and response to drugs. PMID:20003989

  17. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    PubMed Central

    De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Maida, Francesca; Bruno, Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria; Moreno, Maria Jose Jaén; Russo, Emilio; Segura-García, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine (CLZ) is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate knowledge of the drug, clinical vigilance, and rapid intervention can drastically reduce the morbidity and mortality related to CLZ treatment. PMID:26273202

  18. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

  19. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

  20. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

  1. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

  2. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...physical environment, especially in the case of ground water, and surface water and soil resources that have limited self-cleansing capability. (d) Firms are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the...

  3. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  4. Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

    1991-07-31

    In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

  5. Significance of adverse outcome pathways in biomarker-based environmental risk assessment in aquatic organisms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wuk; Won, Eun-Ji; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-09-01

    In environmental risk assessments (ERA), biomarkers have been widely used as an early warning signal of environmental contamination. However, biomarker responses have limitation due to its low relevance to adverse outcomes (e.g., fluctuations in community structure, decreases in population size, and other similar ecobiologically relevant indicators of community structure and function). To mitigate these limitations, the concept of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) was developed. An AOP is an analytical, sequentially progressive pathway that links a molecular initiating event (MIE) to an adverse outcome. Recently, AOPs have been recognized as a potential informational tool by which the implications of molecular biomarkers in ERA can be better understood. To demonstrate the utility of AOPs in biomarker-based ERA, here we discuss a series of three different biological repercussions caused by exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and selenium (Se). Using mainly aquatic invertebrates and selected vertebrates as model species, we focus on the development of the AOP concept. Aquatic organisms are suitable bioindicator species whose entire lifespans can be observed over a short period; moreover, these species can be studied on the molecular and population levels. Also, interspecific differences between aquatic organisms are important to consider in an AOP framework, since these differences are an integral part of the natural environment. The development of an environmental pollutant-mediated AOP may enable a better understanding of the effects of environmental pollutants in different scenarios in the diverse community of an ecosystem. PMID:26354700

  6. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pesticide Programs' Document Processing Desk at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or... any information regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been... information. (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment for purposes of...

  7. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pesticide Programs' Document Processing Desk at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or... any information regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been... information. (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment for purposes of...

  8. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pesticide Programs' Document Processing Desk at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or... any information regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been... information. (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment for purposes of...

  9. 40 CFR 174.71 - Submission of information regarding adverse effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pesticide Programs' Document Processing Desk at the appropriate address as set forth in 40 CFR 150.17(a) or... any information regarding adverse effects on human health or the environment alleged to have been... information. (b) Adverse effects on human health or the environment for purposes of...

  10. Evidence of late Gelasian dispersal of African fauna at Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy): Early Pleistocene environments and the background of early human occupation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, L.; Bona, F.; Corrado, P.; Magri, D.; Mazzini, I.; Parenti, F.; Scardia, G.; Sardella, R.

    2014-07-01

    Since the late 70s, the Early Pleistocene (Gelasian) site of Coste San Giacomo (Anagni Basin, central Italy) has been known amongst palaeontologists for its diverse vertebrate fauna. During the last 5 years, new excavations and the drilling of a 46-m-deep core have provided novel pieces of information. Palaeomagnetic data, pollen and small vertebrates analyses are presented here for the first time and combined with the updated list of the large vertebrates and ostracod analysis in a multidisciplinary perspective. Large and small mammals, pollen and ostracod analyses have allowed an integrated palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the sedimentary sequence, depicting the evolution of the alluvial plain in the surrounding landscape. Moreover, magnetostratigraphy, pollen and small mammal biochronological data have confirmed the position of the Coste San Giacomo Faunal Unit, focusing the possible age of the mammal assemblage around 2.1 Ma, in a reversed phase before the base of the Olduvai chron. In particular, the occurrence of the large vole Mimomys pliocaenicus has important biochronological significance. The Coste San Giacomo site offers a unique opportunity to investigate the faunal and environmental changes that occurred in Mediterranean Europe during the Early Pleistocene, coinciding with major climatic changes at a global scale. The occurrence of taxa such as Hippopotamus sp. in the assemblage provides evidence of early dispersal events of African taxa prior to the early Homo diffusion into Europe.

  11. Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

    2014-04-01

    Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

  12. Environment Environment

    E-print Network

    Guidance Economy Community Environment Economy Community Environment Economy Community Environment EnvironmentEconomy Strategic Forest Plans applicant's guidance #12;Strategic Forest Plans 2 | Strategic Forest ­ Administration Process after Forest Plan is Approved 31 EnvironmentEconomy #12;4 | Publication title Applicant

  13. Does the Quality of Stimulation and Support in the Home Environment Moderate the Effect of Early Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families…

  14. The Complex Interaction between Home Environment, Socioeconomic Status, Maternal IQ and Early Child Neurocognitive Development: A Multivariate Analysis of Data Collected in a Newborn Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ronfani, Luca; Vecchi Brumatti, Liza; Mariuz, Marika; Tognin, Veronica; Bin, Maura; Ferluga, Valentina; Knowles, Alessandra; Montico, Marcella; Barbone, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative role of socioeconomic status (SES), home environment and maternal intelligence, as factors affecting child cognitive development in early childhood is still unclear. The aim of this study is to analyze the association of SES, home environment and maternal IQ with child neurodevelopment at 18 months. Methods The data were collected prospectively in the PHIME study, a newborn cohort study carried out in Italy between 2007 and 2010. Maternal nonverbal abilities (IQ) were evaluated using the Standard Progressive Matrices, a version of the Raven’s Progressive Matrices; a direct evaluation of the home environment was carried out with the AIRE instrument, designed using the HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) model; the socioeconomic characteristics were evaluated using the SES index which takes into account parents occupation, type of employment, educational level, homeownership. The study outcome was child neurodevelopment evaluated at 18 months, with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition (BSID III). Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses were carried out to evaluate the association between the three exposures, and the scaled scores of the three main scales of BSID III (cognitive, language and motor scale), with adjustment for a wide range of potential explanatory variables. Results Data from 502 mother-child pairs were analyzed. Mediation analysis showed a relationship between SES and maternal IQ, with a complete mediation effect of home environment in affecting cognitive and language domains. A direct significant effect of maternal IQ on the BSID III motor development scale and the mediation effect of home environment were found. Conclusions Our results show that home environment was the variable with greater influence on neurodevelopment at 18 months. The observation of how parents and children interact in the home context is crucial to adequately evaluate early child development. PMID:25996934

  15. Effect of the environment on the physiology of the sow during late pregnancy, farrowing and early lactation.

    PubMed

    Oliviero, C; Heinonen, M; Valros, A; Hälli, O; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2008-05-01

    We investigated the effect of two types of housing on the duration of farrowing and the physiology of sows before and after farrowing. We assigned 20 sows (PEN) to farrowing pens (210 cm x 335 cm) enriched with straw bedding and 18 sows (CRATE) were placed in farrowing crates (80 cm x 210 cm) with no bedding material. We sampled the animals during period A (from day -5 before farrowing to day +1 of lactation) and during period B (from days +2 to +5 of lactation). We took daily venous blood samples for progesterone measurements and four salivary samples per day (at 09:00, 11:00, 13:00 and 15:00) for cortisol determination. In addition, intensive blood sampling was performed in 18 catheterised sows (9 PEN and 9 CRATE) to determine the level of oxytocin during farrowing. The treatment had no effect on litter size, piglet mortality at birth and weaning, growth of the piglets between days 1 and 5 of life. We found no significant difference in the cortisol concentration between the two groups during period A (p=0.36). Significant difference was found in period B, where the CRATE group had a higher concentration of cortisol than the PEN group (p=0.03). Progesterone concentration did not differ between the two groups (p=0.80). The duration of farrowing was on average 93 min longer in the CRATE sows (n=15), with a mean of 311+/-35 min (mean+/-S.D.), than in the PEN sows (n=19), with a mean of 218+/-24 min (p=0.03). In addition, the mean interval between each piglet expulsion was longer in the CRATE group (n=11), with a mean of 25+/-4 min, than in the PEN group (n=15) with a mean of 16+/-2 min (p=0.05). During farrowing, the post-expulsion oxytocin pulses average tended to be higher in the PEN group (77.6+/-47.6 ng/ml) than in the CRATE group (38.1+/-24.6 pg/ml) (p=0.08). The concentration of oxytocin strongly affected the duration of farrowing (p<0.001). In conclusion, this study showed that the environment influences the physiology of the sow during farrowing and early lactation. PMID:17449206

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  17. Effect of Two Different Methods of Initiating Atomoxetine on the Adverse Event Profile of Atomoxetine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhill, Laurence L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Gao, Haitao; Feldman, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods for initiating atomoxetine in terms of the incidence of early adverse events. Method: Data on atomoxetine treatment-emergent adverse events in youths, ages 6 to 18 years, were analyzed from five randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, acute-phase studies. Two studies involve…

  18. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (?36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

  19. Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

  20. Experimental Approaches to Systematic Discovery and Development of Reproductive Adverse Outcome Pathways in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are conceptual frameworks that portray causal and predictive linkages between key events at multiple scales of biological organization that connect molecular initiating events and early cellular perturbations (e.g., initiation of toxicity pathways)...

  1. Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc. Resource Book Series No. 1. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Linda

    This booklet, revised from the March 1990 version, provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and…

  2. Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2005-05-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ? m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show conductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Conclusions: Results from the Pima County TEM survey were in good agreement with control data from the four USGS test wells located around the field area. This survey also achieved very acceptable 500+ m depths of investigation. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

  3. Adverse Effects of Common Drugs: General Concepts.

    PubMed

    Karpa, Kelly Dowhower; Lewis, Peter R; Felix, Todd Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) contribute to substantial morbidity and mortality and add to rising health care costs. Many ADRs are preventable with appropriate prescribing and monitoring because they often occur as an extension of a drug's mechanism of action or known drug interactions. Patients at higher risk of ADRs include those at the extremes of age, those with multiple comorbidities, those taking multiple drugs, and patients admitted to intensive care units or experiencing transitions of care. Because the risk of ADRs becomes greater as the number of drugs and dietary supplements taken increases, it is imperative that prescribers be vigilant about the prescribing cascade and take steps to discontinue drugs that are likely to be more harmful than helpful. Pharmacists serve as important partners in clinical care environments by conducting comprehensive drug reviews, aiding in drug/dosage selection, and developing therapeutic monitoring plans. Although the potential exists for clinicians to use electronic health record systems to aid in clinical decision making through drug safety decision support tools, computer systems should never replace clinical judgment. Clinicians also are encouraged to report ADRs to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. PMID:26375993

  4. [Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

  5. Adverse food-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Alie; van Hunsel, Florence; Bast, Aalt

    2015-12-01

    Food supplements and herbal products are increasingly popular amongst consumers. This leads to increased risks of interactions between prescribed drugs and these products containing bioactive ingredients. From 1991 up to 2014, 55 cases of suspected adverse drug reactions due to concomitant intake of health-enhancing products and drugs were reported to Lareb, the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre. An overview of these suspected interactions is presented and their potential mechanisms of action are described. Mainly during the metabolism of xenobiotics and due to the pharmacodynamics effects interactions seem to occur, which may result in adverse drug reactions. Where legislation is seen to distinct food and medicine, legislation concerning these different bioactive products is less clear-cut. This can only be resolved by increasing the molecular knowledge on bioactive substances and their potential interactions. Thereby potential interactions can be better understood and prevented on an individual level. By considering the dietary pattern and use of bioactive substances with prescribed medication, both health professionals and consumers will be increasingly aware of interactions and these interactive adverse effects can be prevented. PMID:26482404

  6. Differential Susceptibility of the Developing Brain to Contextual Adversity and Stress.

    PubMed

    Boyce, W Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A swiftly growing volume of literature, comprising both human and animal studies and employing both observational and experimental designs, has documented striking individual differences in neurobiological sensitivities to environmental circumstances within subgroups of study samples. This differential susceptibility to social and physical environments operates bidirectionally, in both adverse and beneficial contexts, and results in a minority subpopulation with remarkably poor or unusually positive trajectories of health and development, contingent upon the character of environmental conditions. Differences in contextual susceptibility appear to emerge in early development, as the interactive and adaptive product of genetic and environmental attributes. This paper surveys what is currently known of the mechanisms or mediators of differential susceptibility, at the levels of temperament and behavior, physiological systems, brain circuitry and neuronal function, and genetic and epigenetic variation. It concludes with the assertion that differential susceptibility is inherently grounded within processes of biological moderation, the complexities of which are at present only partially understood. PMID:26391599

  7. The direct and interactive effects of physical abuse severity and negative affectivity on length of psychiatric hospitalization: evidence of differential reactivity to adverse environments in psychiatrically high-risk youth.

    PubMed

    Comas, Michelle; Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the interactive influence of multiple factors (i.e., physical abuse severity and negative affectivity) in predicting youth's inpatient psychiatric length of stay (LOS), extending previous research focused on identification of only single LOS predictors. Elevated physical abuse severity was hypothesized to predict longer youth LOS, and negative affectivity was anticipated to exacerbate this relationship. This study included 42 youth. Clinicians rated youth temperament, whereas physical abuse severity and LOS were coded from youth medical records. Controlling for other previously determined predictors of LOS (i.e., age, gender, and GAF), moderation analyses confirmed hypotheses, revealing a temperament by environment interaction. Specifically, physical abuse severity was positively associated with LOS only in the context of high negative affectivity. Findings highlighted the importance of disentangling the interactive effects of multiple factors in predicting LOS. Moreover, critical clinical implications involving prioritized trauma assessment and treatment for inpatient youth are discussed. PMID:23824554

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met polymorphism interacts with early experience to predict executive functions in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N?=?1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57: 833-841, 2015. PMID:26251232

  9. The environment of early humans in Southern Caucasus - High-resolution reconstruction of climate and vegetation in Armenia at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, Angela; Gabrielyan, Ivan; Scharrer, Steffen; Teodoridis, Vasilis

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Caucasus is the area of earliest human occupation in Eurasia, proven by findings of Homo fossils in Georgia with an age of ca. 1.8 Ma. The pace and causes of the early human colonization, in one or several migratory waves from Africa in new environments of the Eurasian continent during the Early Pleistocene, are still a matter of debate. However, climate change is considered a major driving factor of hominin evolution and dispersal patterns. In fact directly or indirectly by its severe influence on vegetation, physiography of landscape, and animal distribution, climate modulates the availability of resources. Lake sediments from Sisian Formation, Vorotan River Basin, southern Armenia, provide detailed information on environmental changes during late Early Pleistocene. Based on magnetostratigraphic and radiometric dating, the exposed part of the succession covers a stratigraphic age from ca. 1.3 to 0.9 Ma and includes the Jaramillo subchron. Due to the precise age control high-resolution pollen analysis was conducted at the Matuyama/Jaramillo reversal spanning from 1.12 to 1.035 Ma (MIS 33 - MIS 30) with a mean resolution of ca. 250 years per samples. Results document a clear vegetation response on orbitally forced climatic changes with open vegetation during the less pronounced cycles MIS 33/34, the expansion of broadleaved deciduous forests during the very warm and humid MIS 31, and the expansion of needleleaved forests during the long, cool and humid MIS 30. Furthermore, the age of the numerous macro floral assemblages could be constrained to warm and humid parts of the climatic phases, most of them connected to MIS 31 confirming the dominance of mosaic vegetation at that time. Plant species compositions show strong relations to Euxinian and Hycanian forests occurring today at the coasts of the Black Sea and Caspian Sea, respectively, which must have been expanded considerably during warmer and more humid periods of the Early Pleistocene. Climate quantifications show substantially warmer and 50-100% more humid conditions for most pronounced interglacials. Based on those results we extrapolate the distribution of forests and mosaic landscapes in Southern Caucasus for different climatic phases during Early Pleistocene as a prerequisite for the reconstruction of early human environments in this region.

  10. Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Martin H.; Johnsson, Jörgen I.; Winberg, Svante; Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Hammenstig, David; Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Midwood, Jonathan D.; Aarestrup, Kim; Höglund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature. PMID:25747862

  11. A "tropical" Early Eocene marine environment on the Antarctic margin: TEX86 results from IODP expedition 318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendle, J. A.; Bijl, P.; Toney, J. L.; Pross, J.; Contreras, L.; Schouten, S.; Roehl, U.; Tauxe, L.; Huber, M.; Brinkhuis, H.; Scientific Team of IODP Drilling Leg 318

    2011-12-01

    The early Eocene was characterised by high pCO2 (ca.1,000 to more than 2,000ppm) and mean global temperatures that reached a long-term maximum. Relative to the present day, meridional temperature gradients were unusually low, with warmer equatorial regions and much warmer subtropical Arctic and mid-latitude climates. Yet global climatic conditions during this pre-glacial interval have remained poorly constrained, as only a few temperature records are available portraying the Cenozoic climatic evolution of the high southern latitudes. Here we present dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and organic geochemical tetraether based sea-surface temperature estimates from IODP expedition 318, extracted from bio- and magnetostratigraphically dated, late early to early middle Eocene sediments recovered at Site U1356. For the first time, we reconstruct marine temperatures and ecological conditions from the Eocene Greenhouse world in direct proximity to the Antarctic continent. Early Eocene dinocyst assemblages are dominated by tropical dinocyst genus Apectodinium, whilst TEX86 results indicate persistent and remarkable warmth, with the magnitude of the reconstructed SSTs dependent on the applied calibration: TEX86-L = 20 - 26°C (Av. 23°C); TEX86-H = 27 - 33°C (Av. 32°C). Our marine based proxies are just several strands from multiple independent lines of evidence emerging from the Early Eocene of the Wilkes Land Antarctic margin, including: pollen, terrestrial biomarkers (e.g. MBT/CBT-MAT estimates of 22 - 27°C , Av. 26°C), compound specific plant wax D/H measurements and clay minerals. Taken together, this evidence of very high temperatures, thermophilic fauna, an invigorated hydrological cycle, chemically weathered soils and well developed wetlands gives a very compelling picture of environmental conditions comparable to the modern tropics. These results confirm that exceptionally warm polar-regions are a feature common to reconstructed Greenhouse periods. Such temperatures are substantially higher than can be simulated by most models without assuming exceptionally high pCO2 levels. Recent model runs of the Eocene climate using the Community Climate System Model version 3 forced by 4480ppm pCO2 go someway to resolving this mismatch, with summer month temperatures on the Wilkes margin of 25 - 27°C. However, even the 4480ppm runs do not agree with the mean annual TEX86-H estimates of 27 - 33°C (Av. 32°C).

  12. The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

    2012-01-01

    Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

  13. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Their Work Environments: Shaping (Im)possible Ways of Being an Educator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the complex interrelations between educators' work environments and their experiences as an entryway for thinking differently about workforce stability and sustainability. Concepts of macro- and micropolitics (drawn from the work of Deleuze and Guattari) are used to explore one educator's experiences in…

  14. The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis overprints the primary environmental signals in Challenger mound, with extensive coral dissolution and the genesis of small-scaled semi-lithified layers in the Ca-rich intervals. The low cementation rates compared to the extensive dissolution patterns can be explained by an open-system diagenetic model. Moreover, Pirlet et al. (2009) emphasizes the occurrence of gypsum and dolomite in another mound system (Mound Perseverance) in Porcupine Seabight, which might be also related with fluid oxidation events in a semi-open diagenetic system. Along the Moroccan margins, fluid seepage and fluxes in pore water transport affect the development of mound structures, enhancing extensive cold-water coral dissolution and precipitation of diagenetic minerals such as dolomite, calcite, pyrite, etc. (Foubert et al., 2008). Recent carbonate mounds provide indeed an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic processes in carbonate systems without the complications of burial and/or later meteoric diagenesis. References Foubert, A. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Nature and Significance of the Recent Carbonate Mound Record: The Mound Challenger Code. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 126. Springer, 298 pp. ISBN: 978-3-642-00289-2. Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L., Brunner, B., Frank, N., Dewanckele, J., Van Rooij, D., Foubert, A., Swennen, R., Naudts, L., Boone, M., Cnudde, V. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Diagenetic formation of gypsum and dolomite in a cold-water coral mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off Ireland. Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01119.x. Titschack, J., Thierens, M., Dorschel, B., Schulbert, C., Freiwald, A., Kano, A., Takashima, C., Kawagoe, N., Li, X. and the IODP Expedition 307 Scientific Party (2009) Carbonate budget of a cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound, IODP Exp. 307). Marine Geology, 259, 36-46.

  15. Value From Adversity: How We Deal With Adversity Matters

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, E. Tory; Marguc, Janina; Scholer, Abigail A.

    2012-01-01

    Participants in our study worked on an anagram task to win a prize while aversive noise played in the background. They were instructed to deal with the noise either by “opposing” it as an interference or by “coping” with the unpleasant feelings it created. The strength of attention to the opposing or coping response to adversity was measured by poorer recognition of the content of the background noise. For the “opposing” participants, it was predicted that the more they attended to opposing the interference, they stronger they would engage in solving the anagrams to win the prize, which would increase the prize's value. For the “coping” participants, it was predicted that the more they attended to coping with their unpleasant feelings, the weaker they would engage in solving the anagrams to win the prize, which would decrease the prize's value. The results supported both predictions. PMID:22773850

  16. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    E-print Network

    Annibali, F; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 \\pm 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 \\pm 0.28, and -0.04 \\pm 0.33 for age, log Z/Zsun, and [alpha/Fe], respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Annibali et al.2007 sample residing in comparable environment we derive median values of 9.8 \\pm 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 \\pm 0.16, and 0.18 \\pm 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the alpha-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low mass regime of the scaling relations der...

  17. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II...facility? 125.94 Section 125.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  18. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II...facility? 125.94 Section 125.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II...facility? 125.94 Section 125.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  20. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II...facility? 125.94 Section 125.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  1. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II...facility? 125.94 Section 125.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS...

  2. VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

  3. Nursing care quality and adverse events in US hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Robert J; Lake, Eileen T; Aiken, Linda H

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine the association between nurses' reports of unmet nursing care needs and their reports of patients' receipt of the wrong medication or dose, nosocomial infections and patient falls with injury in hospitals. Background Because nursing activities are often difficult to measure, and data are typically not collected by health care organisations, there are few studies that have addressed the association between nursing activities and patient outcomes. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 1999 from 10,184 staff nurses and 168 acute care hospitals in the US. Methods Multivariate linear regression models estimated the effect of unmet nursing care needs on adverse events given the influence of patient factors and the care environment. Results The proportion of necessary nursing care left undone ranged from 26% for preparing patients and families for discharge to as high as 74% for developing or updating nursing care plans. A majority of nurses reported that patients received the wrong medication or dose, acquired nosocomial infections, or had a fall with injury infrequently. However, nurses who reported that these adverse events occurred frequently varied considerably [i.e. medication errors (15%), patient falls with injury (20%), nosocomial infection (31%)]. After adjusting for patient factors and the care environment, there remained a significant association between unmet nursing care needs and each adverse event. Conclusion The findings suggest that attention to optimising patient care delivery could result in a reduction in the occurrence of adverse events in hospitals. Relevance to clinical practice The occurrence of adverse events may be mitigated when nurses complete care activities that require them to spend time with their patients. Hospitals should engage staff nurses in the creation of policies that influence human resources management to enhance their awareness of the care environment and patient care delivery. PMID:20659198

  4. Effects of the Social Environment and Stress on Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Methylation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Turecki, Gustavo; Meaney, Michael J

    2016-01-15

    The early-life social environment can induce stable changes that influence neurodevelopment and mental health. Research focused on early-life adversity revealed that early-life experiences have a persistent impact on gene expression and behavior through epigenetic mechanisms. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis is sensitive to changes in the early-life environment that associate with DNA methylation of a neuron-specific exon 17 promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (Nr3c1). Since initial findings were published in 2004, numerous reports have investigated GR gene methylation in relationship to early-life experience, parental stress, and psychopathology. We conducted a systematic review of this growing literature, which identified 40 articles (13 animal and 27 human studies) published since 2004. The majority of these examined the GR exon variant 1F in humans or the GR17 in rats, and 89% of human studies and 70% of animal studies of early-life adversity reported increased methylation at this exon variant. All the studies investigating exon 1F/17 methylation in conditions of parental stress (one animal study and seven human studies) also reported increased methylation. Studies examining psychosocial stress and psychopathology had less consistent results, with 67% of animal studies reporting increased exon 17 methylation and 17% of human studies reporting increased exon 1F methylation. We found great consistency among studies investigating early-life adversity and the effect of parental stress, even if the precise phenotype and measures of social environment adversity varied among studies. These results are encouraging and warrant further investigation to better understand correlates and characteristics of these associations. PMID:25687413

  5. 40 CFR 1516.8 - Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record. 1516.8 Section 1516.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PRIVACY ACT IMPLEMENTATION § 1516.8 Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment...

  6. Variations of the stellar initial mass function in the progenitors of massive early-type galaxies and in extreme starburst environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrier, Gilles; Hennebelle, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    We examine variations of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in extreme environments within the formalism derived by Hennebelle and Chabrier. We focus on conditions encountered in progenitors of massive early-type galaxies and starburst regions. We show that, when applying the concept of turbulent Jeans mass as the characteristic mass for fragmentation in a turbulent medium, the peak of the IMF in such environments is shifted toward smaller masses, leading to a bottom-heavy IMF, as suggested by various observations. In very dense and turbulent environments, we predict that the high-mass tail of the IMF can become even steeper than the standard Salpeter IMF, with a limit for the power-law exponent ? ? –2.7, in agreement with recent observational determinations. This steepening is a direct consequence of the high densities and Mach values in such regions but also of the time dependence of the fragmentation process, as incorporated in the Hennebelle-Chabrier theory. We provide analytical parameterizations of these IMFs in such environments to be used in galaxy evolution calculations. We also calculate the star-formation rates and the mass-to-light ratios expected under such extreme conditions and show that they agree well with the values inferred in starburst environments and massive high-redshift galaxies. This reinforces the paradigm of star formation as being a universal process, i.e., the direct outcome of gravitationally unstable fluctuations in a density field initially generated by large-scale, shock-dominated turbulence. This globally enables us to infer the variations of the stellar IMF and related properties for atypical galactic conditions.

  7. A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Leila K.; Stevens, Martin; Karada?, Filiz; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Ewen, John G.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the expression of many ornamental traits is dependent on the current condition of the bearer. However, conditions experienced in early life are also known to be important for an individual's subsequent fitness and therefore, directly or indirectly, for the fitness of their mate. Specifically, a recent hypothesis suggests that sexually selected traits might be sensitive to conditions experienced during early-life development and thereby function as honest indicators of developmental history. Whether this applies to colourful male plumage, however, is largely unknown. We tested this idea with a field experiment by manipulating neonatal nutrition in a sexually dichromatic passerine, the hihi (Notymystis cincta). We found that carotenoid supplementation increased nestling plasma carotenoid concentration, which was in turn correlated with increased yellow saturation in male breeding plumage after moulting. We also found that the post-moult luminance (lightness) of the white ear-tufts tended to be reduced in males that had received an all-round nutritional supplement as nestlings. Black breeding plumage was not affected by neonatal nutritional treatment. Although the mechanisms that generate colourful plumage are evidently diverse, our results show that at least some parts of this display are accurate indicators of environmental conditions during development. PMID:23407833

  8. Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

    PubMed Central

    Nigst, Philip R.; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages—demonstrably made by modern humans—are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

  9. The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, James T.

    The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da/dN), and the effect of cold loading environment provide the means to validate mechanism-based modeling. Both pristine and corroded (L-S surface) 7075-T651 specimens were fatigued at 23°C, -50°C and -90°C under various applied stresses. Microscopy of programmed loading-induced crack surface marks produced an unparalleled Ni and small crack da/dN database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to elimination of H-enhanced cracking by reduced external water vapor pressure, lower crack tip reaction rate (to produce atomic-H), and slower H diffusion. Engineering level modeling approaches are validated using these high fidelity experimental results, informing next generation prognosis methods for realistic airframe environments.

  10. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined. PMID:23420567

  11. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25867168

  12. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Interferon-?

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Demetrashvili, Marina; Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant preparations of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-? are increasingly used to treat a number of medical conditions, including chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Although frequently effective, IFN? induces a variety of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including an acute confusional state that develops rapidly after initiation of high-dose IFN?, a depressive syndrome that develops more slowly over weeks to months of treatment, and manic conditions most often characterised by extreme irritability and agitation, but also occasionally by euphoria. Acute IFN?-induced confusional states are typically characterised by disorientation, lethargy, somnolence, psychomotor retardation, difficulties with speaking and writing, parkinsonism and psychotic symptoms. Strategies for managing delirium should be employed, including treatment of contributing medical conditions, use of either typical or atypical antipsychotic agents and avoidance of medications likely to worsen mental status. Significant depressive symptoms occur in 21–58% of patients receiving IFN?, with symptoms typically manifesting over the first several months of treatment. The most replicated risk factor for developing depression is the presence of mood and anxiety symptoms prior to treatment. Other potential, but less frequently replicated, risk factors include a past history of major depression, being female and increasing IFN? dosage and treatment duration. The available data support two approaches to the pharmacological management of IFN?-induced depression: antidepressant pretreatment or symptomatic treatment once IFN? has been initiated. Pretreatment might be best reserved for patients already receiving antidepressants or for patients who endorse depression or anxiety symptoms of mild or greater severity prior to therapy. Several recent studies demonstrate that antidepressants effectively treat IFN?-induced depression once it has developed, allowing the vast majority of subjects to complete treatment successfully. Recent data suggest that IFN?-induced depression may be composed of two overlapping syndromes: a depression-specific syndrome characterised by mood, anxiety and cognitive complaints, and a neurovegetative syndrome characterised by fatigue, anorexia, pain and psychomotor slowing. Depression-specific symptoms are highly responsive to serotonergic antidepressants, whereas neurovegetative symptoms are significantly less responsive to these agents. These symptoms may he more effectively treated by agents that modulate catecholaminergic functioning, such as combined serotonin-noradrenaline (norepinephrine) antidepressants, bupropion, psychostimulants or modafinil. Additional factors to consider in selecting an antidepressant include potential drug-drug interactions and adverse effect profile. Finally. IFN? appears capable of inducing manic symptoms. Mania, especially when severe, is a clinical emergency. When this occurs, IFN? and antidepressants should be stopped, an emergency psychiatric consultation should he obtained, and treatment with a mood stabiliser should be initiated. PMID:15697325

  13. Pisolithus tinctorius, Fungal Extremophile and Modern Analog to an Early Earth Environment; An Unlikely Harbor for Deeply Diverging and Novel Chemoautrophic Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullings, K. C.; Lauzon, C.; Marinkovich, N.; Truong, T.

    2014-12-01

    Endosymbioses have given rise to some of the most important innovations in Earth's history. Indeed, ecological facilitation has been pivotal to the creation of higher order complexity, and in driving evolutionary transitions at every level of organization from cellular organelles to multicellularity. In this study we address a newly discovered endosymbiosis between prokaryotes and a eukaryote growing with no apparent external energy source in soils associated with acid-sulfate hydrothermal springs. Hydrothermal sites are relevant to origin of life because they provide a chemical and energetic environment that may have provided energy for pre-biotic synthesis in the absence of photosynthesis through chemoautotrophy. Pisolithus (genus, picture 1 below) is a terrestrial fungal extremophile that can grow in thermally altered soils of acid-thermal hot springs at extreme low pH and elevated temperature, thriving in conditions that are beyond the threshold of survivability for most other organisms. Fruiting bodies of this fungus accumulate elemental sulfur into the spore producing tissues (gleba) of the fruiting body. The gleba is encased in a thick peridium, or shell. Further, Pisolithus is capable of enzymatic conversion of elemental S to sulfate. The fruiting bodies are rich in hydrocarbons, contain water through much of their development and are also likely to contain CO2 from fungal cellular respiration. Further, our data indicate the presence of anaerobic zones within. Thus, the internal environment of Pisolithus contains many conditions relevant to early Earth environments in which life is thought to have originated. We used 16S rDNA sequences to test the hypothesis that Pisolithus individuals contain novel and/or ancient microbial lineages. Our data reveal lineages comprised of novel relatives of known aerobic and anaerobic chemoautrophic Bacteria (85-90% BLAST search matches), several deeply divergent and novel Bacterial lineages, and a newly discovered lineage that branches at the base of the Archaeal clade indicating the presence of, at the very least, a new Phylum/Division within this group. Thus, the data provide a model for furthering our understanding of the diversification of life, in a novel modern analog to an early Earth environment.

  14. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. II. MASSES AND AGES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR POPULATION MODEL ASSUMPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M.; Nakata, F.; Kodama, T.; Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J.; Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G.; Rosati, P.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Tanaka, M.

    2011-05-01

    We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z {approx} 1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multi-wavelength (0.6-4.5 {mu}m; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer) data sets. At this redshift the contribution of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual and Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the model: for all models, the most massive galaxies are the oldest ones, independent of the environment. When using the Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual models, the mass distribution is similar in the clusters and in the groups, whereas in our field sample there is a deficit of massive (M {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) ETGs. According to those last models, ETGs belonging to the cluster environment host on average older stars with respect to group and field populations. This difference is less significant than the age difference in galaxies of different masses.

  15. No evidence for a dependence of the mass-size relation of early-type galaxies on environment in the local universe

    SciTech Connect

    Huertas-Company, M.; Shankar, F.; Mei, S.; Bernardi, M.; Meert, A.; Vikram, V.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

    2013-12-10

    The early-type galaxy (ETG) mass-size relation has largely been studied to understand how these galaxies assembled their mass. One key observational result of the last years is that massive galaxies increased their size by a factor of a few at fixed stellar mass from z ? 2. Hierarchical models favor minor mergers as a plausible driver of this size growth. Some of these models predict a significant environmental dependence in the sense that galaxies residing in more massive halos tend to be larger than galaxies in lower mass halos, at fixed stellar mass and redshift. At present, observational results of this environmental dependence are contradictory. In this paper we revisit this issue in the local universe, by investigating how the sizes of massive ETGs depend on a large-scale environment using an updated and accurate sample of ETGs in different environments—field, group, and clusters—from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Our analysis does not show any significant environmental dependence of the sizes of central and satellite ETGs at fixed stellar mass at z ? 0. The size-mass relation of early-type galaxies at z ? 0 seems to be universal, i.e., independent of the mass of the host halo and of the position of the galaxy in that halo (central or satellite). The result is robust to different galaxy selections based on star formation, morphology, or central density. Considering our observational errors and the size of the sample, any size ratio larger than 30%-40% between massive galaxies (log(M {sub *}/M {sub ?}) > 11) living in clusters and in the field can be ruled out at 3? level.

  16. The influence of the thermal environment and other early life events on growth rate of piglets during lactation.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, L J; Schild, S-L Aa; Malmkvist, J

    2015-09-01

    The effects of early life events on average daily weight gain from birth to day 21 (ADG) of suckling pigs kept at different room temperatures (15°C, 20°C and 25°C) from birth to weaning were investigated. Data were collected from litters born by 61 sows in a loose housing system. The ADG for piglets with low birth weight (estimated for birth weights below the 10% percentile) was estimated to be 20 to 30 g higher per day at room temperature 20°C to 25°C compared with 15°C. In contrast, the ADG during the lactation period decreased for larger piglets (estimated for birth weights above the 10% percentile) by 28 g/day at room temperature 25°C compared with 15°C. Thus, high ambient temperatures (20°C to 25°C) are favourable for the growth in smaller piglets during lactation. Neither latency to first suckle nor birth-induced hypoxia, measured as concentration of umbilical cord lactate, affected the growth rate of the piglets. Lowest rectal temperature during the first 24 h after birth had a long-term negative effect on ADG (P<0.05), so that piglets with a lowest rectal temperature of 32.8°C (10% percentile) had an ADG which was on average 19 g lower per day than piglets with a rectal temperature of 37.3°C (90% percentile). Our results showed that hypothermia at birth, low birth weight and high number of suckling piglets lead to reduced ADG during the suckling period. The results suggest that keeping the room temperature at 20°C during lactation to some extent could compensate for the otherwise negative effects of low birth weight on ADG in piglets without decreasing the ADG of high birth weight piglets. However, to avoid hypothermia in the smallest piglets it may be beneficial to increase the room temperature above 20°C during the farrowing period of loose housed sows. PMID:26094618

  17. Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary depositional environments of the northern Sacramento basin revealed by seismic-stratigraphic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Damuth, J.E.; Link, M.H.; Gabay, S.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Seismic-stratigraphic analysis of regional seismic data across the Willows-Beehive Bend gas field reveals a prograding shelf-slope depositional sequence, including basic submarine-fan, slope, and shelf deltaic deposits, that progressively infilled the northern Sacramento forearc basin during the Campanian. The base of the Forbes Formation and the base of the Princeton Gorge fill form the lower and upper boundaries, respectively, of this sequence. Upper Cretaceous submarine-fan and basin-plain deposit form the strata between the Sierran basement and the base of the Forbes and progressively onlap the basement from west to east. The lower to middle Forbes Formation is characterized by high-amplitude discontinuous reflections and consists of mud-rich submarine-fan deposit with laterally restricted, sand-prone channel/levee complexes and broader depositional lobes. In contrast the upper Forbes consist of mud-rich slope deposits characterized by broad, southward-dipping clinoforms. Submarine-canyon/gully fills are common and return discordant hummocky to chaotic reflections. The overlying Kione Formation consists of sand-rich, delta-front deposits that return high amplitude, gently dipping subparallel reflections and are transitional into the slope deposits of the uppermost Forbes. The Kione was partially eroded during cutting of the Princeton Gorge submarine canyon in the early Tertiary. The lower (Eocene) Princeton Gorge fill shows highly variable reflection character and seismic facies that suggest multiple episodes of submarine erosion and deposition. At least three northwest-southeast-striking fault zones, including the Willows fault, disrupt these formations and appear to have strike-slip components.

  18. The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Desmond C.

    2005-04-26

    The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

  19. Environments and trypanosomiasis risks for early herders in the later Holocene of the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chritz, Kendra L.; Marshall, Fiona B.; Zagal, M. Esperanza; Kirera, Francis; Cerling, Thure E.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized pastoralism developed ?3 kya among Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan herders in eastern Africa. During this time, a mosaic of hunters and herders using diverse economic strategies flourished in southern Kenya. It has been argued that the risk for trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), carried by tsetse flies in bushy environments, had a significant influence on pastoral diversification and migration out of eastern Africa toward southern Africa ?2 kya. Elmenteitan levels at Gogo Falls (ca. 1.9–1.6 kya) preserve a unique faunal record, including wild mammalian herbivores, domestic cattle and caprines, fish, and birds. It has been suggested that a bushy/woodland habitat that harbored tsetse fly constrained production of domestic herds and resulted in subsistence diversification. Stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel (n = 86) from this site reveals, instead, extensive C4 grazing by both domesticates and the majority of wild herbivores. Integrated with other ecological proxies (pollen and leaf wax biomarkers), these data imply an abundance of C4 grasses in the Lake Victoria basin at this time, and thus little risk for tsetse-related barriers to specialized pastoralism. These data provide empirical evidence for the existence of a grassy corridor through which small groups of herders could have passed to reach southern Africa. PMID:25775535

  20. Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and biomedical evidence link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with health-harming behaviors and the development of non-communicable disease in adults. Investment in interventions to improve early life experiences requires empirical evidence on levels of childhood adversity and the proportion of HHBs potentially avoided should such adversity be addressed. Methods A nationally representative survey of English residents aged 18 to 69 (n = 3,885) was undertaken during the period April to July 2013. Individuals were categorized according to the number of ACEs experienced. Modeling identified the proportions of HHBs (early sexual initiation, unintended teenage pregnancy, smoking, binge drinking, drug use, violence victimization, violence perpetration, incarceration, poor diet, low levels of physical exercise) independently associated with ACEs at national population levels. Results Almost half (47%) of individuals experienced at least one of the nine ACEs. Prevalence of childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse was 6.3%, 14.8%, and 18.2% respectively (population-adjusted). After correcting for sociodemographics, ACE counts predicted all HHBs, e.g. (0 versus 4+ ACEs, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals)): smoking 3.29 (2.54 to 4.27); violence perpetration 7.71 (4.90 to 12.14); unintended teenage pregnancy 5.86 (3.93 to 8.74). Modeling suggested that 11.9% of binge drinking, 13.6% of poor diet, 22.7% of smoking, 52.0% of violence perpetration, 58.7% of heroin/crack cocaine use, and 37.6% of unintended teenage pregnancy prevalence nationally could be attributed to ACEs. Conclusions Stable and protective childhoods are critical factors in the development of resilience to health-harming behaviors in England. Interventions to reduce ACEs are available and sustainable, with nurturing childhoods supporting the adoption of health-benefiting behaviors and ultimately the provision of positive childhood environments for future generations. PMID:24886026

  2. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  3. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  4. Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty: A Review of Adverse Reactions and Patient Management

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, James; Tran, Phong; Fary, Camdon

    2015-01-01

    Recent alarming joint registry data highlighting increased revision rates has prompted further research into the area of metal-on-metal hip replacements and resurfacings. This review article examines the latest literature on the topic of adverse reactions to metal debris and summarises the most up-to-date guidelines on patient management. Adverse reactions to metal debris can cause significant damage to soft tissue and bone if not diagnosed early. Furthermore, not every patient with an adverse reaction to metal debris will be symptomatic. As such, clinicians must remain vigilant when assessing and investigating these patients in order to detect failing implants and initiate appropriate management. PMID:26132653

  5. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  6. Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  7. Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

  8. Adverse fetomaternal outcome among pregnant overweight women

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shazia; Bibi, Seema; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Farooq, Sumaiya; SM, Tahir; Qazi, Roshan Ara

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the adverse fetometernal out come in overweight and normal weight pregnant women. Methods: This comparative cohort study was conducted from 1st October 2010 to 30 September 2012. Total 200 gravid women 100 were overweight and 100 normal weight pregnant women with gestational age for 08-40 weeks were included. Women having BMI (25 – 29.9 Kg/m2) were measured overweight and included in group A and 100 women having normal BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 as controls were in-group B. Chi-square test was applied to compare the proportion of maternal and fetal outcomes. Significant P – value of < 0.05 was considered. Results: The age range was between 30 to 45 years with mean age of 30±4.1 years in both groups. Overweight pregnant women had significantly high frequency of pre-eclampsia (27% versus 9% in controls), PIH (24% versus 8% in controls), gestational diabetes mellitus (22% versus 5% in controls), prolonged labour (4% versus 6% in controls), Caesarean section (44% versus 16% in controls), Wound infection (3% versus 2% in controls) and Postpartum Hemorrhage (5% versus 2% in controls). P-value < 0.001 was considered significance. Fetal complications in overweight pregnant women compared to controls i.e. Still birth (13% versus 2%), Early neonatal death (11% versus 1%), shoulder dystocia (5% versus 1%) and NICU admission (47% versus 10%). Results were statistically significant except shoulder dystocia. Conclusion: We conclude that the result of present study indicates obesity exerts deleterious effect, both on fetal and maternal outcome. PMID:26101496

  9. 30 CFR 285.816 - What must I do if environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? 285.816 Section 285.816 Mineral Resources BUREAU... other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility? If environmental or other conditions adversely affect a cable, pipeline, or facility so as to endanger the safety or the environment, you...

  10. Silicate-bearing IIE Irons: Early Mixing and Differentiation in a Core-Mantle Environment and Shock Resetting of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, T. J.

    1995-09-01

    The small group of IIE irons [1] are important since many contain silicate inclusions. A wide variety of inclusions occur in Netscha vo [2], Techado [3], Watson [4], Elga, Kodaikanal, Weekeroo Station, and Colomera [5,6]. Miles contains uncharacterized silicate inclusions [7]. Most siderophile elements do not follow fractional crystallization trends, suggesting formation by impact [1]. Ages from 3.67-4.51 Ga [see 8] are taken by some authors [4] as the time of silicate-metal mixing. I have conducted petrographic studies on silicate inclusions of all silicate-bearing IIE's except Elga and propose an alternative history of heating, melting, silicate differentiation and metal-silicate mixing ~4.55 Ga ago in a core-mantle environment followed by shock heating and chronometer resetting. The chondritic IIE precursor was probably not identical to H chondrites [1,3]. Mafic silicate compositions in "primitive" IIE's (Netschaevo, Techado) and Delta 17O in all silicate-bearing IIE's (0.59+/-0.08 [3,4,9,10]) are less than or overlap H chondrites. The IIE body was heated to >=900 degrees C, metamorphosing and partially melting the mantle and forming a small Fe,Ni-FeS core ~4.55 Ga ago. Slow metallographic cooling rates (1-100 degrees C/Ma [1,3]) for IIE's with unaltered metal (e.g., Techado, Weekeroo Station, Miles) and fractional crystallization trends for some elements (e.g., Au-Ni) support a core origin, not a near-surface, impact model. Comparison of other siderophile element trends in IAB, IIICD and IIE indicate similar origins [1], but IAB and IIICD may also have originated in cores [11,12]. Silicates differentiated in the mantle and/or after mixing with metal. The degree of differentiation increases from Netschaevo (unmelted, chondritic clasts [2]) to Techado (unmelted silicates; Fe,Ni-FeS melting [3]) to Watson (nearly-total melting; no silicate differentiation; Fe,Ni-FeS lost [4]) to Miles and Weekeroo Station (opx-cpx-plag partial melts [5]) to Kodaikanal, Colomera and Elga (cpx-plag differentiated partial melts [5]; opx fractional crystallization?). No residues from partial melting exist. "Differentiated" IIE's (Miles, Weekeroo Station, Kodaikanal, Colomera, Elga) tend to have higher Fs and d18O than "primitive" IIE's, consistent with partial melting. No correlation between silicate differentiation and host iron composition suggests multiple mixing events by impact induced tectonism or gravitational smoothing of the core-mantle boundary [12]. Slow cooling produced coarse-grained, heterogeneous inclusions observed in Miles and Colomera. Reheating and melting of silicates and resetting of chronometers occurred during later shock events. Shock focused in the inclusions, although many IIE's show shock effects in the metal. "Primitive" IIE's experienced mild shock (stage S2-S4; 100-300 degrees C post-shock heating [13]). Forging of Netschaevo masks its shock history. Shock in "differentiated" IIE's was severe (S4-S6; 300-1000 degrees C), forming planar fractures and undulatory extinction in coarse pyroxene and plagioclase. Some plagioclase in Colomera, Weekeroo Station, Kodaikanal and Elga (not Miles) was melted. Low (87Sr/86Sr)o ratios [see 8] may require some differentiation during this melting. Rapid post-shock cooling yielded glassy to microcrystalline plag-SiO2 mixtures. Colomera contains coarse-grained and glassy inclusions, requiring two episodes of heating and cooling (e.g., initial formation and shock). Post-shock heating reset 39Ar-40Ar chronometers in some IIE's [8] and possibly other chronometers in heavily-shocked IIE's (e.g., Kodaikanal). Variable post-shock heating between inclusions may not allow direct comparison of chronologic studies on different inclusions. Many IIE ages reflect later shock events and not silicate-metal mixing. References: [1] Wasson J. T. and Wang J. (1986) GCA, 50, 725. [2] Olsen E. and Jarosewich E. (1971) Science, 174, 583. [3] Casanova I. et al. (1995) Science, 268, 540. [4] Olsen E. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 200. [5] Prinz M. e

  11. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during the winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be employed to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and wind chill. The above-mentioned weather events suggest that there are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize impact of environmental stress. Caretakers need a greater understanding of animal responses to weather challenges to help animals cope with adverse climatic conditions. PMID:25414102

  12. Evolution of habitat and environment of deer during the Late-glacial and early Holocene: the case of red deer in French Jura.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drucker, Dorothée.; Bridault, Anne; Hujic, Alisa; Bocherens, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    The Late-glacial and early Holocene transition is a key period of environmental changes in a context of to a global warming. In northwestern Europe, extensive studies have documented the vegetation and faunal recomposition with the replacement of the cold steppe-tundra ecosystem by the forested temperate ecosystem we can still observe. Paleoecological interest focused on the extinct large mammals species like the Mammoth. In comparison, little has been done to decipher the ecological adaptation of the surviving species, especially those that are still present in the very same region than in the past. A better knowledge of the impact of changing environmental conditions on the ecology would be useful to define the degree of selective pressure. Thus, we have studied the habitat and environment evolution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the Late-glacial and early Holocene using stable isotopes and radiocarbon investigations. The analyzed bone material was selected from archaeological sites in French Jura. Performing direct radiocarbon dating on the bone collagen of the selected remains solved the problem of possible chronological uncertainties of the stratigraphical record of the sites. The same bone collagen samples were used for stable isotope measurements. We investigated the relative abundances in 13C to examine changes in habitat closure (canopy effect), in 15N to decipher changes in pedogenic activities (soil maturation) of the animals dwelling, and in 18O to track changes in altitude and/or local temperatures of the occupied territories. The results demonstrate that the stable isotopic composition of red deer bone collagen can be a valuable and sensitive indicator of habitat use and environmental conditions. The associated direct dating allows us to reconstruct the chronology of ecological changes. The combined chronological and ecological results evidence local differences in red deer adaptation at a small geographical scale.

  13. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

  14. Orofacial adverse effects of biological agents.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulou, Eleni A; Scully, Crispian

    2015-11-01

    Biological agents (BA) are increasingly used effectively in the treatment of a range of disorders, but to date, their application in diseases affecting the orofacial region has been fairly limited. Several orofacial adverse effects related to BA have been recently reported. However, the evidence for such adverse reactions is not always strong, and some of the adverse effects of BA have only been reported in case reports or case series. Most reactions to BA reported thus far have been in association with antitumor necrosis factor-? agents, which is not surprising, as these are the most widely-used BA. In the present study, the orofacial adverse effects are reported with various BA in order to sensitize clinicians to the possibilities. In addition, we briefly summarize the mode of action and indications of these BA. As the use and range of BA increases, the number and diversity of adverse effects might well increase. Despite the adverse effects of biological agents, these may often be less serious than the adverse effects of the more traditional immunosuppressive agents. PMID:24850782

  15. Overview of medical errors and adverse events

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

  16. Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference (Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

    These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" (Alma Fleet and Janet Robertson), discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the…

  17. Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

  18. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  19. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational methodologies. Because early-life adversity is a powerful determinant of subsequent vulnerabilities to emotional and cognitive pathologies, understanding the underlying processes will have profound implications for the world's current and future children. PMID:26105143

  20. The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H I in early-type galaxies as a function of environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2012-05-01

    We present the ATLAS3D H I survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H I down to 5 × 106-5 × 107 M? within the survey volume. We detect ˜40 per cent of all ETGs outside the Virgo galaxy cluster and ˜10 per cent of all ETGs inside it. This demonstrates that it is common for non-cluster ETGs to host H I. The morphology of the detected gas varies in a continuous way from regular, settled H I discs and rings to unsettled gas distributions (including tidal or accretion tails) and systems of clouds scattered around the galaxy. The majority of the detections consist of H I discs or rings (1/4 of all ETGs outside Virgo) so that if H I is detected in an ETG it is most likely distributed on a settled configuration. These systems come in two main types: small discs [? M?], which are confined within the stellar body and share the same kinematics of the stars; and large discs/rings [M(H I) up to 5 × 109 M?], which extend to tens of kpc from the host galaxy and are in half of the cases kinematically decoupled from the stars. Neutral hydrogen seems to provide material for star formation in ETGs. Galaxies containing H I within ˜1Re exhibit signatures of on-going star formation in ˜70 per cent of the cases, approximately five times more frequently than galaxies without central H I. The interstellar medium (ISM) in the centre of these galaxies is dominated by molecular gas, and in ETGs with a small gas disc the conversion of H I into H2 is as efficient as in spirals. The ETG H I mass function is characterized by M*˜ 2 × 109 M? and by a slope ?˜-0.7. Compared to spirals, ETGs host much less H I as a family. However, a significant fraction of all ETGs are as H I-rich as spiral galaxies. The main difference between ETGs and spirals is that the former lack the high-column-density H I typical of the bright stellar disc of the latter. The ETG H I properties vary with environment density in a more continuous way than suggested by the known Virgo versus non-Virgo dichotomy. We find an envelope of decreasing M(H I) and M(H I)/LK with increasing environment density. The gas-richest galaxies live in the poorest environments (as found also with CO observations), where the detection rate of star formation signatures is higher. Galaxies in the centre of Virgo have the lowest H I content, while galaxies at the outskirts of Virgo represent a transition region and can contain significant amounts of H I, indicating that at least a fraction of them has joined the cluster only recently after pre-processing in groups. Finally, we find an H I morphology-density relation such that at low environment density (measured on a local scale) the detected H I is mostly distributed on large, regular discs and rings, while more disturbed H I morphologies dominate environment densities typical of rich groups. This confirms the importance of processes occurring on a galaxy-group scale for the evolution of ETGs.

  1. Adversity in childhood and depression: linked through SIRT1.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, L; Visco-Comandini, F; Valzania, A; Viscomi, M T; Coviello, M; Giampà, A; Roscini, L; Bisicchia, E; Siracusano, A; Troisi, A; Puglisi-Allegra, S; Carola, V

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing an adverse childhood and parental neglect is a risk factor for depression in the adult population. Patients with a history of traumatic childhood develop a subtype of depression that is characterized by earlier onset, poor treatment response and more severe symptoms. The long-lasting molecular mechanisms that are engaged during early traumatic events and determine the risk for depression are poorly understood. In this study, we altered adult depression-like behavior in mice by applying juvenile isolation stress. We found that this behavioral phenotype was associated with a reduction in the levels of the deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) in the brain and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Notably, peripheral blood mRNA expression of SIRT1 predicted the extent of behavioral despair only when depression-like behavior was induced by juvenile--but not adult--stress, implicating SIRT1 in the regulation of adult behavior at early ages. Consistent with this hypothesis, pharmacological modulation of SIRT1 during juvenile age altered the depression-like behavior in naive mice. We also performed a pilot study in humans, in which the blood levels of SIRT1 correlated significantly with the severity of symptoms in major depression patients, especially in those who received less parental care during childhood. On the basis of these novel findings, we propose the involvement of SIRT1 in the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences. PMID:26327687

  2. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    PubMed Central

    Pieritz, Karoline; Rief, Winfried; Euteneuer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years). Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=?0.27; P<0.05). Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (?=?0.62; P=0.034) when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1). No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain. PMID:26316757

  3. Archival Report Behavioral Problems After Early Life Stress

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Archival Report Behavioral Problems After Early Life Stress: Contributions of the Hippocampus: Early life stress (ELS) can compromise development, with higher amounts of adversity linked increases, decreases, and no differences within human and nonhuman animal samples exposed to different forms

  4. Root Cause Analysis: Learning from Adverse Safety Events.

    PubMed

    Brook, Olga R; Kruskal, Jonathan B; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Larson, David B

    2015-10-01

    Serious adverse events continue to occur in clinical practice, despite our best preventive efforts. It is essential that radiologists, both as individuals and as a part of organizations, learn from such events and make appropriate changes to decrease the likelihood that such events will recur. Root cause analysis (RCA) is a process to (a) identify factors that underlie variation in performance or that predispose an event toward undesired outcomes and (b) allow for development of effective strategies to decrease the likelihood of similar adverse events occurring in the future. An RCA process should be performed within the environment of a culture of safety, focusing on underlying system contributors and, in a confidential manner, taking into account the emotional effects on the staff involved. The Joint Commission now requires that a credible RCA be performed within 45 days for all sentinel or major adverse events, emphasizing the need for all radiologists to understand the processes with which an effective RCA can be performed. Several RCA-related tools that have been found to be useful in the radiology setting include the "five whys" approach to determine causation; cause-and-effect, or Ishikawa, diagrams; causal tree mapping; affinity diagrams; and Pareto charts. (©)RSNA, 2015. PMID:26466177

  5. A longitudinal perspective on childhood adversities and onset risk of various psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan

    2015-06-01

    It is well-known that childhood adversities can have long-term effects on mental health, but a lot remains to be learned about the risk they bring about for a first onset of various psychiatric disorders, and how this risk develops over time. In the present study, which was based on a Dutch longitudinal population survey of adolescents TRAILS (N = 1,584), we investigated whether and how childhood adversities, as assessed with three different measures, affected the risk of developing an incident depressive, anxiety, or disruptive behavior in childhood and adolescence. In addition, we tested gender differences in any of the effects under study. The results indicated that depressive, anxiety and disruptive behavior disorders each had their own, characteristic, pattern of associations with childhood adversities across childhood and adolescence, which was maintained after adjustment for comorbid disorders. For depressive disorders, the overall pattern suggested a high excess risk of incidence during childhood, which decreased during adolescence. Anxiety disorders were characterized by a moderately increased incident risk during childhood, which remained approximately stable over time. Disruptive behavior disorders took an intermediate position. Of the three childhood adversities tested, an overall rating of the stressfulness of the childhood appeared to predict onset of psychiatric disorders best. To conclude, the risk of developing a psychiatric disorder after exposure to adversities early in life depends on the nature of the adversities, the nature of the outcome, and the time that has passed since the adversities without disorder onset. PMID:24723042

  6. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide. PMID:26303813

  7. Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

  8. 43 CFR 3871.5 - Termination of adverse suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Adverse Claims § 3871.5 Termination of adverse suit. (a)...

  9. 43 CFR 3871.5 - Termination of adverse suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Adverse Claims § 3871.5 Termination of adverse suit. (a)...

  10. 43 CFR 3871.5 - Termination of adverse suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Adverse Claims § 3871.5 Termination of adverse suit. (a)...

  11. 43 CFR 3871.5 - Termination of adverse suit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ADVERSE CLAIMS, PROTESTS AND CONFLICTS Adverse Claims § 3871.5 Termination of adverse suit. (a)...

  12. Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

  13. Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene environments of the north-eastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2013-08-01

    The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record in Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities allowing the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments show their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.50-3.35 Myr BP the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, in nowadays tundra area, was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.4 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental changes took place at ca. 3.305-3.275 Myr BP, corresponding with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated in the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.04-3.02, 2.93-2.91, and 2.725-2.695 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Revealed peaks in green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.320-2.305 and 2.175-2.150 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. Few intervals (i.e. 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations.

  14. Adverse events in childhood and chronic widespread pain in adult life: Results from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth T; Power, Chris; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2009-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and frequently disabling condition. Several studies have shown that early life adversity is associated with CWP in later life; however, the majority are retrospective and suffer from potential recall bias. Using data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort Study, the aim of the current study was to examine, prospectively, the relationship between childhood physical and psychological adversity and CWP in adulthood. At 7 yrs data were collected, by parental report, on physically traumatic events (hospitalisation following a road traffic accident, or for surgery); and factors indicating poor social and psychological environment (periods in local authority care, death of a parent; or parental divorce, alcoholism, or financial hardship). CWP was assessed at 45 yrs using self-completion questionnaires. The relationship between childhood events and CWP was examined using Poisson regression. 7571 individuals provided pain data at 45 yrs (71.5%). There was no association between childhood surgery and CWP in adulthood (relative risk: 1.0; 95%CI: 0.9-1.1). However, children who had been hospitalised following a road traffic accident experienced a significant increase in the risk of future CWP (1.5; 1.05-2.1). Children who had resided in institutional care also experienced an increase in the risk of CWP (1.7; 1.3-2.4) as did those who experienced maternal death (2.0; 1.08-3.7) and familial financial hardship (1.6; 1.3-1.9). Further these associations were not explained by adult psychological distress or social class. To prevent long-term consequences of adverse childhood events, future research should study the mechanisms, in particular the biological mechanisms, underlying these relationships. PMID:19304391

  15. Effects of chronic iTBS-rTMS and enriched environment on visual cortex early critical period and visual pattern discrimination in dark-reared rats.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Padilla, Diana V; Funke, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Early cortical critical period resembles a state of enhanced neuronal plasticity enabling the establishment of specific neuronal connections during first sensory experience. Visual performance with regard to pattern discrimination is impaired if the cortex is deprived from visual input during the critical period. We wondered how unspecific activation of the visual cortex before closure of the critical period using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect the critical period and the visual performance of the experimental animals. Would it cause premature closure of the plastic state and thus worsen experience-dependent visual performance, or would it be able to preserve plasticity? Effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) were compared with those of an enriched environment (EE) during dark-rearing (DR) from birth. Rats dark-reared in a standard cage showed poor improvement in a visual pattern discrimination task, while rats housed in EE or treated with iTBS showed a performance indistinguishable from rats reared in normal light/dark cycle. The behavioral effects were accompanied by correlated changes in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and atypical PKC (PKC?/PKM?), two factors controlling stabilization of synaptic potentiation. It appears that not only nonvisual sensory activity and exercise but also cortical activation induced by rTMS has the potential to alleviate the effects of DR on cortical development, most likely due to stimulation of BDNF synthesis and release. As we showed previously, iTBS reduced the expression of parvalbumin in inhibitory cortical interneurons, indicating that modulation of the activity of fast-spiking interneurons contributes to the observed effects of iTBS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 19-33, 2016. PMID:25892203

  16. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. III. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF FORMATION EPOCHS AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES ON STELLAR MASS AND ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rettura, A.; Stanford, S. A.; Jee, M. J.; Mei, S.; Ford, H. C.; Huertas-Company, M.; Raichoor, A.; Moran, S.; Holden, B.; Illingworth, G.; Ellis, R.; Nakata, F.; Nonino, M.; Treu, T.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Eisenhardt, P.; Kodama, T.

    2011-05-10

    We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z {approx} 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z = 1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8- to 10-band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster ETGs. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the ages are similar and depend only on galaxy mass, the ones in the field do employ longer timescales to assemble their final mass. We find that, approximately 1 Gyr after the onset of star formation, the majority (75%) of cluster galaxies have already assembled most (>80%) of their final mass, while, by the same time, fewer (35%) field ETGs have. Thus, we conclude that while galaxy mass regulates the timing of galaxy formation, the environment regulates the timescale of their star formation histories.

  17. SPIDER - VI. The central dark matter content of luminous early-type galaxies: Benchmark correlations with mass, structural parameters and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We analyse the central dark-matter (DM) content of ˜4500 massive (M? ? 1010 M?), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), with high-quality ugrizY JHK photometry and optical spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS). We estimate the 'central' fraction of DM within the K-band effective radius, Reff, using spherically symmetric isotropic galaxy models. We discuss the role of systematics in stellar mass estimates, dynamical modelling, and velocity dispersion anisotropy. The main results of the present work are the following: (1) DM fractions increase systematically with both structural parameters (i.e. Reff and Sérsic index, n) and mass proxies (central velocity dispersion, stellar and dynamical mass), as in previous studies, and decrease with central stellar density. (2) All correlations involving DM fractions are caused by two fundamental ones with galaxy effective radius and central velocity dispersion. These correlations are independent of each other, so that ETGs populate a central-DM plane (DMP), i.e. a correlation among fraction of total-to-stellar mass, effective radius, and velocity dispersion, whose scatter along the total-to-stellar mass axis amounts to ˜0.15 dex. (3) In general, under the assumption of an isothermal or a constant M/L profile for the total mass distribution, a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF) is favoured with respect to a bottom-heavier Salpeter IMF, as the latter produces negative (i.e. unphysical) DM fractions for more than 50 per cent of the galaxies in our sample. For a Chabrier IMF, the DM estimates agree with ? cold dark matter toy-galaxy models based on contracted DM-halo density profiles. We also find agreement with predictions from hydrodynamical simulations. (4) The central DM content of ETGs does not depend significantly on the environment where galaxies reside, with group and field ETGs having similar DM trends.

  18. Early Eocene volcanic ashes on Greifswalder Oie and their depositional environment, with an overview of coeval ash-bearing deposits in northern Germany and Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obst, Karsten; Ansorge, Jörg; Matting, Sabine; Hüneke, Heiko

    2015-06-01

    Unconsolidated bentonites and carbonate-cemented volcanic ashes occur in northern Germany within the clay sequence of the Lamstedt and Schlieven Formations documented by several wells. Ash-bearing carbonate concretions (so-called cementstones) are also known from glacially transported rafts and erratic boulders on the Baltic Sea island Greifswalder Oie, representing the easternmost exposures of early Eocene sediments in the North Sea Basin. The ashes can be correlated with water-lain ashes of the Danish Fur and Ølst Formations (mo-clay) generated during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean about 55 Ma ago. Two types of cementstones can be distinguished on the basis of the mineralogical composition, sedimentary features and fossil content. Greifswalder Oie type I contains a black, up to 12-cm-thick ash deposit that follows above two distinct thin grey ash layers. The major ash unit has a rather homogeneous lower part; only a very weak normal grading and faint lamination are discernible. In the upper part, however, intercalations with light mudstone, in part intensively bioturbated, together with parallel and cross-lamination suggest reworking of the ash in a shallow marine environment. Major and trace element compositions are used to correlate type I ashes with those of the Danish-positive series which represent rather uniform ferrobasalts of the Danish stage 4, probably related to the emergence of proto-Iceland. In contrast, type II ash comprises a single, normally graded, about 5-cm-thick layer of water-lain air-fall tuff, which is embedded in fine-grained sandstone to muddy siltstone. Type II ash is characterised by very high TiO2 but low MgO contents. Exceptional REE patterns with a pronounced positive Eu anomaly suggest intense leaching of the glass that hampers exact correlation with pyroclastic deposits within the North Atlantic Igneous Province.

  19. Early Eocene volcanic ashes on Greifswalder Oie and their depositional environment, with an overview of coeval ash-bearing deposits in northern Germany and Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obst, Karsten; Ansorge, Jörg; Matting, Sabine; Hüneke, Heiko

    2015-11-01

    Unconsolidated bentonites and carbonate-cemented volcanic ashes occur in northern Germany within the clay sequence of the Lamstedt and Schlieven Formations documented by several wells. Ash-bearing carbonate concretions (so-called cementstones) are also known from glacially transported rafts and erratic boulders on the Baltic Sea island Greifswalder Oie, representing the easternmost exposures of early Eocene sediments in the North Sea Basin. The ashes can be correlated with water-lain ashes of the Danish Fur and Ølst Formations (mo-clay) generated during the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean about 55 Ma ago. Two types of cementstones can be distinguished on the basis of the mineralogical composition, sedimentary features and fossil content. Greifswalder Oie type I contains a black, up to 12-cm-thick ash deposit that follows above two distinct thin grey ash layers. The major ash unit has a rather homogeneous lower part; only a very weak normal grading and faint lamination are discernible. In the upper part, however, intercalations with light mudstone, in part intensively bioturbated, together with parallel and cross-lamination suggest reworking of the ash in a shallow marine environment. Major and trace element compositions are used to correlate type I ashes with those of the Danish-positive series which represent rather uniform ferrobasalts of the Danish stage 4, probably related to the emergence of proto-Iceland. In contrast, type II ash comprises a single, normally graded, about 5-cm-thick layer of water-lain air-fall tuff, which is embedded in fine-grained sandstone to muddy siltstone. Type II ash is characterised by very high TiO2 but low MgO contents. Exceptional REE patterns with a pronounced positive Eu anomaly suggest intense leaching of the glass that hampers exact correlation with pyroclastic deposits within the North Atlantic Igneous Province.

  20. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Contact angles on intermediate surfaces; changes in PDMS film thickness with n-hexane immersion; the chemical stability of surfaces with (C3) and without PDMS film (C2) and the impalement pressure balance. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01368a

  1. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  2. Putative adverse outcome pathways relevant to neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, Anna; Crofton, Kevin M; Sachana, Magdalini; Shafer, Timothy J; Behl, Mamta; Forsby, Anna; Hargreaves, Alan; Landesmann, Brigitte; Lein, Pamela J; Louisse, Jochem; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Paini, Alicia; Rolaki, Alexandra; Schrattenholz, André; Suñol, Cristina; van Thriel, Christoph; Whelan, Maurice; Fritsche, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework provides a template that facilitates understanding of complex biological systems and the pathways of toxicity that result in adverse outcomes (AOs). The AOP starts with an molecular initiating event (MIE) in which a chemical interacts with a biological target(s), followed by a sequential series of KEs, which are cellular, anatomical, and/or functional changes in biological processes, that ultimately result in an AO manifest in individual organisms and populations. It has been developed as a tool for a knowledge-based safety assessment that relies on understanding mechanisms of toxicity, rather than simply observing its adverse outcome. A large number of cellular and molecular processes are known to be crucial to proper development and function of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). However, there are relatively few examples of well-documented pathways that include causally linked MIEs and KEs that result in adverse outcomes in the CNS or PNS. As a first step in applying the AOP framework to adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to exogenous neurotoxic substances, the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) organized a workshop (March 2013, Ispra, Italy) to identify potential AOPs relevant to neurotoxic and developmental neurotoxic outcomes. Although the AOPs outlined during the workshop are not fully described, they could serve as a basis for further, more detailed AOP development and evaluation that could be useful to support human health risk assessment in a variety of ways. PMID:25605028

  3. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  4. Cardiovascular adverse effects of newer antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Mago, Rajnish; Tripathi, Neeta; Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-05-01

    Newer antidepressants that are more selective in their neurotransmitter effects include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others (agomelatine, bupropion, mirtazapine, reboxetine, vilazodone, vortioxetine). This article systematically reviews data from a variety of sources regarding the potential adverse effects of these medications on various cardiovascular parameters. Potential biochemical mechanisms by which these antidepressants may adversely affect the cardiovascular system are also discussed. Antidepressants that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk (SNRIs, reboxetine), lower risk (SSRIs), and without current evidence of cardiovascular risk (agomelatine, mirtazapine, vilazodone, vortioxetine) are identified. The FDA's recommendations regarding citalopram are organized and summarized, and situations with higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects are identified. PMID:24738823

  5. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars. PMID:23499043

  6. Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

  7. Hydrothermal modification of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite under low pH geothermal environments. A plausibly prebiotic route to activated phosphorus on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, David E.; Greenfield, David; Walshaw, Richard D.; Johnson, Benjamin R. G.; Herschy, Barry; Smith, Caroline; Pasek, Matthew A.; Telford, Richard; Scowen, Ian; Munshi, Tasnim; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Cousins, Claire R.; Crawford, Ian A.; Kee, Terence P.

    2013-05-01

    The Sikhote-Alin (SA) meteorite is an example of a type IIAB octahedrite iron meteorite with ca. 0.5 wt% phosphorus (P) content principally in the form of the siderophilic mineral schreibersite (Fe,Ni)3P. Meteoritic in-fall to the early Earth would have added significantly to the inventory of such siderophilic P. Subsequent anaerobic corrosion in the presence of a suitable electrolyte would produce P in a form different to that normally found within endogenous geochemistry which could then be released into the environment. One environment of specific interest includes the low pH conditions found in fumaroles or volcanically heated geothermal waters in which anodic oxidation of Fe metal to ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) would be coupled with cathodic reduction of a suitable electron acceptor. In the absence of aerobic dioxygen (Eo = +1.229 V), the proton would provide an effective final electron acceptor, being converted to dihydrogen gas (Eo = 0 V). Here we explore the hydrothermal modification of sectioned samples of the Sikhote-Alin meteorite in which siderophilic P-phases are exposed. We report on both, (i) simulated volcanic conditions using low pH distilled water and (ii) geothermally heated sub-glacial fluids from the northern Kverkfjöll volcanic region of the Icelandic Vatnajoküll glacier. A combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical measurements using the scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) method reveals that schreibersite inclusions are significantly less susceptible to anodic oxidation than their surrounding Fe-Ni matrix, being some 550 mV nobler than matrix material. This results in preferential corrosion of the matrix at the matrix-inclusion boundary as confirmed using topological mapping via infinite focus microscopy and chemical mapping through Raman spectroscopy. The significance of these observations from a chemical perspective is that electrochemically noble inclusions such as schreibersite are likely to have been released into the geological environment through an undermining corrosion of the surrounding matrix, thus affording localised sources of available water-soluble, chemically reactive P in the form of H-phosphite [HPO3-, Pi(III) as determined by 31P NMR spectroscopy]. This compound has been shown to have considerable prebiotic chemical potential as a source of condensed P-oxyacids. Here we demonstrate that Pi(III) resulting from the hydrothermal modification of Sikhote-Alin by sub-glacial geothermal fluids can be readily dehydrated into the condensed P-oxyacid pyrophosphite [HPO52-, PPi(III)] by dry-heating under mild (85 °C) conditions. The potential significance of this latter condensed P-compound for prebiotic chemistry is discussed in the light of its modified chemical properties compared to pyrophosphate [HPO72-, PPi(V)].

  8. Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

  9. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  10. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  11. Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reactions: A Clinicoepidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Riyaz, Najeeba; Khader, Anza; Rajan, Uma; Binitha, Manikoth P; Sureshan, Deepthi N

    2015-01-01

    Background: Drug eruptions range from transient erythema to the life threatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) that encompass Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms complex (DRESS). Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR). Materials and Methods: Ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethics committee. All patients admitted in the Dermatology ward of our tertiary care hospital with CADR (those who fit in the category of probable or possible drug reaction as per WHO casuality assessment) from first September 2011 to 31st August 2012 were included in this cross sectional study after obtaining written informed consent. The drug reaction patterns observed in the study population were determined and the common offending drugs were identified. Results: In the study, population of males outnumbered females and the majority were between 46 and 60 years of age. The commonest reaction pattern observed was SJS- TEN spectrum of illness and aromatic anticonvulsants were the common offending drugs. Prompt withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids with or without I/V Ig reverted the adverse reaction in all except one. Conclusion: Severe drug reactions predominated as the study population was comprised of inpatients of a tertiary referral centre. Though; previous authors had reported a mortality rate of up to 20% in DRESS, all our patients with this reaction pattern, responded well to treatment. The mortality rate among TEN cases was much lower than the previous reports. Early diagnosis, prompt withdrawal of the suspected drug, careful monitoring for development of complications and immediate intervention can improve the prognosis of CADR. PMID:25657416

  12. Intracellular bacteria and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Baud, D; Greub, G

    2011-09-01

    This review considers the role of intracellular bacteria in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirths, and preterm labour. The cause of miscarriage, stillbirth and preterm labour often remains unexplained. Intracellular bacteria that grow either poorly or not at all on media used routinely to detect human pathogens could be the aetiological agents of these obstetric conditions. For example, Listeria monocytogenes and Coxiella burnetti are intracellular bacteria that have a predilection for the fetomaternal unit and may induce fatal disease in the mother and/or fetus. Both are important foodborne or zoonotic pathogens in pregnancy. Preventive measures, diagnostic tools and treatment will be reviewed. Moreover, we will also address the importance in adverse pregnancy outcomes of other intracellular bacteria, including Brucella abortus and various members of the order Chlamydiales. Indeed, there is growing evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections may also result in adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans and/or animals. Moreover, newly discovered Chlamydia-like organisms have recently emerged as new pathogens of both animals and humans. For example, Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium isolated from aborted bovine fetuses, has also been implicated in human miscarriages. Future research should help us to better understand the pathophysiology of adverse pregnancy outcomes caused by intracellular bacteria and to determine the precise mode of transmission of newly identified bacteria, such as Waddlia and Parachlamydia. These emerging pathogens may represent the tip of the iceberg of a large number of as yet unknown intracellular pathogenic agents. PMID:21884294

  13. Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive deficits and hippocampal pathology that are present in the AD brain. This review summarizes recent findings obtained in experimental AD models regarding the influence of chronic adverse stress on the underlying cellular and molecular disease processes including the potential role of glucocorticoids. Emerging findings suggest that both AD and chronic adverse stress affect hippocampal neural networks in a similar fashion. We describe alterations in hippocampal plasticity that occur in both chronic stress and AD including dendritic remodeling, neurogenesis and long-term potentiation. Finally, we outline potential roles for oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor signaling as key determinants of the impact of chronic stress on the plasticity of neural networks and AD pathogenesis. PMID:19943124

  14. The adverse outcome pathway knowledge base

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid advancement of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework has been paralleled by the development of tools to store, analyse, and explore AOPs. The AOP Knowledge Base (AOP-KB) project has brought three independently developed platforms (Effectopedia, AOP-Wiki, and AOP-X...

  15. Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Jeff

    Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

  16. Educational Leadership: The Uses of Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack

    1976-01-01

    Skepticism about the power of education challenges the educational administrator to (1) attain a better understanding of the sources of dissatisfaction and their implications for change, (2) learn to cope with adversity and make constructive use of it, and (3) define the leadership requirements needed to address education's problems. (MB)

  17. Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

  18. Glaucoma-related Adverse Events in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) : One Year Results

    PubMed Central

    Beck, AD; Freedman, SF; Lynn, MJ; Bothun, ED; Neely, D; Lambert, SR

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the incidence of glaucoma and glaucoma suspects in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). To evaluate risk factors for the development of a glaucoma-related adverse event in IATS in the first year of follow-up. Methods 114 infants with a unilateral congenital cataract were assigned to undergo cataract surgery between 1 to 6 months of age either with (IOL) or without IOL implantation (CL). Standardized definitions of glaucoma and glaucoma suspect were created and used in the IATS. Results Ten patients (9%) developed glaucoma and 4 patients (4%) were glaucoma suspects for a total of 14 patients (12%) with a glaucoma-related adverse event in the treated eye through the first year of follow-up. Five CL patients (9%) and 9 IOL patients (16%) developed a glaucoma-related adverse event. The odds of developing a glaucoma-related adverse event was 3.1 times higher for a child with persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), and 1.6 times higher for each month of age younger at cataract surgery. Conclusions Modern surgical techniques do not eliminate the early development of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery with or without an intraocular lens. Younger patients with or without PFV seem more likely to develop a glaucoma-related adverse event in the first year of follow-up.Vigilance for the early development of glaucoma is needed following congenital cataract surgery, especially when surgery is performed during early infancy or with PFV. Five year follow-up data for the IATS will likely reveal more glaucoma-related adverse events. PMID:22084157

  19. Innate immunity, coagulation and placenta-related adverse pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Huang, S. Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Maternal immunity undergoes subtle adjustment in order to tolerate the semi-allogeneic embryo and maintain the host defense against potential pathogens. Concomitantly, coagulation systems change from an anti-coagulant state to a pro-coagulant state to meet the hemostatic challenge of placentation and delivery. Innate immunity and blood coagulation systems are the first line of defense to protect a host against exogenous challenges, including alloantigens and mechanical insults, and preserve the integrity of an organism. The interactions between coagulation and immune systems have been extensively studied. Immune cells play a pivotal role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade, whereas coagulation proteases display substantial immunomodulatory effects. Upon exogenous challenges, the immune and coagulation systems are capable of potentiating each other leading to a vicious cycle. Natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages (M?s) and dendritic cells (DCs) are three major innate immune cells that have been demonstrated to play essential roles in early pregnancy. However, immune maladaptation and hemostatic imbalance have been suggested to be responsible for adverse pregnant outcomes, such as preeclampsia (PE), miscarriage, recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In this review, we will summarize the mutual regulation between blood coagulation and innate immune systems as well as their roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:19683334

  20. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS: GENERAL Reporting of Adverse Experiences § 600.80... this section: Adverse experience. Any adverse event associated with the use of a biological product in... the course of the use of a biological product in professional practice; an adverse event...

  1. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  2. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  3. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions... thorough investigation of each reported adverse reaction shall be made. A written report of...

  4. A Review of Adversity, The Amygdala and the Hippocampus: A Consideration of Developmental Timing

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    A review of the human developmental neuroimaging literature that investigates outcomes following exposure to psychosocial adversity is presented with a focus on two subcortical structures – the hippocampus and the amygdala. Throughout this review, we discuss how a consideration of developmental timing of adverse experiences and age at measurement might provide insight into the seemingly discrepant findings across studies. We use findings from animal studies to suggest some mechanisms through which timing of experiences may result in differences across time and studies. The literature suggests that early life may be a time of heightened susceptibility to environmental stressors, but that expression of these effects will vary by age at measurement. PMID:20161700

  5. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... normal activities experienced by all or most of the persons exposed at one time. (4) An impairment of normal activities which is experienced each time an individual is exposed. (b) Firms are not required to... are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the alleged cause...

  6. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... normal activities experienced by all or most of the persons exposed at one time. (4) An impairment of normal activities which is experienced each time an individual is exposed. (b) Firms are not required to... are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the alleged cause...

  7. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... normal activities experienced by all or most of the persons exposed at one time. (4) An impairment of normal activities which is experienced each time an individual is exposed. (b) Firms are not required to... are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the alleged cause...

  8. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... normal activities experienced by all or most of the persons exposed at one time. (4) An impairment of normal activities which is experienced each time an individual is exposed. (b) Firms are not required to... are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the alleged cause...

  9. 40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... normal activities experienced by all or most of the persons exposed at one time. (4) An impairment of normal activities which is experienced each time an individual is exposed. (b) Firms are not required to... are not required to record a significant adverse reaction to the environment if the alleged cause...

  10. Potential roles of omics data in the use of adverse outcome pathways for environmental risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current approach to assessing adverse effects of chemicals in the environment is largely based on a battery of in-vivo study methods and a limited number of accepted in-silico approaches. For most substances the pool of data from which to predict ecosystem effects is limited ...

  11. On the Likelihood of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Causing Adverse Marine Ecological Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    This brief article discusses the ecological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)in the marine environment. Based on new research and a review of the scientific literature, the paper concludes that SWNTs are unlikely to cause adverse ecological effects in the marine ...

  12. Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail services, Heads of Department/

    E-print Network

    Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail to present him/herself for work. Where, due to the adverse weather conditions, public transport is affected as a result of the adverse weather conditions (for example a child's school is closed), they should consult

  13. Sturdy positioning with high sensitivity GPS sensors under adverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver's position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

  14. Sturdy Positioning with High Sensitivity GPS Sensors Under Adverse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Trajkovski, Klemen Kozmus; Sterle, Oskar; Stopar, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    High sensitivity GPS receivers have extended the use of GNSS navigation to environments which were previously deemed unsuitable for satellite signal reception. Under adverse conditions the signals become attenuated and reflected. High sensitivity receivers achieve signal reception by using a large number of correlators and an extended integration time. Processing the observation data in dynamic and rapidly changing conditions requires a careful and consistent treatment. Code-based autonomous solutions can cause major errors in the estimated position, due primarily to multipath effects. A custom procedure of autonomous GPS positioning has been developed, boosting the positioning performance through appropriate processing of code and Doppler observations. Besides the common positioning procedures, robust estimation methods have been used to minimise the effects of gross observation errors. In normal conditions, differential GNSS yields good results, however, under adverse conditions, it fails to improve significantly the receiver’s position. Therefore, a so-called conditional DGPS has been developed which determines the position differentially by using data from the strong signals only. These custom-developed procedures have been tested in different conditions in static and kinematic cases and the results have been compared to those processed by the receiver. PMID:22163657

  15. ADRIS - The Adverse Drug Reactions Information Scheme.

    PubMed

    Hug, Hubert; Bagatto, Dario; Dannecker, Robert; Schindler, Richard; Horlacher, Oliver; Gut, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Under the Adverse Drug Reactions Information Scheme (ADRIS) data and knowledge relevant to the etiology of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) such as chemical structure of parent compounds, metabolites, covalent adducts, nucleic acid and protein sequences, protein structures, pharmaco-, toxico- and enzyme kinetics, pharmaco- and toxicodynamics, protein interactions, molecular pathways and complexes, as well as toxicological and clinical outcomes, are collected and logically and semantically related. ADRIS reflects the ontological prerequisite for the creation of databases and knowledge discovery systems for the abstraction and visualization of theragenomic concepts. A final outcome is the prediction of ADRs based on a profound knowledge of drug function and the molecular basics for personalized drug safety and eventually, personalized medicine. 2004 PMID:15090937

  16. Adverse reactions to injectable soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Requena, Luis; Requena, Celia; Christensen, Lise; Zimmermann, Ute S; Kutzner, Heinz; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, injections with filler agents are often used for wrinkle-treatment and soft tissue augmentation by dermatologists and plastic surgeons. Unfortunately, the ideal filler has not yet been discovered and all of them may induce adverse reactions. Quickly biodegradable or resorbable agents may induce severe complications, but they will normally disappear spontaneously in a few months. Slowly biodegradable or nonresorbable fillers may give rise to severe reactions that show little or no tendency to spontaneous improvement. They may appear several years after the injection, when the patient does not remember which product was injected, and treatment is often insufficient. In this review, we discuss the most commonly used fillers, their most frequent adverse reactions as well as the characteristic histopathologic findings that allow the identification of the injected filler agent. In conclusion, histopathologic study remains as the gold standard technique to identify the responsible filler. PMID:21167403

  17. An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

  18. Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children’s Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers’ prenatal adverse experiences may program their children’s physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions. PMID:24466003

  19. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment. PMID:18497164

  20. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus

    2015-01-01

    Administration of amphetamine and methamphetamine can elicit psychiatric adverse effects at acute administration, binge use, withdrawal, and chronic use. Most troublesome of these are psychotic states and aggressive behavior, but a large variety of undesirable changes in cognition and affect can be induced. Adverse effects occur more frequently with higher dosages and long-term use. They can subside over time but some persist long-term. Multiple alterations in the gray and white matter of the brain assessed as changes in tissue volume or metabolism, or at molecular level, have been associated with amphetamine and methamphetamine use and the psychiatric adverse effects, but further studies are required to clarify their causal role, specificity, and relationship with preceding states and traits and comorbidities. The latter include other substance use disorders, mood and anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-related psychosis is similar to schizophrenia in terms of symptomatology and pathogenesis, and these two disorders share predisposing genetic factors. PMID:26070758

  1. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11?-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be addressed. PMID:24860550

  2. "It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

  3. 40 CFR 1516.8 - Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record. 1516.8 Section 1516.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL...., Washington, DC 20006. The General Counsel shall, not later than thirty working days from the date on...

  4. 40 CFR 1516.8 - Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record. 1516.8 Section 1516.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL...., Washington, DC 20006. The General Counsel shall, not later than thirty working days from the date on...

  5. 40 CFR 1516.8 - Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record. 1516.8 Section 1516.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL...., Washington, DC 20006. The General Counsel shall, not later than thirty working days from the date on...

  6. 40 CFR 1516.8 - Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal of an initial adverse agency determination on correction or amendment of the record. 1516.8 Section 1516.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL...., Washington, DC 20006. The General Counsel shall, not later than thirty working days from the date on...

  7. The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

  8. Understanding vaccine safety information from the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, Frederick; Iskander, John; Destefano, Frank; Ball, Robert; Pless, Robert; Braun, M Miles; Chen, Robert T

    2004-04-01

    The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) is administered by the Food and Drug Administration and CDC and is a key component of postlicensure vaccine safety surveillance. Its primary function is to detect early warning signals and generate hypotheses about possible new vaccine adverse events or changes in frequency of known ones. VAERS is a passive surveillance system that relies on physicians and others to voluntarily submit reports of illness after vaccination. Manufacturers are required to report all adverse events of which they become aware. There are a number of well-described limitations of such reporting systems. These include, for example, variability in report quality, biased reporting, underreporting and the inability to determine whether a vaccine caused the adverse event in any individual report. Strengths of VAERS are that it is national in scope and timely. The information in VAERS reports is not necessarily complete nor is it verified systematically. Reports are classified as serious or nonserious based on regulatory criteria. Reports are coded by VAERS in a uniform way with a limited number of terms using a terminology called COSTART. Coding is useful for search purposes but is necessarily imprecise. VAERS is useful in detecting adverse events related to vaccines and most recently was used for enhanced reporting of adverse events in the national smallpox immunization campaign. VAERS data have always been publicly available. However, it is essential for users of VAERS data to be fully aware of the strengths and weaknesses of the system. VAERS data contain strong biases. Incidence rates and relative risks of specific adverse events cannot be calculated. Statistical significance tests and confidence intervals should be used with great caution and not routinely. Signals detected in VAERS should be subjected to further clinical and descriptive epidemiologic analysis. Confirmation in a controlled study is usually required. An understanding of the system's defined objectives and inherent drawbacks is vital to the effective use of VAERS data in vaccine safety investigations. PMID:15071280

  9. Childhood adversity and asthma prevalence: evidence from 10 US states (2009–2011)

    PubMed Central

    Bhan, Nandita; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing evidence on stress and asthma prevalence has disproportionately focused on pregnancy and postpregnancy early life stressors, largely ignoring the role of childhood adversity as a risk factor. Childhood adversity (neglect, stressful living conditions and maltreatment) may influence asthma prevalence through mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Methods Data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys were used to examine cross-sectional associations of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) with lifetime and current asthma prevalence. Information on childhood adversity was available from 84?786 adult respondents in 10 US states. Poisson regression models (with robust SE) were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) relating overall ACE score and dimensions of exposure ACE to asthma prevalence, adjusting for socioeconomic status. Results Greater ACE was associated with a higher prevalence of asthma (adjusted PRcat 4=1.78 (95% CI 1.69 to 1.87), adjusted PRcat 1=1.21 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.27)). Reported experiences of sexual abuse (adjusted PR=1.48* (1.42 to 1.55)) and physical abuse (adjusted PR=1.38* (1.33 to 1.43)) were associated with a higher asthma prevalence. No clear socioeconomic gradient was noted, but those reporting lowest education and income levels reported high rates of asthma and adversity. Sensitivity analyses indicated that ACE exposures were interrelated. Conclusions Report of childhood adversity predicts asthma prevalence among US adults. Frameworks for asthma prevention need to recognise and integrate aspects related to childhood adversity. Further investigation into specific time periods of exposure would provide meaningful inferences for interventions. PMID:25478171

  10. [Are non-clinical studies predictive of adverse events in humans?].

    PubMed

    Claude, N

    2007-09-01

    The predictibility of adverse events induced by drugs in non-clinical safety studies performed on in vitro and/or in vivo models is a key point for the safety of humans exposed to pharmaceuticals. The strength and the weakness of animal studies to predict human toxicity were assessed by an international study on the concordance of the toxicity of 150 pharmaceuticals observed in humans with that observed in experimental animals. The results showed a good correlation (70% of the adverse events in humans were detected in animal studies) and an early time to first appearance of concordant animal toxicity: 94% were first observed in studies of 1 month or less in duration. The highest incidence of overall concordance was seen in hematological and cardiovascular adverse effects and the least was seen in cutaneous and ophthalmological adverse effects. These studies, scientifically and regulatory standardized, need, in some cases to be adapted to specific problems linked to sensitive populations (young, old or with a pathology which could be worsened by the drug), or specific pharmaceuticals (produced by biotechnology). Some severe adverse events are not detected in conventional animal models (immuno-allergy, idiosyncrasy). Taken together, these elements support the value of toxicology studies to predict many human toxic events associated with pharmaceuticals. Nevertheless, a part of human toxicity is not detected by these experimental approaches, and new tools developed through progress in biology and bio-informatics should reduce this uncertainly margin. PMID:17982375

  11. Vaxtracker: Active on-line surveillance for adverse events following inactivated influenza vaccine in children.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N

    2014-09-22

    Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. PMID:25077424

  12. Early life stress interactions with the epigenome: potential mechanisms driving vulnerability towards psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    Olive, Michael Foster

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century a body of literature concerning the long lasting effects of early environment was produced. Adverse experiences in early life, or early life stress (ELS), is associated with a higher risk for developing various psychiatric illnesses. The mechanisms driving the complex interplay between ELS and adult phenotype has baffled many investigators for decades. Over the last decade, the new field of neuroepigenetics has emerged as one possible mechanism by which ELS can have far reaching effects on adult phenotype, behavior, and risk for psychiatric illness. Here we review two commonly investigated epigenetic mechanisms, histone modifications and DNA methylation, and the emerging field of neuroepigenetics as they relate to ELS. We discuss the current animal literature demonstrating ELS induced epigenetic modulation of gene expression that results in altered adult phenotypes. We also briefly discuss other areas in which neuroepigenetics has emerged as a potential mechanism underlying environmental and genetic interactions. PMID:25003947

  13. Prevalence and detection of neuropsychiatric adverse effects during hepatitis C treatment.

    PubMed

    Masip, Montserrat; Tuneu, Laura; Pagès, Neus; Torras, Xavier; Gallego, Adolfo; Guardiola, Josep Maria; Faus, María José; Mangues, Maria Antònia

    2015-12-01

    Background Current treatment combinations for chronic hepatitis C virus infection still include pegylated interferon and ribavirin despite the new therapeutic options available. Interferon-based treatments are associated with a high incidence of adverse effects. Central nervous system events are among the most frequent adverse drug reactions and their influence on treatment adherence and effectiveness is controversial. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate neuropsychiatric adverse effects of interferon-based treatment for chronic hepatitis C in standard multidisciplinary clinical practice. Risk factors for these adverse effects and their impact on adherence and sustained viral response were also evaluated. Setting Ambulatory care pharmacy in coordination with the liver unit and the infectious diseases unit at a 650-bed tertiary university hospital. Methods We included all consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who completed treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin between 2005 and 2013. All patients underwent a multidisciplinary follow-up during treatment. Main outcome measures Neuropsychiatric adverse effects were evaluated in relation to severity, management and outcome. The presence of anxiety and depression was evaluated by means of specific tests. Results A total of 717 treatments in 679 patients were included. During treatment, we detected 1679 neuropsychiatric adverse effects in 618 patients (86.2 %), generating 1737 clinical interventions. Fifty-seven (3.3 %) neuropsychiatric adverse effects were severe and 2 (0.1 %) were life-threatening (suicidal attempts). Most neuropsychiatric adverse effects (1555 events, 92.6 %) resolved without sequelae. Psychiatric medication was required in 289 patients (40.3 %). Sustained viral response was achieved in 400 cases (55.8 %) and was associated with adherence (OR = 1.942, 95 % CI = 1.235-3.052, p = 0.004). A multivariate analysis did not show any relationship between neuropsychiatric adverse effects and treatment adherence or sustained viral response. A psychiatric history was a strong risk factor for depression, anxiety and other psychiatric disorders during treatment. Conclusion Neuropsychiatric adverse effects during interferon-based treatments in patients with chronic hepatitis C were common but mostly mild or moderate. Early detection and accurate multidisciplinary management avoided treatment discontinuation, ensuring adherence and attaining sustained viral response. The identified risk factors could be used to determine patients eligible for interferon-free combinations, thus optimizing health system economics. PMID:26267215

  14. Adverse Rearing Experiences Enhance Responding to both Aversive and Rewarding Stimuli in Juvenile Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Eric E.; Herman, Khalisa N.; Barrett, Catherine E.; Noble, Pamela L.; Wojteczko, Kimberly; Chisholm, Kelli; Delaney, Deborah; Ernst, Monique; Fox, Nathan A.; Winslow, James T.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Background While adverse rearing is thought to alter threat responding, the effects on appetitive behavior remains minimally explored. This study examines the effects that early-life emotional adversity has on response to both threatening and appetitive stimuli in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Methods Twenty-four, two year old monkeys with differential rearing histories were tested for fear-potentiated startle responding and consumption of an artificially sweetened solution. Results Relative to monkeys reared under typical conditions, monkeys removed from their mothers at birth and reared with peers demonstrated both increases in reward responding, as evidenced by greater consumption of a palatable solution in a free choice test, and increased threat responding, as evidenced by enhanced fear potentiated startle responding. Conclusions Findings suggest that early rearing impacts juvenile manifestations of both appetitive and aversive emotional systems. Results are discussed in the context of development, anxiety, depression and substance abuse. PMID:19450795

  15. Space and Place as a Source of Belonging and Participation in Urban Environments: Considering the Role of Early Childhood Education and Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of spatial and place research when exploring concepts of belonging, participation and citizenship in relation to young children and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in urban societies. Particular attention is paid to the position of marginalised children and those most at risk of…

  16. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Victor H; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De Los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  17. Disturbances in Maternal Steroidogenesis and Appearance of Intrauterine Growth Retardation at High-Altitude Environments Are Established from Early Pregnancy. Effects of Treatment with Antioxidant Vitamins

    PubMed Central

    Parraguez, Victor H.; Mamani, Sandra; Cofré, Eileen; Castellaro, Giorgio; Urquieta, Bessie; De los Reyes, Mónica; Astiz, Susana; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancies at high-altitudes are influenced by hypoxia and oxidative stress and frequently affected by IUGR. However, a common thought is that early pregnant women visiting altitude have no major complications for gestation development, since IUGR is developed during the second half of pregnancy. Thus, using a well-characterized sheep-model, we aimed to determine whether long- and/or short-term exposure to high-altitude may affect maternal steroidogenesis and therefore embryo-fetal growth from conception. The second aim was to differentiate the relative role of hypoxia and oxidative stress by assessing the effects of supplementation with antioxidant agents during this early-pregnancy stage, which were previously found to be useful to prevent IUGR. The results indicate that both long- and short-term exposure to high-altitude causes disturbances in maternal ovarian steroidogenesis and negatively affects embryo-fetal growth already during the very early stages of gestation, with the consequences being even worsened in newcomers to high-altitude. The supply of antioxidant during this period only showed discrete effects for preventing IUGR. In conclusion, the present study gives a warning for clinicians about the risks for early-pregnant women when visiting high-altitude regions and suggests the need for further studies on the effects of the length of exposure and on the interaction of the exposure with the pregnancy stage. PMID:26560325

  18. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  19. Incentive Early Retirement Programs for Faculty: Innovative Responses to a Changing Environment. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Kepple, Thomas R., Jr.

    The literature on incentive early retirement for faculty members is reviewed, including the findings of studies that have assessed the effectiveness of such programs. In addition to describing different types of programs and the incentives offered, attention is directed to legal issues, costs and benefits, assessing whether a program is feasible,…

  20. Early life trauma is associated with decreased peripheral levels of thyroid-hormone T3 in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado, T D; Salum, G A; Bosa, V L; Goldani, M Z; Meaney, M J; Agranonik, M; Manfro, G G; Silveira, P P

    2015-12-01

    An adverse early life environment can induce changes on behavioral and metabolic responses later in life. Recent studies in rats showed that the quality of maternal care as measured by high levels of pup licking and grooming (LG) was associated with changes in the relationship between the precursor thyroid-hormone T4 and the more active T3. Here we investigated if early exposure to childhood abuse is associated with thyroid-hormone levels in human adolescents. Given the empirical evidence from animal models showing that good maternal care was associated with increased conversion of T4 to T3, we hypothesized that early adversity would be associated with a decreased peripheral conversion of T4 to T3. A sample of 80 adolescents (10-18 years) participated in this study. We used the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to investigate early life stress. We calculate the body mass index (BMI) assessing weight and height and sexual maturation stage was determined by self-assessment. Blood samples were collected to measure T3 and T4 levels. ANCOVA were used to evaluate the influence of the Physical Abuse domain of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire as the early life stress variable in T3 and T4 separately, adjusted for potential confounders such as pubertal status, gender, socioeconomic status and BMI. Early life trauma was associated with reduced T3 levels in adolescents, when adjusted for potential confounders (p=0.013), but not with peripheral T4 levels (p=0.625). We extended findings from animal models showing that adverse early experience persistently impacts on the individual's responses to stress, which is marked by an abnormal metabolism of thyroid hormones. Further studies are needed to further investigate the nature of such associations. PMID:26521949

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Following Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Marshall, Stephen W.; Poole, Charles; Casteel, Carri; Menard, M. Kathryn; Weiss, Harold B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of serious trauma during pregnancy, but little is known about their relationships with pregnancy outcomes. Purpose To estimate the association between motor vehicle crashes and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 878,546 pregnant women, aged 16–46 years, who delivered a singleton infant in North Carolina (NC) from 2001 to 2008. Pregnant drivers in crashes were identified by probabilistic linkage of vital records and crash reports. Poisson regression modeled the association among crashes, vehicle safety features, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In 2001–2008, 2.9% of pregnant NC women were drivers in one or more crashes. After a single crash, compared to not being in a crash, pregnant drivers had slightly elevated rates of preterm birth (adjusted rate ratio, aRR=1.23, 95% CI=1.19, 1.28); placental abruption (aRR=1.34, 95% CI=1.15, 1.56); and premature rupture of the membranes (PROM; aRR=1.32, 95% CI=1.21, 1.43). Following a second or subsequent crash, pregnant drivers had more highly elevated rates of preterm birth (aRR=1.54, 95% CI=1.24, 1.90); stillbirth (aRR=4.82, 95% CI=2.85, 8.14); placental abruption (aRR=2.97, 95% CI=1.60, 5.53); and PROM (aRR=1.95, 95% CI=1.27, 2.99). Stillbirth rates were elevated following crashes involving unbelted pregnant drivers (aRR=2.77, 95% CI=1.22, 6.28) compared to belted pregnant drivers. Conclusions Crashes while driving during pregnancy were associated with elevated rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and multiple crashes were associated with even higher rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crashes were especially harmful if drivers were unbelted. PMID:24139777

  2. Environmental Perchlorate Exposure: Potential Adverse Thyroid Effects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure. Recent findings Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant IQ in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recent proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided. Summary The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants. PMID:25106002

  3. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... referenced by the licensed manufacturer's patient identification number, adverse reaction term(s), and date... of the licensed manufacturer's patient identification number and adverse reaction term(s)); and (C)...

  4. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) development I: Strategies and principles

    EPA Science Inventory

    An adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework that organizes existing knowledge concerning biologically plausible, and empirically-supported, links between molecular-level perturbation of a biological system and an adverse outcome at a level of biological organizatio...

  5. Adverse Outcome Pathways – Tailoring Development to Support Use

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) represent an ideal framework for connecting high-throughput screening (HTS) data and other toxicity testing results to adverse outcomes of regulatory importance. The AOP Knowledgebase (AOP-KB) captures AOP information to facilitate the development,...

  6. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger for bringing the classification challenge in good faith....

  7. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger for bringing the classification challenge in good faith....

  8. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger for bringing the classification challenge in good faith....

  9. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Action on Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger...

  10. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Action on Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger...

  11. 32 CFR 1907.26 - Prohibition on adverse action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Action on Challenges § 1907.26 Prohibition on adverse action. Agency correspondence to the challenger shall include a notice that CIA will take no adverse action or retribution against the challenger...

  12. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section...OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially...Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order...

  13. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section...OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially...Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order...

  14. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section...OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially...Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order...

  15. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section...OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially...Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order...

  16. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section...OF UNCLASSIFIED CONTROLLED NUCLEAR INFORMATION Initially...Is Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information § 1017.10 Adverse effect test. In order...

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Early Life Stress and Adult ... reported in studies of survivors of childhood abuse. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness that can sometimes ...

  18. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10?696 respondents – 59.7% female – aged 18–25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Findings Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32–2.15) – for physical inactivity – to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98–76.65) – for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Conclusion Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European. PMID:25378755

  19. Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

  20. 21 CFR 606.170 - Adverse reaction file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adverse reaction file. 606.170 Section 606.170... Adverse reaction file. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 18, Jan. 3, 2012. (a) Records shall be maintained of any reports of complaints of adverse reactions regarding each unit of blood or blood...