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1

Early Family Environment, Current Adversity, the Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism, and Depressive Symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mixed evidence has suggested that homozygous carriers of the short allele (s\\/s) of the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) may be at increased risk for depression, if they have also been exposed to early or current adversity\\/stress. We address this debate by examining the relation of a stressful early family environment, recent adversity\\/stress, and the 5-HTTLPR to depressive

Shelley E. Taylor; William T. Welch; Clayton J. Hilmert; Barbara J. Lehman; Naomi I. Eisenberger

2006-01-01

2

Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N?=?3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Results Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (?2????=?21.41, p?adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR?=?1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR?=?1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Conclusions Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional family environments cannot be ruled out. PMID:25089128

2014-01-01

3

Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

2005-01-01

4

Early adverse experiences in schizophrenia and unipolar depression.  

PubMed

To study the prevalence of early adversities in schizophrenia and unipolar depression, 2 groups of consecutive adult-onset inpatients with DSM-IV diagnoses of schizophrenia (n = 173) and unipolar depression (n = 305) were compared with an unscreened control group of volunteers from the general population (n = 310), with respect to their association with 4 types of childhood abuse and with early parental adversities (discord, separation, death, psychiatric caseness). Compared with general population, most types of early adversities (except sexual abuse and parental death) were significantly associated with both clinical groups. Compared with depression, all early adversities with the same 2 exceptions were significantly associated with schizophrenia; both frequency of abuse and number of types of abuse increased the risk of schizophrenia in a dose-response pattern, suggesting causality. These findings stress the role of social developmental factors in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:19155813

Rubino, I Alex; Nanni, Roberta C; Pozzi, Daniela M; Siracusano, Alberto

2009-01-01

5

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ?3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2013-01-01

6

TOWARDS AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of our research efforts towards building Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems designed to work in real-world conditions are presented. The methods we pro- pose exhibit improved performance in noisy environments and offer robustness against speaker variability. Advanced nonlinear signal processing techniques, modulation- and chaotic-based, are utilized for auditory feature extraction. The auditory features are complemented with visual speech cues

D. Dimitriadis; N. Katsamanis; P. Maragos; G. Papandreou; V. Pitsikalis

7

Nurse-perceived Patient Adverse Events and Nursing Practice Environment  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the occurrence of patient adverse events in Korean hospitals as perceived by nurses and examine the correlation between patient adverse events with the nurse practice environment at nurse and hospital level. Methods: In total, 3096 nurses working in 60 general inpatient hospital units were included. A two-level logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: At the hospital level, patient adverse events included patient falls (60.5%), nosocomial infections (51.7%), pressure sores (42.6%) and medication errors (33.3%). Among the hospital-level explanatory variables associated with the nursing practice environment, ‘physician- nurse relationship’ correlated with medication errors while ‘education for improving quality of care’ affected patient falls. Conclusions: The doctor-nurse relationship and access to education that can improve the quality of care at the hospital level may help decrease the occurrence of patient adverse events. PMID:25284199

Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung; Lee, Sang-Yi

2014-01-01

8

Early Adverse Care, Stress Neurobiology, and Prevention Science: Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

There is growing evidence that some of the difficulties observed among children who have experienced early adverse care (e.g., children internationally adopted from institutional care and maltreated children in foster care) involve experience-induced alterations in stress-responsive neurobiological systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Thus, incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research could aid in identifying the children most in need of preventive intervention services, elucidating the mechanisms of change in effective interventions, and providing insight into the differential responses of children to effective interventions. However, integrating stress neurobiology and prevention research is challenging. In this paper, the results of studies examining HPA system activity in children who have experienced early adverse care are reviewed, the implications of these results for prevention research are discussed, and critical steps for successfully incorporating stress neurobiology into prevention research are identified. PMID:23420476

Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.

2013-01-01

9

Early Learning Environments That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment…

Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

10

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity  

PubMed Central

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

11

Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment.  

PubMed

Subject recruitment in an adverse environment prompted researchers to identify a novel method to gain a different perspective on the problem. Lewin's Model of Change was used in a post hoc examination of recruitment strategies from 5 cancer control studies of breast or prostate cancer. Based on this evaluation, driving and restraining forces in recruitment were identified. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed based on this evaluation. Five categories of restrainers were identified from this evaluation and include sociocultural, institutional, individuals, budget, and study design. Conversely, only 3 categories of drivers were elucidated by the examination: sociocultural, institutional, and individuals. Lessons and recommendations ranged from addressing institutional barriers to capitalizing on public relations. Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment would benefit from using Lewin's force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. This approach better directs energy and resources and enhances the ability of the investigator to maintain a broad, less biased perspective. PMID:16871096

Heiney, Sue P; Adams, Swann Arp; Cunningham, Joan E; McKenzie, Wendy; Harmon, Brook; Hebert, James R; Modayil, Mary

2006-01-01

12

Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.  

PubMed

The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. PMID:24011494

Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

2014-01-01

13

A MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS  

E-print Network

A MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR ROBUST SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS K In this paper, we study the problem of robust speech recognition in adverse environments. We focus our atten microphone [2]. In the present paper, our aim is to study the problem of robust speech recognition in adverse

14

The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol  

E-print Network

The relation between early life adversity, cortisol awakening response and diurnal salivary cortisol levels in postpartum women Andrea Gonzalez a,d,*, Jennifer M. Jenkins b , Meir Steiner c Psychoneuroendocrinology (2009) 34, 76--86 KEYWORDS Diurnal cortisol; Awakening response; Early adversity; Postpartum

Sokolowski, Marla

15

Channel shutdown: a response of hippocampal neurons to adverse environments.  

PubMed

Stretch-activated ion channels have been discovered in the membrane of many types of cells, but their presence in neurons is uncertain. We used freshly dissociated rat hippocampal neurons to study the effect of hypotonic swelling but, surprisingly, the isolated neurons did not swell. Voltage-dependent whole-cell membrane currents mediated by K+, Na+ and Ca2+ were rapidly and reversibly suppressed during sudden exposure to strongly hypo-osmotic, hyper-osmotic or glucose deficient solutions. The amplitudes of the sustained components of K+ and Ca2+ currents were more depressed than transient currents, but the rate of decay of transient K+ current greatly accelerated. The voltage dependence of activation and of steady state inactivation of residual K+ and Ca2+ currents were not shifted. The current holding membrane potential at -70 mV and therefore the conductance at that voltage were unchanged or somewhat decreased. Capacitive (charging) membrane current was not affected. Changes in tail current suggested moderate loss of cytosolic K+ in some but not in all cells. We conclude that channel shutdown is a uniform response of neuron somata and proximal dendrites to various adverse environments. Hypothetically we propose that swelling was prevented in anisosmotic conditions because membrane water permeability decreased. PMID:7511975

Somjen, G G; Faas, G C; Vreugdenhil, M; Wadman, W J

1993-12-31

16

Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

2011-05-01

17

Optical fibers in the adverse space environment - The Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the NASA Space Station, the requirement for high speed data transfer between the exterior experimental bays and the interior research facilities has generated the need for fiberoptics. The adverse vacuum effects in space, temperature extremes, and natural space radiation place extreme conditions on optical fiber interconnects. This report addresses the adverse space environmental effects of temperature and radiation on optical fibers.

Greenwell, Roger A.; Barnes, Charles E.; Scott, David M.; Biswas, Dipak R.

1990-01-01

18

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth are more frequent in African-American women and women of lower socio-economic status, but the reasons for these disparities are not fully understood. The physical and social environments in which these women live may contribute to these disparities. We conducted a multilevel study to explore whether conditions of mothers' neighbourhood of residence contribute to adverse birth outcomes independent of individual-level determinants.

19

Early Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult SpragueDawley Rats  

E-print Network

in rats. These behavioral outcomes are known to be affected in human populations suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; Robbins, 2000) as well as in those raised under adverse environmental conditionsEarly Adversity Alters Attention and Locomotion in Adult Sprague�Dawley Rats Christie Burton

Sokolowski, Marla

20

Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

2009-01-01

21

The long-term impact of early adversity on late-life psychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Early adversity is a strong and enduring predictor of psychiatric disorders including mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse or dependence, and posttraumatic stress disorder. However, the mechanisms of this effect are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize and integrate the current research knowledge pertaining to the long-term effects of early adversity on psychiatric disorders, particularly in late life. We explore definitional considerations including key dimensions of the experience such as type, severity, and timing of adversity relative to development. We then review the potential biological and environmental mediators and moderators of the relationships between early adversity and psychiatric disorders. We conclude with clinical implications, methodological challenges and suggestions for future research. PMID:23443532

Gershon, Anda; Sudheimer, Keith; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Williams, Leanne M; O'Hara, Ruth

2013-04-01

22

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

23

Early Childhood Adversities and Trajectories of Psychiatric Problems in Adoptees: Evidence for Long Lasting Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 international adoptees was followed (955 males and 1029 females;…

van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; van der Ende, Jan; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2009-01-01

24

Early adversity and mechanisms of plasticity: Integrating affective neuroscience with developmental approaches to psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the effects of early adversity on children's development reflects contemporary emphases on early experience in the behavioral sciences and plasticity in the neurosciences. Over the past decade, powerful new tools and approaches for understanding the neural circuitry involved in emotion have become increasingly available. Yet, research in developmental psychopathology has not reaped the full benefits of affective neuroscience

SETH D. POLLAK

2005-01-01

25

Early adversity and the prospective prediction of depressive and anxiety disorders in adolescents.  

PubMed

The current study was a prospective exploration of the specificity of early childhood adversities as predictors of anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents. Participants were 816 adolescents (414 males, 402 females) with diagnostic information collected at age 15; information on early adversities had been collected from the mothers during pregnancy, at birth, age 6 months, and age 5 years for a related study. Adolescents with "pure" anxiety disorders were compared with adolescents with "pure" depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, dysthymia), and these groups were compared to never-ill controls. Analyses controlled for gender and maternal depression and anxiety disorders. Results indicated that adolescents with anxiety disorders were more likely than depressed youth to have been exposed to various early stressors, such as maternal prenatal stress, multiple maternal partner changes, and more total adversities, whereas few early childhood variables predicted depressive disorders. Even when current family stressors at age 15 were controlled, early adversity variables again significantly predicted anxiety disorders. Results suggest that anxiety disorders may be more strongly related to early stress exposure, while depressive disorders may be related to more proximal stressors or to early stressors not assessed in the current study. PMID:15759588

Phillips, Nicole K; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A; Najman, Jake M; Bor, William

2005-02-01

26

Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus throughout adulthood, and abnormal regulation of this process has emerged as an endophenotype common to several psychiatric disorders. Previous research shows that genetic risk factors associated with schizophrenia alter the maturation of adult-generated neurons. Here, we investigate whether early adversity, a potential environmental risk factor,

A T Leslie; K G Akers; A D Krakowski; S S D Stone; M Sakaguchi; M Arruda-Carvalho; P W Frankland

2011-01-01

27

Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research  

PubMed Central

Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms. PMID:24133457

McGowan, Patrick O.

2013-01-01

28

Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.  

PubMed

Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors. PMID:24187125

Garner, Andrew S

2013-11-01

29

Impact of early adversity on glucocorticoid regulation and later mental disorders.  

PubMed

Early adverse experiences such as abuse or neglect can influence brain development and consequently bring forth a predisposition toward mental and behavioral disorders. Many authors suggest that long-term changes in the functionality of the HPA axis might be involved in mediating this relationship. The direction of change and its consequences have not been clarified though: Do early adverse experiences yield a stable glucocorticoid hyperfunction or a long-term glucocorticoid hypofunction, and how is this change of functionality associated with mental or behavioral disorders? This review summarizes correlative findings and illustrates inconsistencies of current research literature. It focuses on the specific neurochemical milieu accompanying early adverse experiences and discusses possible interactions of the glucocorticoid system with oxytocin and components of the serotonergic system. On the basis of this physiological view, a novel two-pathway model is presented, according to which specific early experiences are associated with characteristic early changes in the functionality of these systems and result in a predisposition to distinct mental and behavioral disorders. PMID:24216122

Strüber, Nicole; Strüber, Daniel; Roth, Gerhard

2014-01-01

30

Cortisol reactivity to social stress as a mediator of early adversity on risk and adaptive outcomes.  

PubMed

Children chronically exposed to stress early in life are at increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, though the physiological mechanisms driving these effects are unknown. Cortisol reactivity was tested as a mediator of the relation between prenatal substance exposure and/or early adversity on adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure (N = 860). Cortisol reactivity was assessed at age 11. Among African Americans, prenatal substance exposure exerted an indirect effect through early adversity and cortisol reactivity to predict externalizing behavior, delinquency, and a positive student-teacher relationship at age 11. Decreased cortisol reactivity was related to maladaptive outcomes, and increased cortisol reactivity predicted better executive functioning and a more positive student-teacher relationship. PMID:25376131

Conradt, Elisabeth; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; LaGasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

2014-11-01

31

Early life adversity and the epigenetic programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function  

PubMed Central

We review studies with human and nonhuman species that examine the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms, particularly those affecting the expression of genes implicated in stress responses, mediate the association between early childhood adversity and later risk of depression. The resulting studies provide evidence consistent with the idea that social adversity, particularly that involving parent-offspring interactions, alters the epigenetic state and expression of a wide range of genes, the products of which regulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function. We also address the challenges for future studies, including that of the translation of epigenetic studies towards improvements in treatments. PMID:25364283

Anacker, Christoph; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Meaney, Michael J.

2014-01-01

32

Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI) to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19%) showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6%) experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55%) over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape adversity, for many this negative family environment persists over the first 15 years of life. Different profiles of family risk may be associated with specific mental disorders in young people. Sex differences in psychopathologies may be most pronounced in those exposed to low levels of family adversities. PMID:21736727

2011-01-01

33

The three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience: towards understanding adaptation to early-life adversity outcome  

PubMed Central

Stressful experiences during early-life can modulate the genetic programming of specific brain circuits underlying emotional and cognitive aspects of behavioral adaptation to stressful experiences later in life. Although this programming effect exerted by experience-related factors is an important determinant of mental health, its outcome depends on cognitive inputs and hence the valence an individual assigns to a given environmental context. From this perspective we will highlight, with studies in rodents, non-human primates and humans, the three-hit concept of vulnerability and resilience to stress-related mental disorders, which is based on gene-environment interactions during critical phases of perinatal and juvenile brain development. The three-hit (i.e., hit-1: genetic predisposition, hit-2: early-life environment, and hit-3: later-life environment) concept accommodates the cumulative stress hypothesis stating that in a given context vulnerability is enhanced when failure to cope with adversity accumulates. Alternatively, the concept also points to the individual’s predictive adaptive capacity, which underlies the stress inoculation and match/mismatch hypotheses. The latter hypotheses propose that the experience of relatively mild early-life adversity prepares for the future and promotes resilience to similar challenges in later-life; when a mismatch occurs between early and later-life experience, coping is compromised and vulnerability is enhanced. The three-hit concept is fundamental for understanding how individuals can either be prepared for coping with life to come and remain resilient or are unable to do so and succumb to a stress-related mental disorder, under seemingly identical circumstances. PMID:23838101

Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Bagot, Rosemary C.; Parker, Karen J.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; de Kloet, E. R.

2013-01-01

34

Examining the relationships between prenatal methamphetamine exposure, early adversity, and child neurobehavioral disinhibition.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother-infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:23067308

Abar, Beau; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

2013-09-01

35

Adverse Events Associated With Organizational Factors of General Hospital Inpatient Psychiatric Care Environments  

PubMed Central

Objective Although general hospitals receive nearly 60% of all inpatient psychiatric admissions, little is known about the care environment and related adverse events. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of adverse events and examine the extent to which organizing factors of inpatient psychiatric care environments were associated with the occurrence of these events. The events examined were wrong medication, patient falls with injuries, complaints from patients and families, work-related staff injuries, and verbal abuse directed toward nurses. Methods This cross-sectional study used data from a 1999 nurse survey linked with hospital data. Nurse surveys from 353 psychiatric registered nurses working in 67 Pennsylvania general hospitals provided information on nurse characteristics, organizational factors, and the occurrence of adverse events. Linear regression models and robust clustering methods at the hospital level were used to study the relationship of organizational factors of psychiatric care environments and adverse event outcomes. Results Verbal abuse toward registered nurses (79%), complaints (61%), patient falls with injuries (44%), and work-related injuries (39%) were frequent occurrences. Better management skill was associated with fewer patient falls and fewer work-related injuries to staff. In addition, fewer occurrences of staff injuries were associated with better nurse-physician relationship and lower patient-to-nurse staffing ratios. Conclusions Adverse events are frequent for inpatient psychiatric care in general hospitals, and organizational factors of care environments are associated with adverse event outcomes. Further development of evidence-based quality and safety monitoring of inpatient psychiatric care in general hospitals is imperative. PMID:20513679

Kumar, Aparna; Aiken, Linda H.

2010-01-01

36

Creating Music Environments in Early Childhood Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how teachers and caregivers can create music environments in early childhood settings that connect to other areas of development. Discusses how music environments can accommodate free-choice participation, describes the caregiver's role, and suggests music activities. Includes definitions of musical concepts for young children, also tips…

Achilles, Elayne

1999-01-01

37

Subject recruitment for cancer control studies in an adverse environment. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Researchers entering a new environment for recruitment could benefit from using Lewin’s force field analysis before writing a proposal or implementing a project. In this article, authors describe how they used Lewin’s Model of Change to retrospectively examine recruitment strategies from five cancer control studies conducted in an adverse environment that had resulted from well-known researcher misconduct and rural suspicion of outsiders.

38

Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages.  

PubMed

Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

Hostinar, Camelia E; Stellern, Sarah A; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M; Gunnar, Megan R

2012-10-16

39

A functional NOS1 promoter polymorphism interacts with adverse environment on functional and dysfunctional impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) knockout results in increased impulsive aggression in mice under adverse housing conditions. In line with this, we have\\u000a previously shown that a functional promoter polymorphism of NOS1, termed NOS1 ex1f-VNTR, is associated with impulsivity-related traits and related disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  This study aims to examine whether adverse environment interacts with the risk allele on impulsivity-related measures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We

Andreas Reif; Evelyn Kiive; Triin Kurrikoff; Marika Paaver; Sabine Herterich; Kenn Konstabel; Tiia Tulviste; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Jaanus Harro

2011-01-01

40

The consequences of early-life adversity: neurobiological, behavioural and epigenetic adaptations.  

PubMed

During the perinatal period, the brain is particularly sensitive to remodelling by environmental factors. Adverse early-life experiences, such as stress exposure or suboptimal maternal care, can have long-lasting detrimental consequences for an individual. This phenomenon is often referred to as 'early-life programming' and is associated with an increased risk of disease. Typically, rodents exposed to prenatal stress or postnatal maternal deprivation display enhanced neuroendocrine responses to stress, increased levels of anxiety and depressive-like behaviours, and cognitive impairments. Some of the phenotypes observed in these models of early-life adversity are likely to share common neurobiological mechanisms. For example, there is evidence for impaired glucocorticoid negative-feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, altered glutamate neurotransmission and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in both prenatally stressed rats and rats that experienced deficient maternal care. The possible mechanisms through which maternal stress during pregnancy may be transmitted to the offspring are reviewed, with special consideration given to altered maternal behaviour postpartum. We also discuss what is known about the neurobiological and epigenetic mechanisms that underpin early-life programming of the neonatal brain in the first generation and subsequent generations, with a view to abrogating programming effects and potentially identifying new therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders and cognitive impairment. PMID:25039443

Maccari, S; Krugers, H J; Morley-Fletcher, S; Szyf, M; Brunton, P J

2014-10-01

41

Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents.  

PubMed

During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences affect the formation of neuronal networks and exert long-lasting effects on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated maternal separation (MS), an animal model of early life stress, can regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and affect subsequent brain function and behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been fully elucidated. In this mini review, we present various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT). We then show a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we introduce how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders, and alterations in gene expression in adult mice subjected to MS. PMID:24987328

Nishi, Mayumi; Horii-Hayashi, Noriko; Sasagawa, Takayo

2014-01-01

42

Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons.  

PubMed

New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus throughout adulthood, and abnormal regulation of this process has emerged as an endophenotype common to several psychiatric disorders. Previous research shows that genetic risk factors associated with schizophrenia alter the maturation of adult-generated neurons. Here, we investigate whether early adversity, a potential environmental risk factor, similarly influences adult neurogenesis. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, mice were subject to repeated and unpredictable periods of separation from their mothers. When the mice reached adulthood, pharmacological and retroviral labelling techniques were used to assess the generation and maturation of new neurons. We found that adult mice that were repeatedly separated from their mothers early in life had similar rates of proliferation in the DG, but had fewer numbers of cells that survived and differentiated into neurons. Furthermore, neurons generated in adulthood had less complex dendritic arborization and fewer dendritic spines. These findings indicate that early adverse experience has a long-lasting impact on both the number and the complexity of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus, suggesting that the abnormal regulation of adult neurogenesis associated with psychiatric disorders could arise from environmental influence alone, or from complex interactions of environmental factors with genetic predisposition. PMID:22832609

Leslie, A T; Akers, K G; Krakowski, A D; Stone, S S D; Sakaguchi, M; Arruda-Carvalho, M; Frankland, P W

2011-01-01

43

Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons  

PubMed Central

New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus throughout adulthood, and abnormal regulation of this process has emerged as an endophenotype common to several psychiatric disorders. Previous research shows that genetic risk factors associated with schizophrenia alter the maturation of adult-generated neurons. Here, we investigate whether early adversity, a potential environmental risk factor, similarly influences adult neurogenesis. During the first 2 weeks of postnatal life, mice were subject to repeated and unpredictable periods of separation from their mothers. When the mice reached adulthood, pharmacological and retroviral labelling techniques were used to assess the generation and maturation of new neurons. We found that adult mice that were repeatedly separated from their mothers early in life had similar rates of proliferation in the DG, but had fewer numbers of cells that survived and differentiated into neurons. Furthermore, neurons generated in adulthood had less complex dendritic arborization and fewer dendritic spines. These findings indicate that early adverse experience has a long-lasting impact on both the number and the complexity of adult-generated neurons in the hippocampus, suggesting that the abnormal regulation of adult neurogenesis associated with psychiatric disorders could arise from environmental influence alone, or from complex interactions of environmental factors with genetic predisposition. PMID:22832609

Leslie, A T; Akers, K G; Krakowski, A D; Stone, S S D; Sakaguchi, M; Arruda-Carvalho, M; Frankland, P W

2011-01-01

44

Specificity in the Relations among Childhood Adversity, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Symptom Profiles in Adolescent Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present cross-sectional study examined the relations of particular forms of childhood adversity (e.g., emotional maltreatment\\u000a vs. physical abuse vs. sexual abuse) to specific early maladaptive schema themes (e.g., worthlessness\\/loss vs. danger) and\\u000a symptom profiles (i.e., anhedonic vs. anxious). Seventy-six depressed adolescents retrospectively reported on their childhood\\u000a experiences of emotional maltreatment, physical abuse, and sexual abuse in a contextual semi-structured

Margaret N. Lumley; Kate L. Harkness

2007-01-01

45

Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ECERS-R is a thorough revision of the widely used program quality assessment instrument, the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). Designed for use in preschool, kindergarten, and child care classrooms serving children 2-and-a-half through 5 years of age, the ECERS-R can be used by program directors for supervision and program…

Harms, Thelma; Clifford, Richard M.; Cryer, Debby

46

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors  

PubMed Central

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R.

2012-01-01

47

Sexually dimorphic responses to early adversity: implications for affective problems and autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the life cycle. For these reasons the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. PMID:25038479

Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

2014-11-01

48

The Combined Effects of Prenatal Drug Exposure and Early Adversity on Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Childhood and Adolescence  

PubMed Central

The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science. PMID:21756431

Fisher, Philip A.; Lester, Barry M.; DeGarmo, David S.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

2012-01-01

49

Adverse human health effects associated with molds in the indoor environment.  

PubMed

Molds are common and important allergens. About 5% of individuals are predicted to have some allergic airway symptoms from molds over their lifetime. However, it should be remembered that molds are not dominant allergens and that the outdoor molds, rather than indoor ones, are the most important. For almost all allergic individuals, the reactions will be limited to rhinitis or asthma; sinusitis may occur secondarily due to obstruction. Rarely do sensitized individuals develop uncommon conditions such as ABPA or AFS. To reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating allergies, mold should not be allowed to grow unchecked indoors. When mold colonization is discovered in the home, school, or office, it should be remediated after the source of the moisture that supports its growth is identified and eliminated. Authoritative guidelines for mold remediation are available. Fungi are rarely significant pathogens for humans. Superficial fungal infections of the skin and nails are relatively common in normal individuals, but those infections are readily treated and generally resolve without complication. Fungal infections of deeper tissues are rare and in general are limited to persons with severely impaired immune systems. The leading pathogenic fungi for persons with nonimpaired immune function, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma, may find their way indoors with outdoor air but normally do not grow or propagate indoors. Due to the ubiquity of fungi in the environment, it is not possible to prevent immunecompromised individuals from being exposed to molds and fungi outside the confines of hospital isolation units. Some molds that propagate indoors may under some conditions produce mycotoxins that can adversely affect living cells and organisms by a variety of mechanisms. Adverse effects of molds and mycotoxins have been recognized for centuries following ingestion of contaminated foods. Occupational diseases are also recognized in association with inhalation exposure to fungi, bacteria, and other organic matter, usually in industrial or agricultural settings. Molds growing indoors are believed by some to cause building-related symptoms. Despite a voluminous literature on the subject, the causal association remains weak and unproven, particularly with respect to causation by mycotoxins. One mold in particular, Stachybotrys chartarum, is blamed for a diverse array of maladies when it is found indoors. Despite its well-known ability to produce mycotoxins under appropriate growth conditions, years of intensive study have failed to establish exposure to S. chartarum in home, school, or office environments as a cause of adverse human health effects. Levels of exposure in the indoor environment, dose-response data in animals, and dose-rate considerations suggest that delivery by the inhalation route of a toxic dose of mycotoxins in the indoor environment is highly unlikely at best, even for the hypothetically most vulnerable subpopulations. Mold spores are present in all indoor environments and cannot be eliminated from them. Normal building materials and furnishings provide ample nutrition for many species of molds, but they can grow and amplify indoors only when there is an adequate supply of moisture. Where mold grows indoors there is an inappropriate source of water that must be corrected before remediation of the mold colonization can succeed. Mold growth in the home, school, or office environment should not be tolerated because mold physically destroys the building materials on which it grows, mold growth is unsightly and may produce offensive odors, and mold is likely to sensitize and produce allergic responses in allergic individuals. Except for persons with severely impaired immune systems, indoor mold is not a source of fungal infections. Current scientific evidence does not support the proposition that human health has been adversely affected by inhaled mycotoxins in home, school, or office environments. PMID:12762072

Hardin, Bryan D; Kelman, Bruce J; Saxon, Andrew

2003-05-01

50

Early Life Adversity Contributes to Impaired Cognition and Impulsive Behavior: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project  

PubMed Central

Background Stressful early life experience may have adverse consequences in adulthood and may contribute to behavioral characteristics that increase vulnerability to alcoholism. We examined early life adverse experience in relation to cognitive deficits and impulsive behaviors with a reference to risk factors for alcoholism. Methods We tested 386 healthy young adults (18 – 30 years of age; 224 women; 171 family history positive for alcoholism) using a composite measure of adverse life experience (low socioeconomic status plus personally experienced adverse events including physical and sexual abuse and separation from parents) as a predictor of performance on the Shipley Institute of Living scale, the Stroop color-word task, and a delay-discounting task assessing preference for smaller immediate rewards in favor of larger delayed rewards. Body mass index was examined as an early indicator of altered health behavior. Results Greater levels of adversity predicted higher Stroop interference scores (F = 3.07, p = .048), faster discounting of delayed rewards (F = 3.79, p = .024), lower Shipley mental age scores (F = 4.01, p = .019), and higher body mass indexes in those with a family history of alcoholism (F = 3.40, p = .035). These effects were not explained by age, sex, race, education, or depression. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on cognitive function, impulsive behaviors, and early health indicators that may contribute to risk in persons with a family history of alcoholism. PMID:23126641

Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

2012-01-01

51

Effects of adverse early-life events on aggression and anti-social behaviours in animals and humans.  

PubMed

We review the impact of early adversities on the development of violence and antisocial behaviour in humans, and present three aetiological animal models of escalated rodent aggression, each disentangling the consequences of one particular adverse early-life factor. A review of the human data, as well as those obtained with the animal models of repeated maternal separation, post-weaning social isolation and peripubertal stress, clearly shows that adverse developmental conditions strongly affect aggressive behaviour displayed in adulthood, the emotional responses to social challenges and the neuronal mechanisms activated by conflict. Although similarities between models are evident, important differences were also noted, demonstrating that the behavioural, emotional and neuronal consequences of early adversities are to a large extent dependent on aetiological factors. These findings support recent theories on human aggression, which suggest that particular developmental trajectories lead to specific forms of aggressive behaviour and brain dysfunctions. However, dissecting the roles of particular aetiological factors in humans is difficult because these occur in various combinations; in addition, the neuroscientific tools employed in humans still lack the depth of analysis of those used in animal research. We suggest that the analytical approach of the rodent models presented here may be successfully used to complement human findings and to develop integrative models of the complex relationship between early adversity, brain development and aggressive behaviour. PMID:25059307

Haller, J; Harold, G; Sandi, C; Neumann, I D

2014-10-01

52

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines  

PubMed Central

Summary In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

Krogh, Carmen ME

2014-01-01

53

Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.  

PubMed

In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

2014-10-01

54

5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

55

Early adverse experience increases emotional reactivity in juvenile rhesus macaques: Relation to amygdala volume.  

PubMed

This study investigated the impact of infant maltreatment on juvenile rhesus monkeys' behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli and its associations with amygdala volume. Behavioral reactivity to novel stimuli of varying threat intensity was measured using Approach/Avoidance (AA) and Human Intruder (HI) tasks. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure amygdala volume. Interestingly, group behavioral differences were context-dependent. When exposed to a human intruder, maltreated subjects displayed more anxious behaviors than controls; however, when presented with fear-evoking objects, maltreated animals exhibited increased aggression and a shorter latency to inspect the objects. Finally, under testing conditions with the lowest levels of threat (neutral novel objects) maltreated animals also showed shorter latencies to inspect objects, and reduced avoidance and increased exploration compared to controls. This suggests alterations in threat assessment and less behavioral inhibition in animals with early adverse experience compared to controls. Some of these behavioral responses were associated with amygdala volume, which was positively correlated with abuse rates received during infancy, particularly reflecting a relationship with exploration, consistent with previous studies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1735-1746, 2014. PMID:25196846

Howell, Brittany R; Grand, Alison P; McCormack, Kai M; Shi, Yundi; LaPrarie, Jamie L; Maestripieri, Dario; Styner, Martin A; Sanchez, Mar M

2014-12-01

56

Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits  

PubMed Central

Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

2012-01-01

57

Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

2012-01-01

58

Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice  

EPA Science Inventory

In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

59

KCTD8 Gene and Brain Growth in Adverse Intrauterine Environment: A Genome-wide Association Study  

PubMed Central

The most dramatic growth of the human brain occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of postnatal life. Genesis of the cerebral cortex involves cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, all of which may be influenced by prenatal environment. Here, we show that variation in KCTD8 (potassium channel tetramerization domain 8) is associated with brain size in female adolescents (rs716890, P = 5.40 × 10?09). Furthermore, we found that the KCTD8 locus interacts with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking vis-à-vis cortical area and cortical folding: In exposed girls only, the KCTD8 locus explains up to 21% of variance. Using head circumference as a proxy of brain size at 7 years of age, we have replicated this gene–environment interaction in an independent sample. We speculate that KCTD8 might modulate adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on brain development via apoptosis triggered by low intracellular levels of potassium, possibly reducing the number of progenitor cells. PMID:22156575

Bernard, Manon; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Davey Smith, George; Gillis, Jesse; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Melka, Melkaye G.; Leonard, Gabriel; Pavlidis, Paul; Perron, Michel; Pike, G. Bruce; Richer, Louis; Schumann, Gunter; Timpson, Nicholas; Toro, Roberto; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka

2012-01-01

60

Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is essential to the fitness of organisms. In some cases, adaptation of the parent alters the offspring’s phenotype[1-10]. Such parental effects are adaptive for the offspring if the future environment is similar to the current one, but can be maladaptive otherwise[11]. One mechanism by which adaptation occurs is altered provisioning of embryos by the parent[12-16]. Here we show that exposing adult Caenorhabditis elegans to hyperosmotic conditions protects their offspring from the same, but causes sensitivity to anoxia exposure. We show that this alteration of survival is correlated to changes in the sugar content of adults and embryos. In addition, mutations in gene products which alter sugar homeostasis also alter the ability of embryos to survive in hyperosmotic and anoxic conditions and engage in the adaptive parental effect. Our results indicate that there is a physiological trade-off between the presence of glycerol, which protects animals from hyperosmotic conditions, and glycogen, which is consumed during anoxia. These two metabolites play an essential role in the survival of worms in these adverse environments, and the adaptive parental effect we describe is mediated by the provisioning of these metabolites to the embryo. PMID:19398339

Frazier, Harold N.; Roth, Mark B.

2009-01-01

61

Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes.  

PubMed

Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation (MS) in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (C57BL/6J and Balb/cJ) and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to MS. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of MS in early adolescent offspring on measures of open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally separated C57BL/6J females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/cJ offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX) CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated C57BL/6J males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later-life disorder. PMID:23914177

Kundakovic, Marija; Lim, Sean; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Champagne, Frances A

2013-01-01

62

Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments  

SciTech Connect

An optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses was developed. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

1984-01-01

63

Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and used an optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pin by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per/sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. We have also measured the sensitivity of the optical pins to slowly-moving projectiles and found that a 200 m/sec projectile impacting the microballoon sensor produces a flash having a risetime less than 100 ns and a pulse duration (FWHM) of less than 300 ns. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.

Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

1984-01-01

64

The ability of microorganisms to sense and respond rap-idly to adverse changes in the environment is crucial to  

E-print Network

The ability of microorganisms to sense and respond rap- idly to adverse changes in the environment and regulatory sys- tems are not found in the key model microorganisms6 , indicating the need to characterize genetic, biochemical and genomic tools. One organism for which such tools have been recently developed

Hazen, Terry

65

Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity…

Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

2014-01-01

66

Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

2011-01-01

67

Early markers of major adverse events in children after cardiac operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the physiologic variables that predict major adverse events in children in the intensive care unit after cardiac operations. Methods: A cohort observational study was conducted. At the time of admission to the intensive care unit and 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours later the following variables were recorded: mean arterial pressure,

Trevor Duke; Warwick Butt; Mike South; Tom R. Karl

1997-01-01

68

Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends…

Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2007-01-01

69

Early recognition of risk factors for adverse outcomes during hospitalization among Medicare patients: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There is a persistently high incidence of adverse events during hospitalization among Medicare beneficiaries. Attributes of vulnerability are prevalent, readily apparent, and therefore potentially useful for recognizing those at greatest risk for hospital adverse events who may benefit most from preventive measures. We sought to identify patient characteristics associated with adverse events that are present early in a hospital stay. Methods An interprofessional panel selected characteristics thought to confer risk of hospital adverse events and measurable within the setting of acute illness. A convenience sample of 214 Medicare beneficiaries admitted to a large, academic medical center were included in a quality improvement project to develop risk assessment protocols. The data were subsequently analyzed as a prospective cohort study to test the association of risk factors, assessed within 24 hours of hospital admission, with falls, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) and infections (HAI), adverse drug reactions (ADE) and 30-day readmissions. Results Mean age?=?75(±13.4) years. Risk factors with highest prevalence included >4 active comorbidities (73.8%), polypharmacy (51.7%), and anemia (48.1%). One or more adverse hospital outcomes occurred in 46 patients (21.5%); 56 patients (26.2%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cluster analysis described three adverse outcomes: 30-day readmission, and two groups of in-hospital outcomes. Distinct regression models were identified: Weight loss (OR?=?3.83; 95% CI?=?1.46, 10.08) and potentially inappropriate medications (OR?=?3.05; 95% CI?=?1.19, 7.83) were associated with falls, HAPU, procedural complications, or transfer to intensive care; cognitive impairment (OR?=?2.32; 95% CI?=?1.24, 4.37), anemia (OR?=?1.87; 95% CI?=?1.00, 3.51) and weight loss (OR?=?2.89; 95% CI?=?1.38, 6.07) were associated with HAI, ADE, or length of stay >7 days; hyponatremia (OR?=?3.49; 95% CI?=?1.30, 9.35), prior hospitalization within 30 days (OR?=?2.66; 95% CI?=?1.31, 5.43) and functional impairment (OR?=?2.05; 95% CI?=?1.02, 4.13) were associated with 30-day readmission. Conclusions Patient characteristics recognizable within 24 hours of admission can be used to identify increased risk for adverse events and 30-day readmission. PMID:23834816

2013-01-01

70

Early indicators of delayed adverse effects in female reproductive organs in rats receiving neonatal exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.  

PubMed

We previously reported that neonatal exposure to 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE) led to delayed adverse effects in which age-related anovulation after sexual maturation was accelerated. To identify early indicators of these adverse effects, female Wistar Hannover GALAS rats received a single EE injection (0, 0.02, 0.2, 2, 20, or 200 ?g/kg) within 24 hr of birth. Histopathological changes in ovarian and uterine development were investigated from postnatal day (PND) 14 to 10 weeks of age. Immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) in the uterus, serum levels of sex-related hormones and gene expression in the hypothalamus were examined. Although neonatal exposure to EE did not affect body growth or ovarian development, serum FSH tended to decrease at doses ? 2 ?g/kg, and Kiss1 mRNA level in the whole hypothalamus was significantly decreased in all EE-treated groups at PND14.The number of uterine glands at PND21 was suppressed at doses ? 20 ?g/kg, and ER? expression in the uterine epithelium at estrus stage decreased in a dose-dependent manner at 10 weeks of age. These results demonstrated that the various identified changes that occurred before the appearance of delayed adverse effects could be candidate early indicators. PMID:25242408

Takahashi, Miwa; Inoue, Kaoru; Morikawa, Tomomi; Matsuo, Saori; Hayashi, Seigo; Tamura, Kei; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Midori

2014-01-01

71

Early Martian environments - The antarctic and other terrestrial analogs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early Martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early Martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early Martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the polar deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments.

Wharton, R. A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Simmons, G. M., Jr.

1989-01-01

72

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA. PMID:23407595

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2012-01-01

73

Adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term morbidity after early fetal hypokinesia in maternal smoking pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this study is to evaluate perinatal outcome and subsequent morbidity and neurodevelopment in 10-year-old children\\u000a with fetal hypokinesia intrauterinely verified by ultrasonography in early pregnancy as a pattern of abnormal fetal behavior\\u000a due to maternal chronic smoking. This study revealed significant global fetal hypokinesia as well as head and arm hypokinesia\\u000a in early pregnancy in mothers’ chronic

Dubravko Habek; Melita Kova?evi?

2011-01-01

74

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

75

The Early Sun: Evolution and Dynamic Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is given of the astrophysical processes that govern the formation and early evolution of solar-like stars, specifically aimed at meteoriticists. After a discussion of the various types of protostars and young stars and of the collapse process, the importance of binary and multiple star formation is emphasized. The frequency and properties of young binaries as derived from observations are summarized. Theoretical work demonstrates how newborn multiple stars are unstable and decay on short time scales to stable configurations, often ejecting lower-mass members through dynamical interactions. Observations of phenomena like Herbig-Haro jets and FU Orionis eruptions find a natural explanation within a scenario involving the evolution of small multiple systems and the resulting formation of close binaries. It is emphasized that the vast majority of stars in our Galaxy are formed in clusters, but that most of these clusters dissolve soon after the remaining gas has been dispersed and the gravitational potential that held the cluster together therefore is weakened. Thus, while most stars are born in clusters, only a small fraction will remain in clusters lasting hundreds of millions of years. The likelihood that the early Sun was a member of a temporary cluster at birth and perhaps even a member of a small multiple system is stressed. Possible relic evidence that the Sun was part of a cluster of a few thousand stars includes the solar obliquity, the detection of traces of 60Fe in ordinary chondrites, the sharp edge of the Kuiper belt, and the discovery of distant large objects in eccentric orbits like Sedna. The meteoritic record must be examined with the possibility in mind that the early Sun may well have been a member of a long gone cluster and that the early solar nebula may have been affected by close passages of sibling stars.

Reipurth, B.

2005-12-01

76

Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

Grosse, Susan J.

2008-01-01

77

Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

78

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Fibromyalgia in Later Life  

PubMed Central

The impact of early life events is increasingly becoming apparent, as studies investigate how early childhood can shape long-term physiology and behaviour. Fibromyalgia (FM), which is characterised by increased pain sensitivity and a number of affective co-morbidities, has an unclear etiology. This paper discusses risk factors from early life that may increase the occurrence or severity of FM in later life: pain experience during neonatal life causes long-lasting changes in nociceptive circuitry and increases pain sensitivity in the older organism; premature birth and related stressor exposure cause lasting changes in stress responsivity; maternal deprivation affects anxiety-like behaviours that may be partially mediated by epigenetic modulation of the genome—all these adult phenotypes are strikingly similar to symptoms displayed by FM sufferers. In addition, childhood trauma and exposure to substances of abuse may cause lasting changes in developing neurotransmitter and endocrine circuits that are linked to anxiety and stress responses. PMID:22110940

Low, Lucie A.; Schweinhardt, Petra

2012-01-01

79

DATA REQUIREMENTS TO SUPPORT EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS AMELIORATING THE IMPACT OF ADVERSE VOLATILE CAPITAL FLOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient markets rely on timely and high quality data and other information to provide the price discovery and liquidity functions relied upon by market participants. International capital market data from official disclosures are examined and evaluated against the standards of timeliness, completeness, and adequacy in meeting market users' needs to anticipate problems and develop early-warning systems. Among the many efforts

J. Kimball Dietrich

2006-01-01

80

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

81

Identifying Predictors of Early Growth Response and Adverse Radiation Effects of Vestibular Schwannomas to Radiosurgery  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether pre-treatment growth rate of vestibular schwannomas (VS) predict response to radiosurgery. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of all VS patients treated with 12Gy prescription dose between September 2005 and June 2011 at our institution using the Leksell Model 4C Gamma Knife Unit was conducted. Patients who had a minimum of 12-months clinical and radiological assessment before and after radiosurgery were included in this study. Tumor growth rates were calculated using specific growth rate (SGR). Tumor volumes were measured on FIESTA-MRI scans using ITK-SNAP v2.2. Results Following radiosurgery, twenty-seven (42.9%) patients showed a significant decrease in volume after one year, twenty-nine (46.0%) stabilized, and seven (11.1%) continued to grow. There was no correlation between VS pre-treatment SGRs with post-treatment SGRs (p?=?0.34), and incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE). The reduction in tumors' SGRs after radiosurgery was proportional to pre-treatment SGRs, although this correlation was not statistically significant (p?=?0.19). Analysis of risk factors revealed a positive correlation between post-treatment SGRs and incidence of non-auditory complications, most of which were attributed to ARE (p?=?0.047). Conclusion Pre-treatment growth rate of VS does not predict tumor response to radiosurgery or incidence of ARE. VS with higher SGRs post-radiosurgery are more likely to experience ARE. PMID:25337892

Larjani, Soroush; Monsalves, Eric; Pebdani, Houman; Krischek, Boris; Gentili, Fred; Cusimano, Michael; Laperriere, Normand; Hayhurst, Caroline; Zadeh, Gelareh

2014-01-01

82

Early environments, glucocorticoid receptors, and behavioral epigenetics.  

PubMed

In 1985, a brief report published in Behavioral Neuroscience established the link between neonatal handling and concentrations of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the adult rat, suggesting a neurobiological basis for the attenuated stress reactivity observed in handled versus nonhandled offspring. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, this article explores the research that preceded and followed from this brief but significant publication. Changes in hippocampal GR induced by handling were determined to be the outcome of a cascade of cellular and molecular events involving thyroid hormones, serotonin turnover, and transcription factor binding to the Nr3c1 gene, leading to increased GR mRNA and protein. Though many hypotheses were proposed for the "handling effect," the role of handling-induced changes in maternal care, particularly pup licking/grooming (LG), generated a productive scientific framework for understanding the handling phenomenon. Indeed, LG has since been demonstrated to alter GR levels through the signaling pathways described for handling. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms have been discovered to play a critical role in the effects of early life experience and particularly in the regulation of Nr3c1. Overall, the research avenues that have evolved from the initial finding of handling-induced changes in GR have broad applications to our understanding of plasticity, resilience, and the transmission of traits across generations. PMID:24128352

Champagne, Frances A

2013-10-01

83

Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence  

E-print Network

. These items measured their perceptions of the family environment, specifically inquiring about family relationships; economic circumstances; health of family members; physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; crime; and chronic social impairments. An example of a... .97, 95% confidence interval (CI; (2.79, 5.16), p , .001 at 14 and b ¼ 3.60, 95% CI (2.16, 5.05), p , .001 at 17. Correlations were computed between ages 14 and 17 depression symptom scores, demonstrating expected significant associations over time...

St Clair, Michelle C.; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J.; Jones, Peter B.; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M.

2014-07-24

84

Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans?  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma. PMID:24179818

Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

2013-01-01

85

A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression  

PubMed Central

Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism, and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288), it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e., in the case of early-life abuse or neglect) may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity. PMID:23898235

McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Stead, John D.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

2013-01-01

86

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

PubMed Central

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect. PMID:22383860

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

2011-01-01

87

BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.  

PubMed

Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val??Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val??Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val??Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype. PMID:23058261

Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

2013-08-01

88

Adverse Effects of Ocean Acidification on Early Development of Squid (Doryteuthis pealeii)  

PubMed Central

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

Kaplan, Maxwell B.; Mooney, T. Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C.; Cohen, Anne L.

2013-01-01

89

Adverse effects of ocean acidification on early development of squid (Doryteuthis pealeii).  

PubMed

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L

2013-01-01

90

The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure.  

PubMed

Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND. PMID:24909973

Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A

2014-11-01

91

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*  

E-print Network

and cognition in bipolar disorder of a gene-environment interaction implicating genes known to exert and consequent cognitive disorder. The persistence of this association in late-life is examined. Methods a significant detrimental effect on cognitive functioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

J Clin Psychiatry . Author manuscript Association of adverse childhood environment and 5-HTTLPR Genotype  

E-print Network

on the individual, perhaps due to increased cardiac reactivity. MESH Keywords Adult ; Adult Survivors of Child Abuse, Psychological Author Keywords depression ; elderly ; child abuse ; 5-HTTLPR ; gene-environment interaction punishment, verbal abuse, humiliation and mistreatment by an adult outside the family. Interactions were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

93

Multichannel Voice Detection in Adverse Environments J. Rosca, R. Balan, N.P. Fan  

E-print Network

an array signal processing technique to maximize the signal-to-interference ratio for the target source- nario: the target source (such as a person speaking) is located in a noisy environment, and two or more and Statistical Assumptions The time-domain mixing model assumes D microphone signals x1(t) ::: xD(t), which

Maryland at College Park, University of

94

The international society for developmental psychobiology Sackler symposium: Early adversity and the maturation of emotion circuits-A cross-species analysis.  

PubMed

Early-life caregiving shapes the architecture and function of the developing brain. The fact that the infant-caregiver relationship is critically important for infant functioning across all altricial species, and that the anatomical circuits supporting emotional functioning are highly preserved across different species, suggests that the results of studies examining the role of early adversity and emotional functioning should be translatable across species. Here we present findings from four different research laboratories, using three different species, which have converged on a similar finding: adversity accelerates the developmental trajectory of amygdala-prefrontal cortex (PFC) development and modifies emotional behaviors. First, a rodent model of attachment learning associated with adversity is presented showing precocial disruption of attachment learning and emergence of heightened fear learning and emotionality. Second, a model of infant-mother separation is presented in which early adversity is shown to accelerate the developmental emergence of adult-like fear retention and extinction. Third, a model of early life adversity in Rhesus monkeys is presented in which a naturally occurring variation in maternal-care (abuse) is shown to alter the functioning of emotion circuits. Finally, a human model of maternal deprivation is presented in which children born into orphanages and then adopted abroad exhibit aberrant development of emotion circuits. The convergence of these cross-species studies on early life adversity suggests that adversity targets the amygdala and PFC and has immediate impact on infant behavior with the caregiver, and emotional reactions to the world. These results provide insight into mechanisms responsible for caregiver induced mental health trajectory alterations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1635-1650, 2014. PMID:25290865

Callaghan, Bridget L; Sullivan, Regina M; Howell, Brittany; Tottenham, Nim

2014-12-01

95

Multichannel Voice Detection in Adverse Environments J. Rosca, R. Balan, N.P. Fan  

E-print Network

an array signal processing technique to maximize the signal­to­interference ratio for the target source) is located in a noisy environment, and two or more mi­ crophones record the audio mixture. Noise is assumed­domain mixing model assumes D microphone signals x 1 (t); : : : ; xD (t), which record a source s(t) and noise

Balan, Radu V.

96

The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: removing the brakes on infant fear memories  

PubMed Central

Mental health problems are often assumed to have their roots in early-life experiences. However, memories acquired in infancy are rapidly forgotten in nearly all species (including humans). As yet, a testable mechanism on how early-life experiences have a lasting impact on mental health is lacking. In these experiments, we tested the idea that infant adversity leads to an early transition into adult-like fear retention, allowing infant memories to have a longer-lasting influence. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (3?h per day) across postnatal days (P) 2–14, or their mother was given corticosterone in her drinking water across the same period. Infant rats were then trained to fear a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) on P17. Retention of the fear association was then tested 1–55 days later. When tested one day after the CS–US association was formed, both standard-reared (SR) and maternally-separated (MS) rats exhibited strong memory. However, when tested 10 days later, SR rats exhibited robust forgetting, whereas MS rats exhibited near-perfect retention. These effects were mimicked by exposing the mother to the stress hormone corticosterone in the drinking water. Finally, fear associations in P17 MS rats were retained for up to 30 days. Our findings point to differences in retention of fear as one factor that might underlie the propensity of stress-exposed individuals to exhibit early anxiety symptoms and suggest that manipulations of the corticosterone system may hold the key to ameliorating some of the effects of early stress on persistent retention of fear. PMID:22781171

Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

2012-01-01

97

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harsh early family environment is related to mental and physical health in adulthood. An important question is why family en- vironment in childhood is associated with these outcomes so long after its initial occurrence. We describe a program of research that evaluates a model linking these variables to each other. Specifically, we hypothesize that low social competence and negative

Shelley E. Taylor; Jennifer S. Lerner; Rebecca M. Sage; Barbara J. Lehman; Teresa E. Seeman

2004-01-01

98

Investigating Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways for Early Fish Development  

PubMed Central

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test (OECD Test Guideline 210) is the primary test used internationally to estimate chronic fish toxicity in support of ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs. As part of an on-going effort to develop efficient and cost-effective alternatives to the FELS test, there is a need to identify and describe potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to FELS toxicity. To support this endeavor, we outline and illustrate an overall strategy for discovery and annotation of FELS AOPs. Key events represented by major developmental landmarks were organized into a preliminary conceptual model of fish development. Using swimbladder inflation as an example, a weight-of-evidence-based approach was used to support linkage of key molecular initiating events to adverse phenotypic outcomes and reduced young-of-year survival. Based on an iterative approach, we explored the feasibility of using key events as the foundation for expanding a network of plausible linkages and AOP knowledge and, in the process, identify important knowledge gaps. Given the scope and scale of the task, prioritization of AOP development was recommended and key research objectives were defined relative to factors such as current animal use restrictions in the European Union and increased demands for fish toxicity data in chemical management programs globally. The example and strategy described are intended to guide collective efforts to define FELS-related AOPs and develop resource-efficient predictive assays that address the toxicological domain of the OECD 210 test. PMID:24115264

Villeneuve, Daniel; Volz, David C.; Embry, Michelle R.; Ankley, Gerald T.; Belanger, Scott E.; Leonard, Marc; Schirmer, Kristin; Tanguay, Robert; Truong, Lisa; Wehmas, Leah

2014-01-01

99

Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies.  

PubMed

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test guideline (OECD 210 or OCSPP 850.1400) is the most frequently used bioassay for predicting chronic fish toxicity and supporting aquatic ecological risk assessments around the world. For each chemical, the FELS test requires a minimum of 360 fish and 1 to 3 months from test initiation to termination. Although valuable for predicting fish full life-cycle toxicity, FELS tests are labor and resource intensive and, due to an emphasis on apical endpoints, provide little to no information about chemical mode of action. Therefore, the development and implementation of alternative testing strategies for screening and prioritizing chemicals has the potential to reduce the cost and number of animals required for estimating FELS toxicity and, at the same time, provides insights into mechanisms of toxicity. Using three reference chemicals with well-established yet distinct adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in early life stages of fish, we proposed FELS-specific AOPs as conceptual frameworks for identifying useful chemical screening and prioritization strategies. The reference chemicals selected as case studies were a cardiotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), neurotoxic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos), and narcotic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Using qualitative descriptions for each chemical during early fish development, we developed generalized AOPs and, based on these examples, proposed a three-tiered testing strategy for screening and prioritizing chemicals for FELS testing. Linked with biologically based concentration-response models, a tiered testing strategy may help reduce the reliance on long-term and costly FELS tests required for assessing the hazard of thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. PMID:21750347

Volz, David C; Belanger, Scott; Embry, Michelle; Padilla, Stephanie; Sanderson, Hans; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan; Villeneuve, Daniel

2011-10-01

100

Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

1990-01-01

101

Adverse prenatal environment and kidney development: implications for programing of adult disease.  

PubMed

The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis suggests that many adult-onset diseases can be attributed to altered growth and development during early life. Perturbations during gestation can be detrimental and lead to an increased risk of developing renal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive dysfunction in adulthood. The kidney has emerged as being especially vulnerable to insult at almost any stage of development resulting in a reduction in nephron endowment. In both humans and animal models, a reduction in nephron endowment is strongly associated with an increased risk of hypertension. The focus of this review is twofold: i) to determine the importance of specific periods during development on long-term programing and ii) to examine the effects of maternal perturbations on the developing kidney and how this may program adult-onset disease. Recent evidence has suggested that insults occurring around the time of conception also have the capacity to influence long-term health. Although epigenetic mechanisms are implicated in mediating these outcomes, it is unclear as to how these may impact on kidney development. This presents exciting new challenges and areas for research. PMID:24686455

Dorey, Emily S; Pantaleon, Marie; Weir, Kristy A; Moritz, Karen M

2014-06-01

102

Interfermometric tomographic measurement of an instantaneous flow field under adverse environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a 3D refractive-index field from multidirectional projection data, has ben conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four- bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques.

Yu, Enxi; Cha, Soyoung S.; Burner, Alpheus W.

1995-09-01

103

Interferometric Tomographic Measurement of an Instataneous Flow Field Under Adverse Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of an instantaneous flow field by interferometric tomography, that is, reconstruction of a three-dimensional refractive-index field from multi-directional projection data, has been conducted. In order to simulate the expected experimental arrangement at a wind tunnel, reconstructions are made from a restricted view angle less than 40 degrees and incomplete projections. In addition, appreciable ambient air and experimental setup disturbances are present. A new phase-stepping technique, based on a generalized phase-stepping approach of a four-bucket model, is applied for expeditious and accurate phase information extraction from projection interferograms under the harsh environments. Phase errors caused by the various disturbances, which can include ambient refractive-index change, optical component disturbance, hologram repositioning error, etc., are partially compensated with a linear corrective model. A new computational tomographic technique based on a series expansion approach was also utilized to efficiently deal with arbitrary boundary shapes and the continuous flow fields in reconstruction. The results of the preliminary investigation are encouraging; however, the technique needs to be further developed in the future through refinement of the approaches reported here and through hybridization with previously developed techniques. Keywords: interferometry, tomography, phase stepping

Yu, En-Xi; Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Burner, Alpheus W.

1995-01-01

104

A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

2012-04-01

105

Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

2014-01-01

106

Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age?=?24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

2014-01-01

107

Adverse experience during early life and adulthood interact to elevate tph2 mRNA expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anxiety disorders, depression and animal models of vulnerability to a depression-like syndrome have been associated with dysregulation of brain serotonergic systems. These effects could result from genetic influences, adverse early life experiences (ELE), or acute stressful life events, all of which can alter serotonergic neurotransmission and have been implicated in determining vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. To evaluate the effects of

K. L. Gardner; M. W. Hale; S. Oldfield; S. L. Lightman; P. M. Plotsky; C. A. Lowry

2009-01-01

108

Adversity in early and mid-adolescence is associated with elevated startle responses to safety cues in late adolescence  

PubMed Central

Elevated responding to safety cues in the context of threat is associated with anxiety disorder onset, but pathways underlying such responding remain unclear. This study examined whether childhood/adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during safe phases of a fear potentiation startle paradigm (following delivery of an aversive stimulus) that predict anxiety disorders. Participants (N = 104) came from the Youth Emotion Project, a longitudinal study of risk factors for emotional disorders. Participants with no baseline psychopathology underwent a startle modulation protocol and were assessed for childhood and adolescent adversities using a validated interview. Adolescent adversity was associated with larger startle reflexes during the safe phases following an aversive stimulus. Neither child nor adolescent adversities were associated with responding during any other phase of the protocol. These findings suggest a pathway between adolescent adversity and a risk factor for anxiety disorders wherein adolescent adversity contributes to impaired responding to safety cues.

Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Waters, Allison M.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Rick; Ornitz, Edward; Naliboff, Bruce; Craske, Michelle G.

2014-01-01

109

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.  

EPA Science Inventory

Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

110

Links between hydrothermal environments, pyrophosphate, na(+), and early evolution.  

PubMed

The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H(+)-pump, and like the Na(+)-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na(+)-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na(+) transport preceded ATP and H(+) transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na(+) is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na(+)-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water. PMID:21461648

Holm, Nils G; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

2011-10-01

111

Links Between Hydrothermal Environments, Pyrophosphate, Na+, and Early Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery that photosynthetic bacterial membrane-bound inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) catalyzed light-induced phosphorylation of orthophosphate (Pi) to pyrophosphate (PPi) and the capability of PPi to drive energy requiring dark reactions supported PPi as a possible early alternative to ATP. Like the proton-pumping ATPase, the corresponding membrane-bound PPase also is a H+-pump, and like the Na+-pumping ATPase, it can be a Na+-pump, both in archaeal and bacterial membranes. We suggest that PPi and Na+ transport preceded ATP and H+ transport in association with geochemistry of the Earth at the time of the origin and early evolution of life. Life may have started in connection with early plate tectonic processes coupled to alkaline hydrothermal activity. A hydrothermal environment in which Na+ is abundant exists in sediment-starved subduction zones, like the Mariana forearc in the W Pacific Ocean. It is considered to mimic the Archean Earth. The forearc pore fluids have a pH up to 12.6, a Na+-concentration of 0.7 mol/kg seawater. PPi could have been formed during early subduction of oceanic lithosphere by dehydration of protonated orthophosphates. A key to PPi formation in these geological environments is a low local activity of water.

Holm, Nils G.; Baltscheffsky, Herrick

2011-10-01

112

Psychological and Physical Health at Age 70 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: Links With Early Life IQ, SES, and Current Cognitive Function and Neighborhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Researchers in many fields are interested in the robust observation that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better mental and physical health. Prominent explanations for the association involve effects of stress due to relative material and social adversity in lower socioeconomic environments, but early-life intelligence may also contribute directly to both later-life socioeconomic status and health. Here, we

Wendy Johnson; Janie Corley; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

2011-01-01

113

Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

2007-01-01

114

A Virtual Bioinformatics Knowledge Environment for Early Cancer Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discovery of disease biomarkers for cancer is a leading focus of early detection. The National Cancer Institute created a network of collaborating institutions focused on the discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers called the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). Informatics plays a key role in enabling a virtual knowledge environment that provides scientists real time access to distributed data sets located at research institutions across the nation. The distributed and heterogeneous nature of the collaboration makes data sharing across institutions very difficult. EDRN has developed a comprehensive informatics effort focused on developing a national infrastructure enabling seamless access, sharing and discovery of science data resources across all EDRN sites. This paper will discuss the EDRN knowledge system architecture, its objectives and its accomplishments.

Crichton, Daniel; Srivastava, Sudhir; Johnsey, Donald

2003-01-01

115

A cognitive intermediate phenotype study confirming possible gene–early adversity interaction in psychosis outcome: A general population twin study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To investigate the interaction between childhood adversity and genetic risk in the formation of psychotic symptoms, using cognitive speed as indicator of genetic risk.Methods: In a cross?twin, cross?trait analysis of monozygotic twins in the general population, the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms was examined, using a cognitive intermediary phenotype as genetic risk marker.Results: Psychotic symptoms in the

Stefanie Pfeifer; Lydia Krabbendam; Catherine Derom; Marieke Wichers; Nele Jacobs; Evert W. Thiery; Jim van Os

2010-01-01

116

Significant adverse reactions to long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for the treatment of central precocious puberty and early onset puberty  

PubMed Central

Purpose Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are commonly used to treat central precocious puberty (CPP) in Korea. Although rare, there have been reports on the characteristic of adverse reactions of GnRHa in CPP among the Korean population. This study was intended to report on our clinical experience regarding significant adverse reactions to long-acting GnRHa in CPP and early onset puberty and to evaluate the prevalence rate of serious side effects. Methods This retrospective study included children with CPP and early onset puberty, who were administered monthly with long-acting GnRHa (leuprolide acetate, triptorelin acetate) at the outpatient clinic of Department of Pediatrics, at Inha University Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2013. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients who experienced significant adverse reactions and evaluated the prevalence rate. Results Six serious side effects (0.9%) were observed among total of 621 CPP and early onset puberty children with GnRHa therapy. The number of sterile abscess formation was four in three patients (4 events of 621). Anaphylaxis occurred in only one patient, and unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in another one patient. Anaphylaxis occurred after the 6th administration of the monthly depot triptorelin acetate. Unilateral SCFE developed in GnRHa therapy. Conclusion Sterile abscess formation occurred in 0.6% of CPP and early onset puberty patients from the administration of a monthly depot GnRHa therapy. The occurrences of anaphylaxis and SCFE are extremely rare, but can have serious implications on patients. Clinicians should be aware of these potential adverse effects related to GnRHa therapy in CPP.

Lee, Ji Woo; Kim, Hyung Jin; Choe, Yun Mee; Kang, Hee Suk; Kim, Soon Ki; Jun, Yong Hoon

2014-01-01

117

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-09-30

118

Life and the solar uv environment on the early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B and the UV-C ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B ind UV-C range penetrated through the unprotected atmosphere to the surface on early Earth, associated biological consequences may be expected. For DNA-based terrestrial solar UV dosimetry, bacteriophage T7, isolated phage-DNA ind polycrystalline Uracil samples have been used. The effect of solar UV radiation can be measured by detecting the biological-structural consequences of the damage induced by UV photons. We show model calculations for the Biological Effective Dose (BED) rate of Uracil and bacteriophage T7, for various ozone concentrations representing early atmospheric conditions on Earth up to a UV protecting ozone layer comparable to present times. Further, we discuss experimental data which show the photo-reverse effect of Uracil molecules caused by short UV wavelengths. These photoreversion effect highly depend on the wavelength of the radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerisation, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerisation. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of an Uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both, dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV exposure on organisms in the terrestrial environment more than 2 Gyr ago where Earth had no UV protecting ozone layer as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological harmful effects can also be reduced by shorter wavelength UV radiation, which is of importance in reducing DNA damages provoked by wavelengths longer than about 240 nm.

Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, G.; Lammer, H.; Kargl, G.; Kömle, N.; Bauer, S.

2003-04-01

119

Early Life Adversity and Inflammation in African Americans and Whites in the Midlife in the United States Survey  

E-print Network

the consistency of these associations across racial groups. Methods: We analyzed data from 177 African Americans epidemiology, race/ethnicity, chronic disease risk. BMI body mass index; CRP C-reactive protein; CVD of health conditions that might vary by level of life adversity. Large-scale epidemiologic studies (8

Mladenoff, David

120

Cognitive testing in early phase clinical trials: outcome according to adverse event profile in a Phase I studyy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background It has been proposed that objective cognitive testing provides additional information to that collected via adverse event (AE) recordings. However, in clinical trials of compounds with potentially negative effects on cognition, the results of cognitive testing may overlap with AE recordings. Aims To examine cognitive function in subjects who do and do not report sedation-related AEs in a Phase

Alex Collie; Paul Maruff; Peter J. Snyder; Amanda Darekar; John P. Huggins

121

Adverse drug reactions to antiretroviral therapy during the early art period at a tertiary hospital in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV morbidity and mortality worldwide but has many adverse effects. These adverse drug reactions (ADRs) lead to discontinuations, disease progression or treatment failure. We explored the types and risk factors for ADRs in a cohort starting ART in a teaching hospital in Accra, Ghana where the main regimens used were a combination of nucleotide and non nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Methods A Cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted reviewing data of 2042 patients initiated on HAART from 2003 to 2007. Univariate analysis was done for the dependent and independent variables. Stepwise logistic regression procedures were used to model the effect of gender on the development of ADRs controlling for other variables like age, marital status, weight at baseline and CD4 at baseline. Results The period prevalence of ADRs was 9.4%. The two most common adverse reactions were anaemia and diarrhoea. Female sex was a statistically significant independent predictor of an adverse drug reaction (AOR: 1.66, p = 0.01, CI: 1.16-2.36). CD4 counts 250 cells/mm3 or more was significantly associated with the occurrence of an ADR. The occurrence of anaemia in females was statistically significant compared to males. Conclusion Adverse drug reactions were less common than expected, anaemia was the commonest ADR. Female sex and high CD4 counts >250mm3 were predictors of ADRs whereas females were significantly more likely to develop anaemia than males. Recommendations were made for interventions to prevent and also mitigate the high levels of anaemia especially among women in the ART scale up. PMID:25368714

Lartey, Margaret; Asante-Quashie, Abena; Essel, Ama; Kenu, Ernest; Ganu, Vincent; Neequaye, Alfred

2014-01-01

122

A protective genetic variant for adverse environments? The role of childhood traumas and serotonin transporter gene on resilience and depressive severity in a high-risk population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic aspects may influence the effect of early adverse events on psychological well being in adulthood. In particular, a common polymorphism within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR short\\/long) has been associated to the risk for stress-induced psychopathology. In the present study we investigated the role of childhood traumas and 5-HTTLPR on measures of psychological resilience and depression in a sample

V. Carli; L. Mandelli; L. Zaninotto; A. Roy; L. Recchia; L. Stoppia; V. Gatta; M. Sarchiapone; A. Serretti

2011-01-01

123

Life and the solar UV environment on early Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the solar UV environment on Earth 2 0 Gyr to 3 8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B 280 nm - 315 nm and the UV-C 200 nm - 280 nm ranges Since short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B and UV-C range penetrated through the atmosphere to the unprotected early Earth s surface associated biological consequences may be expected We discuss experimental data obtained as follows Radiation sources applied were low pressure Mercury lamp and Xenon 2 kW lamp the wavelength were adjusted by interference filters 200BP10 210BP10 220BP10 230BP10 240BP10 250BP10 260BP10 270BP10 280BP10 290BP10 300BP10 310BP10 320BP10 and the irradiances were measured by OL754 spectroradiometer The photo-reverse effect depends highly on the wavelength of the exposed radiation Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerization while the longer wavelengths prefer the dimerisation In case of polychromatic light like in space or on a planetary surface which is unprotected by an ozone layer the two processes run parallel We could demonstrate experimentally for the case of a uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both dimerization and the reverse process monomerization These results are important for the study of solar UV effects on organisms in the early terrestrial environment as well as for the search for life on Mars since we can show that biological

Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Lammer, H.; Kolb, Ch.; Rontó, Gy.

124

Chemical Abundance Patterns and the Early Environment of Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bryan, Greg

2013-08-01

125

CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE PATTERNS AND THE EARLY ENVIRONMENT OF DWARF GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Recent observations suggest that abundance pattern differences exist between low metallicity stars in the Milky Way stellar halo and those in the dwarf satellite galaxies. This paper takes a first look at what role the early environment for pre-galactic star formation might have played in shaping these stellar populations. In particular, we consider whether differences in cross-pollution between the progenitors of the stellar halo and the satellites could help to explain the differences in abundance patterns. Using an N-body simulation, we find that the progenitor halos of the main halo are primarily clustered together at z = 10 while the progenitors of the satellite galaxies remain on the outskirts of this cluster. Next, analytically modeled supernova-driven winds show that main halo progenitors cross-pollute each other more effectively while satellite galaxy progenitors remain more isolated. Thus, inhomogeneous cross-pollution as a result of different high-z spatial locations of each system's progenitors can help to explain observed differences in abundance patterns today. Conversely, these differences are a signature of the inhomogeneity of metal enrichment at early times.

Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bryan, Greg [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tumlinson, Jason [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2013-08-20

126

Early adolescent Body Mass Index and the constructed environment.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that macro-level environmental features such as access to walking trails and recreational facilities are correlated with adolescent weight. Additionally, a handful of studies have documented relationships between micro-level environmental features, such as the presence (or absence) of a television in the bedroom, and adolescent weight. In this exploratory study we focus exclusively on features of the micro-level environment by examining objects that are found within adolescent personal bedrooms in relation to the adolescent occupant's Body Mass Index score (BMI). Participants were 234 early adolescents (eighth graders and ninth graders) who lived with both biological parents and who had their own private bedroom. Discriminant analyses were used to identify the bedrooms belonging to adolescents with below and above average BMI using objects contained within the micro-level environment as discriminating variables. Bedrooms belonging to adolescents with above average BMI were more likely to contain objects associated with sedentary behavior (e.g., magazines, electronic games, dolls), whereas the bedrooms belonging to the average and below average BMI adolescents were more likely to contain objects that reflect past physical activity (e.g., trophies, souvenirs, pictures of places that they had visited). If causal connections between micro-environmental variables and adolescent BMI can be established in future longitudinal research, environmental manipulations may affect adolescent BMI. PMID:24931559

Jones, Randall M; Vaterlaus, J Mitchell

2014-07-01

127

Effects of Early Literacy Environments on the Reading Attitudes, Behaviours and Values of Veteran Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…

Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.

2013-01-01

128

Determining indicators, methods and sites for monitoring potential adverse effects of genetically modified plants to the environment: the legal and conceptional framework for implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to be monitored. The aim\\u000a of the monitoring is to identify potential adverse effects of the GMPs and their use on human health and the environment.\\u000a There are few concepts showing how GMP monitoring may be implemented. This article indicates monitoring requirements with\\u000a a focus on environmental issues.

Wiebke Züghart; Armin Benzler; Frank Berhorn; Ulrich Sukopp; Frieder Graef

2008-01-01

129

Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: A cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range = 2.75–10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range = 3.93–15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted. PMID:23978575

Topitzes, J.; Reynolds, A.J.

2014-01-01

130

Flame retardant exposures in California early childhood education environments.  

PubMed

Infants and young children spend as much as 50h per week in child care and preschool. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend some time each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available about environmental exposures in these environments. We measured flame retardants in air and dust collected from 40 California ECE facilities between May 2010 and May 2011. Low levels of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and four non-PBDE flame retardants were present in air, including two constituents of Firemaster 550 and two tris phosphate compounds [tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris (1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)]. Tris phosphate, Firemaster 550 and PBDE compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples. BDE47, BDE99, and BDE209 comprised the majority of the PBDE mass measured in dust. The median concentrations of TCEP (319ngg(-1)) and TDCIPP (2265ngg(-1)) were similar to or higher than any PBDE congener. Levels of TCEP and TDCIPP in dust were significantly higher in facilities with napping equipment made out of foam (Mann-Whitney p-values<0.05). Child BDE99 dose estimates exceeded the RfD in one facility for children<3years old. In 51% of facilities, TDCIPP dose estimates for children<6years old exceeded age-specific "No Significant Risk Levels (NSRLs)" based on California Proposition 65 guidelines for carcinogens. Given the overriding interest in providing safe and healthy environments for young children, additional research is needed to identify strategies to reduce indoor sources of flame retardant chemicals. PMID:24835158

Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Gaspar, Fraser; Nishioka, Marcia; Colón, Maribel; Weathers, Walter; Egeghy, Peter P; Maddalena, Randy; Williams, Jeffery; Jenkins, Peggy L; McKone, Thomas E

2014-12-01

131

Early-life nutritional environment and spatial navigation in the water shrew, Sorex palustris (Insectivora).  

PubMed

Studies were conducted to study the effects of early-life nutritional environment on spatial navigation ability in the water shrew (Sorex palustris), as well as to provide information on life history traits and husbandry. The mean longevity of males and females in captivity was 652.3 +/- 33.8 SD and 616.2 +/- 22.5 days, respectively. Litter sizes ranged from 5 to 8 and neonatal mass ranged from 0.71 to 0.83 g. Spatial navigation was examined by use of the Morris water apparatus, where animals were required to locate the position of an escape platform in a circular tank of water. The platform was visible (proximal cue version of the task) in some tests. In other tests it was hidden beneath the surface (distal cue version) by making the water opaque using a non-toxic white dye. The tank was divided into 4 quadrants and the position of the plafform in any quadrant could be fixed for any subject or varied between subjects. Early-life under-nutrition was achieved by maintaining some shrews on a restricted diet (received half the amount of food as did controls). Under-nutrition was found to have an adverse effect on spatial navigation. Regardless of nutritional status, shrews were able to locate a hidden plafform that was placed at the center of a given quadrant more rapidly (escape latency) when it was visible (44 to 69 sec) than when it was hidden (83 to 164 sec). Results also showed that these shrews utilize both proximal and distal cues in this spatial task. Control subjects spent more time at a location where the platform had been in a previous test (69% of the trial period) than their undernourished counterparts (45 to 51%). This is the first experimental analysis of spatial navigation and the effects of early-life under-nutrition on this task, for S. palustris. PMID:15907068

Punzo, F

2004-10-01

132

Early Environment and Neurobehavioral Development Predict Adult Temperament Clusters  

PubMed Central

Background Investigation of the environmental influences on human behavioral phenotypes is important for our understanding of the causation of psychiatric disorders. However, there are complexities associated with the assessment of environmental influences on behavior. Methods/Principal Findings We conducted a series of analyses using a prospective, longitudinal study of a nationally representative birth cohort from Finland (the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort). Participants included a total of 3,761 male and female cohort members who were living in Finland at the age of 16 years and who had complete temperament scores. Our initial analyses (Wessman et al., in press) provide evidence in support of four stable and robust temperament clusters. Using these temperament clusters, as well as independent temperament dimensions for comparison, we conducted a data-driven analysis to assess the influence of a broad set of life course measures, assessed pre-natally, in infancy, and during adolescence, on adult temperament. Results Measures of early environment, neurobehavioral development, and adolescent behavior significantly predict adult temperament, classified by both cluster membership and temperament dimensions. Specifically, our results suggest that a relatively consistent set of life course measures are associated with adult temperament profiles, including maternal education, characteristics of the family’s location and residence, adolescent academic performance, and adolescent smoking. Conclusions Our finding that a consistent set of life course measures predict temperament clusters indicate that these clusters represent distinct developmental temperament trajectories and that information about a subset of life course measures has implications for adult health outcomes. PMID:22815688

Congdon, Eliza; Service, Susan; Wessman, Jaana; Seppanen, Jouni K.; Schonauer, Stefan; Miettunen, Jouko; Turunen, Hannu; Koiranen, Markku; Joukamaa, Matti; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha; Mannila, Heikki; Paunio, Tiina; Freimer, Nelson B.

2012-01-01

133

Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia, high temperatures, and acidification impacted biotic recovery during Early Triassic time. Our findings of protracted early Mesozoic reef recovery suggest that the causal links between environmental disturbance and biotic recovery extended into Middle Triassic time.

Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

134

Early Sexual Abuse, Street Adversity, and Drug Use among Female Homeless and Runaway Adolescents in the Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on homeless and runaway adolescents has shown that this population is at high risk for illicit drug use. Though sexual abuse has been widely considered in the etiology of illicit drug use, we know less about how early sexual abuse affects young people's decisions to run away, to use drugs, and to engage in other deviant behavior on the

Xiaojin Chen; Kimberly A. Tyler; Les B. Whitbeck; Dan R. Hoyt

2004-01-01

135

Development of Children at Risk for Adverse Outcomes Participating in Early Intervention in Developing Countries: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has indicated positive effects of early developmental intervention (EDI) on the development of children in developing countries. Few studies, however, have examined longitudinally when differential treatment effects may be observed and whether differential outcomes are associated with exposure to different risk…

Wallander, Jan L.; Bann, Carla M.; Biasini, Fred J.; Goudar, Shivaprasad S.; Pasha, Omrana; Chomba, Elwyn; McClure, Elizabeth; Carlo, Waldemar A.

2014-01-01

136

Presumed PDF Modeling of Early Flame Propagation in Moderate to Intense Turbulence Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present paper describes the results obtained from a one-dimensional time dependent numerical technique that simulates early flame propagation in a moderate to intense turbulent environment. Attention is focused on the development of a spark-ignited, premixed, lean methane/air mixture with the unsteady spherical flame propagating in homogeneous and isotropic turbulence. A Monte-Carlo particle tracking method, based upon the method of fractional steps, is utilized to simulate the phenomena represented by a probability density function (PDF) transport equation. Gaussian distributions of fluctuating velocity and fuel concentration are prescribed. Attention is focused on three primary parameters that influence the initial flame kernel growth: the detailed ignition system characteristics, the mixture composition, and the nature of the flow field. The computational results of moderate and intense isotropic turbulence suggests that flames within the distributed reaction zone are not as vulnerable, as traditionally believed, to the adverse effects of increased turbulence intensity. It is also shown that the magnitude of the flame front thickness significantly impacts the turbulent consumption flame speed. Flame conditions studied have fuel equivalence ratio s in the range phi = 0.6 to 0.9 at standard temperature and pressure.

Carmen, Christina; Feikema, Douglas A.

2003-01-01

137

EARLY YEARS SHAPING CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

and ADHD. Dr. Lanphear will discuss his research and the complex effects of toxic environments on brain the effects of early exposure to adverse social and physical environments. Recent results from a suite Research Institute Children's health is, to a large extent, a function of their environment: for example

Handy, Todd C.

138

Association between Plasma IL6 Response to Acute Stress and Early-Life Adversity in Healthy Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased production of peripheral cytokines and other pro-inflammatory markers has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has pointed to early-life stress, particularly childhood maltreatment, as an independent and preventable risk factor for systemic inflammation in adulthood. Some data suggest that adults with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit a heightened

Linda L Carpenter; Cyrena E Gawuga; Audrey R Tyrka; Janet K Lee; George M Anderson; Lawrence H Price

2010-01-01

139

Early School Leavers and Sustainable Learning Environments in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of their diverse…

Mahlomaholo, Sechaba M. G.

2012-01-01

140

Epigenetic gene regulation: Linking early developmental environment to adult disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional studies on the combined effects of genetics and the environment on individual variation in disease susceptibility primarily focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence toxicant uptake and metabolism. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are also influenced by the environment, and play an important role

Dana C. Dolinoy; Jennifer R. Weidman; Randy L. Jirtle

2007-01-01

141

Does the home environment and the sex of the child modify the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on child working memory?  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, has long been associated with delayed neurocognitive development and most recently with decrements in working memory at age 7. In the current paper, we expanded the previous work on CPF to investigate how additional biological and social environmental factors might create or explain differential neurodevelopmental susceptibility, focusing on main and moderating effects of the quality of the home environment (HOME) and child sex. We evaluate how the quality of the home environment (specifically, parental nurturance and environmental stimulation) and child sex interact with the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory at child age 7 years. We did not observe a remediating effect of a high quality home environment (either parental nurturance or environmental stimulation) on the adverse effects of prenatal CPF exposure on working memory. However, we detected a borderline significant interaction between prenatal exposure to CPF and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = ?1.714 (?3.753 to 0.326)) suggesting males experience a greater decrement in working memory than females following prenatal CPF exposure. In addition, we detected a borderline interaction between parental nurturance and child sex (B (95% CI) for interaction term = 1.490 (?0.518 to 3.499)) suggesting that, in terms of working memory, males benefit more from a nurturing environment than females. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation into factors that may inform an intervention strategy to reduce or reverse the cognitive deficits resulting from prenatal CPF exposure. PMID:22824009

Horton, Megan K.; Kahn, Linda G.; Perera, Frederica; Barr, Dana Boyd; Rauh, Virginia

2013-01-01

142

Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. METHODS: We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and

Chris J Packard; Vladimir Bezlyak; Jennifer S McLean; G David Batty; Ian Ford; Harry Burns; Jonathan Cavanagh; Kevin A Deans; Marion Henderson; Agnes McGinty; Keith Millar; Naveed Sattar; Paul G Shiels; Yoga N Velupillai; Carol Tannahill

2011-01-01

143

Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments to Strengthen Cultural Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will discuss the use of technology with young children to strengthen cultural connections. A brief discussion of the use of technology in the field of Early Childhood Education and a brief discussion of diversity and cultural issues is followed by specific ways in which technology can be utilized to help young children understand…

Meadows, Mikki

2004-01-01

144

Flame Retardant Exposures in California Early Childhood Education Environments  

EPA Science Inventory

Infants and young children spend as much as 50 hours per week in child care and preschool centers. Although approximately 13 million children, or 65% of all U.S. children, spend a portion of each day in early childhood education (ECE) facilities, little information is available a...

145

The Children's Physical Environment Rating Scale (CPERS): Reliability and Validity for Assessing the Physical Environment of Early Childhood Educational Facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a series of studies conducted to test the reliability and validity of a new scale intended for the assessment of early childhood development centers (such as child care centers, nursery schools, kindergartens, and the like). The physical environment of early childhood facilities—e.g., size, density, plan type, activity settings—is related to children's cognitive and social development. While a

Gary T. Moore; Takemi Sugiyama

146

Dysfunctional Astrocytic and Synaptic Regulation of Hypothalamic Glutamatergic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Early-Life Adversity: Relevance to Neurosteroids and Programming of the Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Adverse early-life experiences, such as poor maternal care, program an abnormal stress response that may involve an altered balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Here, we explored how early-life stress (ELS) affects excitatory and inhibitory transmission in corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF)-expressing dorsal-medial (mpd) neurons of the neonatal mouse hypothalamus. We report that ELS associates with enhanced excitatory glutamatergic transmission that is manifested as an increased frequency of synaptic events and increased extrasynaptic conductance, with the latter associated with dysfunctional astrocytic regulation of glutamate levels. The neurosteroid 5?-pregnan-3?-ol-20-one (5?3?-THPROG) is an endogenous, positive modulator of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) that is abundant during brain development and rises rapidly during acute stress, thereby enhancing inhibition to curtail stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. In control mpd neurons, 5?3?-THPROG potently suppressed neuronal discharge, but this action was greatly compromised by prior ELS exposure. This neurosteroid insensitivity did not primarily result from perturbations of GABAergic inhibition, but rather arose functionally from the increased excitatory drive onto mpd neurons. Previous reports indicated that mice (dams) lacking the GABAAR ? subunit (?0/0) exhibit altered maternal behavior. Intriguingly, ?0/0 offspring showed some hallmarks of abnormal maternal care that were further exacerbated by ELS. Moreover, in common with ELS, mpd neurons of ?0/0 pups exhibited increased synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission and consequently a blunted neurosteroid suppression of neuronal firing. This study reveals that increased synaptic and tonic glutamatergic transmission may be a common maladaptation to ELS, leading to enhanced excitation of CRF-releasing neurons, and identifies neurosteroids as putative early regulators of the stress neurocircuitry. PMID:24336719

Gunn, Benjamin G.; Cunningham, Linda; Cooper, Michelle A.; Corteen, Nicole L.; Seifi, Mohsen; Swinny, Jerome D.; Lambert, Jeremy J.

2013-01-01

147

The Combined Effect of Nursing Support and Adverse Event Mitigation on Adherence to Interferon Beta-1b Therapy in Early Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

There is limited clinical evidence on the impact of nurse support and adverse event (AE) mitigation techniques on adherence to interferon beta-1b (IFN?-1b) therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS) in a real-world setting. The aim of the Success of Titration, analgesics, and BETA nurse support on Acceptance Rates in MS Treatment (START) trial was to assess the combined effect of titration, analgesics, and BETA (Betaseron Education, Training, Assistance) nurse support on adherence to IFN?-1b therapy in patients with early-onset MS and to evaluate safety. Participants were instructed to titrate IFN?-1b and use analgesics to minimize flu-like symptoms. All received BETA nurse follow-up at frequent intervals: live training, two telephone calls during the first month of therapy, and monthly calls thereafter. Participants were considered adherent if they took at least 75% of the total prescribed doses over 12 months (?75% compliance). Safety was monitored via reported AEs and laboratory test results. Participants who took at least one IFN?-1b dose over 12 months were analyzed (N = 104); 73.8% of participants completed the study. The mean age of participants was 37.2 years; 72.1% were women and 78.8% were white. Ninety participants had relapsing-remitting MS and 14 had clinically isolated syndrome. The mean compliance rate, reported for 96 participants with complete dose interruption records, was 84.4%. At 12 months, 78.1% of participants were considered adherent. The serious adverse event rate was 9.6%; most events were unrelated to therapy. Thus in the START study, in which participants received nursing support combined with dose titration and use of analgesics, the majority of participants were adherent to therapy. PMID:24453752

Markowitz, Clyde; Patel, Payal; Boateng, Francis; Rametta, Mark

2012-01-01

148

Early-Warning Wireless Telemeter for Harsh-Environment Bearings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate an early-warning wireless and high-temperature telemeter that continuously monitors the temperature of a roller bearing during operation. The telemeter detects imminent temperature-induced failure of the bearing four minutes before conventional thermocouple sensors respond to conditional changes, leaving ample time for appropriate actions to avoid complete failure. The telemeter includes a commercially available temperature-sensitive capacitor that operates up to

Andrew Kovacs; Dimitrios Peroulis; Farshid Sadeghi

2007-01-01

149

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

E-print Network

the fit of our model to autonomic and neuroendocrine stress responses and to self-rated health. In doing any time there is something new or unexpected in the environment, especially if there are signs the threatening and the comforting aspects of the world. As such, the brain and its emotional underpinnings

Lehman, Barbara J.

150

Drought early warning and risk management in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought has long been recognized as falling into the category of incremental but long-term and cumulative environmental changes, also termed slow-onset or creeping events. These event types would include: air and water quality decline, desertification processes, deforestation and forest fragmentation, loss of biodiversity and habitats, and nitrogen overloading, among others. Climate scientists continue to struggle with recognizing the onset of drought and scientists and policy makers continue to debate the basis (i.e., criteria) for declaring an end to a drought. Risk-based management approaches to drought planning at the national and regional levels have been recommended repeatedly over the years but their prototyping, testing and operational implementation have been limited. This presentation will outline two avenues for disaster risk reduction in the context of drought (1) integrated early warning information systems, and (2) linking disaster risk reduction to climate change adaptation strategies. Adaptation involves not only using operational facilities and infrastructure to cope with the immediate problems but also leaving slack or reserve for coping with multiple stress problems that produce extreme impacts and surprise. Increasing the 'anticipatability' of an event, involves both monitoring of key indicators from appropriate baseline data, and observing early warning signs that assumptions in risk management plans are failing and critical transitions are occurring. Illustrative cases will be drawn from the IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters (2011), the UN Global Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction (2011) and implementation activities in which the author has been engaged. Most drought early warning systems have tended to focus on the development and use of physical system indicators and forecasts of trends and thresholds. We show that successful early warning systems that meet expectations of risk management also have explicit foci on (1) integrating physical and social vulnerability indicators across timescales, (2) analytical capacity to generate local scenarios of risk using both analogs and projections, (3) the communication of risk-based information, and (4) the support and governance of a collaborative framework for early warning structures across spatial scales.

Pulwarty, R. S.

2011-12-01

151

Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

2012-01-01

152

The black–white test score gap and early home environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on panel data for three age cohorts of children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we examine how early home environment contributes to black–white achievement gaps at different developmental stages and the extent to which early gaps contribute to later racial achievement gaps. We find large black–white test score differences among children of all ages even before children

Wei-Jun Jean Yeung; Kathryn M. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

153

Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

Fuller, C. A.

1985-01-01

154

Quality of the Literacy Environment in Inclusive Early Childhood Special Education Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…

Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

2013-01-01

155

Early Family Environments of Obese and Non-Obese College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although case studies and anecdotal information have suggested that differences exist between the early family environments of obese and non-obese individuals, no experimental research exists. Undergraduates completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) and a questionnaire concerning past and present weight information. Subjects were classified as…

Hailey, B. Jo; Sison, Gustave F. P., Jr.

156

An Examination of Classroom Social Environment on Motivation and Engagement of College Early Entrant Honors Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study set out to examine the relationships between the classroom social environment, motivation, engagement and achievement of a group of early entrant Honors students at a large urban university. Prior research on the classroom environment, motivation, engagement and high ability students was examined, leading to the assumption that the…

Maddox, Richard S.

2010-01-01

157

Relation between depositional environment and the elemental composition of early diagenetic siderite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early diagenetic siderites from marine and fresh-water depositional environments are characterized by distinctive compositional trends. Siderite from fresh-water environments is often relatively pure (i.e., greater than 90 mol% FeCOâ) and commonly attains end-member composition. Siderite from marine environments, however, is always extremely impure and has extensive substitution of Mg (up to 41 mol%) and, to a lesser extent, Ca (up

Peter S. Mozley

1989-01-01

158

Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

159

The Epochs of Early-Type Galaxy Formation as a Function of Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to set constraints on the epochs of early-type galaxy formation through the ``archaeology'' of the stellar populations in local galaxies. Using our models of absorption-line indices that account for variable abundance ratios, we derive ages, total metallicities, and element ratios of 124 early-type galaxies in high- and low-density environments. The data are analyzed by

Daniel Thomas; Claudia Maraston; Ralf Bender; Claudia Mendes de Oliveira

2005-01-01

160

Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

161

Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

1993-01-01

162

Social Factors in the Development of Early Executive Functioning: A Closer Look at the Caregiving Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated prospective links between quality of the early caregiving environment and children's subsequent executive functioning (EF). Sixty-two families were met on five occasions, allowing for assessment of maternal interactive behavior, paternal interactive behavior, and child attachment security between 1 and 2 years of age, and…

Bernier, Annie; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Deschenes, Marie; Matte-Gagne, Celia

2012-01-01

163

Early discharge: no evidence of adverse outcomes in three consecutive population-based Australian surveys of recent mothers, conducted in 1989, 1994 and 2000.  

PubMed

Length of postnatal hospital stay has declined dramatically since the 1970s, with ongoing controversy about potential harmful effects. Three population-based surveys of recent mothers conducted in the State of Victoria, Australia have been analysed to assess the impact of shorter length of stay on breast feeding and women's psychological well-being. Women giving birth in Victoria, Australia in 1 week in 1989, 2 weeks in 1993 and 2 weeks in 1999, excluding those who had a stillbirth or neonatal death, were mailed surveys 5-8 months postpartum. Adjusted response fractions were: 71.4% in 1989 (n = 790), 62.5% in 1994 (n = 1313), and 67% in 2000 (n = 1616). Participants were representative in terms of method of birth, parity and infant birthweight. Younger women, single women and women of non-English-speaking background (born outside Australia) were under-represented. The primary outcome measures were infant feeding at 6 weeks postpartum and maternal depression at 5-8 months postpartum (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale > or = 13). There was no significant association between length of stay (1-2 days vs. > or = 5 days, 3-4 days vs. > or = 5 days) and primary outcome measures in univariable analyses of the 1989 Survey, or multivariable analyses of the 1994 and 2000 Surveys adjusting for relevant social and obstetric factors. For stays of 3-4 days, the adjusted odds ratio for formula feeding at 6 weeks was 1.35 [95% CI 0.9, 1.9] in 1994 and 1.22 [95% CI 0.9, 1.7] in 2000. The confidence intervals are compatible with a very small reduction or a large increase in formula feeding, neither reaching statistical significance. For depressive symptoms at 5-7 months postpartum (EPDS score > or = 13), the adjusted odds ratio for women staying 3-4 days was 0.96 [95% CI 0.7, 1.4] in 1994 and 0.90 [95% CI 0.6, 1.3] in 2000. These confidence intervals are compatible with a 30-40% reduction or a 30-40% increase in odds of depressive symptoms. Based on these findings shorter length of stay does not appear to have an adverse impact on breast feeding or women's emotional well-being. Testing early discharge policies in well-designed randomised trials remains a priority for developing stronger evidence to inform practice. PMID:15130160

Brown, Stephanie; Bruinsma, Fiona; Darcy, Mary-Ann; Small, Rhonda; Lumley, Judith

2004-05-01

164

Reliability and Validity of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised Edition, ECERS-R in Arabic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to test reliabilities and validations for the Arabic translation of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, Revised (ECERS-R) scale [Harms, T., Clifford, R. M., & Cryer, D. (1998). "Early childhood environment rating scale, revised edition." New York: Teachers College Press]. ECERS-R mean scores were…

Hadeed, Julie

2014-01-01

165

3B.2. Environment and early evolution of the 8 May 2009 "Super Derecho" Stephen F. Corfidi*  

E-print Network

3B.2. Environment and early evolution of the 8 May 2009 "Super Derecho" Stephen F. Corfidi* 1 the complex environment and early evolution of the remarkable derecho-producing convective system that crossed part of the central United States on 8 May 2009 (Fig. 1a). The derecho (Johns and Hirt 1987) severely

166

Restricting Microbial Exposure in Early Life Negates the Immune Benefits Associated with Gut Colonization in Environments of High Microbial Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAcquisition of the intestinal microbiota in early life corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact

Imke E. Mulder; Bettina Schmidt; Marie Lewis; Margaret Delday; Christopher R. Stokes; Mick Bailey; Rustam I. Aminov; Bhupinder P. Gill; John R. Pluske; Claus-Dieter Mayer; Denise Kelly

2011-01-01

167

The Pilbara: one Billion Years of the Early Evolution of Earth's Surface Environments and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible

M. E. Barley

2004-01-01

168

Relation between depositional environment and the elemental composition of early diagenetic siderite  

SciTech Connect

Early diagenetic siderites from marine and fresh-water depositional environments are characterized by distinctive compositional trends. Siderite from fresh-water environments is often relatively pure (i.e., greater than 90 mol% FeCO{sub 3}) and commonly attains end-member composition. Siderite from marine environments, however, is always extremely impure and has extensive substitution of Mg (up to 41 mol%) and, to a lesser extent, Ca (up to 15 mol%) for Fe in the siderite lattice. In addition, marine siderite generally contains less Mn and has a higher Mg/Ca ratio than fresh-water siderite. This compositional variation appears to result from differences in the chemistry of early marine and meteoric pore waters, inasmuch as early marine pore waters generally have a higher Mg{sup 2+}/Ca{sup 2+} ratio and contain less Mn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+} and more Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} than meteoric waters.

Mozley, P.S. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (USA))

1989-08-01

169

Gene-environment interactions and intermediate phenotypes: early trauma and depression.  

PubMed

This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

Hornung, Orla P; Heim, Christine M

2014-01-01

170

Gene-Environment Interactions and Intermediate Phenotypes: Early Trauma and Depression  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on current research developments in the study of gene by early life stress (ELS) interactions and depression. ELS refers to aversive experiences during childhood and adolescence such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, emotional or physical neglect as well as parental loss. Previous research has focused on investigating and characterizing the specific role of ELS within the pathogenesis of depression and linking these findings to neurobiological changes of the brain, especially the stress response system. The latest findings highlight the role of genetic factors that increase vulnerability or, likewise, promote resilience to depression after childhood trauma. Considering intermediate phenotypes has further increased our understanding of the complex relationship between early trauma and depression. Recent findings with regard to epigenetic changes resulting from adverse environmental events during childhood promote current endeavors to identify specific target areas for prevention and treatment schemes regarding the long-term impact of ELS. Taken together, the latest research findings have underscored the essential role of genotypes and epigenetic processes within the development of depression after childhood trauma, thereby building the basis for future research and clinical interventions. PMID:24596569

Hornung, Orla P.; Heim, Christine M.

2013-01-01

171

Central stellar populations of early-type galaxies in low-density environments  

E-print Network

We have investigated the properties of a volume and magnitude limited sample of nearby early type galaxies that were carefully selected from the AAO two degree field galaxy redshift survey. We used images from the DSS to confirm the E/S0 morphologies, and augmented this sample with field galaxies from Colbert et al. 2001. We present spectroscopic observations of 22 galaxies from the combined sample, from which central velocity dispersions and the Lick stellar population indices were measured. After carefully correcting the spectra for nebular emission we derived luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities, and alpha-element abundance ratios. We compare these isolated galaxies with samples of early-type galaxies in the Virgo and Coma clusters, and also with the sample of galaxies in low-density regions of Kuntschner et al. (2002). We find that galaxies in low-density environments are younger and have a greater spread of ages compared to cluster galaxies. They also show a wider range of metallicities at a given velocity dispersion than cluster galaxies, which display only super-solar metallicities. On average cluster, as well as, isolated galaxies show non-solar abundance ratios in alpha-elements, suggesting that, independent of galactic environment, star formation occurred on short time-scales. We reason that early-type galaxies in low-density environments experienced merging-induced star-formation episodes over a longer and more recent period of time compared to a cluster environment, and speculate that a considerable fraction of their stars formed out of low-metallicity halo gaseous material during the slow growth of a stellar disk between merging events.

M. Collobert; M. Sarzi; R. L. Davies; H. Kuntschner; Matthew Colless

2006-05-24

172

Profiles of Family-focused Adverse Experiences through Childhood and Early Adolescence: The ROOTS Project, a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

E-print Network

just short of the full symptom count for disorder. In the K-SADS screen we also recorded non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) defined as any deliberate self-harming or mutilat- ing behaviour (excluding tattoos and piercing) with no suicidal intent... by the class profiles; longitud- inally 13% of the high exposure class were born to teen- age mothers compared to 2% in the low, 7% in the moderate adversity classes and 5% in the atypical par- enting class (c2 = 26.0, df = 3, p <0.001). These associations...

Dunn, Valerie J; Abbott, Rosemary A; Croudace, Tim J; Wilkinson, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

2011-07-07

173

Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

E-print Network

just short of the full symptom count for disorder. In the K-SADS screen we also recorded non-suicidal self injury (NSSI) defined as any deliberate self-harming or mutilat- ing behaviour (excluding tattoos and piercing) with no suicidal intent... by the class profiles; longitud- inally 13% of the high exposure class were born to teen- age mothers compared to 2% in the low, 7% in the moderate adversity classes and 5% in the atypical par- enting class (c2 = 26.0, df = 3, p <0.001). These associations...

Dunn, Valerie J.; Abbott, Rosemary A.; Croudace, Tim J.; Wilkinson, Paul; Jones, Peter B.; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M.

2011-07-07

174

EARLY THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We performed a series of hydrodynamical calculations of an ultrarelativistic jet propagating through a massive star and the circumstellar matter (CSM) to investigate the interaction between the ejecta and the CSM. We succeed in distinguishing two qualitatively different cases in which the ejecta are shocked and adiabatically cool. To examine whether the cocoon expanding at subrelativistic speeds emits any observable signal, we calculate the expected photospheric emission from the cocoon. It is found that the emission can explain early thermal X-ray emission recently found in some long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The result implies that the difference of the circumstellar environment of long GRBs can be probed by observing their early thermal X-ray emission.

Suzuki, Akihiro [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Shigeyama, Toshikazu [Research Center for the Early Universe, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

2013-02-10

175

Childhood adversities and adult health.  

PubMed

Child abuse and neglect have lifelong ramifications for adult mental health and health in general. In this brief overview, a range of childhood adversities (including prenatal substance exposure and prenatal malnutrition) is reviewed, and the evidence for their later negative implications is considered. The role of a chronically stressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis likely has significant influence in this process. Strategies for nurses include developing awareness of the presence of early adversity in the lives of many Americans, as well as helping parents improve their functional status by treating mental illness and addictive disorders. PMID:20669867

McGuinness, Teena M

2010-08-01

176

Environment-specific expression of the immediate-early gene Arc in hippocampal neuronal ensembles.  

PubMed

We used fluorescent in-situ hybridization and confocal microscopy to monitor the subcellular distribution of the immediate-early gene Arc. Arc RNA appeared in discrete intranuclear foci within minutes of neuronal activation and subsequently disappeared from the nucleus and accumulated in the cytoplasm by 30 minutes. The time course of nuclear versus cytoplasmic Arc RNA accumulation was distinct, and could therefore be used to infer the activity history of individual neurons at two times. Following sequential exposure of rats to two different environments or to the same environment twice, the proportion of CA1 neurons with cytoplasmic, nuclear or overlapping Arc expression profiles matched predictions derived from ensemble neurophysiological recordings of hippocampal neuronal ensembles. Arc gene induction is thus specifically linked to neural encoding processes. PMID:10570490

Guzowski, J F; McNaughton, B L; Barnes, C A; Worley, P F

1999-12-01

177

Glucocorticoids in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Are the Benefits of Joint-Sparing Effects Offset by the Adverse Effect of Osteoporosis? The Effects on Bone in the Utrecht Study and the CAMERA-II Study.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the clinical effects on bone of 10 mg of prednisone daily in early rheumatoid arthritis, given for 2 years in the Utrecht Study and in the second CAMERA (Computer- Assisted Management in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis) Study, and addresses the question whether there were joint-sparing effects and whether these were offset by adverse effects, especially osteoporosis. We conclude that a 2-year adjunct treatment with 10 mg of prednisone daily increases the benefits of disease-modifying antirheumatic drug therapy and has joint-sparing properties, even if added to the tight control methotrexate-based strategy aiming for remission. Importantly, with good control of inflammation and adequate use of calcium, vitamin D and bisphosphonates - according to national or international guidelines - steroid-induced osteoporosis is rare over 2 years. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25228126

Jacobs, Johannes W G; Bijlsma, Johannes W J; van Laar, Jacob M

2015-01-01

178

The Regulatory Environment in Long Day Care: A "Double-Edged Sword" for Early Childhood Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While early childhood professionals in NSW are accountable to a substantial collection of regulatory requirements, little research has explored the outcomes of this regulatory environment, both intended and otherwise. This paper presents findings from a NSW study and shows how early childhood professionals working in long day care centres perceive…

Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer; Goodfellow, Joy

2006-01-01

179

Alternatives to the Fish Early Life-Stage Test: A Research Strategy for Discovering and Annotating Adverse Outcome Pathways During Fish Development  

EPA Science Inventory

The OECD 210 fish early life]stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used to estimate chronic fish toxicity, as well as support ecological risk assessments and chemical management programs around the world. As a step toward developing alternatives to the FELS test, a HES...

180

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shankar, F. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanaka, M. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2012-02-01

181

Effects of early environment on granule cell morphology in the dentate gyrus of the guinea-pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to determine whether early environment affects the morphology of the dentate gyrus granule cells in the guinea-pig, a rodent whose brain is at an advanced stage of maturation at birth. Male and female guinea-pigs were assigned at six to seven days of age to either a control (social) or an isolated environment where

R Bartesaghi; A Serrai

2001-01-01

182

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity. PMID:23946881

Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

2013-01-01

183

Readily available phosphate from minerals in early aqueous environments on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the chemistry essential to life was present in water-containing environments on Mars, the processes that led to life on Earth may have also occurred on the red planet. Phosphate is one of the chemical nutrients thought to be essential for life and is also considered critical to reactions that may have led to life on Earth. However, low prebiotic availability of phosphate may have been a complicating factor in terrestrial abiogenesis, suggesting that a similar hurdle may have confronted the development of life on Mars. Phosphate available for biological reactions can be introduced into aqueous environments through dissolution of primary phosphate minerals during water-rock interactions, but little is known about the dissolution of the dominant phosphate minerals found in martian meteorites and presumably on Mars. Here we present dissolution rates, phosphate release rates and solubilities of phosphate minerals found in martian rocks as determined from laboratory measurements. Our experimental findings predict phosphate release rates during water-rock interactions on Mars that are as much as 45 times higher than on Earth and phosphate concentrations of early wet martian environments more than twice those of Earth. We suggest that available phosphate may have mitigated one of the hurdles to abiogenesis on Mars.

Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E. M.; Forster, P. M.

2013-10-01

184

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2011-04-01

185

18 CFR 292.211 - Petition for initial determination on whether a project has a substantial adverse effect on the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...has a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). 292.211 Section...a substantial adverse effect on the environment (AEE petition). (a) An applicant...no substantial adverse effect on the environment as specified in §...

2010-04-01

186

Adverse prognostic and predictive significance of low DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) expression in early-stage breast cancers.  

PubMed

DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a serine threonine kinase belonging to the PIKK family (phosphoinositide 3-kinase-like-family of protein kinase), is a critical component of the non-homologous end-joining pathway required for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. DNA-PKcs may be involved in breast cancer pathogenesis. We evaluated clinicopathological significance of DNA-PKcs protein expression in 1,161 tumours and DNA-PKcs mRNA expression in 1,950 tumours. We correlated DNA-PKcs to markers of aggressive phenotypes, DNA repair, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and survival. Low DNA-PKcs protein expression was associated with higher tumour grade, higher mitotic index, tumour de-differentiation and tumour type (ps < 0.05). The absence of BRCA1, low XRCC1, low SMUG1, low APE1 and low Pol? was also more likely in low DNA-PKcs expressing tumours (ps < 0.05). Low DNA-PKcs protein expression was significantly associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) in univariate and multivariate analysis (ps < 0.01). At the mRNA level, similarly, low DNA-PKcs was associated with poor BCSS. In patients with ER-positive tumours who received endocrine therapy, low DNA-PKcs (protein and mRNA) was associated with poor survival. In ER-negative patients, low DNA-PKcs mRNA remains significantly associated with adverse outcome. Our study suggests that low DNA-PKcs expression may have prognostic and predictive significance in breast cancers. PMID:24972688

Abdel-Fatah, Tarek; Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Moseley, Paul; Perry, Christina; Thompson, Nicola; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad; Chan, Stephen; Ball, Graham; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

2014-07-01

187

Early-life environment, height and BMI of young men in Italy.  

PubMed

This paper explores the relationship between the two main dimensions of early-life environment, namely disease burden (measured by infant mortality) and economic conditions (measured by income or consumption per capita), and height and body-mass index (BMI) for six annual cohorts of young Italian men born between 1973 and 1978. By combining micro-level data on height and weight with regional- and province-level information, we are able to link individual height and BMI at age 18 to regional and provincial averages of environmental variables in the year of birth. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in rich low-mortality settings, the negative effects of childhood disease dominate the positive selection effects of mortality. We find that both income and disease matter, although income matters more than disease for height, while the opposite is true for BMI. PMID:21596628

Peracchi, Franco; Arcaleni, Emilia

2011-07-01

188

Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

2002-01-01

189

Adipose tissue in offspring of Lepr(db/+) mice: early-life environment vs. genotype.  

PubMed

Gravidas with obesity and diabetes ("diabesity") may transmit this syndrome to their children through genetic and nongenetic mechanisms. Here, we used the Lepr(db/+) diabese mouse to examine the magnitude of these transmission modes, focusing on adipose tissue (AT). We compared the following six groups: wild-type (+/+) offspring from +/+ or db/+ dams (different early life environment) and db/+ offspring from db/+ dams, fed a standard or high-fat diet. Weight gain (0-8 wk) was higher in +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ mothers, and even higher in db/+ vs. +/+ offspring from db/+ mothers. In addition, we observed a stepwise increase in AT and adipocyte size in +/+ from +/+ mice, +/+ from db/+ mice, and db/+ mice at 8 wk. Differences in weight and adiposity between +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams were more pronounced in males than in females. Leptin and apelin mRNA levels in white and brown AT were higher in +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams; however, leptin, apelin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression were boosted more robustly in db/+ offspring. The high-fat diet amplified AT differences between db/+ vs. +/+ offspring from db/+ dams, but not between +/+ offspring from db/+ vs. +/+ dams. Moreover, db/+ but not +/+ offspring from db/+ mothers were insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinemic after a glucose challenge. In conclusion, the genetic transmission of the diabesity phenotype clearly prevailed, but the early-life diabesity environment had discernible effects on postnatal weight gain as well as on adipocyte size and adipokine expression at a postpubertal age. PMID:16954332

Lambin, Suzan; van Bree, Rita; Caluwaerts, Silvia; Vercruysse, Lisbeth; Vergote, Ignace; Verhaeghe, Johan

2007-01-01

190

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments.  

PubMed

The composition of the Sutter's Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter's Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K; Holland, Gregory P; Williams, Lynda B

2013-09-24

191

The early environment and its evolution on Mars - Implications for life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is considerable evidence that the early climate of Mars was very different from the inhospitable conditions there today. This early climate was characterized by liquid water on the surface and a dense atmosphere composed predominantly of CO2. The duration of these warm initial conditions on the surface of Mars is uncertain, but theoretical models suggest that they could have persisted for hundreds of millions up to a billion years. From studies of the earth's earliest biosphere, it is known that, by 3.5 Gyr ago, life had originated on earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally. Since over two thirds of the Martian surface is more than 3.5 Gyr old, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life, even though there may be no life there today.

Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

1989-01-01

192

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments  

PubMed Central

The composition of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter’s Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Holland, Gregory P.; Williams, Lynda B.

2013-01-01

193

Optical combo sensor for early diagnostics within the built and natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Built and Natural Environment early analysis of structural conditions, air quality monitoring, pollutant and irritant detection by optical sensor technology is advancing. Combining the two technologies, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Surface Enhance Raman Scattering (SERS) into a single instrument is the aim of the research, with a resulting fingerprint library of measurands being produced. The combo sensor will provide unique fingerprints of the measurands, monitoring conditions, such as the carbonation of concrete, microbial and chemical loading and ageing effects of structures, along with their severity. Analysed conditions will be crossed referenced with the library allowing smart feedback for timely maintenance. SPR and SERS work on the principle that specific surfaces, when excited by a light source passing through a glass prism, will change their rate and scale of vibration when their surface holds or is contaminated by particular a component, in this case the monitoring condition analyte. A ligand, which binds specifically to the monitoring analyte, is held in specialised surface coatings which are applied to the surface of the sensor glass or prism itself. The sensing takes place through detection of differences in the original laser light source and reflections/refractions of that light source from the glass prisms. The advances and obstacles of early research are discussed along with initial results and findings being examined in the development a new optical combo sensor.

Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James

2008-04-01

194

Tidal Interaction as the Origin of Early-type Dwarf Galaxies in Group Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal forces of nearby massive galaxies. By analyzing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a "smoking gun" example of the formation through tidal stirring of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment. The inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fit by the Sérsic functions while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within a sky-projected distance of 50 kpc from the centers of the host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocities larger than 205 km s–1 to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population properties of these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate a significant fraction of stellar mass within the last 1 Gyr and contain a majority stellar population with an intermediate age of 2 to 4 Gyr. Based on this evidence, we argue that tidal stirring, particularly through the galaxy-galaxy interaction, might have an important role in the formation and evolution of dEs in the group environment where the influence of other gas stripping mechanism might be limited.

Paudel, Sanjaya; Ree, Chang H.

2014-11-01

195

Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

196

Early life adversity and serotonin transporter gene variation interact at the level of the adrenal gland to affect the adult hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis  

PubMed Central

The short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) promoter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been associated with the etiology of major depression by interaction with early life stress (ELS). Furthermore, 5-HTTLPR has been associated with abnormal functioning of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here, we examined if, and at what level, the HPA-axis is affected in an animal model for ELS × 5-HTTLPR interactions. Heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout rats and their wild-type littermates were exposed daily at postnatal days 2–14 to 3?h of maternal separation. When grown to adulthood, plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the major rat glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), were measured. Furthermore, the gene expression of key HPA-axis players at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands was assessed. No 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects on gene expression were observed at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary. However, we found significant 5-HTT genotype × ELS interaction effects for plasma CORT levels and adrenal mRNA levels of the ACTH receptor, such that 5-HTT deficiency was associated under control conditions with increased, but after ELS with decreased basal HPA-axis activity. With the use of an in vitro adrenal assay, naïve 5-HTT knockout rats were furthermore shown to display increased adrenal ACTH sensitivity. Therefore, we conclude that basal HPA-axis activity is affected by the interaction of 5-HTT genotype and ELS, and is programmed, within the axis itself, predominantly at the level of the adrenal gland. This study therefore emphasizes the importance of the adrenal gland for HPA-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:25004389

van der Doelen, R H A; Deschamps, W; D'Annibale, C; Peeters, D; Wevers, R A; Zelena, D; Homberg, J R; Kozicz, T

2014-01-01

197

Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts - indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation - on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

2013-10-01

198

Tidal Interaction as the origin of early-type dwarf galaxies in group environment  

E-print Network

We present a sample of dwarf galaxies that suffer ongoing disruption by the tidal force of nearby massive galaxies. Analysing structural and stellar population properties using the archival imaging and spectroscopic data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find that they are likely a `smoking gun' example of the formation of early-type dwarf galaxies (dEs) in the galaxy group environment through the tidal stirring. Inner cores of these galaxies are fairly intact and the observed light profiles are well fitted with the Sersic functions, while the tidally stretched stellar halos are prominent in the outer parts. They are all located within the 50 kpc sky-projected distance from the center of host galaxies and no dwarf galaxies have relative line-of-sight velocity larger than 205 km/s to their hosts. We derive the Composite Stellar Population (CSP) properties these galaxies by fitting the SDSS optical spectra to a multiple-burst composite stellar population model. We find that these galaxies accumulate ...

Paudel, Sanjaya

2014-01-01

199

Rise of the Earliest Tetrapods: An Early Devonian Origin from Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago - MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375–385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397–416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-01-01

200

Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment  

PubMed Central

Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent “categorical” representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

Bao, Shaowen; Chang, Edward F.; Teng, Ching-Ling; Heiser, Marc A.; Merzenich, Michael M.

2013-01-01

201

Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment.  

PubMed

Cortical sensory representations can be reorganized by sensory exposure in an epoch of early development. The adaptive role of this type of plasticity for natural sounds in sensory development is, however, unclear. We have reared rats in a naturalistic, complex acoustic environment and examined their auditory representations. We found that cortical neurons became more selective to spectrotemporal features in the experienced sounds. At the neuronal population level, more neurons were involved in representing the whole set of complex sounds, but fewer neurons actually responded to each individual sound, but with greater magnitudes. A comparison of population-temporal responses to the experienced complex sounds revealed that cortical responses to different renderings of the same song motif were more similar, indicating that the cortical neurons became less sensitive to natural acoustic variations associated with stimulus context and sound renderings. By contrast, cortical responses to sounds of different motifs became more distinctive, suggesting that cortical neurons were tuned to the defining features of the experienced sounds. These effects lead to emergent "categorical" representations of the experienced sounds, which presumably facilitate their recognition. PMID:23747304

Bao, S; Chang, E F; Teng, C-L; Heiser, M A; Merzenich, M M

2013-09-17

202

Regulations, policies, and guidelines addressing environmental exposures in early learning environments: a review.  

PubMed

Infants and young children under five years of age are uniquely vulnerable to certain environmental contaminants. Some of these contaminants have been found in early learning environments (ELEs), or child care and family child care settings where children spend an average of 40 hours a week. These contaminants as well as infants' and children's unique physiology, exposures, and behaviors in child care settings are the focus of this article. Current child care and family child care licensing requirements specific to environmental health-related issues are also reviewed. Data were reviewed and analyzed from the following surveys: the 2008 Child Care Licensing Survey, the First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers, and the Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants. The authors' analysis suggests that current state licensing programs impose only the most basic environmental health protection requirements. No mandatory federal regulations standardize child care and family child care regulatory efforts nationally. Resources are available, however, from federal agencies and other children's environmental health organizations that may provide guidance for how to establish better environmental health protection measures in ELEs. PMID:24683936

Hudson, Gwendolyn; Miller, Gregory G; Seikel, Kathy

2014-03-01

203

Order in the House!: Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children's Early Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…

Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.

2008-01-01

204

Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

Kartal, Hulya

2007-01-01

205

Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved O 2, NO 3-, NO 2-, and SO 4- were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several parameters of potential importance to the cycling of these metals: bottom water O 2 concentration; sediment redox conditions; cycling of metal oxide carrier phases and the relative contribution of biogenic and terrigenous material to the detrital metal flux. At 10 ?M oxygen and above the sequence of terminal electron acceptor utilization was typical of pelagic sediments, differing only in scale. Under these conditions the recycling of Mn oxides resulted in an enriched layer near the interface. At bottom water 0 2 concentrations < 5 ?M Mn oxides are not recycled. Under these conditions Fe oxides and SO 42- are important oxidants. The depth of the zone of manganese oxidation with respect to the interface affects the efficiency of metal scavenging by manganese oxides. Trapping and recycling of Ni and Co with Mn oxides results in remobilization from reducing sediments and enrichment in oxic sediments. Scavenging of these metals is favored by a deep oxic zone in the sediments. In contrast, Cr, V, and Mo appear to be transported to the sediments as reduced species and are released from the sediments by oxidation. The source of the reduced species is assumed to be biogenic material. The accumulation of these metals is favored by reducing conditions in the sediments. Cu is enriched in the sediments by transport with detrital biogenic material, followed by adsorption onto sediment solids. Cu is released at the interface and rapidly removed onto the solids at all sites except the one pelagic site, at the base of the slope. The magnitude of Cu released in the slowly accumulating pelagic sediment exceeds the Cu binding capacity of the solids, resulting in pore water Cu concentrations in excess of 100 nM. In general, metal cycling associated with the early diagenesis of sediments was observed to decouple transport processes from burial processes for the transition metals measured in this study.

Shaw, Timothy J.; Gieskes, Joris M.; Jahnke, Richard A.

1990-05-01

206

From Toumai to Lucy: climate and orographic forcing on Environment and Early Human  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This abstract will present a summary of several studies we conducted at LSCE to understand through modeling simulations how the climate and topography variations may drive the evolution/migration of Early Humans. Tectonics and orbital forcing are major forcing factors on environment which act at different time scales. African Uplift spans over Millions of years whereas at low latitudes precession cycles will produce drastic hydrologic variations at the pluri millennial time scale. Therefore, in a first step it is necessary to investigate the impact of long term topographic changes on climate and vegetation. The long term forcing of the African uplift has been first tested and investigated through a set of numerical experiments using different heights for the Rift. We pointed out that this issue was the key factor to explain the dryness of the East part of the Rift associated with the disappearance of the forests when the rift was uplifted during the late Pliocene. Prior to this, much more water penetrates from the Indian Ocean over East Africa and forests can sustain. Therefore, this pattern of Dry East of the Rift and Wet west of the Rift is driven by the uplift and consistent with the evolution of vegetation. On the other side, the Mega Lake Chad (MLC) region was not really sensitive to this topographic change but much more to orbital forcing. Two species of early hominids (Australopithecus bahrelghazali, 3,6 Ma, and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Toumai, 7 Ma) were found in this region, associated with other vertebrate fossil remains, which seem to be associated to the presence of the Mega Lake Chad. It is thus crucial to understand how it is possible to produce and sustain such a large lake (350 000 km2) at these latitudes. Through a second series of simulations, we demonstrated that during the Pliocene, occurrences of such megalake episodes were possible (similarly as during most recent Holocene) and may be sustained during half a precession cycle (10 kyr) allowing a vegetation that enabled hominin settings (Australopithecus) Therefore the orbital parameters, mainly the precession cycle, drives the hydrologic cycle, shifting the ITCZ and the Monsoon to produce oscillations between arid and wet phases. This second mechanism is responsible for the establishment of periodically favorable conditions that enable a large lake in the Chad area which may last several thousand years. To go a step further, we need to downscale our model results from 50 to 10 km. We need this spatial resolution to better catch the topography and to better compare climate and vegetation outputs to multiproxies.

Ramstein, Gilles; Contoux, Camille; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Jost, Anne

2014-05-01

207

Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin

2014-05-01

208

Selective and Efficient Neural Coding of Communication Signals Depends on Early Acoustic and Social Environment  

PubMed Central

Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for ‘sparse coding’, such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment. PMID:23630587

Amin, Noopur; Gastpar, Michael; Theunissen, Frederic E.

2013-01-01

209

[Adverse effects of atazanavir].  

PubMed

Atazanavir is a drug that inhibits HIV protease. It has many of the characteristics of other protease inhibitors and also some advantages over these, such as the single dose of once per day, low capsule load, less gastrointestinal problems and a very friendly metabolic profile, including carbohydrate metabolism. Secondary high plasma bilirubin and jaundice are its main adverse effect which only on rare occasions requires stopping the drug. Other adverse effects, such as nephrolithiasis or ECG changes are extremely rare. PMID:20116616

Palacios, R; González, M; Ruiz, J; Santos, Jesús

2008-12-01

210

Effects of the early social environment on behavioral responses of dairy calves to novel events.  

PubMed

Providing young animals the opportunity to engage in more complex social interactions is hypothesized to improve their capacity to cope with changing environments. To test the effects of the early social environment on the behavioral responses of dairy calves to novelty we compared (1) individual with pair housing and (2) group housing with companions of similar age with group housing with a more experienced conspecific. Fifty-four dairy calves were separated from the cow soon after birth and housed individually (n=6 calves) or in pairs (n=6 pairs), or in pens composed of groups of 3 young calves (n=6 groups) or groups of 2 young calves and an older calf (n=6 groups). At 65 to 69 d of age, calf responses were tested in an environmental novelty test and a social novelty test. Individually housed calves were more active [i.e., spent less time standing (means ± SEM): 201.4 vs. 280.3±30.5 s/test; and more time running: 83.2 vs. 57.3±19.1 s/test] and more reactive (i.e., defecated more frequently; 1.3 vs. 0.6±0.2 events/test) when tested in the novel arena, compared with pair-housed calves. During the social novelty test, individually housed calves spent less time running (51.8 vs. 96.4±11.6 s/test), showed a longer latency to socially interact (111.1 vs. 20.4±21.7 s/test), and spent more time involved in social interactions (130.7 vs. 79.7±19.0 s/test) with the unfamiliar calf than did pair-housed calves. Individually housed calves were also more reactive to the presence of an unfamiliar calf as indicated by increased rates of defecation (2.3 vs. 0.7±0.5 events/test) and kicking (2.2 vs. 0.7±0.4 events/test) compared with pair-housed calves. Calves housed in groups with an older companion were more reactive to the novel environment than were calves housed in groups of similar age: they defecated (1.0 vs. 0.6±0.2 events/test) and vocalized (23.6 vs. 15.3±3.8 events/test) more during the test. These calves also spent less time exploring (266.3 vs. 355.0±27.4 events/test) and had a lower frequency of kicking (0.1 vs. 2.0±0.5 events/test) when tested with an unfamiliar calf. We conclude that calves housed individually are more reactive to environmental and social novelty when compared with calves housed in pairs and that calves housed with an older companion are less reactive to a novel calf when compared with calves housed in groups of similar age. PMID:22916920

De Paula Vieira, A; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M

2012-09-01

211

Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications  

PubMed Central

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

Inoue, Kenji

2014-01-01

212

Managing adverse effects of glaucoma medications.  

PubMed

Glaucoma is a chronic, progressive disease in which retinal ganglion cells disappear and subsequent, gradual reductions in the visual field ensues. Glaucoma eye drops have hypotensive effects and like all other medications are associated with adverse effects. Adverse reactions may either result from the main agent or from preservatives used in the drug vehicle. The preservative benzalkonium chloride, is one such compound that causes frequent adverse reactions such as superficial punctate keratitis, corneal erosion, conjunctival allergy, and conjunctival injection. Adverse reactions related to main hypotensive agents have been divided into those affecting the eye and those affecting the entire body. In particular, ?-blockers frequently cause systematic adverse reactions, including bradycardia, decrease in blood pressure, irregular pulse and asthma attacks. Prostaglandin analogs have distinctive local adverse reactions, including eyelash bristling/lengthening, eyelid pigmentation, iris pigmentation, and upper eyelid deepening. No systemic adverse reactions have been linked to prostaglandin analog eye drop usage. These adverse reactions may be minimized when they are detected early and prevented by reducing the number of different eye drops used (via fixed combination eye drops), reducing the number of times eye drops are administered, using benzalkonium chloride-free eye drops, using lower concentration eye drops, and providing proper drop instillation training. Additionally, a one-time topical medication can be given to patients to allow observation of any adverse reactions, thereafter the preparation of a topical medication with the fewest known adverse reactions can be prescribed. This does require precise patient monitoring and inquiries about patient symptoms following medication use. PMID:24872675

Inoue, Kenji

2014-01-01

213

Effects of resource variation during early life and adult social environment on contest outcomes in burying beetles: a context-dependent silver spoon strategy?  

PubMed Central

Good early nutritional conditions may confer a lasting fitness advantage over individuals suffering poor early conditions (a ‘silver spoon’ effect). Alternatively, if early conditions predict the likely adult environment, adaptive plastic responses might maximize individual performance when developmental and adult conditions match (environmental-matching effect). Here, we test for silver spoon and environmental-matching effects by manipulating the early nutritional environment of Nicrophorus vespilloides burying beetles. We manipulated nutrition during two specific early developmental windows: the larval environment and the post-eclosion environment. We then tested contest success in relation to variation in adult social environmental quality experienced (defined according to whether contest opponents were smaller (good environment) or larger (poor environment) than the focal individual). Variation in the larval environment influenced adult body size but not contest success per se for a given adult social environment experienced (an ‘indirect’ silver spoon effect). Variation in post-eclosion environment affected contest success dependent on the quality of the adult environment experienced (a context-dependent ‘direct’ silver spoon effect). By contrast, there was no evidence for environmental-matching. The results demonstrate the importance of social environmental context in determining how variation in nutrition in early life affects success as an adult. PMID:24789890

Hopwood, Paul E.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

2014-01-01

214

Financing Early Care and Education: Funding and Policy Choices in a Changing Fiscal Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of an increasingly challenging fiscal climate, state lawmakers are faced with making tough financial decisions regarding their early childhood systems. This document describes and examines various funding sources used when making decisions about possible early childhood initiatives combined with policy choices that may be considered in…

Clothier, Steffanie; Clemens, Beth; Poppe, Julie

215

Early-life stress and antidepressants modulate peripheral biomarkers in a gene–environment rat model of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAvailability of peripheral biomarkers for depression could aid diagnosis and help to predict treatment response. The objective of this work was to analyse the peripheral biomarker response in a gene–environment interaction model of depression. Genetically selected Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats were subjected to maternal separation (MS), since early-life trauma is an important antecedent of depression. An open-ended approach based

Lucia Carboni; Serena Becchi; Chiara Piubelli; Alessandra Mallei; Roberto Giambelli; Maria Razzoli; Aleksander A. Mathé; Maurizio Popoli; Enrico Domenici

2010-01-01

216

The effects of early and adult social environment on zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because early social experience can have a profound effect on later mate and social choices, the availability of options and\\u000a decisions made early in development can have major effects on adult behavior. Herein, we use strain differences among zebrafish,\\u000a Danio rerio, as an experimental tool to test the effects of social experience on behavior. By manipulating the strain composition of

Jason A. Moretz; Emília P. Martins; Barrie D. Robison

2007-01-01

217

Adverse Termination Procedures -or- \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT When an employee is terminated, his or her access to the organization’s network and computer systems must be removed. However, the most difficult employee to terminate is often the person that built the system. We propose a three tier model for coordinating access removal that is useful in normal,and adverse termination scenarios. We then work through a number ,of

Matthew F. Ringel; Thomas A. Limoncelli

1999-01-01

218

Adverse effects of benzodiazepines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms;

Claire Gudex

1990-01-01

219

Adverse effects of Benzodiazepines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern; drug dependence with the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly; and tolerance

C. Gudex

1991-01-01

220

Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

221

Environment-physiology, diet quality and energy balance: the influence of early life nutrition on future energy balance.  

PubMed

Diseases caused by impaired regulation of energy balance, in particular obesity, represent a major global health burden. Although polymorphisms, lifestyle and dietary choices have been associated with differential risk of obesity and related conditions, a substantial proportion of the variation in disease risk remains unexplained. Evidence from epidemiological studies, natural experiments and from studies in animal models has shown that a poor intra-uterine environment is associated causally with increased risk of obesity and metabolic disease in adulthood. Induction of phenotypes that increase disease risk involves the fetus receiving cues from the mother about the environment which, via developmental plasticity, modify the phenotype of the offspring to match her environment. However, inaccurate information may induce an offspring phenotype that is mismatched to the future environment. Such mismatch has been suggested to underlie increased risk of metabolic disease associated with a poor early life environment. Recent studies have shown that induction of modified phenotypes in the offspring involves altered epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Identification of a central role of epigenetics in the aetiology of obesity and metabolic disease may facilitate the development of novel therapeutic interventions and of biomarkers of disease risk. PMID:24394988

Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

2014-07-01

222

GALAXY EVOLUTION IN OVERDENSE ENVIRONMENTS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: PASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN A CLUSTER AT z {approx} 2  

SciTech Connect

We present a study of galaxy populations in the central region of the IRAC-selected, X-ray-detected galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856 at z = 2. Based on a sample of spectroscopic and photometric cluster members, we investigate stellar populations and the morphological structure of cluster galaxies over an area of {approx}0.7 Mpc{sup 2} around the cluster core. The cluster stands out as a clear overdensity both in redshift space and in the spatial distribution of galaxies close to the center of the extended X-ray emission. The cluster core region (r < 200 kpc) shows a clearly enhanced passive fraction with respect to field levels. However, together with a population of massive, passive galaxies mostly with early-type morphologies, the cluster core also hosts massive, actively star-forming, often highly dust reddened sources. Close to the cluster center, a multi-component system of passive and star-forming galaxies could represent the future brightest cluster galaxy still forming. We observe a clear correlation between passive stellar populations and an early-type morphology, in agreement with field studies at similar redshift. Passive early-type galaxies in this cluster are typically a factor of 2-3 smaller than similarly massive early types at z {approx} 0. On the other hand, these same objects are on average larger by a factor of {approx}2 than field early-types at similar redshift, lending support to recent claims of an accelerated structural evolution in high-redshift dense environments. These results point toward the early formation of a population of massive galaxies, already evolved both in their structure and stellar populations, coexisting with still actively forming massive galaxies in the central regions of young clusters 10 billion years ago.

Strazzullo, V.; Gobat, R.; Daddi, E. [CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Onodera, M.; Carollo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zuerich Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Renzini, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova Vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Arimoto, N. [Subaru Telescope, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Cimatti, A. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Astronomia, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Finoguenov, A. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Chary, R.-R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-08-01

223

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents

S L Anzman; B Y Rollins; L L Birch

2010-01-01

224

Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes,\\u000a the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have\\u000a a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded\\u000a in some cases. Only the most

Bo Abrahamsen

2010-01-01

225

Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes  

PubMed Central

During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

2012-01-01

226

Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Genetic algorithms is expanding rapidly. This paper reviews software environments for programming Genetic Algorithms (GAs). As background, we initially preview genetic algorithms' models and their programming. Next we classify GA software environments into three main categories: Application-oriented, Algorithm-oriented and Tool-Kits. For each category of GA programming environment we review their common features and present a case study of

Jose Ribeiro Filho; Cesare Alippi; Philip Treleaven

227

Epigenetics of Early Child Development  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive clinical studies show that adverse conditions in early life can severely impact the developing brain and increase vulnerability to mood disorders later in life. During early postnatal life the brain exhibits high plasticity which allows environmental signals to alter the trajectories of rapidly developing circuits. Adversity in early life is able to shape the experience-dependent maturation of stress-regulating pathways underlying emotional functions and endocrine responses to stress, such as the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system, leading to long-lasting altered stress responsivity during adulthood. To date, the study of gene–environment interactions in the human population has been dominated by epidemiology. However, recent research in the neuroscience field is now advancing clinical studies by addressing specifically the mechanisms by which gene–environment interactions can predispose individuals toward psychopathology. To this end, appropriate animal models are being developed in which early environmental factors can be manipulated in a controlled manner. Here we will review recent studies performed with the common aim of understanding the effects of the early environment in shaping brain development and discuss the newly developing role of epigenetic mechanisms in translating early life conditions into long-lasting changes in gene expression underpinning brain functions. Particularly, we argue that epigenetic mechanisms can mediate the gene–environment dialog in early life and give rise to persistent epigenetic programming of adult physiology and dysfunction eventually resulting in disease. Understanding how early life experiences can give rise to lasting epigenetic marks conferring increased risk for mental disorders, how they are maintained and how they could be reversed, is increasingly becoming a focus of modern psychiatry and should pave new guidelines for timely therapeutic interventions. PMID:21647402

Murgatroyd, Chris; Spengler, Dietmar

2011-01-01

228

AMUSE-Field. II. Nucleation of Early-type Galaxies in the Field versus Cluster Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical light profiles of nearby early-type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80% of the galaxies with stellar masses below 1010 M ? hosting a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear supermassive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field versus cluster early-type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W and F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early-type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra survey, and compare our results against the companion HST and Chandra surveys for a sample of 100 Virgo Cluster early-types (ACS Virgo Cluster and AMUSE-Virgo surveys, respectively). We model the two-dimensional light profiles of the field targets to identify and characterize NSCs, and find a field nucleation fraction of 26%^{+17%}_{-11%} (at the 1? level), consistent with the measured Virgo nucleation fraction across a comparable mass distribution (30%^{+17%}_{-12%}). Coupled with the Chandra result that SMBH activity is higher for the field, our findings indicate that, since the last epoch of star formation, the funneling of gas to the nuclear regions has been inhibited more effectively for Virgo galaxies, arguably via ram pressure stripping.

Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Treu, Tommaso; Valluri, Monica; Woo, Jong-Hak

2014-08-01

229

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

230

Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

231

Does Built Environment Matter to Early Adolescents' Physical Activity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…

Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng

2014-01-01

232

Behavior outcomes in early childhood: The influences of cumulative risk and the childcare environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that cumulative risk at differing ecological levels is related to child maladjustment while high-quality extra-familial childcare can contribute to healthy psychological development. However, few studies have examined specific mechanisms of the childcare environment that may be protective. The present study of 274 preschool children and their primary caregiver examined whether accumulated risks at the individual, family, or

Elvin Thomaseo Burton

2011-01-01

233

A Hundred Ways of Listening: Gathering Children's Perspectives of Their Early Childhood Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how young children can play active roles as researchers, explorers, and designers of their outdoor environment. It introduces the Mosaic approach, a framework for listening and responding to young children's perspectives, first developed in a study in a London preschool in 1999 (Clark & Moss 2001). The author used this…

Clark, Alison

2007-01-01

234

AMUSE-Field II. Nucleation of early-type galaxies in the field vs. cluster environment  

E-print Network

The optical light profiles of nearby early type galaxies are known to exhibit a smooth transition from nuclear light deficits to nuclear light excesses with decreasing galaxy mass, with as much as 80 per cent of the galaxies with stellar masses below 10^10 Msun hosting a massive nuclear star cluster. At the same time, while all massive galaxies are thought to harbor nuclear super-massive black holes (SMBHs), observational evidence for SMBHs is slim at the low end of the mass function. Here, we explore the environmental dependence of the nucleation fraction by comparing two homogeneous samples of nearby field vs. cluster early type galaxies with uniform Hubble Space Telescope (HST) coverage. Existing Chandra X-ray Telescope data for both samples yield complementary information on low-level accretion onto nuclear SMBHs. Specifically, we report on dual-band (F475W & F850LP) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data for 28 out of the 103 field early type galaxies that compose the AMUSE-Field Chandra surv...

Baldassare, Vivienne F; Miller, Brendan P; Plotkin, Richard M; Treu, Tommaso; Valluri, Monica; Woo, Jong-Hak

2014-01-01

235

Early NICU discharge of very low birth weight infants: a critical review and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge has been advocated for selected preterm infants to reduce both the adverse environment of prolonged hospital stay and to encourage earlier parental involvement by empowering parents to contribute to the ongoing care of their infant, and thereby reducing costs of care. Randomized trials and descriptive experiences of early discharge programs are critically reviewed

T. Allen Merritt; DeAnn Pillers; Susan L. Prows

2003-01-01

236

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

237

Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination  

PubMed Central

This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

BURNEY, IAN

2013-01-01

238

Elevated amygdala response to faces following early deprivation.  

PubMed

A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo task. PI children showed heightened activity of the amygdala, a region that supports emotional learning and reactivity to emotional stimuli, and corresponding decreases in cortical regions that support perceptual and cognitive functions. Amygdala activity was associated with decreased eye-contact as measured by eye-tracking methods and during a live dyadic interaction. The association between early rearing environment and subsequent eye-contact was mediated by amygdala activity. These data support the hypothesis that early adversity alters human brain development in a way that can persist into childhood, and they offer insight into the socio-emotional disturbances in human behavior following early adversity. PMID:21399712

Tottenham, N; Hare, T A; Millner, A; Gilhooly, T; Zevin, J D; Casey, B J

2011-03-01

239

Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces Following Early Deprivation  

PubMed Central

A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo task. PI children showed heightened activity of the amygdala, a region that supports emotional learning and reactivity to emotional stimuli, and corresponding decreases in cortical regions that support perceptual and cognitive functions. Amygdala activity was associated with decreased eye-contact as measured by eye-tracking methods and during a live dyadic interaction. The association between early rearing environment and subsequent eye-contact was mediated by amygdala activity. These data support the hypothesis that early adversity alters human brain development in a way that can persist into childhood, and they offer insight into the socio-emotional disturbances in human behavior following early adversity. PMID:21399712

Tottenham, N.; Hare, T.A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J.; Casey, B.J.

2010-01-01

240

The impact of early smelting on the environment of Huoshiliang in Hexi Corridor, NW China, as recorded by fossil charcoal and chemical elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has greatly increased our knowledge of early human impacts on the environment. Records of fossil charcoal and chemical elements from a bronze smelting site at Huoshiliang, in the Hexi corridor of northwest China, provide material with which to estimate the extent of smelting activity and its impact on the environment. Analysis of the microstructure of wood fossil charcoal

Xiaoqiang Li; Nan Sun; John Dodson; Ming Ji; Keliang Zhao; Xinying Zhou

2011-01-01

241

Predictors of early leaving from the cotton spinning mill environment in newly hired workers  

PubMed Central

Objective This longitudinal study aimed to identify the predictors of leaving during the first year of employment from the cotton spinning mill environment in newly hired workers. Methods One hundred and ninety eight consecutively appointed new employees were investigated by questionnaire, lung function test, and skin test. They were examined before employment and at the end of the 1st week, and the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th month after starting work and when possible before leaving their job. 572 personal dust sampling and 191 endotoxin measurements were performed to assess the environmental exposure. For the univariate analysis ?2, Student t tests, ANOVA, and Kruskall Wallis tests were used. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to identify factors associated with leaving the job. Results Fifty three per cent of workers left the mill environment during their first working year. Work related lower respiratory tract symptoms reported at the third month were associated with an increase rate of leaving the industry compared to those remaining in the industry (25% v 4.8%; p<0.005). Having respiratory symptoms at the first month of work predicted those leaving the industry at some point in the next 11?months. According to the Cox model, increasing age and having work related lower respiratory tract symptoms were found to be predictors for leaving job at the first working year. Atopic status, dust and endotoxin levels, and lung function changes were not consistently predictive of workers who left the industry in the follow up period. Conclusion This study demonstrated that work related respiratory symptoms can predict workers likely to leave the cotton mill environment during the first year of employment, but atopy or acute lung function changes do not. PMID:16421391

Bakirci, N; Kalaca, S; Fletcher, A M; Pickering, C A C; Tumerdem, N; Cali, S; Oldham, L; Francis, H; Niven, R McL

2006-01-01

242

Depositional environment and early diagenetic controls on mineralogy of Kittanning Formation, Allegheny Group, eastern Ohio  

SciTech Connect

This study centers on the mineralogy and petrography of shales, siltstones, and associated siderite concretions from the Pennsylvanian Kittanning Formation, Allegheny group of eastern Ohio. Marine units are distinguished from nonmarine units on the basis of mineralogic differences. Semiquantitative XRD analyses show an increase in the amount of illite and a decrease in kaolinite/chlorite, and petrographic analyses show an abundance of pyrite and a decrease in siderite in marine relative to nonmarine sediments and concretions. Clay mineralogic variations are most likely the result of two processes: (1) the differential flocculation and sorting of clay particles during transportation and deposition, and/or (2) the conversion of illite to kaolinite during deposition under slightly acidic conditions within low-lying nonmarine swamps and marshes. Early diagenetic pyrite and siderite occur as disseminated stringers between clay-rich laminae and in well-developed concretions among shale beds.

Brocculeri, T.; Foos, A.M.

1987-09-01

243

Persistent Effects of Early Augmented Acoustic Environment on the Auditory Brainstem  

PubMed Central

Acoustic experiences significantly shape the functional organization of the auditory cortex during postnatal ‘critical periods’. Here, we investigate the effects of a non-traumatic augmented acoustic environment (AAE) on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and lower brainstem nuclei in rat during the critical period. Our results show that an AAE during P9–P28 had a persistent effect on the evoked auditory brainstem responses leading to a decreased latency and an increased amplitude of the response at and above the frequency of the stimulus used for the AAE. These findings are correlated with increased numbers of sites in the ICC that responded to the AAE frequency and show higher thresholds. There also were persistent effects in neurons with a best frequency higher than the AAE stimulus. These neurons showed decreased activity at low sound levels in the low frequency tail of the frequency response area. This was at, below and above the AAE stimulus frequency. Less often, increased activity at higher sound levels also was seen. Together, these findings suggest multifaceted interactions between activity-dependent plasticity, homeostasis, and development in the brainstem during the initial stages of hearing. A neonate exposed to an altered auditory environment may experience long-lasting change over the entire network of the auditory system. PMID:21496479

Oliver, Douglas L.; Izquierdo, Marco A.; Malmierca, Manuel S.

2011-01-01

244

Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution  

E-print Network

or Exacerbated by Air Pollution Each Year in Dallas County ? Asthma attacks ? ER visits for asthma ? Heart attacks ? Hospitalizations ? Early deaths ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 What Causes the Problem... ? Increases in autism? ? Increases in ADD? 10,263 547 476 288 290 Adverse Health Effects of Air Pollution Robert W. Haley, M.D. Professor of Medicine Director, Division of Epidemiology University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center...

Haley, R. W.

2011-01-01

245

Deep-water environments for the putative Early Archean life: Chert units depositional facies, Warrawoona Group, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal objective of this work is to find and interpret evidence for the depositional conditions of the greenstone-belt facies that possibly hosted primitive life forms. That information is critical to any attempt to assess the habitability of Early Earth's environments, as well as their potential for fossil preservation. Chert members of the Duffer Fm and the Apex chert, which bears fossil-like filaments (3.465 Ga), are exposed in the vicinity of Marble Bar. The Marble Bar Chert is made up of dm-scale sequences of interbedded red, white and black finely crystalline silica. Sticky beds consist of flow-oriented clasts (i.e., large, angular, elongated, light-colored clasts showing load-structures, and regularly-inclined and vertically- oriented imbrications) interpreted here as gravity flows of early-lithified sediments. The Chinaman Pool Chert Mb is incised by a deep scour upon which sandstone beds with chert interlayers onlap. This unit includes coarse mafic sands, and conglomerates with chert lithoclasts and felsic pebbles. Locally, m-scale growth faults localize sand-filled channels. The depositional architectures and facies of this upper unit are indicative of a deep-water fan depositional system. This interpretation conflicts with the current view that chert units derived from hydrothermalism overprint of original shallow deposits, and that hydrothermalism hampered microfossil preservation. Alternatively, we suggest that deep-water environments and early lithification of siliceous sediments may have favored life preservation. Earth's oldest stromatolites (3.49-3.47 Ga) of the Dresser Fm are exposed in the North Pole Dome area. Autochtonous stromatolites consist of banded microstructures with iron-rich, wavy and wrinkle laminae, and form regular domes. The stromatolite layers cap a sandstone bed at the top of which asymmetric ripples show steeply-inclined sets of laminae that typically represent overturned ripples at uppermost turbiditic flow deposits. The stromatolitic domes are sealed by finely-banded cherts. A large block of rocks yields a variety of stromatolitic morphotypes including cuspate swales, domes and flat-topped individual columns that cap large intraclasts. Stromatolite occurrences are here interbedded with sea-floor and early diagenetic barite precipitates. Tilted beds and short disharmonic folds are indicative of slumping and suggest the block was transported down the depositional slope. Stromatolite forms of the North Pole Dome share much analogy with the pelagic stromatolites of condensed sequences of the Phanerozoic (i.e., omission surfaces and hard substrates related to minimal regular sediment input and/or irregular massive inputs in distal and deep marine environments). It seems that life could have originated in fairly distal and deep subaqueous environments. How far and how deep cannot be specified at this stage. The potential of such depositional environments to support and preserve microbial life will be discussed.

Dromart, G.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N.; Olivier, N.; Rey, P.

2008-12-01

246

ISMP Adverse Drug Reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Shuster at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-947-7797; fax: 215-914-1492; e-mail: joel.shuster@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA’s MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:24421415

2013-01-01

247

Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major rivers during early-middle Miocene. The younger Los Chorros sediments show Sr and Nd values comparable to those nowadays found in the Solimões region, indicating an Andean source existed already during early-middle Miocene times. Lipid biomarkers were identified and quantified and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter for whole samples were determined to identify the sources of organic matter. Ratio's between typically terrestrial and aquatic GDGTs indicate shifts between more terrestrial settings and more aquatic settings. Intervals which suggest a more aquatic setting often contain marine palynomorphs and thus could result from a marine incursion at the time. Changes in the overall composition of biomarker lipids at each site reflects the diversity and dynamic features of the wetland. Differences in both provenance and biomarker composition between the two sites demonstrate the diversity within the basin. This diversity could either be geographical diversity since the two sites are located about 380 km from each other. Or, considering the differences in age between the two sites of 2-5 Myrs, it could also reflect the fast changing environmental conditions as a result of Andean uplift. Hoorn, C. et al (2010). The Development of the Amazonian Mega-Wetland (Miocene; Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia). In: C. Hoorn and F. Wesselingh (eds) Amazonia: Landscape and Species Evolution: A look into the past. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., pp. 123- 142. Marshall, L.G., Lundberg, J.G. (1996) Miocene deposits in the Amazonian Foreland Basin. Science 273, 123-124.

van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

2014-05-01

248

Early and progressive circadian abnormalities in Huntington's disease sheep are unmasked by social environment.  

PubMed

Insidious changes in behaviour herald the onset of progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD), sometimes years before overt symptoms are seen. Sleep and circadian disturbances are particularly disruptive symptoms in patients with neurological disorders, but they are difficult to measure in humans. Here we studied circadian behaviour in transgenic HD sheep expressing the full-length human huntingtin protein with an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the juvenile range. Young HD sheep with no other symptoms exhibited circadian behavioural abnormalities that worsened with age. The most obvious change was a disturbed evening behaviour reminiscent of 'sundowning' that is seen in some patients with dementia. There were no structural abnormalities seen with magnetic resonance imaging, even in 5-year-old HD sheep. Interestingly, detection of the circadian abnormalities depended upon their social grouping. Abnormalities emerged in sheep kept in an 'HD-only' flock, whereas the behaviour of HD sheep kept mixed with normal sheep was relatively normal. Sleep-wake abnormalities in HD patients are also likely to be hidden, and may precede overt symptoms by many years. Sleep disruption has deleterious effects, even in normal people. The knock-on effects of sleep-wake disturbance may exacerbate, or even cause symptoms such as irritability and depression that are common in early stage HD patients. HD sheep will be useful models for probing the mechanisms underlying circadian behavioural disorder in HD. PMID:24488771

Morton, A Jennifer; Rudiger, Skye R; Wood, Nigel I; Sawiak, Stephen J; Brown, Gregory C; Mclaughlan, Clive J; Kuchel, Timothy R; Snell, Russell G; Faull, Richard L M; Bawden, C Simon

2014-07-01

249

Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens  

PubMed Central

Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

2014-01-01

250

Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

2013-01-01

251

Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.  

PubMed

Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

Burnette, Mandi L

2013-08-01

252

Siderite in the Ivishak sandstone, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Is it an indicator of an early burial environment  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic, elemental, and isotope data suggest that siderite in the Ivishalk Sandstone is not entirely an early diagenetic phase. Previous workers have used siderite cement in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone as an example of early diagenetic siderite from a fresh-water depositional environment. Abundant and ubiquitous siderite cement includes: porefilling, siderite replacement of framework chert grains, and wheat seed morphologies that include a later diagenetic phase. Petrographic data show that some siderite cement follows compaction. Burial history curves indicate that the Ivishalk was not buried to more than 2,000 ft. before it was uplifted and exposed in the Cretaceous. It was subsequently buried to its present burial depths of 8,000-1 0,000 ft. A siderite phase following compaction is probably post-Triassic in age. Elemental and isotopic analyses indicate distinct generations of siderite cement. Siderite compositions fall into a non-marine field with high Fe and low Mg and Ca concentrations. Zoned siderite shows lower Fe concentrations. Siderite cement in mudstones contain higher Fe concentrations than in sandstones and conglomerates. The isotopic compositions of siderite varies widely with [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of -1 3.7 to +1 7.4 PDB and -8.8 to 0.0 PDB, respectively. The [delta][sup 13]C and [delta][sup 18]O of siderite is more enriched in the mudstones (0.0 to +1 7.4 and -5.0 to 0.0, respectively) than in the sand- stones and conglomerates (-1 3.7 to -1.6 and -8.8 to -5.0, respectively). Siderite in mudstones document precipitation under methanogenic conditions, whereas siderite in sandstones and conglomerates record precipitation in the suboxic environment.

Harun, N.T. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

253

Siderite in the Ivishak sandstone, Prudhoe Bay, Alaska: Is it an indicator of an early burial environment?  

SciTech Connect

Petrographic, elemental, and isotope data suggest that siderite in the Ivishalk Sandstone is not entirely an early diagenetic phase. Previous workers have used siderite cement in the Triassic Ivishak Sandstone as an example of early diagenetic siderite from a fresh-water depositional environment. Abundant and ubiquitous siderite cement includes: porefilling, siderite replacement of framework chert grains, and wheat seed morphologies that include a later diagenetic phase. Petrographic data show that some siderite cement follows compaction. Burial history curves indicate that the Ivishalk was not buried to more than 2,000 ft. before it was uplifted and exposed in the Cretaceous. It was subsequently buried to its present burial depths of 8,000-1 0,000 ft. A siderite phase following compaction is probably post-Triassic in age. Elemental and isotopic analyses indicate distinct generations of siderite cement. Siderite compositions fall into a non-marine field with high Fe and low Mg and Ca concentrations. Zoned siderite shows lower Fe concentrations. Siderite cement in mudstones contain higher Fe concentrations than in sandstones and conglomerates. The isotopic compositions of siderite varies widely with {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of -1 3.7 to +1 7.4 PDB and -8.8 to 0.0 PDB, respectively. The {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O of siderite is more enriched in the mudstones (0.0 to +1 7.4 and -5.0 to 0.0, respectively) than in the sand- stones and conglomerates (-1 3.7 to -1.6 and -8.8 to -5.0, respectively). Siderite in mudstones document precipitation under methanogenic conditions, whereas siderite in sandstones and conglomerates record precipitation in the suboxic environment.

Harun, N.T. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

254

Record of Early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations in a nearshore environment: the Bascharage section (easternmost Paris Basin)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand the significance of the worldwide deposition of black shale facies in the Early Toarcian (~ 183 Ma), considerable attention has been drawn to this Early Jurassic sub-stage over the last 3 decades. The discovery of a pronounced negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) within the black shales disrupting the generally positive trend in carbon isotopes has stimulated many studies, particularly with a view to establish the local versus global nature of this major geochemical phenomenon. Here we document the sedimentological and chemostratigraphic evolution of a proximal environment in the Luxembourgian sedimentary area. At Bascharage, Lower Toarcian sediments record the isotopic signature of the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) by a pronounced positive trend that testifies for widespread anoxia. The expression of the carbon isotope perturbation in this section, however, is unusual compared to adjacent NW European sections. A first -7‰ negative CIE, whose onset is recorded at the top of the tenuicostatum zone, can be assigned to the well-documented and potentially global Toarcian carbon isotope excursion (T-CIE) with confidence using the well-constrained ammonite biostratigraphic framework for this section. In this interval, facies contain only a limited amount of carbonate as a result of intense detrital supply in such a proximal and shallow environment. Stratigraphically higher in the section, the serpentinum zone records a subsequent CIE (-6‰) expressed as four negative steps, each being accompanied by positive shifts in the oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate. The preservation state of coccoliths and calcareous dinoflagellates in the second CIE is excellent and comparable to that observed in under- and overlying strata, so this cannot be an artefact of diagenesis. Considering the nature of this record, and the lack of such a pronounced event in the serpentinum zone in coeval sections in Europe, we hypothesise that this second CIE was caused by local factors. The geochemical record of carbonate with a relatively light carbon and relatively heavy oxygen isotopic composition is compatible with the so-called Küspert model, by which a CIE can be explained by an influx of 12C-rich and cold waters due to upwelling bottom water masses.

Hermoso, M.; Delsate, D.; Baudin, F.; Le Callonnec, L.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.; Faber, A.

2014-08-01

255

Early enriched environment induces an increased conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rat's hippocampus.  

PubMed

An enriched environment has been shown to influence brain plasticity and function by involving the action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF, which is synthesized as a precursor molecule (proBDNF) that undergoes proteolytic cleavage, plays an important role in synaptic plasticity and contributes to several brain functions such as memory, learning, and behavior. The neurotrophins and proneurotrophins often play opposite roles in the brain, suggesting that proteolytic cleavage of proneurotrophins controls the action of neurotrophins. However, few studies have focused on the expression and cleavage of proBDNF after exposure to an enriched environment. Our study aimed to explore the effects of an early-enriched environment on the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF in the adult rats' hippocampus. We found that there was no difference in the expression of proBDNF in the hippocampus between the SE (standard environment) and EE (enriched environment) rats, but a significantly increased BDNF protein level was found in the EE rats. Thus, a remarkably enhanced ratio of BDNF to proBDNF (BDNF/proBDNF) was observed in the EE rats. In addition, the EE resulted in a remarkably up-regulated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in the hippocampus, which played a key role in converting proBDNF to BDNF in the extracellular space. Furthermore, the expression of synapse-related proteins (NR1 and NR2A) was analyzed, and the results indicated that EE could significantly increase the expression of NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus. In addition, the behavioral results showed that EE reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test and reduced immobility time in the forced swimming test. Moreover, the EE resulted in an increased preference for sucrose compared to the SE. These results suggested that the EE up-regulated MMP-9 levels within the hippocampus, which might facilitate the conversion of proBDNF to BDNF, thereby contributing to the long lasting alterations of synaptic plasticity and behavior. PMID:24569010

Cao, Wenyu; Duan, Juan; Wang, Xueqin; Zhong, Xiaolin; Hu, Zhaolan; Huang, Fulian; Wang, Hongtao; Zhang, Juan; Li, Fang; Zhang, Jianyi; Luo, Xuegang; Li, Chang-Qi

2014-05-15

256

Case reports of suspected adverse drug reactions--systematic literature survey of follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether anecdotal reports of suspected adverse drug reactions are valuable early warning signals. Design Systematic literature survey Data sources We evaluated all case reports of adverse drug reactions published in 1997 in five medical journals. Reports were excluded if the adverse reaction had previously been described in earlier publications and was already listed in the product information

Yoon Kong Loke; Deirdre Price; Sheena Derry; Jeffrey K Aronson

2006-01-01

257

A longitudinal investigation of the affective environment in families with young children: from infancy to early school age.  

PubMed

We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person's emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influences of the partner's emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent's interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents' emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child's development, and declined thereafter. Children's anger was highest at 15 months of age, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one's positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one's anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents' neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships. PMID:20364900

Barry, Robin A; Kochanska, Grazyna

2010-04-01

258

A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families with Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age  

PubMed Central

We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influence of the partner’s emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent’s interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents’ emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child’s development, and declined thereafter. Children’s anger was highest at 15 months, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one’s positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one’s anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents’ neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships. PMID:20364900

Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2010-01-01

259

Measuring the Quality of Program Environments in Head Start and Other Early Childhood Programs: A Review and Recommendations for Future Research. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) tracks children throughout the country as they move from kindergarten through fifth grade. As part of the ECLS planning process, the possibility was considered of assessing the program environments of Head Start children before they entered the ECLS kindergartens. A review was conducted of selected…

Love, John M.; Meckstroth, Alicia; Sprachman, Susan

260

The "Right Kind of Man": The Ambiguities of Regendering the Early Years School Environment--The Case of England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the issue of recruitment of men into primary teaching, with particular reference to the early years of schooling. The latest UK statistics reveal that there are 27,000 male primary teachers and 141,000 females. However there are disproportionately greater numbers of male head teachers. The presence of men in this environment…

Jones, Deborah

2003-01-01

261

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings  

E-print Network

) family experience of substance abuse. The resulting variable had three categories, no ACEs/ one ACE/ 2 for mecha- nisms linking adverse events early in life and cancer have been provided from animal models [5,6]. In humans, early life exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), like trauma, abuse or maltreatment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

262

Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways  

SciTech Connect

The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

2011-01-30

263

Enriched environment impacts trimethylthiazoline-induced anxiety-related behavior and immediate early gene expression: critical role of Crhr1.  

PubMed

It has been shown previously (Sotnikov et al., ) that mice selectively inbred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) vs. low anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze differentially respond to trimethylthiazoline (TMT), a synthetic fox fecal odor. However, less is known about whether environmental factors can rescue these extreme phenotypes. Here, we found that an enriched environment (EE) provided during early adolescence induced anxiolytic effects in HAB (HAB-EE) mice, rescuing their strong avoidance behavior induced by TMT. In a series of experiments, the contribution of maternal, juvenile and adolescent behavior to the anxiolytic effects elicited by EE was investigated. At the molecular level, using c-fos expression mapping, we found that the activity of the medial and basolateral amygdala was significantly reduced in HAB-EE mice after TMT exposure. We further analysed the expression of Crhr1, as its amount in the amygdala has been reported to be important for the regulation of anxiety-related behavior after EE. Indeed, in situ hybridisation indicated significantly decreased Crhr1 expression in the basolateral and central amygdala of HAB-EE mice. To further test the involvement of Crhr1 in TMT-induced avoidance, we exposed conditional glutamatergic-specific Crhr1-knockout mice to the odor. The behavioral response of Crhr1-knockout mice mimicked that of HAB-EE mice, and c-fos expression in the amygdala after TMT exposure was significantly lower compared with controls, thereby further supporting a critical involvement of Crhr1 in environmentally-induced anxiolysis. Altogether, our results indicate that EE can rescue strong avoidance of TMT by HAB mice with Crhr1 expression in the amygdala being critically involved. PMID:24840018

Sotnikov, S V; Chekmareva, N Y; Schmid, B; Harbich, D; Malik, V; Bauer, S; Kuehne, C; Markt, P O; Deussing, J M; Schmidt, M V; Landgraf, R

2014-08-01

264

Enriched environment has limited capacity for the correction of hippocampal memory-dependent schizoid behaviors in rats with early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction.  

PubMed

Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the development of schizoid symptoms induced by neonatal NMDAR dysfunction was the central question of our paper. The experimental animals were Wistar rats. Early postnatal NMDAR dysfunction was created by systemic treatment of rat pups with the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at PD10-20 days. During the development period (PD21-90 days), the rats were reared in cognitively and physically enriched cages. Adult age rats were tested on navigation based on pattern separation and episodic memory in the open field and on auto-hetero-associations based on episodic and semantic memory in a step-through passive avoidance task. The results showed that postnatal NMDAR antagonism caused abnormal behaviors in both tests. An enriched environment prevented deficits in the development of navigation in space based on pattern separation and hetero-associations based on semantic memory. However, an enriched environment was unable to rescue navigation in space and auto-associations based on episodic memory. These data may contribute to the understanding that an enriched environment has a limited capacity for therapeutic interventions in protecting the development of schizoid syndromes in children and adolescents. PMID:24184288

Melik, Enver; Babar, Emine; Kocahan, Sayad; Guven, Mustafa; Akillioglu, Kubra

2014-04-01

265

Post-Institutionalization: The Effects of Early Deprivation on Development of Romanian Adoptees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounts of childhood adversity and extreme deprivation are not new to psychological literature. Intensive case studies of children raised in isolation or extreme deprivation have provided developmental psychologists a better understanding of the effects of early environment on later development (see Curtiss, 1977, for a detailed account of the developmental sequelae of Genie, a girl rescued from 13 years of

Samantha L. Wilson

2003-01-01

266

Does the Quality of Stimulation and Support in the Home Environment Moderate the Effect of Early Education Programs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families…

Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

2011-01-01

267

Environment Environment  

E-print Network

the natural environment and public water supplies; · Changes in soil conditions and other aspects of the natural environment may affect biodiversity and the ability of many native Scottish species to thrive

268

The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.  

PubMed

Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

2014-05-01

269

Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.  

PubMed Central

Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration. PMID:6356101

Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

1983-01-01

270

Adverse psychological effects of ECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is known that a proportion of people find ECT distressing to receive, these adverse psychological reactions are little understood. Twenty people who reported having found ECT upsetting were interviewed about their experiences in detail. A variety of them es emerged, including feelings of fear, shame and hum iliation, worthlessness and helplessness, and a sense of having been abused

LUCY JOHNSTONE

1999-01-01

271

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

2005-01-01

272

Psychosocial Adversity: Risk, Resilience & Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a huge individual variation in how people (both children and adults) respond to all manner of life stressors and adversities. Some succumb with disorders, whereas others show resilience, and a few even come through negative experiences strengthened. What is known about the nature and origins of resilience is briefly reviewed. It is concluded that protective mechanisms probably fall

Michael Rutter

1995-01-01

273

A novel model of early experiences involving neonatal learning of a T-maze using maternal contact as a reward or its denial as an event of mild emotional adversity.  

PubMed

We developed a novel animal model of early life experiences in which rat pups are trained during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 in a T-maze with maternal contact as a reward (RER group) or its denial (DER group) as a mildly aversive event. Both groups of animals learn the T-maze, albeit the RER do so more efficiently. Training results in activation of the basal ganglia in the RER and of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in the DER. Moreover, on PND10 DER training leads to increased corticosterone levels and activation of the amygdala. In adulthood, male DER animals show better mnemonic abilities in the Morris water maze while the RER exhibit enhanced fear memory. Furthermore, DER animals have a hypofunctioning serotonergic system and express depressive-like behavior and increased aggression. However, they have increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, indicative of efficient hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and an adaptive pattern of stress-induced corticosterone response. The DER experience with its relatively negative emotional valence results in a complex behavioral phenotype, which cannot be considered simply as adaptive or maladaptive. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1651-1660, 2014. PMID:25231083

Stamatakis, Antonios; Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Panagiotaropoulos, Theofanis; Raftogianni, Androniki; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

2014-12-01

274

ne morning Sharon woke up early. She wanted to find the environment. Her teacher, Miss Clark, had told her that  

E-print Network

can get too much sun. You can get a sunburn. You can even get badly sick from too much sun. That's why, had told her that people need to keep the environment clean . But to keep it clean, Sharon had to Find and healthy. But sometimes it can make us sick. The environment is the air, the water, the soil, and our food

Bandettini, Peter A.

275

Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method from Peña de Hierro in the Rio Tinto region of Spain. The latter is data from work conducted under the auspices of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE). Pima County TEM Survey: A TEM survey was carried out in Pima County, Arizona, in January 2003. Data was collected using 100 m Tx loops and a ferrite-cored magnetic coil Rx antenna, and processed using commercial software. The survey used a 16 Hz sounding frequency, which is sensitive to slightly salty groundwater. Prominent features in the data from Arizona are the ~500 m depth of investigation and the ~120 m depth to the water table, confirmed by data from four USGS test wells surrounding the field area. Note also the conductive (~20-40 ? m) clay-rich soil above the water table. Rio Tinto Fast-Turnoff TEM Survey: During May and June of 2003, a Fast-Turnoff (early time) TEM survey was carried out at the Peña de Hierro field area of the MARTE project, near the town of Nerva, Spain. Data was collected using 20 m and 40 m Tx loop antennae and 10 m loop Rx antennae, with a 32 Hz sounding frequency. Data from Line 4 (of 16) from this survey, collected using 40 m Tx loops, show ~200 m depth of investigation and a conductive high at ~90 m depth below Station 20 (second station of 10 along this line). This is the water table, matching the 431 m MSL elevation of the nearby pit lake. The center of the "pileup" below Station 60 is spatially coincident with the vertical fault plane located here. Data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Rio Tinto survey, collected using 20 m Tx loops, achieve ~50 m depth of investigation and show conductive highs at ~15 m depth below Station 50 (Line 15) and Station 30 (Line 14), interpreted as subsurface water flow under mine tailings matching surface flows seen coming out from under the tailings, and shown on maps. Conclusions: Results from the Pima County TEM survey were in good agreement with control data from the four USGS test wells located around the field area. This survey also achieved very acceptable 500+ m depths of investigation. Both of the interpretations from Rio Tinto data (Line 4, and Lines 15 & 14) were confirmed by preliminary results from the MARTE ground truth drilling campaign carried out in September and October 2003. Drill Site 1 was moved ~50 m based on recommendations built on data from Line 15 and Line 14 of the Fast-Turnoff TEM survey.

Jernsletten, J. A.

2005-05-01

276

Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.  

PubMed

Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (?36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

2011-07-01

277

[Study progress of adverse effects of arsenic on health].  

PubMed

Adverse effects on health of high arsenic in drinking water and contaminated environment are currently of great concern. This review focuses on metabolism of arsenic and it's impairments to skin, blood circle system, nervous system, reproductive-and-urinary system, digestive system, respiratory system and immune system. PMID:15211819

Kang, Jiaqi; Jin, Yinlong

2004-05-01

278

Early mother-child attachment and behavior problems in middle childhood: the role of the subsequent caregiving environment.  

PubMed

The current study investigated associations between early mother-child attachment, as well as mother-child and teacher-child relationships, and internalizing and externalizing behaviors in middle childhood. Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were used. Findings from a series of individual growth curve analyses revealed that attachment security was negatively related to internalizing and externalizing behaviors, while insecure/other and avoidant attachment were positively related to internalizing behaviors. In addition, longitudinal associations were found between mother-child and teacher-child relationships and internalizing and externalizing behaviors across middle childhood. Implications for attachment theory are discussed. PMID:25056807

O'Connor, Erin E; Scott, Marc A; McCormick, Meghan P; Weinberg, Sharon L

2014-12-01

279

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the 23,316 participants with blinded data, we calculated adjusted odds ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with an increase in the fasting plasma glu- cose level of 1 SD (6.9 mg per deciliter (0.4 mmol per liter)), an increase in the 1-hour plasma glucose level of 1 SD (30.9 mg per deciliter (1.7 mmol per liter)), and an in-

E. Metzger; Lynn P. Lowe; Alan R. Dyer; Elisabeth R. Trimble; Udom Chaovarindr; David R. McCance; Moshe Hod; Helen Schneider; Harold David McIntyre; Jeremy J. N. Oats; B. Persson; M. S. Rogers; D. A. Sacks

2009-01-01

280

[Adverse events of psychotropic drugs].  

PubMed

The authors discuss adverse events which are often missed but clinicians should pay attention to in order to preserve patients'quality of life(QOL). Among mood stabilizers, lithium may cause a urinary volume increase, hyperparathyroidism, and serum calcium elevation; sodium valproate possibly increases androgenic hormone levels and the risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) as well as hypothyroidism. Moreover, in addition to teratogenesis, it has been reported that fetal exposure to a higher dose of valproate is associated with a lower intelligence quotient and higher incidence of autism spectrum disorders in children. Antidepressants with a higher affinity for serotonin transporters might induce gastrointestinal bleeding, and some antidepressants cause sexual dysfunction more frequently than others. Activation syndrome is still a key side effect which should be noted. Regarding the adverse events of antipsychotics, subjective side effects unpleasant to patients such as dysphoria and a lower subjective well-being should not be overlooked. We clinicians have to cope with adverse events worsening the QOL of patients with psychiatric disorders and, therefore, we need to adopt appropriate counter-measures. PMID:24864567

Watanabe, Koichiro; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

2014-01-01

281

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A; Baram, Tallie Z

2013-01-01

282

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

283

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in\\u000apoor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages,\\u000ametallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta,\\u000aMgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population\\u000a(SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial\\u000asubsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive

F. Annibali; R. Grutzbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2010-01-01

284

Lateglacial and early-Holocene environments of Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region of the Russian Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen and radiocarbon data from Novaya Zemlya and the Kara Sea Region suggest that the hypo thetical Panarctic Ice Sheet (Denton and Hughes, 1981) never existed in this area, at least during the last 16 000 years. Lateglacial tundra environments were slightly cooler and drier than the present ones, but there were also warmer intervals such as the Allerød, which

Leonid Serebryanny; Andrei Andreev; Evgeniya Malyasova; Pavel Tarasov; Fedor Romanenko

1998-01-01

285

The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

2012-01-01

286

25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...discrimination or adverse impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the program development...

2012-04-01

287

25 CFR 170.109 - How do the Secretaries prevent discrimination or adverse impacts?  

...discrimination or adverse impacts? In administering the IRR Program, the Secretaries ensure that nondiscrimination and environmental justice principles are integral program elements. The Secretaries consult with tribes early in the program development...

2014-04-01

288

The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis overprints the primary environmental signals in Challenger mound, with extensive coral dissolution and the genesis of small-scaled semi-lithified layers in the Ca-rich intervals. The low cementation rates compared to the extensive dissolution patterns can be explained by an open-system diagenetic model. Moreover, Pirlet et al. (2009) emphasizes the occurrence of gypsum and dolomite in another mound system (Mound Perseverance) in Porcupine Seabight, which might be also related with fluid oxidation events in a semi-open diagenetic system. Along the Moroccan margins, fluid seepage and fluxes in pore water transport affect the development of mound structures, enhancing extensive cold-water coral dissolution and precipitation of diagenetic minerals such as dolomite, calcite, pyrite, etc. (Foubert et al., 2008). Recent carbonate mounds provide indeed an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic processes in carbonate systems without the complications of burial and/or later meteoric diagenesis. References Foubert, A. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Nature and Significance of the Recent Carbonate Mound Record: The Mound Challenger Code. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 126. Springer, 298 pp. ISBN: 978-3-642-00289-2. Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L., Brunner, B., Frank, N., Dewanckele, J., Van Rooij, D., Foubert, A., Swennen, R., Naudts, L., Boone, M., Cnudde, V. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Diagenetic formation of gypsum and dolomite in a cold-water coral mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off Ireland. Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01119.x. Titschack, J., Thierens, M., Dorschel, B., Schulbert, C., Freiwald, A., Kano, A., Takashima, C., Kawagoe, N., Li, X. and the IODP Expedition 307 Scientific Party (2009) Carbonate budget of a cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound, IODP Exp. 307). Marine Geology, 259, 36-46.

Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

2010-05-01

289

Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at age…

Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

2002-01-01

290

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy: can genes help us in predicting neonatal adverse outcome?  

PubMed

Lots has been written on use of SSRI during pregnancy and possible short and long term negative outcomes on neonates. the literature so far has described a various field of peripartum illness related to SSRI exposure during foetal life, such as increased incidence of low birth weight, respiratory distress, persistent pulmonary hypertension, poor feeding, and neurobehavioural disease. We know that different degrees of outcomes are possible, and not all the newborns exposed to SSRIs during pregnancy definitely will develop a negative outcome. So far, still little is known about the possible etiologic mechanism that could not only explain the adverse neonatal effects but also the degree of clinical involvement and presentation in the early period after birth. Pharmacogenetics and moreover pharmacogenomics, the study of specific genetic variations and their effect on drug response, are not widespread. This review describes possible relationship between SSRIs pharmacogenetics and different neonatal outcomes and summarizes the current pharmacogenetic inquiries in relation to maternal-foetal environment. PMID:24524073

Giudici, Valentina; Pogliani, Laura; Cattaneo, Dario; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

2014-01-01

291

Carbon and sulfur isotopic compositions of Early Cambrian black shales, NW Hunan, China: Implications for the Paleoceanographic sedimentary environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the paleoceanographic sedimentary environment of the Lower Cambrian black shales extensively\\u000a distributed in South China, outcropped along the present southern margin of the Yangtze Platform with a width of ca. 200–400\\u000a km and a length of more than 1500 km, we present new paired ?13C data on carbonates (?13Ccarb) and associated organic carbon (?13Corg) and

Dongsheng Ma; Shuanglin Cao; Jiayong Pan; Fei Xia; Chunyan Yao; Haifeng Ding

2011-01-01

292

The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da\\/dN), and the effect of cold

James T. Burns

2010-01-01

293

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

E-print Network

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 \\pm 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 \\pm 0.28, and -0.04 \\pm 0.33 for age, log Z/Zsun, and [alpha/Fe], respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the Annibali et al.2007 sample residing in comparable environment we derive median values of 9.8 \\pm 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 \\pm 0.16, and 0.18 \\pm 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the alpha-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low mass regime of the scaling relations der...

Annibali, F; Rampazzo, R; Bressan, A; Zeilinger, W W

2010-01-01

294

Gene×Environment interactions in early externalizing behaviors: parental emotional support and socioeconomic context as moderators of genetic influences?  

PubMed

This study uses longitudinal population-based samples of young siblings to examine the effects of two hypothesized moderators of early externalizing behaviors: parental emotional support and family socioeconomic status. The first sample, a twin sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), was composed of approximately 600 twin pairs measured on externalizing at ages 4 and 5. Results indicated stronger genetic influences on externalizing at lower levels of parental emotional support but higher levels of socioeconomic status; only the latter interaction remained significant when the two moderators were simultaneously modeled. These moderation effects were not replicated in our analyses of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement (CNLSY) data, which contained 1939 pairs of full and half siblings measured on externalizing at ages 4-5 and ages 6-7. Our results highlight the need for replication in quantitative behavior genetics research on externalizing behaviors. Potential causes for non-replication are discussed. PMID:24980660

Cheung, Amanda K; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

2014-09-01

295

A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment  

PubMed Central

It is well established that the expression of many ornamental traits is dependent on the current condition of the bearer. However, conditions experienced in early life are also known to be important for an individual's subsequent fitness and therefore, directly or indirectly, for the fitness of their mate. Specifically, a recent hypothesis suggests that sexually selected traits might be sensitive to conditions experienced during early-life development and thereby function as honest indicators of developmental history. Whether this applies to colourful male plumage, however, is largely unknown. We tested this idea with a field experiment by manipulating neonatal nutrition in a sexually dichromatic passerine, the hihi (Notymystis cincta). We found that carotenoid supplementation increased nestling plasma carotenoid concentration, which was in turn correlated with increased yellow saturation in male breeding plumage after moulting. We also found that the post-moult luminance (lightness) of the white ear-tufts tended to be reduced in males that had received an all-round nutritional supplement as nestlings. Black breeding plumage was not affected by neonatal nutritional treatment. Although the mechanisms that generate colourful plumage are evidently diverse, our results show that at least some parts of this display are accurate indicators of environmental conditions during development. PMID:23407833

Walker, Leila K.; Stevens, Martin; Karadas, Filiz; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Ewen, John G.

2013-01-01

296

The effect of initiation feature and environment on fatigue crack formation and early propagation in aluminum zinc magnesium copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research provides insight into fatigue crack formation and progression in the poorly understood size regime that bridges safe-life and damage tolerance approaches; particular attention is given to the influences of corrosion-induced degradation and time-cycle dependent loading environment effects. Quantitative analysis of crack formation life (Ni), microstructurally small crack (<500 microm) propagation kinetics (da/dN), and the effect of cold loading environment provide the means to validate mechanism-based modeling. Both pristine and corroded (L-S surface) 7075-T651 specimens were fatigued at 23°C, -50°C and -90°C under various applied stresses. Microscopy of programmed loading-induced crack surface marks produced an unparalleled Ni and small crack da/dN database. Results show that fatigue crack formation involves a complex interaction of elastic stress concentration, due to a 3-dimensional macro-pit, coupled with local micro-feature (and constituent) induced plastic strain concentration. Such interactions cause high Ni variability, but, from an engineering perspective, a broadly corroded surface should contain an extreme group of features driving Ni to ˜0. At low-applied stresses, Ni consumes a significant portion of total life, which is well predicted by coupling elastic-plastic FEA with empirical low-cycle fatigue life models. All pristine and corroded da/dN were uniquely correlated using complex continuum stress intensity (K) and crack opening solutions which account for the stress concentrating formation feature. Multiple crack growth regimes were observed, typical of environment enhanced fatigue in Al alloys. Such behavior is not captured by prominent mechanics-based small crack models. Furthermore, neither local closure nor slip-based models captured the order of magnitude variability in da/dN attributed to microstructure. Low temperature loading produces an order of magnitude increase in Ni, and even larger reduction in da/dN, due to elimination of H-enhanced cracking by reduced external water vapor pressure, lower crack tip reaction rate (to produce atomic-H), and slower H diffusion. Engineering level modeling approaches are validated using these high fidelity experimental results, informing next generation prognosis methods for realistic airframe environments.

Burns, James T.

297

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment.  

PubMed

The first settlement of Europe by modern humans is thought to have occurred between 50,000 and 40,000 calendar years ago (cal B.P.). In Europe, modern human remains of this time period are scarce and often are not associated with archaeology or originate from old excavations with no contextual information. Hence, the behavior of the first modern humans in Europe is still unknown. Aurignacian assemblages-demonstrably made by modern humans-are commonly used as proxies for the presence of fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans. The site of Willendorf II (Austria) is well known for its Early Upper Paleolithic horizons, which are among the oldest in Europe. However, their age and attribution to the Aurignacian remain an issue of debate. Here, we show that archaeological horizon 3 (AH 3) consists of faunal remains and Early Aurignacian lithic artifacts. By using stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and chronological data, AH 3 is ascribed to the onset of Greenland Interstadial 11, around 43,500 cal B.P., and thus is older than any other Aurignacian assemblage. Furthermore, the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia, possibly at rather close geographical range. Most importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we have a high-resolution environmental context for an Early Aurignacian site in Central Europe, demonstrating an early appearance of behaviorally modern humans in a medium-cold steppe-type environment with some boreal trees along valleys around 43,500 cal B.P. PMID:25246543

Nigst, Philip R; Haesaerts, Paul; Damblon, Freddy; Frank-Fellner, Christa; Mallol, Carolina; Viola, Bence; Götzinger, Michael; Niven, Laura; Trnka, Gerhard; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

2014-10-01

298

High-Quality Early-Time Light Curves of GRB 060206: Implications for Gamma-Ray Burst Environments and Energetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2 m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT) reacted promptly to the high-redshift (z=4.048) gamma-ray burst GRB 060206. The afterglow was identified automatically, and the multicolor r'i'z' imaging program was triggered without human intervention. Combining our data with those obtained from later follow-ups provides a well-sampled optical light curve from 5 minutes to more than 2days after the gamma event. The light curve is highly structured, with at least three bumps evident in the first 75 minutes, including a major rebrightening (?r'~-1.6 at t~3000 s), interpreted as late energy injection. At early time (t~440 s), we find evidence for fast (?trest<4 s<early times; the light-curve behavior of GRB 060206 should therefore not be considered peculiar. Finally, although the observed late-time steepening of the optical light curve resembles a jet break if taken in isolation, the lack of a corresponding change in the X-ray slope rules out a jet-break interpretation. Traditionally, GRB jet breaks have been inferred from optical data in the absence of simultaneous X-ray data. We therefore suggest that current estimates of the jet-opening angle distribution might be biased by events like GRB 060206. Consequently, the GRB explosion energy distribution and event rates may have to be revised.

Monfardini, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Carter, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Bersier, D. F.; Gomboc, A.; Melandri, A.; Mottram, C. J.; Smith, R. J.; Steele, I. A.

2006-09-01

299

Nursing care quality and adverse events in US hospitals  

PubMed Central

Aim To examine the association between nurses' reports of unmet nursing care needs and their reports of patients' receipt of the wrong medication or dose, nosocomial infections and patient falls with injury in hospitals. Background Because nursing activities are often difficult to measure, and data are typically not collected by health care organisations, there are few studies that have addressed the association between nursing activities and patient outcomes. Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data collected in 1999 from 10,184 staff nurses and 168 acute care hospitals in the US. Methods Multivariate linear regression models estimated the effect of unmet nursing care needs on adverse events given the influence of patient factors and the care environment. Results The proportion of necessary nursing care left undone ranged from 26% for preparing patients and families for discharge to as high as 74% for developing or updating nursing care plans. A majority of nurses reported that patients received the wrong medication or dose, acquired nosocomial infections, or had a fall with injury infrequently. However, nurses who reported that these adverse events occurred frequently varied considerably [i.e. medication errors (15%), patient falls with injury (20%), nosocomial infection (31%)]. After adjusting for patient factors and the care environment, there remained a significant association between unmet nursing care needs and each adverse event. Conclusion The findings suggest that attention to optimising patient care delivery could result in a reduction in the occurrence of adverse events in hospitals. Relevance to clinical practice The occurrence of adverse events may be mitigated when nurses complete care activities that require them to spend time with their patients. Hospitals should engage staff nurses in the creation of policies that influence human resources management to enhance their awareness of the care environment and patient care delivery. PMID:20659198

Lucero, Robert J; Lake, Eileen T; Aiken, Linda H

2010-01-01

300

ON THE RADIAL STELLAR CONTENT OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AS A FUNCTION OF MASS AND ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

Using optical-optical and optical-NIR colors, we analyze the radial dependence of age and metallicity inside massive (M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}), low-redshift (z < 0.1), early-type galaxies (ETGs), residing in both high-density group regions and the field. On average, internal color gradients of ETGs are mainly driven by metallicity, consistent with previous studies. However, we find that group galaxies feature positive age gradients, {nabla} {sub t}, i.e., a younger stellar population in the galaxy center, and steeper metallicity gradients, compared to the field sample, whose {nabla} {sub t} ranges from negative in lower mass galaxies to positive gradients at higher mass. These dependencies yield new constraints on models of galaxy formation and evolution. We speculate that age and metallicity gradients of group ETGs result from (either gas-rich or minor-dry) mergers and/or cold-gas accretion, while field ETGs exhibit the characteristic flatter gradients expected from younger, more metal-rich stars formed inside-out by later gas cooling.

La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Carvalho, R. R. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil); Lopes, P. A. A. [Observatorio do Valongo/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pasquali, A. [Astronomisches Rechen Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); De la Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); De Lucia, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 1-34143 Triste (Italy)

2011-10-20

301

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C.

2005-04-01

302

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C. [Physics Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

2005-04-26

303

Early detection of production deficit hot spots in semi-arid environment using FAPAR time series and a probabilistic approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timely information on vegetation development at regional scale is needed in arid and semiarid African regions where rainfall variability leads to high inter-annual fluctuations in crop and pasture productivity, as well as to high risk of food crisis in the presence of severe drought events. The present study aims at developing and testing an automatic procedure to estimate the probability of experiencing a seasonal biomass production deficit solely on the basis of historical and near real-time remote sensing observations. The method is based on the extraction of vegetation phenology from SPOT-VEGTATION time series of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and the subsequent computation of seasonally cumulated FAPAR as a proxy for vegetation gross primary production. Within season forecasts of the overall seasonal performance, expressed in terms of probability of experiencing a critical deficit, are based on a statistical approach taking into account two factors: i) the similarity between the current FAPAR profile and past profiles observable in the 15 years FAPAR time series; ii) the uncertainty of past predictions of season outcome as derived using jack-knifing technique. The method is applicable at the regional to continental scale and can be updated regularly during the season (whenever a new satellite observation is made available) to provide a synoptic view of the hot spots of likely production deficit. The specific objective of the procedure described here is to deliver to the food security analyst, as early as possible within the season, only the relevant information (e.g., masking out areas without active vegetation at the time of analysis), expressed through a reliable and easily interpretable measure of impending risk. Evaluation of method performance and examples of application in the Sahel region are discussed.

Meroni, M.; Fasbender, D.; Kayitakire, F.; Pini, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Verstraete, M. M.

2013-12-01

304

Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Severe cutaneous drug reactions are one of the commonest medical challenges presenting to an emergency room in any hospital. The manifestations range from maculopapular rash to severe systemic symptoms like renal failure and cardiovascular compromise. Toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythroderma, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and drug induced vasculitis are the common cutaneous drug reactions which can have severe morbidity and even mortality. Careful history taking of the lag period after drug intake and associated symptoms, along with detailed examination of the skin, mucosa and various systems, help in early diagnosis of these reactions. Early stoppage of the incriminating drug, specific therapy including corticosteroids, cyclosporine and intravenous immunoglobulin depending on the case along with supportive therapy and local measures help in salvaging most patients. An overview of these important cutaneous drug reactions along with their management is being reviewed in this article. PMID:24600147

Verma, Rajesh; Vasudevan, Biju; Pragasam, Vijendran

2013-01-01

305

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. II. MASSES AND AGES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR POPULATION MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z {approx} 1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multi-wavelength (0.6-4.5 {mu}m; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer) data sets. At this redshift the contribution of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual and Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the model: for all models, the most massive galaxies are the oldest ones, independent of the environment. When using the Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual models, the mass distribution is similar in the clusters and in the groups, whereas in our field sample there is a deficit of massive (M {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) ETGs. According to those last models, ETGs belonging to the cluster environment host on average older stars with respect to group and field populations. This difference is less significant than the age difference in galaxies of different masses.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tanaka, M., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2011-05-01

306

Phyllosilicate production and sedimentation under the acidic conditions of the Rio Tinto: some constraints for clay-hosting environments of early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OMEGA instrument boarded in the Mars Express planetary probe has provided clear evidence of diverse and extensive phyllosilicate deposits covering the Early Mars basins. As most clay-like terrestrial deposits require an active hydrosphere, the Mars materials have been interpreted as having been produced and sedimented under wet conditions. Moreover, the detection of phyllosilicate species such as kaolinite, nontronite, montmorillonite and chamosite were used to infer the chemistry of the ancient Martian solutions as quasi-neutral. Given that the composition of the early Mars atmosphere has been inferred to be composed mainly of CO2 the co-occurrence of carbonates with the phyllosilicate sediments should be expected. However, OMEGA has not detected carbonates, neither associated to the clays, nor in other Mars planetary regions. Two possibilities arise to explain this apparent paradox, they are as follows: (1) the spatial resolution of the OMEGA is not enough to separate the carbonate from the phyllosilicate spectra, and (2) the early Mars environment conditions were driven by a low pH hydrosphere. In the Rio Tinto Mars analog, some phyllosilicates are produced through acidic weathering and transported during rain events within the low-pH solutions of the river. Under acidic attack, the Rio Tinto volcanosedimentary rocks of ryolithic and andesitic nature, which are formed by albite and K-feldspars, produce secondary kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite; whereas chamosite is produced by the simple hydration and erosion of the chamositic deposits that were originated during the Lower Carboniferous hydrothermalism affecting the Paleozoic volcanic deposits. In the acidic stream, chamosite, illite and kaolinite are pervasive phases that resist degradation under low pH to dissolve to silica. Although montmorillonite shows a very low stability when transported inside these acidic solutions, it has been recognized in deposits left by the river during flooding events. During the dry and warm climatic stage, iron sulfates and oxyhydroxides are the prevalent mineralogies occurring in the different environments of the fluvial system. From the simple comparison 1 between the phyllosilicate assemblages of Río Tinto and Mars, it may be inferred that low pH solutions can produce similar phyllosilicate assemblages. Under an acidic planetary chemistry, Mars would have maintained a CO2 -rich atmosphere without any carbonate formation; and, moreover, the red planet would have evolved from clay to sulfate global production through a water decreasing gradient when the inner planetary dynamo declined. 2

Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Rio Tinto Working Group

307

iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.  

PubMed

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined. PMID:23420567

Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

2012-12-01

308

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

2011-04-01

309

Silicate-bearing IIE Irons: Early Mixing and Differentiation in a Core-Mantle Environment and Shock Resetting of Ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The small group of IIE irons [1] are important since many contain silicate inclusions. A wide variety of inclusions occur in Netscha vo [2], Techado [3], Watson [4], Elga, Kodaikanal, Weekeroo Station, and Colomera [5,6]. Miles contains uncharacterized silicate inclusions [7]. Most siderophile elements do not follow fractional crystallization trends, suggesting formation by impact [1]. Ages from 3.67-4.51 Ga [see 8] are taken by some authors [4] as the time of silicate-metal mixing. I have conducted petrographic studies on silicate inclusions of all silicate-bearing IIE's except Elga and propose an alternative history of heating, melting, silicate differentiation and metal-silicate mixing ~4.55 Ga ago in a core-mantle environment followed by shock heating and chronometer resetting. The chondritic IIE precursor was probably not identical to H chondrites [1,3]. Mafic silicate compositions in "primitive" IIE's (Netschaevo, Techado) and Delta 17O in all silicate-bearing IIE's (0.59+/-0.08 [3,4,9,10]) are less than or overlap H chondrites. The IIE body was heated to >=900 degrees C, metamorphosing and partially melting the mantle and forming a small Fe,Ni-FeS core ~4.55 Ga ago. Slow metallographic cooling rates (1-100 degrees C/Ma [1,3]) for IIE's with unaltered metal (e.g., Techado, Weekeroo Station, Miles) and fractional crystallization trends for some elements (e.g., Au-Ni) support a core origin, not a near-surface, impact model. Comparison of other siderophile element trends in IAB, IIICD and IIE indicate similar origins [1], but IAB and IIICD may also have originated in cores [11,12]. Silicates differentiated in the mantle and/or after mixing with metal. The degree of differentiation increases from Netschaevo (unmelted, chondritic clasts [2]) to Techado (unmelted silicates; Fe,Ni-FeS melting [3]) to Watson (nearly-total melting; no silicate differentiation; Fe,Ni-FeS lost [4]) to Miles and Weekeroo Station (opx-cpx-plag partial melts [5]) to Kodaikanal, Colomera and Elga (cpx-plag differentiated partial melts [5]; opx fractional crystallization?). No residues from partial melting exist. "Differentiated" IIE's (Miles, Weekeroo Station, Kodaikanal, Colomera, Elga) tend to have higher Fs and d18O than "primitive" IIE's, consistent with partial melting. No correlation between silicate differentiation and host iron composition suggests multiple mixing events by impact induced tectonism or gravitational smoothing of the core-mantle boundary [12]. Slow cooling produced coarse-grained, heterogeneous inclusions observed in Miles and Colomera. Reheating and melting of silicates and resetting of chronometers occurred during later shock events. Shock focused in the inclusions, although many IIE's show shock effects in the metal. "Primitive" IIE's experienced mild shock (stage S2-S4; 100-300 degrees C post-shock heating [13]). Forging of Netschaevo masks its shock history. Shock in "differentiated" IIE's was severe (S4-S6; 300-1000 degrees C), forming planar fractures and undulatory extinction in coarse pyroxene and plagioclase. Some plagioclase in Colomera, Weekeroo Station, Kodaikanal and Elga (not Miles) was melted. Low (87Sr/86Sr)o ratios [see 8] may require some differentiation during this melting. Rapid post-shock cooling yielded glassy to microcrystalline plag-SiO2 mixtures. Colomera contains coarse-grained and glassy inclusions, requiring two episodes of heating and cooling (e.g., initial formation and shock). Post-shock heating reset 39Ar-40Ar chronometers in some IIE's [8] and possibly other chronometers in heavily-shocked IIE's (e.g., Kodaikanal). Variable post-shock heating between inclusions may not allow direct comparison of chronologic studies on different inclusions. Many IIE ages reflect later shock events and not silicate-metal mixing. References: [1] Wasson J. T. and Wang J. (1986) GCA, 50, 725. [2] Olsen E. and Jarosewich E. (1971) Science, 174, 583. [3] Casanova I. et al. (1995) Science, 268, 540. [4] Olsen E. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 200. [5] Prinz M. e

McCoy, T. J.

1995-09-01

310

Maternal separation with early weaning: a novel mouse model of early life neglect  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity is associated with increased risk for mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance disorders. Although genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of such disorders, the neurobiological mechanisms involved are poorly understood. A reliable mouse model of early life adversity leading to lasting behavioral changes would facilitate progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these adverse effects.

Elizabeth D George; Kelly A Bordner; Hani M Elwafi; Arthur A Simen

2010-01-01

311

36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Assessment of adverse effects. (a) Apply criteria of adverse effect. In consultation...criteria of adverse effect to historic properties...area of potential effects. The agency...of no adverse effect when the undertaking's effects do not...

2010-07-01

312

36 CFR 800.6 - Resolution of adverse effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Resolution of adverse effects. 800.6 Section 800...6 Resolution of adverse effects. (a) Continue consultation...minimize, or mitigate adverse effects on historic properties. ...the Council of the adverse effect finding by providing the...

2010-07-01

313

Refugees, trauma and Adversity-Activated Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the refugee phenomenon is examined and the position of mental health professionals is located in relation to it. The various uses of the word ‘trauma’ are explored and its application to the refugee context is examined. It is proposed that refugees’ response to adversity is not limited to being traumatized but includes resilience and Adversity-Activated Development (AAD).

Renos K. Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

314

Adverse Drug Reactions in Dental Practice  

PubMed Central

Adverse reactions may occur with any of the medications prescribed or administered in dental practice. Most of these reactions are somewhat predictable based on the pharmacodynamic properties of the drug. Others, such as allergic and pseudoallergic reactions, are less common and unrelated to normal drug action. This article will review the most common adverse reactions that are unrelated to drug allergy. PMID:24697823

Becker, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

315

Page 1 of 5 Adverse Weather Policy  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 Adverse Weather Policy Including Guidelines on Attendance at Work During Adverse Weather 1. Policy Statement The University has a responsibility to provide high quality services and ensure business continuity during periods of bad weather. It is, therefore, necessary that plans are put

Edinburgh, University of

316

Evolution of habitat and environment of deer during the Late-glacial and early Holocene: the case of red deer in French Jura.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Late-glacial and early Holocene transition is a key period of environmental changes in a context of to a global warming. In northwestern Europe, extensive studies have documented the vegetation and faunal recomposition with the replacement of the cold steppe-tundra ecosystem by the forested temperate ecosystem we can still observe. Paleoecological interest focused on the extinct large mammals species like the Mammoth. In comparison, little has been done to decipher the ecological adaptation of the surviving species, especially those that are still present in the very same region than in the past. A better knowledge of the impact of changing environmental conditions on the ecology would be useful to define the degree of selective pressure. Thus, we have studied the habitat and environment evolution of red deer (Cervus elaphus) during the Late-glacial and early Holocene using stable isotopes and radiocarbon investigations. The analyzed bone material was selected from archaeological sites in French Jura. Performing direct radiocarbon dating on the bone collagen of the selected remains solved the problem of possible chronological uncertainties of the stratigraphical record of the sites. The same bone collagen samples were used for stable isotope measurements. We investigated the relative abundances in 13C to examine changes in habitat closure (canopy effect), in 15N to decipher changes in pedogenic activities (soil maturation) of the animals dwelling, and in 18O to track changes in altitude and/or local temperatures of the occupied territories. The results demonstrate that the stable isotopic composition of red deer bone collagen can be a valuable and sensitive indicator of habitat use and environmental conditions. The associated direct dating allows us to reconstruct the chronology of ecological changes. The combined chronological and ecological results evidence local differences in red deer adaptation at a small geographical scale.

Drucker, Dorothée.; Bridault, Anne; Hujic, Alisa; Bocherens, Hervé

2010-05-01

317

Effect of parental mate choice and semi-natural early rearing environment on the growth performance and seawater tolerance of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

To assess whether parental mate choice and early rearing in a semi-natural spawning channel may benefit the culture of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 90 day growth trials were conducted using hatchery O. tshawytscha (hatchery), mate choice O. tshawytscha (i.e. the offspring of parents allowed to choose their own mate) that spent 6 months in a spawning channel prior to hatchery rearing (channel) and mate choice O. tshawytscha transferred to the hatchery as fertilized eggs (transfer). During the growth trials, all O. tshawytscha stocks were reared separately or in either mixed channel and hatchery or transfer and hatchery groups for comparison of performance to traditional practices. After 60 days in fresh water, all O. tshawytscha were transferred to seawater for an additional 30 days. Reared separately, all stocks grew c. 4.5 fold over 90 days but specific growth rate (G) and food conversion efficiency were higher in fresh water than after seawater transfer on day 60. In contrast, hatchery O. tshawytscha from mixed hatchery and channel and hatchery and transfer growth trials had a larger mass and length gain than their counterparts on day 60, but reduced G in seawater. In general, plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol did not differ among any O. tshawytscha groups in either the separate or mixed growth trials. Despite some differences in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, all O. tshawytscha had a high degree of seawater tolerance and experienced virtually no perturbation in plasma chloride following seawater transfer. Overall, all O. tshawytscha exhibited similar growth and seawater performance under traditional hatchery conditions and any benefit derived from either parental mate choice or semi-natural early rearing environment was only observed in the presence of mutual competition with hatchery O. tshawytscha. PMID:23398072

Madison, B N; Heath, J W; Heath, D D; Bernier, N J

2013-02-01

318

Adverse events following an emergency department visit  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies demonstrate a high rate of treatment?related adverse outcomes or adverse events. No studies have prospectively evaluated adverse events in patients discharged home from the emergency department (ED). Objective To describe the types of adverse events in patients discharged home from an ED. Patients Patients who were sent home directly from the ED of an urban, academic teaching hospital in Ottawa, Canada. Methods Patient records were reviewed to identify demographic and medical history information. Two weeks following the ED visit, patients completed a standard telephone interview to record post ED visit outcomes. Two physicians reviewed outcomes to identify all adverse events and their cause. Results Follow?up was complete for 399 of 408 enrolled patients. The median age was 49 years (interquartile range 36–68) and 50% were male. The most common diagnosis was “chest pain”, occurring in 74 patients (18%), followed by “bone and joint disorders” in 55 patients (14%). 24 patients experienced an adverse event (incidence 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%)), of which 17 were preventable (incidence 4% (95% CI 3% to 7%)). Five of the unpreventable adverse events were medication side effects and two were minor, procedure?related complications. Of all 24 adverse events, 15 (63%; 95% CI 43 to 79%) led to an additional ED visit or a hospitalisation. Preventable adverse events occurred in 5 of 78 chest pain patients (incidence 6% (95% CI 3% to 14%)). Conclusion Most adverse events occurring following an ED visit are preventable and often relate to diagnostic or management errors. PMID:17301197

Forster, Alan J; Rose, Nicholas G W; van Walraven, Carl; Stiell, Ian

2007-01-01

319

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole. PMID:10151618

Reason, J

1995-01-01

320

National household survey of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship with resilience to health-harming behaviors in England  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological and biomedical evidence link adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with health-harming behaviors and the development of non-communicable disease in adults. Investment in interventions to improve early life experiences requires empirical evidence on levels of childhood adversity and the proportion of HHBs potentially avoided should such adversity be addressed. Methods A nationally representative survey of English residents aged 18 to 69 (n = 3,885) was undertaken during the period April to July 2013. Individuals were categorized according to the number of ACEs experienced. Modeling identified the proportions of HHBs (early sexual initiation, unintended teenage pregnancy, smoking, binge drinking, drug use, violence victimization, violence perpetration, incarceration, poor diet, low levels of physical exercise) independently associated with ACEs at national population levels. Results Almost half (47%) of individuals experienced at least one of the nine ACEs. Prevalence of childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse was 6.3%, 14.8%, and 18.2% respectively (population-adjusted). After correcting for sociodemographics, ACE counts predicted all HHBs, e.g. (0 versus 4+ ACEs, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals)): smoking 3.29 (2.54 to 4.27); violence perpetration 7.71 (4.90 to 12.14); unintended teenage pregnancy 5.86 (3.93 to 8.74). Modeling suggested that 11.9% of binge drinking, 13.6% of poor diet, 22.7% of smoking, 52.0% of violence perpetration, 58.7% of heroin/crack cocaine use, and 37.6% of unintended teenage pregnancy prevalence nationally could be attributed to ACEs. Conclusions Stable and protective childhoods are critical factors in the development of resilience to health-harming behaviors in England. Interventions to reduce ACEs are available and sustainable, with nurturing childhoods supporting the adoption of health-benefiting behaviors and ultimately the provision of positive childhood environments for future generations. PMID:24886026

2014-01-01

321

Patterning in Placental 11-B Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Methylation According to Prenatal Socioeconomic Adversity  

PubMed Central

Background Prenatal socioeconomic adversity as an intrauterine exposure is associated with a range of perinatal outcomes although the explanatory mechanisms are not well understood. The development of the fetus can be shaped by the intrauterine environment through alterations in the function of the placenta. In the placenta, the HSD11B2 gene encodes the 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, which is responsible for the inactivation of maternal cortisol thereby protecting the developing fetus from this exposure. This gene is regulated by DNA methylation, and this methylation and the expression it controls has been shown to be susceptible to a variety of stressors from the maternal environment. The association of prenatal socioeconomic adversity and placental HSD11B2 methylation has not been examined. Following a developmental origins of disease framework, prenatal socioeconomic adversity may alter fetal response to the postnatal environment through functional epigenetic alterations in the placenta. Therefore, we hypothesized that prenatal socioeconomic adversity would be associated with less HSD11B2 methylation. Methods and Findings We examined the association between DNA methylation of the HSD11B2 promoter region in the placenta of 444 healthy term newborn infants and several markers of prenatal socioeconomic adversity: maternal education, poverty, dwelling crowding, tobacco use and cumulative risk. We also examined whether such associations were sex-specific. We found that infants whose mothers experienced the greatest levels of socioeconomic adversity during pregnancy had the lowest extent of placental HSD11B2 methylation, particularly for males. Associations were maintained for maternal education when adjusting for confounders (p<0.05). Conclusions Patterns of HSD11B2 methylation suggest that environmental cues transmitted from the mother during gestation may program the developing fetus’s response to an adverse postnatal environment, potentially via less exposure to cortisol during development. Less methylation of placental HSD11B2 may therefore be adaptive and promote the effective management of stress associated with social adversity in a postnatal environment. PMID:24040322

Lesseur, Corina; Lee, Joyce; Padbury, James F.; Lester, Barry M.; Marsit, Carmen J.

2013-01-01

322

Depressive Symptoms, Including Lack of Future Orientation, as Mediators in the Relationship between Adverse Life Events and Delinquent Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provided a cross-sectional examination of associations among adverse life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency in a community sample of 123 early adolescent boys and girls. We also examined whether depressive cognitions, including hopelessness, differentially mediated the relations between exposure to adverse events and delinquent behaviors. Depressive cognitions, especially lack of future orientation, were associated with delinquent behaviors

Maureen A. Allwood; Carly Baetz; Sarah DeMarco; Debora J. Bell

2012-01-01

323

Adverse event recording post hip fracture surgery.  

PubMed

Accurate recording of adverse events post hip fracture surgery is vital for planning and allocating resources. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events recorded prospectively at point of care with adverse recorded by the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) System. The study examined a two month period from August to September 2011 at University Hospital Limerick. Out of a sample size of 39, there were 7 males (17.9%) and 32 females (82.1%) with an age range of between 53 and 98 years. The mean age was 80.5 years. 55 adverse events were recorded, in contrast to the HIPE record of 13 (23.6%) adverse events. The most common complications included constipation 10 (18.2%), anaemia 8 (14.5%), urinary retention 8 (14.50%), pneumonia 5 (9.1%) and delirium 5 (9.1%). Of the female cohort, 24 (68.8%) suffered an adverse event, while only 4 (57%) males suffered an adverse event. PMID:24579408

Doody, K; Mohamed, K M S; Butler, A; Street, J; Lenehan, B

2013-01-01

324

Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.  

PubMed

Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology. PMID:23893545

Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

2013-08-01

325

Overview of medical errors and adverse events  

PubMed Central

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

2012-01-01

326

Order in the House! Associations among Household Chaos, the Home Literacy Environment, Maternal Reading Ability, and Children’s Early Reading  

PubMed Central

The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children’s early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and First-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test whether these associations are moderated by maternal reading ability. Results suggest that the degree of household order is significantly and positively associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers are above-average readers. By contrast, the number of books a child owns or brings home and how often a child amuses self alone with books are significantly associated with the expressive vocabulary, Woodcock Reading Mastery, and phonological awareness skills of children whose mothers ore average-ability readers. These results suggest the potential for new approaches to encouraging literacy development in the home beyond those that depend solely on parental literacy. PMID:19526070

Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.

2009-01-01

327

Adverse drug reactions induced by valproic acid.  

PubMed

Valproic acid is a widely-used first-generation antiepileptic drug, prescribed predominantly in epilepsy and psychiatric disorders. VPA has good efficacy and pharmacoeconomic profiles, as well as a relatively favorable safety profile. However, adverse drug reactions have been reported in relation with valproic acid use, either as monotherapy or polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs or antipsychotic drugs. This systematic review discusses valproic acid adverse drug reactions, in terms of hepatotoxicity, mitochondrial toxicity, hyperammonemic encephalopathy, hypersensitivity syndrome reactions, neurological toxicity, metabolic and endocrine adverse events, and teratogenicity. PMID:23792104

Nanau, Radu M; Neuman, Manuela G

2013-10-01

328

BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals reared outside during the winter, strategies that increase animal space and environmental buffers need to be employed to minimize effects of mud, wet conditions, and wind chill. The above-mentioned weather events suggest that there are ample opportunities for livestock producers to enhance animal welfare and minimize impact of environmental stress. Caretakers need a greater understanding of animal responses to weather challenges to help animals cope with adverse climatic conditions. PMID:25414102

Mader, T L

2014-12-01

329

Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application  

EPA Science Inventory

A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

330

Overcoming Adversity, "Challenged America" Team Finishes Strong  

NSF Publications Database

... 05-127Overcoming Adversity, "Challenged America" Team Finishes Strong The crew members of the B ... to Hawaii, the six members of the Challenged America team arrived in Honolulu Sunday evening at 23 ...

331

Depositional environments and sequence stratigraphy of the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions (Shandong Province, China): Sequence development in an epicontinental basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian coal-bearing successions in Shandong Province, North China in order to understand the depositional processes and sequence-stratigraphic framework in an epicontinental basin. Based on detailed analysis of eleven facies, five facies assemblages (FAs) were recognized in the studied succession. FA1-3 are present mainly in the Benxi and Taiyuan formations, and consist of mixed siliciclastic and carbonate lithofacies, representing eluvial-lagoon, barrier-lagoon, and tidal-flat environments. FA4 occurs in the Shanxi formation and consists mainly of interbedded medium to fine sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, and coal lithofacies, representing river-dominated deltaic environments. FA5 is characterized by interbeds of trough cross-stratified coarse sandstone, and silty mudstone, mainly in the Lower Shihezi Formation, which was deposited in meandering river channel and floodplain. Three third-order sequences were established based on the vertical arrangement of facies assemblages and identification of physical surfaces (i.e., subaerial unconformity, transgressive surface, and regressive surface). Each sequence comprises a transgressive systems tract (TST) and a highstand systems tract (HST). TST of sequence 1 is composed of eluvial lagoonal deposits (FA1), whereas HST formed in lagoon-barrier and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 2 formed in a barrier-lagoon system (FA2), whereas HST is characterized by repetitive accumulation of interbedded limestone, sandstone, mudstone, and coal, deposited under lagoonal and tidal-flat settings (FA2 and FA3). TST of sequence 3 comprises FA2, and HST mainly FA4, deposited in a river-dominated shallow-water delta system. Sequence 3 is overlain by a fluvial sequence (FA5). The three third-order sequences in the Shandong region are generally correlated with those in the Taebaeksan Basin (South Korea), the eastern part of the North China Block. The relative sea-level curves established in the two regions show a generally similar long-term rising trend.

Lv, Dawei; Chen, Jitao

2014-01-01

332

Macrophages are involved in hexachlorobenzene-induced adverse immune effects  

SciTech Connect

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. T cells play an important role but do not account for all adverse effects induced by HCB. Macrophages are probably also important and the relationship between macrophages and T cells was further investigated. To eliminate macrophages clodronate-liposomes were used. Furthermore, a kinetic study was performed to obtain insight in the early phase of the HCB-induced immune response. Also, experiments were performed to detect specific memory T cells. Therefore, an adoptive transfer study was performed. Our results indicate that macrophages are indeed involved in HCB-induced skin lesions, lung eosinophilia, and elevation of IgM against ssDNA. Kinetics showed that both skin and lung lesions appeared early after exposure. Moreover, immune effects could not be adaptively transferred. Thus, both macrophages and T cells are involved in HCB-induced immune effects but HCB exposure does not lead to specific T cell sensitization. Presumably, HCB exposure induces macrophage activation, thereby generating adjuvant signals that polyclonally stimulate T cells. Together, these events may lead to the observed immunopathology in BN rats.

Ezendam, Janine [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Janine.Ezendam@rivm.nl; Kosterman, Kevin [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Spijkerboer, Henneke [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Bleumink, Rob [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Hassing, Ine [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Rooijen, Nico van [Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Free University, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vos, Joseph G. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, Bilthoven, PO Box 1 3720 BA (Netherlands); Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Pathobiology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.150, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Pieters, Raymond [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Immunotoxicology, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.176, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2005-11-15

333

Early neglect is associated with alterations in white matter integrity and cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests that early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. To test this idea, properties of white matter and neurocognitive performance were assessed in children who suffered early neglect and those raised in typical environments (n = 63, Mage  = 11.75 years). As predicted, prefrontal white matter microstructure was affected, consistent with more diffuse organization, in children that suffered early neglect and this was related to neurocognitive deficits. Such findings underscore how early adversity may affect the PFC and explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. PMID:23480812

Hanson, Jamie L; Adluru, Nagesh; Chung, Moo K; Alexander, Andrew L; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

2013-01-01

334

Early neglect is associated with alterations in white matter integrity and cognitive functioning  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. To test this idea, properties of white matter and neurocognitive performance was assessed in children who suffered early neglect and those raised in typical environments (n=63, Mean Age=11.75 years). As predicted, prefrontal white matter microstructure was affected, consistent with more diffuse organization, in children that suffered early neglect and this was related to neurocognitive deficits. Such findings underscore how early adversity may affect the PFC and explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. PMID:23480812

Hanson, JL; Adluru, N; Chung, MK; Alexander, AL; Davidson, RJ; Pollak, SD

2012-01-01

335

Childhood adversities and adolescent depression: A matter of both risk and resilience.  

PubMed

Childhood adversities have been proposed to modify later stress sensitivity and risk of depressive disorder in several ways: by stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Combining these models, we hypothesized that childhood adversities would increase risk of early, but not later, onsets of depression (Hypothesis 1). In those without an early onset, childhood adversities were hypothesized to predict a relatively low risk of depression in high-stress conditions (Hypothesis 2a) and a relatively high risk of depression in low-stress conditions (Hypothesis 2b), compared to no childhood adversities. These hypotheses were tested in 1,584 participants of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey, a prospective cohort study of adolescents. Childhood adversities were assessed retrospectively at ages 11 and 13.5, using self-reports and parent reports. Lifetime DSM-IV major depressive episodes were assessed at age 19, by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Stressful life events during adolescence were established using interview-based contextual ratings of personal and network events. The results provided support for all hypotheses, regardless of the informant and timeframe used to assess childhood adversities and regardless of the nature (personal vs. network, dependent vs. independent) of recent stressful events. These findings suggest that age at first onset of depression may be an effective marker to distinguish between various types of reaction patterns. PMID:24933401

Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Nederhof, Esther

2014-11-01

336

The Urban Environment and Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

While not unique to the US, the preference for suburban environments and the aversion against urban environments as places for raising children are by no means universal. Families with children are a commoner sight in European cities. Indeed, theoretically, there is no reason why cities should have adverse effects on children's development. Urban environments are not inherently unhealthy for growing

337

Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

338

36 CFR 800.5 - Assessment of adverse effects.  

... (2) Examples of adverse effects. Adverse effects on historic properties include...Neglect of a property which causes its deterioration, except where...applying the criteria of adverse effect consistent with phased...

2014-07-01

339

Cardiovascular adverse effects of newer antidepressants.  

PubMed

Newer antidepressants that are more selective in their neurotransmitter effects include the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and others (agomelatine, bupropion, mirtazapine, reboxetine, vilazodone, vortioxetine). This article systematically reviews data from a variety of sources regarding the potential adverse effects of these medications on various cardiovascular parameters. Potential biochemical mechanisms by which these antidepressants may adversely affect the cardiovascular system are also discussed. Antidepressants that are associated with higher cardiovascular risk (SNRIs, reboxetine), lower risk (SSRIs), and without current evidence of cardiovascular risk (agomelatine, mirtazapine, vilazodone, vortioxetine) are identified. The FDA's recommendations regarding citalopram are organized and summarized, and situations with higher risk of cardiovascular adverse effects are identified. PMID:24738823

Mago, Rajnish; Tripathi, Neeta; Andrade, Chittaranjan

2014-05-01

340

Vaccine-adverse event association analysis on the VAERS database.  

E-print Network

??The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received thousands of reports of adverse events that occurred after vaccine administrations from the post-marketing vaccine safety surveillance.… (more)

Ye, Na, 1983-

2011-01-01

341

Attachment and Attention: Protection in Relation to Gender and Cumulative Social-Contextual Adversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from 918 children from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care were examined to test the interrelation of attachment and attentional performance and 2 known risks for poor attentional performance: male gender and social-contextual adversity. Attachment was measured using the Strange…

Pasco Fearon, R. M.; Belsky, Jay

2004-01-01

342

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2011-01-01

343

Annual Research Review: Positive adjustment to adversity -Trajectories of minimal-impact resilience and emergent resilience  

PubMed Central

Background Research on resilience in the aftermath of potentially traumatic life events is still evolving. For decades researchers have documented resilience in children exposed to corrosive early environments, such as poverty or chronic maltreatment. Relatively more recently the study of resilience has migrated to the investigation of isolated and potentially traumatic life events (PTE) in adults. Methods In this article we first consider some of the key differences in the conceptualization of resilience following chronic adversity versus resilience following single-incident traumas, and then describe some of the misunderstandings that have developed about these constructs. To organize our discussion we introduce the terms emergent resilience and minimal-impact resilience to represent trajectories positive adjustment in these two domains, respectively. Results We focused in particular on minimal-impact resilience, and reviewed recent advances in statistical modeling of latent trajectories that have informed the most recent research on minimal-impact resilience in both children and adults and the variables that predict it, including demographic variables, exposure, past and current stressors, resources, personality, positive emotion, coping and appraisal, and flexibility in coping and emotion regulation. Conclusions The research on minimal impact resilience is nascent. Further research is warranted with implications for a multiple levels of analysis approach to elucidate the processes that may mitigate or modify the impact of a PTE at different developmental stages. PMID:23215790

Bonanno, George A.; Diminich, Erica D.

2012-01-01

344

Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Tattoos and Piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic

J. Mataix; J. F. Silvestre

2009-01-01

345

Pharmacogenomics and adverse drug reactions in children  

PubMed Central

Adverse drug reactions are a common and important complication of drug therapy in children. Over the past decade it has become increasingly apparent that genetically controlled variations in drug disposition and response are important determinants of adverse events for many important adverse events associated with drug therapy in children. While this research has been difficult to conduct over the past decade technical and ethical evolution has greatly facilitated the ability of investigators to conduct pharmacogenomic studies in children. Some of this research has already resulted in changes in public policy and clinical practice, for example in the case of codeine use by mothers and children. It is likely that the use of pharmacogenomics to enhance drug safety will first be realized among selected groups of children with high rates of drug use such as children with cancer, but it also likely that this research will be extended to other groups of children who have high rates of drug utilization and as well as providing insights into the mechanisms and pathophysiology of adverse drug reactions in children. PMID:24795743

Rieder, Michael J.; Carleton, Bruce

2014-01-01

346

Adverse Stress, Hippocampal Networks, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Recent clinical data have implicated chronic adverse stress as a potential risk factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and data also suggest that normal, physiological stress responses may be impaired in AD. It is possible that pathology associated with AD causes aberrant responses to chronic stress, due to potential alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent work in rodent models of AD suggests that chronic adverse stress exacerbates the cognitive deficits and hippocampal pathology that are present in the AD brain. This review summarizes recent findings obtained in experimental AD models regarding the influence of chronic adverse stress on the underlying cellular and molecular disease processes including the potential role of glucocorticoids. Emerging findings suggest that both AD and chronic adverse stress affect hippocampal neural networks in a similar fashion. We describe alterations in hippocampal plasticity that occur in both chronic stress and AD including dendritic remodeling, neurogenesis and long-term potentiation. Finally, we outline potential roles for oxidative stress and neurotrophic factor signaling as key determinants of the impact of chronic stress on the plasticity of neural networks and AD pathogenesis. PMID:19943124

Rothman, Sarah M.; Mattson, Mark P.

2009-01-01

347

Children and ADRs (Adverse Drug Reactions)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many medicines are prescribed to the paediatric population on an unlicensed or 'off-label' basis because they have not been adequately tested and\\/or formulated and authorized for use in appropriate paediatric age groups. Regulatory authorities also need to remind health professionals about the importance of their contribution towards the process of paediatric pharmacovigilance thanks to their reporting of adverse drug reactions.

Ettore Napoleone

2010-01-01

348

Reducing Adverse Impact: One City's Efforts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following a workshop on "Innovations in Employment Testing that Improve Validity and Reduce Adverse Impact," the City of Louisville (Kentucky) implemented a strategy to develop a comprehensive testing and recruiting program for police recruits. To improve candidate expectations and preparation, the following activities were undertaken: intense…

Prewitt, Jeff

349

Regulatory Requirements Define UPIRHSOs, Adverse Events, and  

E-print Network

to subjects or others (UPIRHSOs). The FDA has separate regulations that require the prompt reporting UPIRHSOs Q&A #12;REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS Federal regulations (45 CFR 46, and 21 CFR 56) require of adverse events (or effects) from the investigators to the sponsor and from the sponsor to the FDA as well

Arslan, Hüseyin

350

[Management of sunitinib-associated adverse events].  

PubMed

Patients diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are currently treated with oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Sunitinib malate (Sutent R Pfizer INC) is an oral multitargeted TKI and is the mainstay of therapy for mRCC patients in Japan. Although it shows a high therapeutic response and prolonged survival rates, sunitinib exhibits a novel and distinct toxicity profile that requires appropriate monitoring and management. Therefore, the physician needs to understand the modalities to detect and cope with such adverse events to effectively treat the patient. We summarized the management of the most frequent and clinically significant adverse events of sunitinib treatment. Myelotoxicity, especially thrombocytopenia seemed to be the most common and severe toxicity (73% all grade, 36.8%, ?grade 3). The incidences of thyroid dysfunction, fatigue, hypertension, hand-foot syndrome, nausea, diarrhea and oral changes were reviewed. The incidences of ?grade 3 adverse events and dose reduction were higher than those in western reports. In our institution, fever was frequently observed (up to 63.1%). When the patient is at high risk of sunitinib assosicated adverse events, dose reduction from the beginning of sunitinib therapy may be useful. To maintain the patient's quality of life and for long-term administration of the sunitinib, it is worth while to modulate the sunitinib administration schedule for each patient. PMID:23254793

Kanda, Hideki; Masui, Satoru; Yamada, Yasushi; Arima, Kiminobu; Sugimura, Yoshiki

2012-11-01

351

"It's the Way You Talk to Them." The Child's Environment: Early Years Practitioners' Perceptions of Its Influence on Speech and Language Development, Its Assessment and Environment Targeted Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech and language delay occurs in approximately 6% of the child population, and interventions to support this group of children focus on the child and/or the communicative environment. Evidence about the effectiveness of interventions that focus on the environment as well as the (reported) practices of speech and language therapists (SLTs) and…

Marshall, Julie; Lewis, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

352

The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

Zeanah, Charles H.

2009-01-01

353

The relationship between the neighbourhood environment and adverse birth outcomes. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content at the National Institutes of Health | www.cancer.gov Print Page E-mail Page Search: Please wait while this form is being loaded.... Home Browse by Resource Type Browse by Area of Research Research Networks Funding Information About

354

Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination.  

PubMed

We reviewed the literature on adverse events reported to occur after smallpox vaccination. Nearly one-half of the United States population is vaccinia-naïve and may be at risk for development of serious adverse events. We describe the clinical features of postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, "generalized vaccinia," and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes. In the 1960s, death occurred approximately once in every million primary vaccinations, with fatalities resulting from progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis, and eczema vaccinatum. Death in revaccinees occurred less commonly and almost entirely from progressive vaccinia. In today's population, death rates might be higher because of the increased prevalence of immune deficiency and atopic dermatitis. PMID:12913830

Lane, J Michael; Goldstein, Joel

2003-07-01

355

Neurological adverse events following regional anesthesia administration  

PubMed Central

Regional anesthesia and analgesia have been associated with improved analgesia, decreased postoperative nausea and vomiting, and increased patient satisfaction for many types of surgical procedures. In obstetric anesthesia care, it has also been associated with improved maternal mortality and major morbidity. The majority of neurological adverse events following regional anesthesia administration result in temporary sensory symptoms; long-term or permanent disabling motor and sensory problems are very rare. Infection and hemorrhagic complications, particularly with neuraxial blocks, can cause neurological adverse events. More commonly, however, there are no associated secondary factors and some combination of needle trauma, intraneural injection, and/or local anesthetic toxicity may be associated, but their individual contributions to any event are difficult to define. PMID:22915878

Kent, Christopher D; Bollag, Laurent

2010-01-01

356

Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail services, Heads of Department/  

E-print Network

Adverse Weather Conditions If adverse weather conditions occur which affects tube, bus or rail to present him/herself for work. Where, due to the adverse weather conditions, public transport is affected as a result of the adverse weather conditions (for example a child's school is closed), they should consult

357

Adverse events among children in Canadian hospitals: the Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Limited data are available on adverse events among children admitted to hospital. The Canadian Paediatric Adverse Events Study was done to describe the epidemiology of adverse events among children in hospital in Canada. Methods: We performed a 2-stage medical record review at 8 academic pediatric centres and 14 community hospitals in Canada. We reviewed charts from patients admitted from April 2008 through March 2009, evenly distributed across 4 age groups (0 to 28 d; 29 to 365 d; > 1 to 5 yr and > 5 to 18 yr). In stage 1, nurses and health records personnel who had received training in the use of the Canadian Paediatric Trigger Tool reviewed medical records to detect triggers for possible adverse events. In stage 2, physicians reviewed the charts identified as having triggers and described the adverse events. Results: A total of 3669 children were admitted to hospital during the study period. The weighted rate of adverse events was 9.2%. Adverse events were more frequent in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65–5.39). The incidence of preventable adverse events was not significantly different between types of hospital, but nonpreventable adverse events were more common in academic pediatric centres (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.08–9.27). Surgical events predominated overall and occurred more frequently in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals (37.2% v. 21.5%, relative risk [RR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–3.1), whereas events associated with diagnostic errors were significantly less frequent (11.1% v. 23.1%, RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.2–0.9). Interpretation: More children have adverse events in academic pediatric centres than in community hospitals; however, adverse events in the former are less likely to be preventable. There are many opportunities to reduce harm affecting children in hospital in Canada, particularly related to surgery, intensive care and diagnostic error. PMID:22847964

Matlow, Anne G.; Baker, G. Ross; Flintoft, Virginia; Cochrane, Douglas; Coffey, Maitreya; Cohen, Eyal; Cronin, Catherine M.G.; Damignani, Rita; Dube, Robert; Galbraith, Roger; Hartfield, Dawn; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri

2012-01-01

358

Parental nurturing and adverse effects of redistribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that if parental nurturing is a dominating force in human capital formation then income redistribution\\u000a may not promote economic growth. In particular, if, consistently with empirical evidence, parental human capital complements\\u000a investment in a child’s education and yields increasing returns in the intergenerational production of human capital, income\\u000a redistribution may have an adverse impact on the growth

Debasis Bandyopadhyay; Xueli Tang

2011-01-01

359

An Ss Model with Adverse Selection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a model of the market for a used durable in which agents face fixed costs of adjustment, the magnitude of which depends on the degree of adverse selection in the secondary market. We find that, unlike typical models, the sS bands in our model contract as the variance of the shock increases. We also analyze a dynamic version of the model…

House, Christopher L.; Leahy, John V.

2004-01-01

360

Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.  

PubMed

Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment. PMID:18497164

Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

2008-04-15

361

Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.  

PubMed

Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

Stiehm, E Richard

2013-07-01

362

Childhood Adversity Accelerates Intended Reproductive Timing in Adolescent Girls without Increasing Interest in Infants  

PubMed Central

Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1) childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2) childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3) intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies. PMID:24454778

Clutterbuck, Stephanie; Adams, Jean; Nettle, Daniel

2014-01-01

363

Varenicline, Smoking Cessation and Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events  

PubMed Central

Objective In 2009 FDA issued a black box warning for varenicline and neuropsychiatric events. We studied efficacy (smoking cessation) of varenicline, and safety (neuropsychiatric events) in both randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and a large observational study. The observational study was included to determine the generalizability of the RCT findings to the general population. Method RCTs: Re-analysis of all 17 placebo controlled RCTs (n=8027) of varenicline conducted by Pfizer using complete intent-to-treat person-level longitudinal data. Observational Study Analysis of Department of Defense collected adverse neuropsychiatric adverse event data in inpatients and outpatients taking varenicline versus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (n=35,800). The primary endpoints for the RCTs were smoking abstinence and adverse event reports of suicidal thoughts and behavior, depression, aggression/agitation, and nausea. The effect of varenicline in patients with (n=1004) and without (n=7023) psychiatric disorders was examined. The primary endpoints for the observational study were anxiety, depression, drug induced mental disorder, episodic and mood disorder, other psychiatric disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, transient mental disorder. Results RCTs: Varenicline did not increase rates of suicidal events, depression, or aggression/agitation. Varenicline increased risk of nausea (OR=3.69, 95% CI = (3.03, 4.48), p<0.0001). Varenicline increased rate of abstinence by 124% compared to placebo (p<0.0001), and 22% compared to bupropion (p<0.0001). While having a current psychiatric disorder or history of psychiatric illness increased the risk of neuropsychiatric events, it did so equally in treated and control patients. Observational Study Following propensity score matching, overall rate of neuropsychiatric disorders was lower for varenicline versus NRT (2.28% versus 3.16%, p<0.0001). Conclusions In the RCTs, varenicline revealed no increased risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events relative to placebo. Varenicline provided greater benefit in terms of smoking cessation relative to both placebo and bupropion. The same results were observed in patients with and without a current psychiatric disorder or history of psychiatric illness. In the observational study, the overall rate of neuropsychiatric disorders was lower in patients treated with varenicline relative to NRT, revealing that the finding of no increased risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events in RCTs generalizes to the population of patients engaging in treatment with varenicline. PMID:24030388

Gibbons, Robert D.; Mann, J. John

2014-01-01

364

Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions, adverse effects have been observed both during treatment and after cessation, although the data from article to article are not consistent enough to establish dose relationships. By and large, inhaled corticosteroids are considered safe and free of severe neuropsychiatric effects. Although both antipsychotic medications and benzodiazepines have been used to treat corticosteroid-induced mania and psychosis, no unified management strategy has emerged. Large-scale standardized investigations are needed to clarify the psychiatric effect of corticosteroids on children in all these conditions. Meanwhile, there is general agreement that patients as well as caregivers should be warned of the potential for behavioral adverse effects when patients receive these drugs. PMID:24943696

Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

2014-06-01

365

Children and the Environment. The State of the Environment, 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the ways in which children in developing nations have been adversely affected by their environment and what changes could be made to mitigate these circumstances. Chapter 1 discusses the environment, children, and future generations, pointing out the special needs children have now and will have in the future, the role of…

United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

366

Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

2008-01-01

367

Space and place as a source of belonging and participation in urban environments: considering the role of early childhood education and care settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of spatial and place research when exploring concepts of belonging, participation and citizenship in relation to young children and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in urban societies. Particular attention is paid to the position of marginalised children and those most at risk of discrimination, who experience barriers to accessing

Margaret Kernan

2010-01-01

368

Successful drug development despite adverse preclinical findings part 2: examples.  

PubMed

To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR ? and dual ?/? agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR ? agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions. PMID:22272032

Ettlin, Robert A; Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E

2010-12-01

369

Successful Drug Development Despite Adverse Preclinical Findings Part 2: Examples  

PubMed Central

To illustrate the process of addressing adverse preclinical findings (APFs) as outlined in the first part of this review, a number of cases with unexpected APF in toxicity studies with drug candidates is discussed in this second part. The emphasis is on risk characterization, especially regarding the mode of action (MoA), and risk evaluation regarding relevance for man. While severe APFs such as retinal toxicity may turn out to be of little human relevance, minor findings particularly in early toxicity studies, such as vasculitis, may later pose a real problem. Rodents are imperfect models for endocrine APFs, non-rodents for human cardiac effects. Liver and kidney toxicities are frequent, but they can often be monitored in man and do not necessarily result in early termination of drug candidates. Novel findings such as the unusual lesions in the gastrointestinal tract and the bones presented in this review can be difficult to explain. It will be shown that well known issues such as phospholipidosis and carcinogenicity by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The latter is of particular interest because the new PPAR ? and dual ?/? agonists resulted in a change of the safety paradigm established with the older PPAR ? agonists. General toxicologists and pathologists need some understanding of the principles of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity testing. Both types of preclinical toxicities are major APF and clinical monitoring is difficult, generally leading to permanent use restrictions. PMID:22272032

Kuroda, Junji; Plassmann, Stephanie; Hayashi, Makoto; Prentice, David E.

2010-01-01

370

Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To compare associations of maternal glucose and A1C with adverse outcomes in the multinational Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and determine, based on those comparisons, if A1C measurement can provide an alternative to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eligible pregnant women underwent a 75-g OGTT at 24–32 weeks’ gestation. A sample for A1C was also collected. Neonatal anthropometrics and cord serum C-peptide were measured. Associations with outcomes were assessed using multiple logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS Among 23,316 HAPO Study participants with glucose levels blinded to caregivers, 21,064 had a nonvariant A1C result. The mean ± SD A1C was 4.79 ± 0.40%. Associations were significantly stronger with glucose measures than with A1C for birth weight, sum of skinfolds, and percent body fat >90th percentile and for fasting and 1-h glucose for cord C-peptide (all P < 0.01). For example, in fully adjusted models, odds ratios (ORs) for birth weight >90th percentile for each measure higher by 1 SD were 1.39, 1.45, and 1.38, respectively, for fasting, 1-, and 2-h plasma glucose and 1.15 for A1C. ORs for cord C-peptide >90th percentile were 1.56, 1.45, and 1.35 for glucose, respectively, and 1.32 for A1C. ORs were similar for glucose and A1C for primary cesarean section, preeclampsia, and preterm delivery. CONCLUSIONS On the basis of associations with adverse outcomes, these findings suggest that A1C measurement is not a useful alternative to an OGTT in pregnant women. PMID:22301123

Lowe, Lynn P.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Dyer, Alan R.; Lowe, Julia; McCance, David R.; Lappin, Terence R.J.; Trimble, Elisabeth R.; Coustan, Donald R.; Hadden, David R.; Hod, Moshe; Oats, Jeremy J.N.; Persson, Bengt

2012-01-01

371

Prenatal Adversities and Latino Children's Autonomic Nervous System Reactivity Trajectories from 6 Months to 5 Years of Age  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers’ adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring’s autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13–14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father’s absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers’ prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring’s parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring’s heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring’s sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers’ prenatal adverse experiences may program their children’s physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions. PMID:24466003

Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W. Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G.; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-01-01

372

Prenatal adversities and Latino children's autonomic nervous system reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine whether mothers' adversities experienced during early pregnancy are associated with offspring's autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity trajectories from 6 months to 5 years of age. This cohort study of primarily Latino families included maternal interviews at 13-14 weeks gestation about their experience of a range of adversities: father's absence, general social support, poverty level, and household density. ANS measures of heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (parasympathetic nervous system) and preejection period (sympathetic nervous system) were collected during resting and challenging conditions on children at 6 months and 1, 3.5 and 5 years of age. Reactivity measures were calculated as the mean of the responses to challenging conditions minus a resting condition. Fixed effects models were conducted for the 212 children with two or more timepoints of ANS measures. Interactions between maternal prenatal adversity levels and child age at time of ANS protocol were included in the models, allowing the calculation of separate trajectories or slopes for each level of adversity. Results showed no significant relations between mothers' prenatal socioeconomic or social support adversity and offspring's parasympathetic nervous system trajectories, but there was a statistically significant relationship between social support adversity and offspring's heart rate trajectories (p<.05) and a borderline significant relationship between socioeconomic adversity and offspring's sympathetic nervous system trajectories (p?=?.05). Children whose mothers experienced one, not two, social support adversity had the smallest increases in heart rate reactivity compared to children whose mothers experienced no adversity. The children whose mothers experienced no social support and no socioeconomic adversity had the largest increases in heart rate and preejection period respectively from 6 months to 5 years showing the most plasticity. Mothers' prenatal adverse experiences may program their children's physiologic trajectory to dampen their heart rate or sympathetic responsivity to challenging conditions. PMID:24466003

Alkon, Abbey; Boyce, W Thomas; Tran, Linh; Harley, Kim G; Neuhaus, John; Eskenazi, Brenda

2014-01-01

373

Adverse effects of topical corticosteroid use.  

PubMed Central

Topical corticosteroid use, a common and often efficacious therapy for a wide variety of cutaneous conditions, may have substantial adverse effects. These range from the notable nondermatologic side effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression, Cushing's disease, femoral head osteonecrosis, and cataracts to a variety of less serious skin effects such as cutaneous tinea and contact dermatitis. The broad availability, efficacy, relative low cost, and ease of applying topical corticosteroids should not induce complacency or a cavalier attitude in prescribers. Physicians should have the same awareness of the possible side effects of topical steroid use as when prescribing parenteral medication. Images PMID:7794369

Fisher, D A

1995-01-01

374

Late-glacial and early-Holocene Coleoptera assemblages as indicators of local environment and climate at Kråkenes Lake, western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-six Coleoptera (beetle) taxa and other insects were identified from the late-glacial and early-Holocene sediments at Kråkenes Lake. Compared with other Scandinavian late-glacial sites, this is a rather sparse record. The water beetles found in the Allerod are characteristic of a poorly vegetated clear-water lake. The terrestrial fauna is indicative of dwarf-shrub and moss vegetation. A marked decline in the

Geoffrey Lemdahl

2000-01-01

375

Increased Early Life Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Comorbid Substance Abuse and Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early adverse events have been associated with increased rates of substance abuse and depression. To investigate the association between early adverse events and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia patients, early life stress, depressive symptoms, positive and negative symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive function were measured in an age-, sex-, and race-matched sample of 40 schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid substance

Geraldine Scheller-Gilkey; Shannon M. Thomas; Bobbi J. Woolwine; Andrew H. Miller

2002-01-01

376

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949-1951 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The Yemenites, who lacked any

ERIC D. GOULD; VICTOR LAVY; M. DANIELE PASERMAN

2008-01-01

377

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The Yemenites, who lacked any

Eric D. Gould; Victor Lavy; Daniele Paserman

2009-01-01

378

The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have been associated with adolescent well-being, but the majority of studies were cross-sectional, and the time window over which the neighbourhood may impact on development is unknown. Therefore, the contribution of the neighbourhood environment to adolescents' quality of life and the course of these effects during the period of transition from childhood to

Marjan Drukker; Charles Kaplan; Josien Schneiders; Frans JM Feron; Jim van Os

2006-01-01

379

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14884  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The…

Gould, Eric D.; Lavy, Victor; Paserman, M. Daniele

2009-01-01

380

Early Indications of Resilience and Their Relation to Experiences in the Home Environments of Low Birthweight, Premature Children Living in Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined caregiving environments for 243 premature, low birthweight infants living in poverty to determine effects on health and development. Found that children's health and development benefited significantly from six protective caregiving factors: (1) increased parental responsiveness; (2) availability of toys and learning materials; (3)…

Bradley, Robert H.; And Others

1994-01-01

381

Early Effects of the Federally Mandated Local Wellness Policy on School Nutrition Environments Appear Modest in Colorado's Rural, Low-Income Elementary Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity, US school districts participating in the National School Lunch Program were required to create a Local Wellness Policy (LWP) by June 2006. The What's Working project described the initial influence of this mandate on nutrition environments and policies. In 2005 and 2007 (before and after the mandate went into effect), a

Elaine S. Belansky; Nick Cutforth; Erin Delong; Jill Litt; Lynn Gilbert; Sharon Scarbro; Bridget Beatty; Cathy Romaniello; Lois Brink; Julie A. Marshall

2010-01-01

382

Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E.; Afifi, Abdelmonem A.; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G.

2012-01-01

383

Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.  

PubMed

Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

Berkey, Franklin J

2010-08-15

384

Revisiting cutaneous adverse reactions to pemetrexed  

PubMed Central

Pemetrexed (Alimta®) is a multitargeted antifolate drug approved as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of a small number of malignancies including advanced and metastatic non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and malignant pleural mesothelioma. This review reports the recent peer-reviewed publications and original findings regarding cutaneous adverse reactions (CARs) to pemetrexed. Pemetrexed-related CARs are frequently reported under the unspecific term ‘skin rash’. However, more specific diseases were tentatively identified as alopecias, urticarial vasculitis, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, radiation recall dermatitis and pityriasis lichenoides. Most of the skin reactions occur shortly after pemetrexed administration. As with methotrexate-related CARs, the cell cycle arrest in the S phase may be regarded as a direct and major cause of the cytotoxic pathobiology. An adverse immune reaction is unlikely. In conclusion, pemetrexed is responsible for CARs exhibiting a variety of clinical presentations. Their origin is likely attributed to direct cytotoxicity following the cell cycle arrest in the S phase and cell necrosis. PMID:22866124

Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine; Quatresooz, Pascale; Reginster, Marie-Annick; Pierard, Gerald E.

2011-01-01

385

40 CFR 350.21 - Adverse health effects.  

...2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Adverse health effects. 350.21 Section 350.21...INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy Claims § 350.21 Adverse health effects. The Governor or State...

2014-07-01

386

Lifetime Adversity Leads to Blunted Stress Axis Reactivity: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project  

PubMed Central

Background Can stressful events in early life alter the response characteristics of the human stress axis? Individual differences in stress reactivity are considered potentially important in long-term health and disease, however little is known about the sources of these individual differences. We present evidence that adverse experience in childhood and adolescence can alter core components of the stress axis, including cortisol and heart rate reactivity. Methods We exposed 354 healthy young adults (196 women) to public speaking and mental arithmetic stressors in the laboratory. Stress responses were indexed by self-report, heart rate, and cortisol levels relative to measures on a nonstress control day. Subjects were grouped into those who had experienced 0, 1, or 2 or more significant adverse life events including Physical or Sexual Adversity (mugged, threatened with a weapon, experienced a break-in or robbery; or raped or sexually assaulted by a relative or nonrelative) or Emotional Adversity (separation from biological mother or father for at least 6 months prior to age 15). Results Experience of adversity predicted smaller heart rate and cortisol responses to the stressors in a dose-dependent fashion (0 > 1 > 2 or more events; (Fs = 5.79 and 8.11, ps < .004) for both men and women. This was not explained by differences in socioeconomic status, the underlying cortisol diurnal cycle, or subjective experience during the stress procedure. Conclusion The results indicate a long-term impact of stressful life experience on the reactivity of the human stress axis. PMID:22112928

Lovallo, William R.; Farag, Noha H.; Sorocco, Kristen H.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Vincent, Andrea S.

2011-01-01

387

Lifecourse Adversity and Physical Performance across Countries among Men and Women Aged 65-74  

PubMed Central

Background This study examines the associations between lifecourse adversity and physical performance in old age in different societies of North and South America and Europe. Methods We used data from the baseline survey of the International Study of Mobility in Aging, conducted in: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia) and Tirana (Albania). The study population was composed of community dwelling people between 65 and 74 years of age, recruiting 200 men and 200 women at each site. Physical Performance was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Economic and social adversity was estimated from childhood adverse events, low education, semi-skilled occupations during adulthood and living alone and insufficient income in old age. Results A total of 1995 people were assessed. Low physical performance was associated with childhood social and economic adversity, semi-skilled occupations, living alone and insufficient income. Physical performance was lower in participants living in Colombia, Brazil and Albania than in Canada counterparts, despite adjustment for lifecourse adversity, age and sex. Conclusions We show evidence of the early origins of social and economic inequalities in physical performance during old age in distinct populations and for the independent and cumulative disadvantage of low socioeconomic status during adulthood and poverty and living alone in later life. PMID:25101981

Sousa, Ana Carolina Patricio de Albuquerque; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Thanh Tu, Mai; Phillips, Susan P.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

2014-01-01

388

Patient stratification and identification of adverse event correlations in the space of 1190 drug related adverse events  

PubMed Central

Purpose: New pharmacovigilance methods are needed as a consequence of the morbidity caused by drugs. We exploit fine-grained drug related adverse event information extracted by text mining from electronic medical records (EMRs) to stratify patients based on their adverse events and to determine adverse event co-occurrences. Methods: We analyzed the similarity of adverse event profiles of 2347 patients extracted from EMRs from a mental health center in Denmark. The patients were clustered based on their adverse event profiles and the similarities were presented as a network. The set of adverse events in each main patient cluster was evaluated. Co-occurrences of adverse events in patients (p-value < 0.01) were identified and presented as well. Results: We found that each cluster of patients typically had a most distinguishing adverse event. Examination of the co-occurrences of adverse events in patients led to the identification of potentially interesting adverse event correlations that may be further investigated as well as provide further patient stratification opportunities. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approach in pharmacovigilance to stratify patients based on fine-grained adverse event profiles, which also makes it possible to identify adverse event correlations. Used on larger data sets, this data-driven method has the potential to reveal unknown patterns concerning adverse event occurrences.

Roitmann, Eva; Eriksson, Robert; Brunak, S?ren

2014-01-01

389

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re\\/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For

F. Annibali; R. Grützbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2011-01-01

390

Adversity and Resilience: A Synthesis of International Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and adolescents worldwide experience a variety of adversities that have the potential to disrupt typical development. However, some of these individuals exhibit resilience, evidencing normal development in the face of adversity. Here we review research on these constructs of risk, adversity, and resilience; synthesize international…

Noltemeyer, Amity L.; Bush, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

391

Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: a case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The current focus on identifying genes which predispose to psychiatric illness sharpens the need to identify environmental factors which interact with genetic predisposition and thus contribute to the multifactorial causation of these disorders. One such factor may be early parental loss (EPL). The putative relationship between early environmental stressors such as parental loss and psychopathology in adult life has intrigued psychiatrists for most of this century. We report a case control study in which rates of EPL, due to parental death or permanent separation before the age of 17 years were evaluated in patients with major depression (MD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia (SCZ), compared to individually matched, healthy control subjects (MD-Control, 79 pairs; BPD-Control, 79 pairs; SCZ-Control, 76 pairs). Loss of parent during childhood significantly increased the likelihood of developing MD during adult life (OR=3.8, P=0.001). The effect of loss due to permanent separation (P=0.008) was more striking than loss due to death, as was loss before the age of 9 years (OR=11.0, P=0.003) compared to later childhood and adolescence. The overall rate of EPL was also increased in BPD (OR=2.6, P=0.048) but there were no significant findings in any of the subcategories of loss. A significantly increased rate of EPL was observed in schizophrenia patients (OR=3.8, P=0.01), particularly before the age of 9 years (OR=4.3, P=0.01). Comparison of psychosocial, medical and clinical characteristics of subjects with and without a history of EPL, within the larger patient groups from which the matched samples were drawn (MD, n=136; BPD, n=107; SCZ, n=160), yielded few significant findings. Among the controls (n=170), however, subjects who had experienced EPL, reported lower incomes, had been divorced more frequently, were more likely to be living alone, were more likely to smoke or have smoked cigarettes and reported more physical illness (P=0.03-0.001). Long term neurobiological consequences of early environmental stressors such as maternal deprivation have been extensively studied in many animal species. Recently, enduring changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, including corticotrophin releasing factor gene expression, have received particular attention. Analogous processes may be implicated in the effect of EPL on human vulnerability to psychopathology, via alterations in responsiveness to stress. Genetic predisposition may influence the degree of susceptibility of the individual to the effects of early environmental stress and may also determine the psychopathological entity to which the individual is rendered vulnerable as a consequence of the stress. PMID:10208448

Agid, O; Shapira, B; Zislin, J; Ritsner, M; Hanin, B; Murad, H; Troudart, T; Bloch, M; Heresco-Levy, U; Lerer, B

1999-03-01

392

Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: a longitudinal survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been consistently linked to psychiatric difficulties in children and adults. However, the long-term effects of ACEs on mental health during the early adult years have been understudied. In addition, many studies are methodologically limited by use of non-representative samples, and few studies have investigated gender and racial differences. The current study relates self-reported lifetime

Elizabeth A Schilling; Robert H Aseltine Jr; Susan Gore

2007-01-01

393

Frequent adverse events after treatment for childhood-onset differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a single institute experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mortality rate for childhood differentiated thyroid carcinoma is nearly zero, the focus must be to minimise morbidity following treatment. Our aim was to analyse early and late adverse events. Twenty-five of 26 children treated between 1962 and 2002 were evaluated. Median follow-up was 14.2 years (range 0.9–39.4 years). All underwent total thyroidectomy, 15 (60%) with lymph node dissection

H. M van Santen; D. C. Aronson; T. Vulsma; R. F. H. M. Tummers; M. M. Geenen; J. J. M de Vijlder; C van den Bos

2004-01-01

394

The Canadian Adverse Events Study: the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Research into adverse events (AEs) has highlighted the need to improve patient safety. AEs are unintended injuries or complications resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay that arise from health care management. We esti- mated the incidence of AEs among patients in Canadian acute care hospitals. Methods: We randomly selected 1 teaching, 1 large community and 2 small

G. Ross Baker; Peter G. Norton; Virginia Flintoft; Régis Blais; Adalsteinn Brown; Jafna Cox; Ed Etchells; William A. Ghali; Philip Hébert; Sumit R. Majumdar; Maeve O'Beirne; Luz Palacios-Derflingher; Robert J. Reid; Sam Sheps; Robyn Tamblyn

2004-01-01

395

Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder. PMID:24174009

Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

2014-06-01

396

Measles vaccines: a review of adverse events.  

PubMed

A great deal of controversy has recently been generated over the publication of several articles implicating measles vaccine in the induction of Crohn's disease and autism. The publication of this work has already had a negative impact on measles vaccine acceptance in the UK. These allegations are particularly troubling because they arise in the context of increased use of measles vaccine as global control of measles nears and the international community considers strategies for a drive towards eradication. In 1994, the US Institute of Medicine reviewed the world literature and published a comprehensive review of adverse events associated with measles-containing vaccines. Reviewing the literature published between 1994 and the present day, reveals that there is considerable new data suggesting that modified gelatin rather than egg proteins is responsible for most episodes of anaphylaxis following measles vaccination. New work weakens the possible links between measles vaccine and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and Guillain-Barré syndrome, but strengthens the rare association of measles-containing vaccines with post infectious encephalomyelitis. The alleged associations between measles vaccination and Crohn's disease and autism are based upon weak science and have largely been refuted by a large volume of stronger work. A review of the data generated in the last 4 years amply demonstrates the continued efforts of the scientific community to monitor and understand true measles vaccine-associated adverse events. The rapidity and clarity of this same community's debunking of the spurious associations with Crohn's disease and autism suggests that those charged with vaccination programmes have learned from past mistakes. During 30 years of worldwide use, measles vaccination has proven to be one of the safest and most successful health interventions in the history of mankind. It is not a 'perfect' vaccine, but the benefits of measles vaccination far outweigh the risks even in countries with low incidence of measles and high rates of measles vaccine coverage. PMID:9880088

Duclos, P; Ward, B J

1998-12-01

397

Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies show that young children can be exposed to pesticides during normal oral exploration of their environment and their level of dermal contact with floors and other surfaces. Children living in agricultural areas may be exposed to higher pesticide levels than other children because of pesticides tracked into their homes by household members, by pesticide drift, by breast milk from their farmworker mother, or by playing in nearby fields. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the extent of children's pesticide exposure, and no studies have examined whether there are adverse health effects of chronic exposure. There is substantial toxicologic evidence that repeated low-level exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides may affect neurodevelopment and growth in developing animals. For example, animal studies have reported neurobehavorial effects such as impairment on maze performance, locomotion, and balance in neonates exposed (italic)in utero(/italic) and during early postnatal life. Possible mechanisms for these effects include inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase, downregulation of muscarinic receptors, decreased brain DNA synthesis, and reduced brain weight in offspring. Research findings also suggest that it is biologically plausible that OP exposure may be related to respiratory disease in children through dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. The University of California Berkeley Center for Children's Environmental Health Research is working to build a community-university partnership to study the environmental health of rural children. This Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas, or CHAMACOS in Monterey County, California, will assess (italic)in utero(/italic) and postnatal OP pesticide exposure and the relationship of exposure to neurodevelopment, growth, and symptoms of respiratory illness in children. The ultimate goal of the center is to translate research findings into a reduction of children's exposure to pesticides and other environmental agents, and thereby reduce the incidence of environmentally related disease. PMID:10346990

Eskenazi, B; Bradman, A; Castorina, R

1999-01-01

398

Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10?696 respondents – 59.7% female – aged 18–25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Findings Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32–2.15) – for physical inactivity – to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98–76.65) – for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Conclusion Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European. PMID:25378755

Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betul; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

2014-01-01

399

Peer support: healthcare professionals supporting each other after adverse medical events.  

PubMed

The patient safety movement in healthcare is beginning to openly acknowledge the need to support the human side of adverse medical events in conjunction with evidence-based improvement initiatives. While medical literature has sporadically reported on the emotional impact of adverse events on healthcare professionals, little has been documented on the implementation of support services following these events. This article describes an adverse medical event where open communication and apology catalysed the development and implementation of a structured peer support service for care providers at the Brigham and Women's Hospital following adverse events. The Peer Support Service bypasses the stigmas that limit the utilisation of formal support services and offers care providers a safe environment to share the emotional impact of adverse events while serving as a foundation for open communication and a renewal of compassion in the workplace. As the breadth of stressors impacting healthcare professionals is revealed, the Peer Support Service is being recognised as a vital hospital-wide service. It also appears to offer an important leap forward in the critical areas of patient safety and quality of care. PMID:18678720

van Pelt, F

2008-08-01

400

The NAS perchlorate review: Adverse effects?  

SciTech Connect

To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their concl