Note: This page contains sample records for the topic adverse early environment from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Impact of early childhood adversities on adult psychiatric disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study investigated international adoptees who were taken out of their problematic environments as a consequence of their\\u000a adoption to determine the effects of early adversities on adult psychiatric disorders, and to study whether these effects\\u000a emerged de novo after childhood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 1,364 adoptees (63.5% of the baseline sample) were followed. Parents provided information about early adversities\\u000a prior

Esther J. M. van der Vegt; Wendy Tieman; Jan van der Ende; Robert F. Ferdinand; Frank C. Verhulst; Henning Tiemeier

2009-01-01

2

Practitioner Review: Early Adversity and Developmental Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Knowledge of genetic influences, on developmental disorders such as autism spectrum, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities, has increased the opportunities for understanding the influences of the early environment. Methods: This paper provides a selective, narrative review for clinicians of the effects of…

Taylor, Eric; Rogers, Jody Warner

2005-01-01

3

TOWARDS AUTOMATIC SPEECH RECOGNITION IN ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of our research efforts towards building Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems designed to work in real-world conditions are presented. The methods we pro- pose exhibit improved performance in noisy environments and offer robustness against speaker variability. Advanced nonlinear signal processing techniques, modulation- and chaotic-based, are utilized for auditory feature extraction. The auditory features are complemented with visual speech cues

D. Dimitriadis; N. Katsamanis; P. Maragos; G. Papandreou; V. Pitsikalis

4

Early Learning Environments That Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the early care and education environment is a vital contribution to children's learning, this book examines the early childhood learning environment with the vision of making it a place where young children will be physically, emotionally, esthetically, and intellectually nurtured. The chapters are: (1) "The Power of the Environment…

Isbell, Rebecca; Exelby, Betty

5

Nature and Nurture Predispose to Violent Behavior: Serotonergic Genes and Adverse Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive behavior is influenced by variation in genes of the serotonergic circuitry and early-life experience alike. The present study aimed at investigating the contribution of polymorphisms shown to moderate transcription of two genes involved in serotonergic neurotransmission (serotonin transporter, 5HTT, and monoamine oxidase A, MAOA) to the development of violence and to test for gene–environment interactions relating to adverse childhood

Andreas Reif; Michael Rösler; Christine M Freitag; Marc Schneider; Andrea Eujen; Christian Kissling; Denise Wenzler; Christian P Jacob; Petra Retz-Junginger; Johannes Thome; Klaus-Peter Lesch; Wolfgang Retz

2007-01-01

6

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity.  

PubMed

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J; Novak, Matthew F X; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J

2012-05-21

7

Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity  

PubMed Central

This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life.

Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J.; Novak, Matthew F. X.; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

8

Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging  

PubMed Central

Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity.

Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

2012-01-01

9

Cryptic prophages help bacteria cope with adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Phages are the most abundant entity in the biosphere and outnumber bacteria by a factor of 10. Phage DNA may also constitute 20% of bacterial genomes; however, its role is ill defined. Here, we explore the impact of cryptic prophages on cell physiology by precisely deleting all nine prophage elements (166?kbp) using Escherichia coli. We find that cryptic prophages contribute significantly to resistance to sub-lethal concentrations of quinolone and ?-lactam antibiotics primarily through proteins that inhibit cell division (for example, KilR of rac and DicB of Qin). Moreover, the prophages are beneficial for withstanding osmotic, oxidative and acid stresses, for increasing growth, and for influencing biofilm formation. Prophage CPS-53 proteins YfdK, YfdO and YfdS enhanced resistance to oxidative stress, prophages e14, CPS-53 and CP4-57 increased resistance to acid, and e14 and rac proteins increased early biofilm formation. Therefore, cryptic prophages provide multiple benefits to the host for surviving adverse environmental conditions.

Wang, Xiaoxue; Kim, Younghoon; Ma, Qun; Hong, Seok Hoon; Pokusaeva, Karina; Sturino, Joseph M.; Wood, Thomas K.

2010-01-01

10

Epigenetic programming of neurodegenerative diseases by an adverse environment.  

PubMed

Experience and environment can critically influence the risk and progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, readily respond to experience and environmental factors. Here we propose that epigenetic regulation of gene expression and environmental modulation thereof may play a key role in the onset and course of common neurological conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. For example, epigenetic mechanisms may mediate long-term responses to adverse experience, such as stress, to affect disease susceptibility and the course of neurodegenerative events. This review introduces the epigenetic components and their possible role in mediating neuropathological processes in response to stress. We argue that epigenetic modifications will affect neurodegenerative events through altered gene function. The study of epigenetic states in neurodegenerative diseases presents an opportunity to gain new insights into risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms. Moreover, research into epigenetic regulation of disease may revolutionize health care by opening new avenues of personalized, preventive and curative medicine. PMID:22330722

Babenko, Olena; Kovalchuk, Igor; Metz, Gerlinde A

2012-01-24

11

Space-time clusters of adverse health events as a means of early detection of departure from planned containment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of rare health events offer a novel means for assessing community health impacts from excursions of hazardous contaminants into the ambient environment. Clusters of these infrequent, adverse health occurrences provide sentinel phenomena to epidemiologists for the purpose of formulating preventive strategies and decision rules. The goal of early identification and interpretation of these case clusters has led to the

T. E. Aldrich; C. E. Easterly

1987-01-01

12

Differential gene body methylation and reduced expression of cell adhesion and neurotransmitter receptor genes in adverse maternal environment.  

PubMed

Early life adversity, including adverse gestational and postpartum maternal environment, is a contributing factor in the development of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety and depression but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In a model of gestational maternal adversity that leads to innate anxiety, increased stress reactivity and impaired vocal communication in the offspring, we asked if a specific DNA methylation signature is associated with the emergence of the behavioral phenotype. Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses identified 2.3% of CpGs as differentially methylated (that is, differentially methylated sites, DMSs) by the adverse environment in ventral-hippocampal granule cells, neurons that can be linked to the anxiety phenotype. DMSs were typically clustered and these clusters were preferentially located at gene bodies. Although CpGs are typically either highly methylated or unmethylated, DMSs had an intermediate (20-80%) methylation level that may contribute to their sensitivity to environmental adversity. The adverse maternal environment resulted in either hyper or hypomethylation at DMSs. Clusters of DMSs were enriched in genes that encode cell adhesion molecules and neurotransmitter receptors; some of which were also downregulated, indicating multiple functional deficits at the synapse in adversity. Pharmacological and genetic evidence links many of these genes to anxiety. PMID:23340501

Oh, J-E; Chambwe, N; Klein, S; Gal, J; Andrews, S; Gleason, G; Shaknovich, R; Melnick, A; Campagne, F; Toth, M

2013-01-22

13

Early childhood adversity and later hypertension: Data from the World Mental Health Survey  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Although many studies have indicated that psychosocial factors contribute to hypertension, and that early childhood adversity is associated with long-term adverse mental and physical health sequelae, the association between early adversity and later hypertension is not well studied. METHOD Data from 10 countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WHM) Surveys (N = 18,630) were analyzed to assess the relationship between childhood adversity and adult-onset hypertension, as ascertained by self-report. The potentially mediating effect of early-onset depression-anxiety disorders, as assessed by the WHM Survey version of the International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), on the relationship between early adversity and hypertension was also examined. RESULTS Two or more early childhood adversities, as well as early-onset depression-anxiety, were significantly associated with hypertension. A range of specific childhood adversities, as well as early-onset social phobia and panic/agoraphobia, were significantly associated with hypertension. In multivariate analyses, the presence of 3 or more childhood adversities was associated with hypertension, even when early-onset depression-anxiety or current depression-anxiety was included in the model. CONCLUSIONS Although caution is required in the interpretation of self-report data on adult-onset hypertension, the results of this study further strengthen the evidence base regarding the role of psychosocial factors in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

Stein, Dan J.; Scott, Kate; Haro Abad, Josep M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Demytteneare, Koen; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Iwata, Noboru; Posada-Villa, Jose; Kovess, Viviane; Lara, Carmen; Ormel, Johan; Kessler, Ronald C.; Von Korff, Michael

2012-01-01

14

Early life environment and snoring in adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To our knowledge, no studies of the possible association of early life environment with snoring in adulthood have been published. We aimed to investigate whether early life environment is associated with snoring later in life. METHODS: A questionnaire including snoring frequency in adulthood and environmental factors in early life was obtained from 16,190 randomly selected men and women, aged

Karl A Franklin; Christer Janson; Thórarinn Gíslason; Amund Gulsvik; Maria Gunnbjörnsdottir; Birger N Laerum; Eva Lindberg; Eva Norrman; Lennarth Nyström; Ernst Omenaas; Kjell Torén; Cecilie Svanes

2008-01-01

15

Production of laser simulation systems for adverse environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production methods of laser simulation systems for use in environments with a high degree of agressiveness are reviewed for both terrestrial and airborne applications. Particular attention given to generally accepted standards that take into account the real field conditions of the systems applications. These standards and their relation to the quality control for lasers, electronics, and optics in the most severe environments are used for the laser based simulation systems designed and produced in Portugal.

Rodrigues, F. C.; Simao, J. V.; Oliveira, Joao; Freitas, J. C.; Carvalho, Fernando D.

1991-03-01

16

Intergenerational health responses to adverse and enriched environments.  

PubMed

Health consequences of relative or absolute poverty constitute a definitive area of study in social medicine. As demonstrated in the extreme example of the Dutch Hunger Winter from 1944 to 1945, prenatal hunger can lead to adult schizophrenia and depression. A Norwegian study showed how childhood poverty resulted in a heightened risk of myocardial infarction in adulthood. In England, a study of extended impaired prenatal nutrition indicated three different types of increased cardiovascular risk at older ages. Current animal and human studies link both adverse and enriched environmental exposures to intergenerational transmission. We do not fully understand the molecular mechanisms for it; however, studies that follow up epigenetic marks within a generation combined with exploration of gametic epigenetic inheritance may help explain the prevalence of certain conditions such as cardiovascular disease, schizophrenia, and alcoholism, which have complex etiologies. Insights from these studies will be of great public health importance. PMID:23297658

Bygren, Lars Olov

2013-01-07

17

Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

2009-01-01

18

Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: Implications for academic adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early adversity can negatively impact the development of cognitive functions, although little is known about whether such effects can be remediated later in life. The current study examined one facet of executive functioning – inhibitory control – among children who experienced institutional care and explored the impact of a foster care intervention within the context of the Bucharest Early Intervention

Jennifer M. McDermott; Alissa Westerlund; Charles H. Zeanah; Charles A. Nelson; Nathan A. Fox

19

Importance of Studying the Contributions of Early Adverse Experience to Neurobiological Findings in Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Almost four decades of intensive research have sought to elucidate the neurobiological bases of depression. Epidemiological studies have revealed that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for depression. Adverse early-life experiences influence neurobiological systems within genetic limits, leading to the neurobiological and behavioral manifestations of depression. We summarize the burgeoning evidence concerning a pre-eminent role of early

Christine Heim; Paul M Plotsky; Charles B Nemeroff

2004-01-01

20

The impact of early adverse care on HPA axis development: Nonhuman primate models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents supporting evidence that early disruptions in mother–infant relationship in primates, including infant maltreatment, are important risk factors for the development of psychopathology and pathophysiology during childhood and adolescence. Current research in this field is trying to identify important aspects of early adverse experiences such as the timing, frequency, duration, “perceived” intensity of the stressful or traumatic events,

Mar M. Sanchez

2006-01-01

21

Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

2012-01-01

22

A novel BDNF polymorphism affects plasma protein levels in interaction with early adversity in rhesus macaques  

PubMed Central

Summary Early stressful events can increase vulnerability for psychopathology, although knowledge on the effectors is still limited. In this report we describe the characterization of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in rhesus macaques, which results in a Val to Met transition in the pro-BDNF domain, similar to a well described variant in the human gene. Further, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral levels of BDNF, which is involved in the response to stress and in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression, might be differentially affected in a non-human primate model of early adverse rearing in a genotype-dependent manner. Males and females rhesus macaques reared either with their mothers (MR), in peer-only groups (PR), or in a “surrogate/peer-reared” (SPR) condition with limited peer interactions, were used as experimental subjects. BDNF levels were determined at baseline on postnatal days (PND) 14, 30 and 60 by means of specific ELISA procedure. Data indicate that BDNF levels were increased as a result of peer-rearing and that this increase was moderated by the presence of the SNP. Overall these data indicate that a SNP, which results in a Val to Met transition in the pro-BDNF domain, is present in rhesus macaques and is able to affect BDNF peripheral levels, thus making this primate model a fundamental tool to study gene by environment interactions involving the BDNF gene.

Cirulli, Francesca; Reif, Andreas; Herterich, Sabine; Lesch, K. Peter; Berry, Alessandra; Francia, Nadia; Aloe, Luigi; Barr, Christina S.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Alleva, Enrico

2010-01-01

23

Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings. PMID:23397493

Isaksson, Johan; Nilsson, Kent W; Lindblad, Frank

2013-02-09

24

Early Childhood Adversities and Trajectories of Psychiatric Problems in Adoptees: Evidence for Long Lasting Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric\\u000a problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time\\u000a passes. A sample of 1,984 international adoptees was followed (955 males and 1029 females; adopted at the mean age of 29 months).\\u000a Parents provided

Esther J. M. van der Vegt; Jan van der Ende; Robert F. Ferdinand; Frank C. Verhulst; Henning Tiemeier

2009-01-01

25

Epigenomic Mechanisms of Early Adversity and HPA Dysfunction: Considerations for PTSD Research  

PubMed Central

Childhood adversity can have life-long consequences for the response to stressful events later in life. Abuse or severe neglect are well-known risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at least in part via changes in neural systems mediating the endocrine response to stress. Determining the biological signatures of risk for stress-related mental disorders such as PTSD is important for identifying homogenous subgroups and improving treatment options. This review will focus on epigenetic regulation in early life by adversity and parental care – prime mediators of offspring neurodevelopment – in order to address several questions: (1) what have studies of humans and analogous animal models taught us about molecular mechanisms underlying changes in stress-sensitive physiological systems in response to early life trauma? (2) What are the considerations for studies relating early adversity and PTSD risk, going forward? I will summarize studies in animals and humans that address the epigenetic response to early adversity in the brain and in peripheral tissues. In so doing, I will describe work on the glucocorticoid receptor and other well-characterized genes within the stress response pathway and then turn to genomic studies to illustrate the use of increasingly powerful high-throughput approaches to the study of epigenomic mechanisms.

McGowan, Patrick O.

2013-01-01

26

Childhood Adversities and Delinquency in Early Adolescence: Analyses of Samples from the Former Germanies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk factors for early adolescents' (700 between the ages of 10 to 13) delinquency were compared between groups of children high and low in childhood adversities. The samples represented young people from the two former Germanies (200 from former East and 500 from West Germany) who were interviewed in person. Additional information was gathered…

Silbereisen, Rainer K.; And Others

27

Impact of early adverse experience on complexity of adult-generated neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

New neurons continue to be generated in the dentate gyrus (DG) region of the hippocampus throughout adulthood, and abnormal regulation of this process has emerged as an endophenotype common to several psychiatric disorders. Previous research shows that genetic risk factors associated with schizophrenia alter the maturation of adult-generated neurons. Here, we investigate whether early adversity, a potential environmental risk factor,

A T Leslie; K G Akers; A D Krakowski; S S D Stone; M Sakaguchi; M Arruda-Carvalho; P W Frankland

2011-01-01

28

Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI) to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19%) showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6%) experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55%) over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape adversity, for many this negative family environment persists over the first 15 years of life. Different profiles of family risk may be associated with specific mental disorders in young people. Sex differences in psychopathologies may be most pronounced in those exposed to low levels of family adversities.

2011-01-01

29

Impulsivity as a Mediating Mechanism Between Early-Life Adversity and Addiction: Theoretical Comment on Lovic et al. (2011)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life adversity, impulsivity, and dopaminergic function have all been implicated in adult drug addiction. The article by Lovic, Keen, Fletcher, and Fleming in this issue further elucidates this relationship by demonstrating that early-life adversity can increase impulsivity and decrease behavioral flexibility in adulthood. Recent literature suggests that these results are likely due to structural and functional changes in regions such

Jay Hosking; Catharine A. Winstanley

2011-01-01

30

Putative biological mechanisms for the association between early life adversity and the subsequent development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Early Life Stress (ELS) increases risk for both adult traumatization and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Adult PTSD\\u000a may also reflect a continuation of a response to an earlier exposure to adversity. Given similarities between neuroendocrine\\u000a aspects of PTSD and ELS, such as in reduced cortisol signaling and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, some aspects\\u000a of the biology of PTSD may reflect

Rachel Yehuda; Janine D. Flory; Laura C. Pratchett; Joseph Buxbaum; Marcus Ising; Florian Holsboer

2010-01-01

31

[Early adverse reactions after vaccination against influenza in chronically ill people].  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the early adverse reactions after vaccination against influenza with the use of Fluarix vaccine (SmithKline Beecham) in chronically ill people. 1010 people were selected to undergo vaccination. The group included 621 women aged on average 44.2 years and 389 men aged on average 48.2. The vaccination was conducted simultaneously and the period of adverse reactions monitoring lasted 14 days. The vaccination was performed in accordance with recommendations of manufacturer. All the vaccinated people suffered from circulatory system disorders, bone system disorders, mental disorders and endocrinological problems. They were in the period of remission during the vaccination. The observed symptoms were classified into two categories: local and general. The local symptoms included swelling, reddening and pain in the vaccinated area. 67 people (6.6%) reported swelling, 85 (8.4%) reported reddening, 12 people (1.2%) reported pain in the vaccinated area. The general symptoms included headache, bad mood and temperature over 37.5 degrees C. 19 people (1.9%) reported bad mood, 10 people (1%)--headache and 8 people (0.8%) reported temperature over 37.5 degrees C. Coexistence of two or three types of symptoms was present in 15 cases (1.5%). The low percentage of early adverse reactions encourages a wider use of vaccines against influenza in chronically ill people. PMID:12428564

Ga?aj, Andrzej; Grze?k, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Durmowicz, Anna

2002-01-01

32

Optical systems in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Singapore, Oct. 22-27, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Consideration is given to environmental effects, lasers and laser techniques, field instrumentation, and metrology. Topics discussed include atmospheric effects on laser systems, fungal testing of diode laser collimators, recording and analysis of high-frequency sinusoidal vibrations using computerized TV-holography, solid state lasers for field applications, applications of laser techniques in fluid mechanics, production of laser simulation systems for adverse environments, a microprocessor-based laser range finder, a study on Hadamard transform imaging spectroscopy, the real-time automatic inspection under adverse conditions, laser sensing in the iron-making blast furnace, reconstruction of 3D displacement fields by carrier holography, a passive range and azimuth measuring system, an integrated optics temperature sensor, and integrated optics in optical engineering.

Tam, Siuchung; Silva, D.E.; Kuok, M.H.

1991-01-01

33

Optical systems in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Singapore, Oct. 22-27, 1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration is given to environmental effects, lasers and laser techniques, field instrumentation, and metrology. Topics discussed include atmospheric effects on laser systems, fungal testing of diode laser collimators, recording and analysis of high-frequency sinusoidal vibrations using computerized TV-holography, solid state lasers for field applications, applications of laser techniques in fluid mechanics, production of laser simulation systems for adverse environments, a microprocessor-based laser range finder, a study on Hadamard transform imaging spectroscopy, the real-time automatic inspection under adverse conditions, laser sensing in the iron-making blast furnace, reconstruction of 3D displacement fields by carrier holography, a passive range and azimuth measuring system, an integrated optics temperature sensor, and integrated optics in optical engineering. (For individual items see A93-17759 to A93-17775)

Tam, Siu-Chung; Silva, Donald E.; Kuok, M. H.

1991-03-01

34

Early environments and the ecology of inflammation.  

PubMed

Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation, early environments moderate responses to inflammatory stimuli later in life, with implications for the association between inflammation and chronic diseases. Attention to the eco-logics of inflammation may point to promising directions for future research, enriching our understanding of this important physiological system and informing approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:23045646

McDade, Thomas W

2012-10-08

35

Early environments and the ecology of inflammation  

PubMed Central

Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation, early environments moderate responses to inflammatory stimuli later in life, with implications for the association between inflammation and chronic diseases. Attention to the eco-logics of inflammation may point to promising directions for future research, enriching our understanding of this important physiological system and informing approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease.

McDade, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

36

Elimination of the Adverse Effects of Urea Fertilizer on Seed Germination, Seedling Growth, and Early Plant Growth in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly increasing importance of urea fertilizer in world agriculture has stimulated research to find methods of reducing the problems associated with the use of this fertilizer. One of these problems is that urea has adverse effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and early plant growth in soil. Because there is evidence that these adverse effects are caused largely, if

John M. Bremner; Michael J. Krogmeier

1988-01-01

37

Early life adversity reduces stress reactivity and enhances impulsive behavior: Implications for health behaviors.  

PubMed

Altered reactivity to stress, either in the direction of exaggerated reactivity or diminished reactivity, may signal a dysregulation of systems intended to maintain homeostasis and a state of good health. Evidence has accumulated that diminished reactivity to psychosocial stress may signal poor health outcomes. One source of diminished cortisol and autonomic reactivity is the experience of adverse rearing during childhood and adolescence. The Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project has examined a cohort of 426 healthy young adults with and without a family history of alcoholism. Regardless of family history, persons who had experienced high degrees of adversity prior to age 16 had a constellation of changes including reduced cortisol and heart rate reactivity, diminished cognitive capacity, and unstable regulation of affect, leading to behavioral impulsivity and antisocial tendencies. We present a model whereby this constellation of physiological, cognitive, and affective tendencies is consistent with altered central dopaminergic activity leading to changes in brain function that may foster impulsive and risky behaviors. These in turn may promote greater use of alcohol other drugs along with adopting poor health behaviors. This model provides a pathway from early life adversity to low stress reactivity that forms a basis for risky behaviors and poor health outcomes. PMID:23085387

Lovallo, William R

2012-10-17

38

Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12–20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected

Nathalie S. Saridjan; Anja C. Huizink; Jitske A. Koetsier; Vincent W. Jaddoe; Johan P. Mackenbach; Albert Hofman; Clemens Kirschbaum; Frank C. Verhulst; Henning Tiemeier

2010-01-01

39

Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12–20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents

N. S. Saridjan; A. C. Huizink; J. A. Koetsier; V. W. Jaddoe; J. P. Mackenbach; A. Hofman; C. Kirschbaum; F. C. Verhulst; H. Tiemeier

2009-01-01

40

Examining the relationships between prenatal methamphetamine exposure, early adversity, and child neurobehavioral disinhibition.  

PubMed

Methamphetamine use is a growing problem among pregnant women in the United States. Many negative consequences of methamphetamine use have been documented for the users, but little research has examined the long-term association between prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and childhood outcomes. The current study examined the extent to which PME was predictive of childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), as well as the extent to which early adversity mediated this relationship. A sample of 320 mother-infant dyads (162 PME) was followed from birth through 6.5 years of age. ND was conceptualized as a two factor model consisting of deficits in (a) behavioral and emotional control, and (b) executive function. PME was associated with behavioral and emotional control at 5 years, which was associated with executive function deficits at 6.5 years. Early adversity (birth through year 3) significantly mediated the relationship between PME and ND. Associations with previous research and implications for prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23067308

Abar, Beau; Lagasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Smith, Lynne M; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

2012-10-15

41

Do social disadvantage and early family adversity affect the diurnal cortisol rhythm in infants? The Generation R Study.  

PubMed

Dysregulation of diurnal cortisol secretion patterns may explain the link between adversities early in life and later mental health problems. However, few studies have investigated the influence of social disadvantage and family adversity on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis early in life. In 366 infants aged 12-20 months from the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort from fetal life onwards, parents collected saliva samples from their infant at 5 moments over the course of 1 day. The area under the curve (AUC), the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the diurnal cortisol slope were calculated as different composite measures of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Information about social disadvantage and early adversity was collected using prenatal and postnatal questionnaires. We found that older infants showed lower AUC levels; moreover, infants with a positive CAR were significantly older. Both the AUC and the CAR were related to indicators of social disadvantage and early adversity. Infants of low income families, in comparison to high income families, showed higher AUC levels and a positive CAR. Infants of mothers who smoked during pregnancy were also significantly more likely to show a positive CAR. Furthermore, infants of mothers experiencing parenting stress showed higher AUC levels. The results of our study show that effects of social disadvantage and early adversity on the diurnal cortisol rhythm are already observable in infants. This may reflect the influence of early negative life events on early maturation of the HPA axis. PMID:20006614

Saridjan, Nathalie S; Huizink, Anja C; Koetsier, Jitske A; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Mackenbach, Johan P; Hofman, Albert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

2009-12-16

42

Effects of early-life adversity on white matter diffusivity changes in patients at risk for major depression  

PubMed Central

Background Relatives of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and people who experienced early-life adversity are at risk for MDD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether unaffected first-degree healthy relatives (UHRs) of patients with MDD show changes in white matter fibre connections compared with healthy controls and whether there are interactions between early-life adversity and these microstructural changes. Methods Unaffected, healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and healthy controls without any family history for a psychiatric disease underwent high angular resolution diffusion imaging with 61 diffusion directions. Data were analyzed with tract-based spatial statistics, and findings were confirmed with tractography. Results Twenty-one UHRs and 24 controls participated in our study. The UHRs showed greater fractional anisotropy than controls in the body and splenium of the corpus callosum, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and right fornix. The UHRs who experienced more early-life adversity had greater fractional anisotropy than those with less early-life adversity in the splenium of the corpus callosum, fornix, IFO and SLF; in controls, early-life adversity was found to be associated with decreased fractional anisotropy in these fibre tracts. Limitations Studying participants’ strategies for coping with early-life adversity would have been helpful. Crossing fibres in tracts are a general limitation of the method used. Conclusion Altogether, our findings provide evidence for greater fractional anisotropy in UHRs and for interaction between early-life adversity and family risk on white matter tracts involved in cognitive–emotional processes. Whether stronger neural fibre connections are associated with more resilience against depression needs to be addressed in future studies.

Frodl, Thomas; Carballedo, Angela; Fagan, Andrew J.; Lisiecka, Danuta; Ferguson, Yolande; Meaney, James F.

2012-01-01

43

Early and adverse experiences with sex and alcohol are associated with adolescent drinking before and during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to examine the effects of early and adverse experiences with sex and alcohol on adolescent drinking the year before and during pregnancy. Pregnant adolescents, recruited at an outpatient prenatal clinic, were interviewed about their substance use. A subsample was asked about their first sexual experiences. Associations among early experiences with alcohol and sex and

Natacha M. De Genna; Cynthia Larkby; Marie D. Cornelius

2007-01-01

44

A functional serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism increases ADHD symptoms in delinquents: interaction with adverse childhood environment.  

PubMed

Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable, environmental conditions play an important role in its manifestation during childhood development. Here, we report the results of an investigation on the interaction of adverse childhood environment with a functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) and its impact on ADHD psychopathology in young adult delinquents. Standardized instruments were used to assess childhood and current ADHD and adverse childhood environment in 184 male delinquents. Each subject was genotyped for 5-HTTLPR long (L) and small (S) alleles. Logistic regression analysis revealed independent effects of high childhood environmental adversity and the 5-HTTLPR LL-genotype on self-reported childhood ADHD and on persistent ADHD. In addition, a significant gene by environment interaction was found, indicating that carriers of at least one 5-HTTLPR short allele are more sensitive to childhood environment adversity than carriers of the LL-genotype. The results support prior findings of association between ADHD and 5-HTTLPR LL-genotype and adverse childhood environment, and they underline the need for further investigation of gene by environment interaction with respect to ADHD. PMID:18155777

Retz, Wolfgang; Freitag, Christine M; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Wenzler, Denise; Schneider, Marc; Kissling, Christian; Thome, Johannes; Rösler, Michael

2007-12-26

45

Gene-environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits.  

PubMed

Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene-environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J; Boyce, W Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B

2012-10-08

46

Dynamic DNA methylation programs persistent adverse effects of early-life stress.  

PubMed

Adverse early life events can induce long-lasting changes in physiology and behavior. We found that early-life stress (ELS) in mice caused enduring hypersecretion of corticosterone and alterations in passive stress coping and memory. This phenotype was accompanied by a persistent increase in arginine vasopressin (AVP) expression in neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and was reversed by an AVP receptor antagonist. Altered Avp expression was associated with sustained DNA hypomethylation of an important regulatory region that resisted age-related drifts in methylation and centered on those CpG residues that serve as DNA-binding sites for the methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). We found that neuronal activity controlled the ability of MeCP2 to regulate activity-dependent transcription of the Avp gene and induced epigenetic marking. Thus, ELS can dynamically control DNA methylation in postmitotic neurons to generate stable changes in Avp expression that trigger neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations that are frequent features in depression. PMID:19898468

Murgatroyd, Chris; Patchev, Alexandre V; Wu, Yonghe; Micale, Vincenzo; Bockmühl, Yvonne; Fischer, Dieter; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Almeida, Osborne F X; Spengler, Dietmar

2009-11-08

47

KCTD8 gene and brain growth in adverse intrauterine environment: a genome-wide association study.  

PubMed

The most dramatic growth of the human brain occurs in utero and during the first 2 years of postnatal life. Genesis of the cerebral cortex involves cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis, all of which may be influenced by prenatal environment. Here, we show that variation in KCTD8 (potassium channel tetramerization domain 8) is associated with brain size in female adolescents (rs716890, P = 5.40 × 10(-09)). Furthermore, we found that the KCTD8 locus interacts with prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking vis-à-vis cortical area and cortical folding: In exposed girls only, the KCTD8 locus explains up to 21% of variance. Using head circumference as a proxy of brain size at 7 years of age, we have replicated this gene-environment interaction in an independent sample. We speculate that KCTD8 might modulate adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on brain development via apoptosis triggered by low intracellular levels of potassium, possibly reducing the number of progenitor cells. PMID:22156575

Paus, Tomás; Bernard, Manon; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Davey Smith, George; Gillis, Jesse; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Melka, Melkaye G; Leonard, Gabriel; Pavlidis, Paul; Perron, Michel; Pike, G Bruce; Richer, Louis; Schumann, Gunter; Timpson, Nicholas; Toro, Roberto; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka

2011-12-09

48

Adaptive sugar provisioning controls survival of C. elegans embryos in adverse environments  

PubMed Central

Summary The ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions is essential to the fitness of organisms. In some cases, adaptation of the parent alters the offspring’s phenotype[1-10]. Such parental effects are adaptive for the offspring if the future environment is similar to the current one, but can be maladaptive otherwise[11]. One mechanism by which adaptation occurs is altered provisioning of embryos by the parent[12-16]. Here we show that exposing adult Caenorhabditis elegans to hyperosmotic conditions protects their offspring from the same, but causes sensitivity to anoxia exposure. We show that this alteration of survival is correlated to changes in the sugar content of adults and embryos. In addition, mutations in gene products which alter sugar homeostasis also alter the ability of embryos to survive in hyperosmotic and anoxic conditions and engage in the adaptive parental effect. Our results indicate that there is a physiological trade-off between the presence of glycerol, which protects animals from hyperosmotic conditions, and glycogen, which is consumed during anoxia. These two metabolites play an essential role in the survival of worms in these adverse environments, and the adaptive parental effect we describe is mediated by the provisioning of these metabolites to the embryo.

Frazier, Harold N.; Roth, Mark B.

2009-01-01

49

Impulsivity as a mediating mechanism between early-life adversity and addiction: theoretical comment on Lovic et al. (2011).  

PubMed

Early-life adversity, impulsivity, and dopaminergic function have all been implicated in adult drug addiction. The article by Lovic, Keen, Fletcher, and Fleming in this issue further elucidates this relationship by demonstrating that early-life adversity can increase impulsivity and decrease behavioral flexibility in adulthood. Recent literature suggests that these results are likely due to structural and functional changes in regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), as well as altered dopamine activity. Impulsivity and behavioral inflexibility can increase susceptibility to addiction, and in turn, chronic substance abuse can impair the neurocircuitry underlying behavioral inhibition. Thus, early-life adversity may act as an entry point into a feed-forward spiral of impulsivity and addiction via the dysfunction of regions such as the OFC, NAc, and mesolimbic dopamine. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21787043

Hosking, Jay; Winstanley, Catharine A

2011-08-01

50

Air pollution exposure in early pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a register-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Our aim was to study the possible associations between exposure to elevated levels of air pollution, ozone (O3) and vehicle exhaust (NOx), during early gestation, and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and small for gestational age. Design Prospective register-based cohort study. Setting The Swedish Medical Birth Register includes data on all deliveries during 1998 to 2006 in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. The national Patient Register and the Prescribed Drug Register were used to collect information on maternal asthma. Participants All singleton pregnancies, conceived at the earliest in August 1997 and at the latest in February 2006, were included, n=120?755. Outcome measures We studied preterm birth, small for gestational age and pre-eclampsia. Results 4.4% of pregnancies resulted in a preterm birth. The prevalence of pre-eclampsia was 2.7%. We observed an association between first trimester O3 and preterm birth (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) as well as an association with pre-eclampsia (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), per 10?µg/m3 increase in O3. We observed no association between first trimester NOx and adverse pregnancy outcomes. No associations were observed between any of the air pollutants and small for gestational age. Conclusions Increased levels of O3 during the first trimester increased the risk of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth. Air pollutants did not exhibit any effects on fetal growth restriction. We estimated 1 in every 20 cases of pre-eclampsia to be associated with O3 exposure.

Olsson, David; Mogren, Ingrid; Forsberg, Bertil

2013-01-01

51

Early Adverse Events and Attrition in SSRI Treatment: A Suicide Assessment Methodology Study (SAMS) Report  

PubMed Central

Adverse events during selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment are frequent and may lead to premature treatment discontinuation. If attrition is associated with early worsening of side effects or the frequency, intensity, or burden of side effects, interventions to maximize retention could be focused on patients with these events. Outpatient participants (n=265) with nonpsychotic major depressive disorder entered an 8-week trial with an SSRI. At baseline and week 2, specific side effects were evaluated with the Systematic Assessment for Treatment Emergent Events – Systematic Inquiry, and at week 2 the Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Rating globally assessed side effects. Attrition was defined by those participants who left treatment after week 2 but before week 8. No specific week 2 side effect, either treatment emergent or with worsening intensity, was independently associated with attrition. Global ratings of side effect frequency, intensity, or burden at week 2 were also not associated with subsequent attrition. Neither global ratings nor specific side effects at week 2 were related to patient attrition during SSRI treatment. Other factors appear to contribute to patient decisions about continuing with treatment.

Warden, Diane; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Kurian, Benji; Zisook, Sidney; Kornstein, Susan G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Leuchter, Andrew F.; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, John

2011-01-01

52

Autonomic reactivity in relation to attachment and early adversity among foster children.  

PubMed

This study examined whether the quality of relationships with foster caregivers was associated with autonomic nervous system reactivity of children during separation and reunion with their foster caregiver. Moreover, effects of early adversity were examined in relation to attachment and autonomic nervous system reactivity. The sample included 60 children between 26 and 88 months of age, who participated with their primary foster caregivers in the Strange Situation. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period were measured as indicators of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity, respectively. Attachment quality (ordered/disordered and secure/insecure attachment), was coded on the basis of children's behavior in the Strange Situation using the Cassidy and Marvin coding system. Children with a background of neglect and those with disordered (disorganized-controlling or insecure-other) attachment showed most sympathetic reactivity during the procedure. Moreover, children with disordered attachment showed less vagal regulation (respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases on separation and increases on reunion) than children with ordered attachment. The findings show that the quality of relationships with current caregivers, and to a lesser extent specific experiences of neglect, may have an impact on children's abilities to regulate emotions in the context of environmental stress and challenges. PMID:20102650

Oosterman, Mirjam; De Schipper, J Clasien; Fisher, Philip; Dozier, Mary; Schuengel, Carlo

2010-01-01

53

Early-Holocene environments in the Wadi Faynan, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for early-Holocene environments in the Wadi Faynan in the rift-margin in souther Jordan is described. The early Holocene of Jordan is not well known and palynology, plant macrofossils and molluscs from Wadi Faynan provide evidence for a much more humid-forest-steppe and steppe-environment than the present stony desert and highly degraded steppe. The early-Holocene fluvial sediments in the Faynan catchment

C. O. Hunt; H. A. Elrishi; D. D. Gilbertson; J. Grattan; S. Mclaren; F. B. Pyatt; G. Rushworth; G. W. Barker

2004-01-01

54

Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

2011-01-01

55

Patient-Reported Discontinuation of Endocrine Therapy and Related Adverse Effects Among Women With Early-Stage Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Approximately 20% to 50% of women diagnosed with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer discontinue endocrine therapy early; most reports come from automated pharmacy data or small self-report evaluations. We conducted a larger self-report evaluation of endocrine therapy discontinuation associated with patient characteristics and therapy-related adverse effects. Methods: We surveyed 538 women from a single health plan who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer from 2002 to 2008 and received endocrine therapy. Women reported adverse effects and reasons for discontinuation via mailed survey; tumor characteristics were obtained via registry linkage. We classified women as discontinuers if they self-reported stopping therapy and their self-reported duration of tamoxifen plus aromatase inhibitor (AI) use was < 5 years, and nondiscontinuers if they self-reported ? 5 years use or current use. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for discontinuation versus continuation by using logistic regression adjusted for age and year of diagnosis. Results: Among 538 women, 98 (18.2%) discontinued endocrine therapy early. Women with positive lymph nodes (v negative) were significantly less likely to discontinue therapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.93). Almost all women (94%) experienced adverse effects. Experiencing headaches was associated with discontinuation of AIs (OR = 4.16; 95% CI, 2.16 to 8.01) and tamoxifen (OR = 2.34; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.41); few other individual adverse effects were related to discontinuation despite most discontinuers reporting they “did not like adverse effects” (AIs: 66.7%, tamoxifen: 59.1%). Conclusion: Few individual adverse effects or patient characteristics were significantly associated with endocrine therapy discontinuation, yet adverse effects were prevalent and were the most common reason women reported for discontinuing therapy.

Aiello Bowles, Erin J.; Boudreau, Denise M.; Chubak, Jessica; Yu, Onchee; Fujii, Monica; Chestnut, Janet; Buist, Diana S.M.

2012-01-01

56

Discovering and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways: Putting the research strategy into practice  

EPA Science Inventory

In May 2012, a HESI-sponsored expert workshop yielded a proposed research strategy for systematically discovering, characterizing, and annotating fish early life-stage (FELS) adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) as well as prioritizing AOP development in light of current restrictions ...

57

Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

2012-01-01

58

Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

McMurtry, Robert Y.

2011-01-01

59

Early martian environments: the Antarctic and other terrestrial analogs.  

PubMed

The comparability of the early environments of Mars and Earth, and the biological evolution which occurred on early earth, motivates serious consideration of the possibility of an early martian biota. Environments which could have contained this early martian life and which may presently contain evidence of this former life include aquatic, ice, soil, and rock habitats. Several analogs of these potential early martian environments, which can provide useful information in searching for extinct life on Mars, are currently available for study on Earth. These terrestrial analogs include the perennially ice-covered lakes and sandstone rocks in the Polar Deserts of Antarctica, surface of snowfields and glaciers, desert soils, geothermal springs, and deep subsurface environments. PMID:11537365

Wharton, R A; McKay, C P; Mancinelli, R L; Simmons, G M

1989-01-01

60

THEORETICAL CONSTRAINTS ON EARLY EARTH'S ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abstract) The only geological evidence for the early Earth is zircon which suggests existence of continental crust and oceans at 4.404 billion years ago. Based on the record of the lunar impact craters, it has been considered that heavy bombardment of small solar system bodies to the Earth-Moon system occurred during the first several hundred million years. There is however

Eiichi Tajika

2008-01-01

61

MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

62

Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

Grosse, Susan J.

2008-01-01

63

Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

64

Young Children and the Environment: Early Education for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Young Children and the Environment" is intended for tertiary students in Early Childhood Education and as a reference for child care practitioners and primary school teachers to promote education for sustainability (EfS) from birth to 8 years. The focus is on early education services, including day care centres, kindergartens, preschools,…

Davis, Julie M.

2010-01-01

65

Effects of early gentling and early environment on emotional development of puppies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years much interest has been focused on early experiences and numerous studies have been carried out in order to understand their effects on the behaviour of adult animals. The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the effects of early gentling and early environment on the emotional stability of puppies. Forty-three dogs (16 females and 27 males)

Angelo Gazzano; Chiara Mariti; Lorella Notari; Claudio Sighieri; Elizabeth Anne McBride

2008-01-01

66

Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study…

Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2007-01-01

67

Retrospective Analysis of Early Steroid-Induced Adverse Reactions in Kidney and Kidney-Pancreas Transplant Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corticosteroids (steroids) are associated with numerous adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Long-term ADRs are well characterized, but there are limited data on the incidence and likelihood of short-term ADRs. We sought to determine the incidence of ADRs potentially related to early administration of steroids in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients and to determine the probability that the ADR was due to

A. S. Mathis; M. T. Liu; R. T. Adamson; S. S. Nambi; A. M. Patel

2007-01-01

68

Smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a significant threat to the fetus. We examined the association between active maternal\\u000a smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy with newborn somatometrics and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm\\u000a delivery, low birth weight, and fetal growth restriction. One thousand four hundred mother–child pairs with extensive questionnaire\\u000a data were followed up until delivery, within the context

Constantine I. Vardavas; Leda Chatzi; Evridiki Patelarou; Estel Plana; Katerina Sarri; Anthony Kafatos; Antonis D. Koutis; Manolis Kogevinas

2010-01-01

69

Early environments, glucocorticoid receptors, and behavioral epigenetics.  

PubMed

In 1985, a brief report published in Behavioral Neuroscience established the link between neonatal handling and concentrations of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the adult rat, suggesting a neurobiological basis for the attenuated stress reactivity observed in handled versus nonhandled offspring. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, this article explores the research that preceded and followed from this brief but significant publication. Changes in hippocampal GR induced by handling were determined to be the outcome of a cascade of cellular and molecular events involving thyroid hormones, serotonin turnover, and transcription factor binding to the Nr3c1 gene, leading to increased GR mRNA and protein. Though many hypotheses were proposed for the "handling effect," the role of handling-induced changes in maternal care, particularly pup licking/grooming (LG), generated a productive scientific framework for understanding the handling phenomenon. Indeed, LG has since been demonstrated to alter GR levels through the signaling pathways described for handling. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms have been discovered to play a critical role in the effects of early life experience and particularly in the regulation of Nr3c1. Overall, the research avenues that have evolved from the initial finding of handling-induced changes in GR have broad applications to our understanding of plasticity, resilience, and the transmission of traits across generations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24128352

Champagne, Frances A

2013-10-01

70

Early predictors of severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding and adverse outcomes: A prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Unlike in upper tract bleeding, prognostic factors for ongoing or recurrent bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract have not been well-defined. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding and for significant adverse outcomes. Methods: All patients seeking attention at a university emergency department for gastrointestinal bleeding were prospectively identified

Fernando S. Velayos; Ann Williamson; Karen H. Sousa; Edward Lung; Alan Bostrom; Ellen J. Weber; James W. Ostroff; Jonathan P. Terdiman

2004-01-01

71

Community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin: acceptability and early adverse reactions.  

PubMed Central

A study of community-based treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin was undertaken in a rain forest area of Liberia to investigate the possible occurrence of serious adverse effects. The total population was 13,704, the microfilarial load was 5.35 mf/mg skin, and the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection was 50% at 9 years of age and over 80% among those aged 15 years and older. Certain groups (like pregnant women and young children) were excluded from treatment. Out of the 7956 people eligible for treatment, 7699 (97%) accepted the ivermectin. Data on possible adverse reactions were collected by four different methods, including systematic house-by-house follow-up visits three days after treatment, biweekly population surveillance, and monitoring of both mobile clinic records and hospital records. No severe adverse reactions were noted, and no deaths could be related to ivermectin treatment; only 1.3% of the persons treated had a moderate adverse reaction of the Mazzotti type, presumably related to the killing of microfilariae. The study showed good acceptance by the population, and that mass treatment campaigns with ivermectin are feasible.

Pacque, M. C.; Dukuly, Z.; Greene, B. M.; Munoz, B.; Keyvan-Larijani, E.; Williams, P. N.; Taylor, H. R.

1989-01-01

72

The Impact of Early Childhood Adversities: A Study of International Adoptees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this thesis was to investigate the \\u000along-term consequences of early\\u000amaltreatment. In Chapter 1, a general introduction to this study is \\u000agiven. The main aim of\\u000athe research was threefold: (1) to provide information about the \\u000aconsequences of early\\u000amaltreatment on mental health problems later in life (2) to determine \\u000athe relationship\\u000abetween early maltreatment and adult

Vegt van der E. J. M

2008-01-01

73

Early Life Adversity as a Risk Factor for Visceral Pain in Later Life: Importance of Sex Differences  

PubMed Central

A history of early life adversity (ELA) has health-related consequences that persist beyond the initial maltreatment and into adulthood. Childhood adversity is associated with abnormal glucocorticoid signaling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of functional pain disorders such as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). IBS and many adult psychopathologies are more frequently diagnosed in women, and ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Therefore, the sexually dimorphic effects of ELA and the role of ovarian hormones in visceral pain perception represent critical research concepts to enhance our understanding of the etiology of IBS. In this review, we discuss current animal models of ELA and the potential mechanisms through which ovarian hormones modulate the HPA axis to alter nociceptive signaling pathways and induce functionally relevant changes in pain behaviors following ELA.

Chaloner, Aaron; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley

2012-01-01

74

Effects of early adverse experiences on brain structure and function: clinical implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child abuse is associated with markedly elevated rates of major depression and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This article reviews preclinical studies examining the effects of early stress, factors that modify the impact of these experiences, and neurobiological changes associated with major depression. Preclinical studies demonstrate that early stress can alter the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic

Joan Kaufman; Paul M Plotsky; Charles B Nemeroff; Dennis S Charney

2000-01-01

75

Physical Environmental Adversity and the Protective Role of Maternal Monitoring in Relation to Early Child Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

Research on the development of externalizing behaviors during early childhood has focused on child and parenting factors. Fewer studies have investigated effects of aversive features of the micro-level physical environment, such as overcrowding and chaos in the home, and the macro-level environment, such as neighborhood quality. This study extends research on physical environmental factors by examining their association with children’s early externalizing behaviors, and exploring how maternal monitoring may serve as a protective factor in such contexts. 120 male toddlers at high risk for developing early externalizing behaviors were followed from ages 2 to 5 years. Direct longitudinal associations were found for micro-level environmental factors beginning at age 2 and for neighborhood risk beginning at age 3. Maternal monitoring served as a protective factor for child externalizing behaviors in the context of neighborhood risk. Implications for prevention research and the development of early externalizing behaviors are discussed.

Supplee, Lauren H.; Unikel, Emily B.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2007-01-01

76

Integrating Computer Technology in Early Childhood Education Environments: Issues Raised by Early Childhood Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to assess the educators' perspectives on the introduction of computer technology in the early childhood education environment. Fifty early childhood educators completed a survey and participated in focus groups. Parallels existed between the individually completed survey data and the focus group discussions. The…

Wood, Eileen; Specht, Jacqueline; Willoughby, Teena; Mueller, Julie

2008-01-01

77

Adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term morbidity after early fetal hypokinesia in maternal smoking pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The aim of this study is to evaluate perinatal outcome and subsequent morbidity and neurodevelopment in 10-year-old children\\u000a with fetal hypokinesia intrauterinely verified by ultrasonography in early pregnancy as a pattern of abnormal fetal behavior\\u000a due to maternal chronic smoking. This study revealed significant global fetal hypokinesia as well as head and arm hypokinesia\\u000a in early pregnancy in mothers’ chronic

Dubravko Habek; Melita Kova?evi?

2011-01-01

78

Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high- quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of the interactional triangle—the children, the adults, and their

Glenda Walsh; John Gardner

79

Early Environment, Emotions, Responses to Stress, and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harsh early family environment is related to mental and physical health in adulthood. An important question is why family en- vironment in childhood is associated with these outcomes so long after its initial occurrence. We describe a program of research that evaluates a model linking these variables to each other. Specifically, we hypothesize that low social competence and negative

Shelley E. Taylor; Jennifer S. Lerner; Rebecca M. Sage; Barbara J. Lehman; Teresa E. Seeman

2004-01-01

80

Adverse effects of nutritional programming during prenatal and early postnatal life, some aspects of regulation and potential prevention and treatments.  

PubMed

Nutritional programming, regulation and some ways for prevention/treatment to ameliorate or normalize adverse outcomes of programming are discussed. Epidemiological studies in human and animal experiments showed that nutrition during fetal and neonatal life may lead to related disorders in adulthood. But several argues may question its validity arising the question of the adequate models used to reproduce human situations. Protein level in milk formula intake by infant during neonatal life is discussed. Body weight at birth reflects the product growth trajectory during fetal life. Low birth weight is considered as the result of an adverse growth trajectory and is often associated with later metabolic diseases in adult age. But, the sum of prenatal growth trajectory, rapid growth in early infancy (catch up growth), early adiposity rebound in childhood must be considered to determine the origins of later diseases in adulthood. The review focuses the regulation of nutritional imprinting on hormonal and epigenetic mechanisms which are complementary. The HPA axis and GH-IGF axis may have a crucial role in the regulation induced by nutritional programming. The persistent alterations seem to be a consequence, at least in part, of elevated insulin levels during "critical periods" of pre- and early postnatal development. Also, leptin seems to play an important role in this complex system. New knowledge about these mechanisms involved suggest the development of new, rational, and effective preventive and/or therapeutic options before and/or after birth. Thus, early infancy may provide an opportunity for intervention aimed at reducing later disease risk. PMID:19996479

Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C

2009-10-01

81

34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Early intervention services in natural environments. 303.126 Section 303.126...Early intervention services in natural environments. Each system must include policies...intervention services), 303.26 (natural environments), and...

2013-07-01

82

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

83

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

84

Optics in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Seminar, San Diego, Calif., August 25, 26, 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papers are presented on mechanisms of laser damage to optical components, rain erosion mechanisms of optical materials, and infrared optics in airborne environments. Optics in space and underwater applications is outlined with reference to radiation effects, underwater optical communications receivers, and a free-electron laser. Consideration is given to optics for energy generation noting beam transport optics for laser fusion and

G. Bernal E; H. V. Winsor

1978-01-01

85

Engineering the future. Development of transgenic plants with enhanced tolerance to adverse environments.  

PubMed

Environmental stresses - especially drought and salinity - and iron limitation are the primary causes of crop yield losses. Therefore, improvement of plant stress tolerance has paramount relevance for agriculture, and vigorous efforts are underway to design stress-tolerant crops. Three aspects of this ongoing research are reviewed here. First, attempts have been made to strengthen endogenous plant defences, which are characterised by intertwined, hierarchical gene networks involved in stress perception, signalling, regulation and expression of effector proteins, enzymes and metabolites. The multigenic nature of this response requires detailed knowledge of the many actors and interactions involved in order to identify proper intervention points, followed by significant engineering of the prospective genes to prevent undesired side-effects. A second important aspect refers to the effect of concurrent stresses as plants normally meet in the field (e.g., heat and drought). Recent findings indicate that plant responses to combined environmental hardships are somehow unique and cannot be predicted from the addition of the individual stresses, underscoring the importance of programming research within this conceptual framework. Finally, the photosynthetic microorganisms from which plants evolved (i.e., algae and cyanobacteria) deploy a totally different strategy to acquire stress tolerance, based on the substitution of stress-vulnerable targets by resistant isofunctional proteins that could take over the lost functions under adverse conditions. Reintroduction of these ancient traits in model and crop plants has resulted in increased tolerance to environmental hardships and iron starvation, opening a new field of opportunities to increase the endurance of crops growing under suboptimal conditions. PMID:21415892

Zurbriggen, Matias D; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Carrillo, Nestor

2010-01-01

86

Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans?  

PubMed Central

Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam and Persian Gulf wars. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling was used to assess associations between anterior cingulate volume and the following predictors, trauma prior to age 13, combat exposure, the interaction of early trauma and combat exposure, and PTSD diagnosis. Results As previously observed in the amygdala, unique variance in anterior cingulate cortical volume was associated with both the diagnosis of PTSD and with the interaction of childhood and combat trauma. The pattern of the latter interaction indicated that veterans with childhood trauma exhibited a significant inverse linear relationship between combat trauma and anterior cingulate volume while those without childhood trauma did not. Such associations were not observed in hippocampal or total cerebral tissue volumes. Conclusions In the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as in the amygdala, early trauma may confer excess sensitivity to later combat trauma.

Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

2013-01-01

87

The effect of adverse rearing environments on persistent memories in young rats: removing the brakes on infant fear memories.  

PubMed

Mental health problems are often assumed to have their roots in early-life experiences. However, memories acquired in infancy are rapidly forgotten in nearly all species (including humans). As yet, a testable mechanism on how early-life experiences have a lasting impact on mental health is lacking. In these experiments, we tested the idea that infant adversity leads to an early transition into adult-like fear retention, allowing infant memories to have a longer-lasting influence. Rats were exposed to maternal separation (3 h per day) across postnatal days (P) 2-14, or their mother was given corticosterone in her drinking water across the same period. Infant rats were then trained to fear a conditioned stimulus (CS) paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) on P17. Retention of the fear association was then tested 1-55 days later. When tested one day after the CS-US association was formed, both standard-reared (SR) and maternally-separated (MS) rats exhibited strong memory. However, when tested 10 days later, SR rats exhibited robust forgetting, whereas MS rats exhibited near-perfect retention. These effects were mimicked by exposing the mother to the stress hormone corticosterone in the drinking water. Finally, fear associations in P17 MS rats were retained for up to 30 days. Our findings point to differences in retention of fear as one factor that might underlie the propensity of stress-exposed individuals to exhibit early anxiety symptoms and suggest that manipulations of the corticosterone system may hold the key to ameliorating some of the effects of early stress on persistent retention of fear. PMID:22781171

Callaghan, B L; Richardson, R

2012-07-10

88

Testing putative causal associations of risk factors for early intercourse in the study of twin adults: genes and environment (STAGE).  

PubMed

Adverse childhood experiences and substance use have been identified as potential causal risk factors for early-onset sexual intercourse. While it is possible that exposure to these risk factors directly increases the likelihood of engaging in early intercourse, an alternative explanation is that observed associations between these variables are due to shared familial confounds. These unmeasured confounds may increase the likelihood of being exposed to these risk factors and of engaging in early intercourse. Participants drawn from a population-based study of Swedish adult twins (ages 19-47 years; N = 12,126) reported on their history of exposure to early physical and sexual trauma, cigarette use, and cannabis use. We investigated the nature of the association between these risk factors and young age at first intercourse, using a comparison of twins differentially exposed to each risk factor. When compared to non-exposed, unrelated individuals, participants who reported adverse childhood experiences or who engaged in early cigarette use or cannabis use were more likely to engage in early intercourse. However, co-twin comparisons indicated that observed associations between these risk factors and early intercourse may be due to familial factors shared within twin pairs, and risk factor exposure may not lead directly to early intercourse. Our results suggest that preventing trauma exposure or preventing or delaying adolescents' cigarette smoking or cannabis use may not effectively delay intercourse onset; instead, other aspects of the adolescent's environment should be addressed. PMID:22441771

Donahue, Kelly L; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas

2012-03-23

89

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response.  

PubMed

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect. PMID:22383860

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

2012-01-01

90

The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response  

PubMed Central

Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old post-institutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Post-institutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted internationally from foster care (adoption control) and to nonadopted youth reared in families comparable in parental education and income to the adoptive families. Post-institutionalized youth exhibited a blunted CAR if they were at earlier but not if they were at later stages of puberty. Similarly, for both groups of internationally adopted youth combined, earlier but not later stages of puberty were associated with more blunted CARs at higher but not lower levels of parent-reported pre-adoption physical and social neglect.

Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna; Loman, Michelle; Lafavor, Theresa; Gunnar, Megan

2011-01-01

91

Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children with Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short- and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized…

Van der Kooy-Hofland, Verna A. C.; Van der Kooy, Jacoba; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bonsel, Gouke J.

2012-01-01

92

The early-life social environment and DNA methylation.  

PubMed

DNA methylation is a chemical modification of DNA that confers, upon identical sequences, different identities that are reflected in different gene expression programming. DNA methylation has a well-established role in cellular differentiation by providing a mechanism for one genome to express multiple phenotypes in a multicellular organism. Recent data point however to the possibility that in addition to the innate process of cellular differentiation, DNA methylation can serve as a genome adaptation mechanism, adapting genome function to changing environmental contexts including social environments. A critical time point for this process is early life when cues from the social and physical environments define lifelong trajectories of physical and mental health. DNA methylation and additional epigenetic modifications could therefore serve as molecular links between 'nurture' and 'nature'. Data that are consistent with this new role for DNA methylation as a mechanism for conferring an 'environment' specific identity to DNA will be discussed. PMID:22236068

Szyf, M

2012-02-13

93

High dose ursodeoxycholic acid increases risk of adverse outcomes in patients with early stage primary sclerosing cholangitis  

PubMed Central

Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) in a dose of 28–30 mg/kg/day increases the likelihood of clinical deterioration of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients. Aim Our aim was to compare the risk of adverse clinical endpoints in patients with varying disease status. Methods We reviewed records from patients previously enrolled in a study evaluating the effects of high-dose (28–30 mg/kg/day) UDCA in PSC. Patients were grouped according to treatment (UDCA vs. placebo) and baseline disease status (histologic stage of PSC, total serum bilirubin). Development of clinical endpoints including death, liver transplantation, cirrhosis, esophageal varices and cholangiocarcinoma was sought. Results One hundred fifty patients were included of which 49 patients developed endpoints. There was an increased development of endpoints amongst patients using UDCA vs. placebo (14 vs. 4, p = 0.0151) with early histologic disease (stage 1–2, n = 88) but not with late stage (stage 3–4, n = 62) disease (17 vs. 14, p = 0.2031). Occurrence of clinical endpoints was also higher in patients receiving UDCA vs. placebo (16 vs. 2, p = 0.0008) with normal bilirubin levels (total bilirubin ? 1.0 mg/dl) but not in patients with elevated bilirubin levels (15 vs. 16, p = 0.6018). Among patients not reaching endpoints 31.68% had normalization of their alkaline phosphatase levels as compared to 14.29% in patients who reached endpoints (p = 0.073). Conclusion The increased risk of adverse events with UDCA treatment as compared to placebo is only apparent in patients with early histologic stage disease or normal total bilirubin.

Imam, Mohamad H.; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Gossard, Andrea A.; Kowdley, Kris V.; Luketic, Velimir A. C.; Harrison, M. Edwyn; McCashland, Timothy; Befeler, Alex S.; Harnois, Denise; Jorgensen, Roberta; Petz, Jan; Keach, Jill; DeCook, Alisha C.; Enders, Felicity; Lindor, Keith D.

2013-01-01

94

Enriched Environments in Adolescence Prevent Long-Term Effects of Early Impoverished Environments. Science Briefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Enriched Environment Experience Overcomes the Memory Deficits and Depressive-like Behavior Induced by Early Life Stress" (M. Cui; Y. Yang; J. Zhang; H. Han; W. Ma; H. Li; R. Mao;…

National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

2007-01-01

95

Adverse effects of ocean acidification on early development of squid (Doryteuthis pealeii).  

PubMed

Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is being absorbed into the ocean, altering seawater chemistry, with potentially negative impacts on a wide range of marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates with internal and external aragonite structures may be particularly vulnerable to this ocean acidification. Impacts to cephalopods, which form aragonite cuttlebones and statoliths, are of concern because of the central role they play in many ocean ecosystems and because of their importance to global fisheries. Atlantic longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii), an ecologically and economically valuable taxon, were reared from eggs to hatchlings (paralarvae) under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations in replicated experimental trials. Animals raised under elevated pCO2 demonstrated significant developmental changes including increased time to hatching and shorter mantle lengths, although differences were small. Aragonite statoliths, critical for balance and detecting movement, had significantly reduced surface area and were abnormally shaped with increased porosity and altered crystal structure in elevated pCO2-reared paralarvae. These developmental and physiological effects could alter squid paralarvae behavior and survival in the wild, directly and indirectly impacting marine food webs and commercial fisheries. PMID:23741298

Kaplan, Maxwell B; Mooney, T Aran; McCorkle, Daniel C; Cohen, Anne L

2013-05-31

96

Differential Susceptibility to Early Literacy Intervention in Children With Mild Perinatal Adversities: Short and Long-Term Effects of a Randomized Control Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a randomized control trial, the authors tested whether short- and long-term effects of an early literacy intervention are moderated by mild perinatal adversities in accordance with differential susceptibility theory. One-hundred 5-year-old children (58% male) who scored at or below the 30th percentile on early literacy measures were randomized to a Web-based remedial early literacy program Living Letters or a

Verna A. C. van der Kooy-Hofland; Jacoba van der Kooy; Adriana G. Bus; Marinus H. van IJzendoorn; Gouke J. Bonsel

2012-01-01

97

Psychological and Physical Health at Age 70 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936: Links With Early Life IQ, SES, and Current Cognitive Function and Neighborhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Researchers in many fields are interested in the robust observation that higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better mental and physical health. Prominent explanations for the association involve effects of stress due to relative material and social adversity in lower socioeconomic environments, but early-life intelligence may also contribute directly to both later-life socioeconomic status and health. Here, we

Wendy Johnson; Janie Corley; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

2011-01-01

98

Association between Plasma IL-6 Response to Acute Stress and Early-Life Adversity in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Increased production of peripheral cytokines and other pro-inflammatory markers has been linked to psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Recent research has pointed to early-life stress, particularly childhood maltreatment, as an independent and preventable risk factor for systemic inflammation in adulthood. Some data suggest that adults with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit a heightened inflammatory response to acute stress challenge. To further elucidate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, we examined plasma IL-6 response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 69 healthy adult subjects without depression or post-traumatic stress disorder. Serial plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured during a standardized psychosocial stressor in n=19 subjects with moderate–severe childhood maltreatment (MAL), and n=50 controls without maltreatment (CTL), as indicated by self-ratings on the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ total scores were positively correlated with overall change in IL-6 response, as well as the maximum IL-6 concentration during the TSST. Greater acute IL-6 release and higher IL-6 concentrations over time were observed for the MAL group relative to the CTL group. Inflammation may be an important developmental mediator linking adverse experiences in early life to poor adult physical and mental health. The results of this preliminary study warrant further investigation in a larger sample.

Carpenter, Linda L; Gawuga, Cyrena E; Tyrka, Audrey R; Lee, Janet K; Anderson, George M; Price, Lawrence H

2010-01-01

99

Adverse outcome pathways during early fish development: a conceptual framework for identification of chemical screening and prioritization strategies.  

PubMed

The fish early life-stage (FELS) test guideline (OECD 210 or OCSPP 850.1400) is the most frequently used bioassay for predicting chronic fish toxicity and supporting aquatic ecological risk assessments around the world. For each chemical, the FELS test requires a minimum of 360 fish and 1 to 3 months from test initiation to termination. Although valuable for predicting fish full life-cycle toxicity, FELS tests are labor and resource intensive and, due to an emphasis on apical endpoints, provide little to no information about chemical mode of action. Therefore, the development and implementation of alternative testing strategies for screening and prioritizing chemicals has the potential to reduce the cost and number of animals required for estimating FELS toxicity and, at the same time, provides insights into mechanisms of toxicity. Using three reference chemicals with well-established yet distinct adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) in early life stages of fish, we proposed FELS-specific AOPs as conceptual frameworks for identifying useful chemical screening and prioritization strategies. The reference chemicals selected as case studies were a cardiotoxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), neurotoxic acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (chlorpyrifos), and narcotic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate). Using qualitative descriptions for each chemical during early fish development, we developed generalized AOPs and, based on these examples, proposed a three-tiered testing strategy for screening and prioritizing chemicals for FELS testing. Linked with biologically based concentration-response models, a tiered testing strategy may help reduce the reliance on long-term and costly FELS tests required for assessing the hazard of thousands of chemicals currently in commerce. PMID:21750347

Volz, David C; Belanger, Scott; Embry, Michelle; Padilla, Stephanie; Sanderson, Hans; Schirmer, Kristin; Scholz, Stefan; Villeneuve, Daniel

2011-07-12

100

Using Simcyp to project human oral pharmacokinetic variability in early drug research to mitigate mechanism-based adverse events.  

PubMed

Positive allosteric modulators ('potentiators') of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) have been shown to display a mechanism-based exposure-response continuum in preclinical species with procognitive electrophysiological and behavioral effects ('efficacy') at low exposures and motor coordination disruptions at progressively higher exposures. Due to the dose-capping nature of such motor coordination deficits, an exposure threshold-mediated adverse event (C(AE) ), the adequacy of separation between the maximal total plasma compound concentration (C(max) ) at a predicted clinically efficacious oral dose and this adverse event (AE) was explored in early drug research with three AMPAR potentiators considered potential candidates for clinical trials. In vitro metabolism studies in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes demonstrated the metabolic clearance for each compound was predominately due to cytochromes P450 (CYP). Thus, for each compound's anticipated clinically efficacious dose, human C(max) variability following oral administration was assessed using Simcyp software, which combines its virtual human populations database using extensive demographic, physiological and genomic information with routinely collected compound-specific in vitro biochemical data to simulate and predict drug disposition. Using a combination of experimentally determined recombinant human CYP intrinsic clearances for CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, human binding factors, expected fraction absorbed and estimated steady-state volume of distribution, Simcyp simulations demonstrated that two of the three potentiators had acceptable projected C(max) variability (i.e. the 95th percentile C(max) did not breach C(AE) ). This evaluation aided in the selection of compounds for preclinical progression, and represents a novel application of pharmacologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) software approaches to predict interpatient variability. PMID:22213407

Shaffer, Christopher L; Scialis, Renato J; Rong, Haojing; Obach, R Scott

2012-01-17

101

Evaluating legacy contaminants and emerging chemicals in marine environments using adverse outcome pathways and biological effects-directed analysis.  

PubMed

Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent important scientific, economic and health challenges. In order to meet these challenges and pursue cost-effective scientific approaches that can provide evidence necessary to support policy needs (e.g. the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive), it is widely recognised that there is a need to (i) provide marine exposure assessments for priority contaminants using a range of validated models, passive samplers and biomarkers; (ii) integrate chemical monitoring data with biological effects data across spatial and temporal scales (including quality controls); and (iii) strengthen the evidence base to understand the relationship between exposure to complex chemical mixtures, biological and ecological impacts through integrated approaches and molecular data (e.g. genomics, proteomics and metabolomics). Additionally, we support the widely held view that (iv) that rather than increasing the analytical chemistry monitoring of large number of emerging contaminants, it will be important to target analytical chemistry towards key groups of chemicals of concern using effects-directed analysis. It is also important to evaluate to what extent existing biomarkers and bioassays can address various classes of emerging chemicals using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach now being developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) with respect to human toxicology and ecotoxicology. PMID:23820191

Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J

2013-06-29

102

A single-center study evaluating the effect of the controlled adverse environment (CAESM) model on tear film stability  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate use of an improved ocular tear film analysis protocol (OPI 2.0) in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM) model of dry eye disease, and to examine the utility of new metrics in the identification of subpopulations of dry eye patients. Methods Thirty-three dry eye subjects completed a single-center, single-visit, pilot CAE study. The primary endpoint was mean break-up area (MBA) as assessed by the OPI 2.0 system. Secondary endpoints included corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time, and OPI 2.0 system measurements. Subjects were also asked to rate their ocular discomfort throughout the CAE. Dry eye endpoints were measured at baseline, immediately following a 90-minute CAE exposure, and again 30 minutes after exposure. Results The post-CAE measurements of MBA showed a statistically significant decrease from the baseline measurements. The decrease was relatively specific to those patients with moderate to severe dry eye, as measured by baseline MBA. Secondary endpoints including palpebral fissure size, corneal staining, and redness, also showed significant changes when pre- and post-CAE measurements were compared. A correlation analysis identified specific associations between MBA, blink rate, and palpebral fissure size. Comparison of MBA responses allowed us to identify subpopulations of subjects who exhibited different compensatory mechanisms in response to CAE challenge. Of note, none of the measures of tear film break-up time showed statistically significant changes or correlations in pre-, versus post-CAE measures. Conclusion This pilot study confirms that the tear film metric MBA can detect changes in the ocular surface induced by a CAE, and that these changes are correlated with other, established measures of dry eye disease. The observed decrease in MBA following CAE exposure demonstrates that compensatory mechanisms are initiated during the CAE exposure, and that this compensation may provide the means to identify and characterize clinically relevant subpopulations of dry eye patients.

Abelson, Richard; Lane, Keith J; Rodriguez, John; Johnston, Patrick; Angjeli, Endri; Ousler, George; Montgomery, Douglas

2012-01-01

103

Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

2013-01-01

104

Adequacy of the Regular Early Education Classroom Environment for Students with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes the classroom environment that students with visual impairment typically experience in regular Australian early education. Adequacy of the classroom environment (teacher training and experience, teacher support, parent involvement, adult involvement, inclusive attitude, individualization of the curriculum, physical…

Brown, Cherylee M.; Packer, Tanya L.; Passmore, Anne

2013-01-01

105

Determining indicators, methods and sites for monitoring potential adverse effects of genetically modified plants to the environment: the legal and conceptional framework for implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Directive 2001\\/18\\/EC commercial cultivation of genetically modified plants (GMPs) have to be monitored. The aim\\u000a of the monitoring is to identify potential adverse effects of the GMPs and their use on human health and the environment.\\u000a There are few concepts showing how GMP monitoring may be implemented. This article indicates monitoring requirements with\\u000a a focus on environmental issues.

Wiebke Züghart; Armin Benzler; Frank Berhorn; Ulrich Sukopp; Frieder Graef

2008-01-01

106

Linear Predictive Coding and its Decision Logic for Early Prediction of Major Adverse Cardiac Events using Mass Spectrometry Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteomics is an emerging fleld of modern biotech- nology and an attractive research area in bioinfor- matics. Protein annotation by mass spectrometry has recently been utilized for the classiflcation and predic- tion of diseases. In this paper we apply the theory of linear predictive coding and its decision logic for the prediction of major adverse cardiac risk using mass spectra.

Tuan D. Pham; Honghui Wang; Xiaobo Zhou; Dominik Beck; Miriam Brandl; Gerard Hoehn; Joseph Azok; Marie-Luise Brennan; Stanley L. Hazen; King Li; Stephen T. C. Wong

107

Early School Leavers and Sustainable Learning Environments in Rural Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I show by means of Yosso's community cultural wealth theoretical framework how equal numbers of early school leavers (ESLs) from the rural and the urban parts of the North-West province cite similar reasons for their early departure from school. The conclusion drawn from this scenario is that, irrespective of their diverse…

Mahlomaholo, Sechaba M. G.

2012-01-01

108

QTc dispersion is prolonged in patients with early postoperative adverse cardiovascular events and those with silent myocardial ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if increased QT interval dispersion (corrected and not corrected for heart rate) is associated with perioperative silent myocardial ischemia or postoperative adverse cardiovascular events.Design: Blinded retrospective observational study.Setting: University hospital.Participants: One hundred eighty-one perioperative patients receiving general anesthesia for elective major vascular or orthopedic surgery.Interventions: None.Measurements and main results: QT dispersion, corrected and uncorrected for heart rate,

Keith J Anderson; John W Sear

2004-01-01

109

Topical Meeting on Optics in Adverse Environments: Summaries of Papers Presented at the Optics in Adverse Environments Topical Meeting Held in Albuquerque, New Mexico on 11-12 February 1987. Technical Digest Series. Volume 8.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Environmental Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope; Ultralightweight Optics in a Cryogenic Environment; Learjet Observatory Operations in The Tropics; Advanced Optics Fabrication Trends; Materials for Space Optics; Optical Fabrication Using Ion-Beam Figu...

J. W. Quinn

1987-01-01

110

Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

2011-01-01

111

Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural…

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

2011-01-01

112

Early Earth and early life: an extreme environment and extremophiles - application to the search for life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early Earth was an extreme environment compared to the present day Earth: oceans with probably higher salinity and lower Ph, evaporitic conditions in the littoral environment, temperatures 70-80°C, little or no O2 in the atmosphere, pervasive volcanism and hydrothermal activity, and peak bolide activity between 4.0-3.85 b.y. ago. The oldest fossil evidence from 3.45 b.y. old sediments shows that

Frances Westall; André Brack; Bernard Barbier; Marylène Bertrand; A. Chabin

2002-01-01

113

Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory hallucinations in adulthood, and that disruption of early attachment relations and more chronic forms of victimization such as bullying would be specifically associated with paranoid ideation. We therefore examined the associations between sexual trauma, physical abuse, bullying, and being brought up in institutional or local authority care and reports of auditory hallucinations and paranoid beliefs in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. All simple associations between childhood adversities and the two symptom types were significant. Childhood rape was associated only with hallucinations (OR 8.9, CI = 1.86–42.44) once co-occurring paranoia was controlled for. Being brought up in institutional care (OR = 11.08, CI = 3.26–37.62) was specifically associated with paranoia once comorbid hallucinations had been controlled for. For each symptom, dose-response relationships were observed between the number of childhood traumas and the risk of the symptom. The specific associations observed are consistent with current psychological theories about the origins of hallucinations and paranoia. Further research is required to study the psychological and biological mediators of these associations.

Bentall, Richard P.; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

2012-01-01

114

Using Technology in Early Childhood Environments to Strengthen Cultural Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will discuss the use of technology with young children to strengthen cultural connections. A brief discussion of the use of technology in the field of Early Childhood Education and a brief discussion of diversity and cultural issues is followed by specific ways in which technology can be utilized to help young children understand…

Meadows, Mikki

2004-01-01

115

Early Pennsylvanian Paleotopography and Depositional Environments, Rock Island County, Illinois.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Geological Society of America,North-Central Section, presents this one-day field trip to Rock Island County, Illinois, where you will have the opportunity to examine the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, overlying sediments, and an early Pennsylvanian u...

R. L. Leary C. B. Trask

1985-01-01

116

Early stages of biofilm succession in a lentic freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial events of biofilms development and succession were studied in a freshwater environment at Kalpakkam, East Coast of India. Biofilms were developed by suspending Perspex (Plexiglass) panels for 15 days at bimonthly intervals from January 1996 to January 1997. Changes in biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density, chlorophyll a concentration and species composition were monitored. The biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density

R. Sekar; V. P. Venugopalan; K. Nandakumar; K. V. K. Nair; V. N. R. Rao

2004-01-01

117

Early detection of hydrocarbons in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adoption and execution of the necessary measures to face up the environmental exigencies that the ports and their structures require have been the key issues for the monitoring of Las Palmas port, protected by the main guides, directions and techniques recommended in the International treaties related to the protection of the Marine Environment and the National environmental legislation. The

C. Llerandi; C. Barrera; D. Gelado; L. Cardona; M. Villagarcia; M. J. Rueda; D. Vega; O. Llinas

2011-01-01

118

Early stages of biofilm succession in a lentic freshwater environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Initial events of biofilms development and succession were studied in a freshwater environment at Kalpakkam, East Coast of\\u000a India. Biofilms were developed by suspending Perspex (Plexiglass) panels for 15 days at bimonthly intervals from January 1996\\u000a to January 1997. Changes in biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density, chlorophyll a concentration and species composition\\u000a were monitored. The biofilm thickness, biomass, algal density

R. Sekar; V. P. Venugopalan; K. Nandakumar; K. V. K. Nair; V. N. R. Rao

119

Functional Analysis of the Early Development of Self-Injurious Behavior: Incorporating Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The analysis of the early development of self-injurious behavior (SIB) has, to date, reflected the wider distinction between nature and nurture. Despite the status of genetic factors as risk markers for the later development of SIB, a model that accounts for their influence on early behavior-environment relations is lacking. In the current paper…

Langthorne, Paul; McGill, Peter

2008-01-01

120

Issues in Early Intervention: The Impact of Cultural Diversity on Service Delivery in Natural Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Family-centered philosophy and practice has been a central component of early intervention for infants and toddlers that is related to natural environment service provision. Family-centered practices have been widely accepted in the provision of early intervention services since the 1960s. Research indicates that families are essential to the…

Sylva, Judith A.

2005-01-01

121

Strength-Based Factors for Successful Adaptation to an Early College High School Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an early college high school setting, students are subject to varying academic, social and contextual demands of a higher educational environment. In a strength-based study of 136 diverse early college high school students, this research explored the relationship of internal and external developmental assets to adaptive functioning of…

Abernethy, Catherine

2010-01-01

122

Environment and Subsistence of the Early Inhabitants of Coastal Southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

From where did the early inhabitants of the Badagry coastal area of southwestern Nigeria originate? Has the area been occupied from “ancient times,” as claimed by oral traditions? What was the nature of the environment and subsistence of these early inhabitants? Excavations at Apa, west of Badagry, provided answers to these questions. A radiocarbon date of 2670 ± 90 bp

Raphael A. Alabi

2002-01-01

123

Early Increase of von Willebrand Factor Predicts Adverse Outcome in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease Beneficial Effects of Enoxaparin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—The pathogenesis of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction is still poorly understood, and early evaluation of prognosis remains difficult. We therefore studied the predictive value of 5 biological indicators of inflammation, thrombogenesis, vasoconstriction, and myocardial necrosis, and we examined the effects of enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin on these markers after 48 hours of treatment. Methods and Results—Sixty-eight patients with

Gilles Montalescot; Francois Philippe; Annick Ankri; Eric Vicaut; Etienne Bearez; Jean Ernest Poulard; Didier Carrie; Daniel Flammang; Albert Dutoit; Alain Carayon; Claude Jardel; Monique Chevrot; Jean Philippe Bastard; Frederique Bigonzi; Daniel Thomas

124

Genetics or environment in drug transport: the case of organic anion transporting polypeptides and adverse drug reactions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) uptake transporters are important for the disposition of many drugs and perturbed OATP activity can contribute to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is well documented that both genetic and environmental factors can alter OATP expression and activity. Genetic factors include single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that change OATP activity and epigenetic regulation that modify OATP expression levels. SNPs in OATPs contribute to ADRs. Environmental factors include the pharmacological context of drug--drug interactions and the physiological context of liver diseases. Liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestasis and hepatocellular carcinoma change the expression of multiple OATP isoforms. The role of liver diseases in the occurrence of ADRs is unknown. Areas covered This article covers the roles OATPs play in ADRs when considered in the context of genetic or environmental factors. The reader will gain a greater appreciation for the current evidence regarding the salience and importance of each factor in OATP-mediated ADRs. Expert opinion A SNP in a single OATP transporter can cause changes in drug pharmacokinetics and contribute to ADRs but, because of overlap in substrate specificities, there is potential for compensatory transport by other OATP isoforms. By contrast, the expression of multiple OATP isoforms is decreased in liver diseases, reducing compensatory transport and thereby increasing the probability of ADRs. To date, most research has focused on the genetic factors in OATP-mediated ADRs while the impact of environmental factors has largely been ignored.

Clarke, John D; Cherrington, Nathan J

2013-01-01

125

Photosynthetic acclimation to variability in the light environment of early and late successional plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen plant species from early-, mid-, and late-successional habitats were grown for a period of 25 to 50 days in each of two light environments, i.e. full sunlight and in deep shade. The rate of photosynthesis for newly formed leaves was measured as a function of light intensity for plants from each light environment. Photosynthetic flexibility, measured as the difference

F. A. Bazzaz; Roger W. Carlson

1982-01-01

126

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

2012-01-01

127

The environment of early Mars and the missing carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model is presented in which the aqueous conditions needed to generate phyllosilicate minerals in the absence of carbonates found in the ancient Noachian crust are maintained by an early CO2-rich atmosphere, that, together with iron (II) oxidation, would prevent carbonate formation at the surface. After cessation of the internal magnetic dynamo, a CO2-rich primordial atmosphere was stripped by interactions with the solar wind and surface conditions evolved from humid to arid, with ground waters partially dissolving subsurface carbonate and sulfide minerals to produce acid-sulfate evaporitic deposits in areas with upwelling ground water. In a subsequent geochemical state (Late Noachian to Hesperian), surface and subsurface acidic solutions were neutralized in the subsurface through interaction with basaltic crust, allowing the precipitation of secondary carbonates. This model suggests that, in the early Noachian, the surface waters of Mars maintained acidity because of a drop in temperature. This would have favored increased dissolution of CO2 and a reduction in atmospheric pressure. In this scenario, physicochemical conditions precluded the formation of surface carbonates, but induced the precipitation of carbonates in the subsurface.

Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Hill, Andrew C.; Gómez-Ortíz, David; Ballesteros, Olga Prieto; Romanek, Christopher S.; Amils, Ricardo

2011-10-01

128

Clinicopathologic and molecular features of sporadic early-onset colorectal adenocarcinoma: an adenocarcinoma with frequent signet ring cell differentiation, rectal and sigmoid involvement, and adverse morphologic features.  

PubMed

Recent literature suggests an increasing incidence of colorectal carcinoma in young patients. We performed a histologic, molecular, and immunophenotypic analysis of patients with sporadic early-onset (?40 years of age) colorectal carcinoma seen at our institution from the years 2000-2010 and compared these tumors to a cohort of consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas seen in patients >40 years of age. A total of 1160 primary colorectal adenocarcinomas were surgically resected for the years 2000 through 2010. Of these, 75 (6%) were diagnoses in patients ?40 years of age of which 13 (17%) demonstrated abnormalities in DNA mismatch repair, 4 (5%) were in patients with known germline genetic disorders (two patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, one patient with juvenile polyposis, and one patient with Li-Fraumeni syndrome), and three patients (4%) had long-standing chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The sporadic early-onset colorectal carcinoma group comprised a total of 55 patients (55/1160, 5%) and were compared with a control group comprising 73 consecutively resected colorectal carcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair in patients >40 years of age. For the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group, most cases (33/55, 60%) were diagnosed between the age of 35 and 40 years of age. Compared with the control group, the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group was significantly different with respect to tumor location (P<0.007) with 80% (44/55 cases) identified in either the sigmoid colon (24/55, 44%) or rectum (20/55, 36%). Morphologically, early-onset colorectal carcinomas more frequently displayed adverse histologic features compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group such as signet ring cell differentiation (7/55, 13% vs 1/73, 1%, P=0.021), perineural invasion (16/55, 29% vs 8/73, 11%, P=0.009) and venous invasion (12/55, 22% vs 4/73, 6%, P=0.006). A precursor adenomatous lesion was less frequently identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group compared with the control group (19/55, 35% vs 39/73, 53%, P=0.034). Of the early-onset colorectal carcinomas, only 2/45 cases (4%) demonstrated KRAS mutations compared with 11/73 (15%) of the control group colorectal adenocarcinomas harboring KRAS mutations, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.13). BRAF V600E mutations were not identified in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group. No difference was identified between the two groups with regard to tumor stage, tumor size, number of lymph node metastases, lymphatic invasion, tumor budding, mucinous histology, or tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Both groups had similar recurrence-free (P=0.28) and overall survival (P=0.73). However, patients in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group more frequently either presented with or developed metastatic disease during their disease course compared with the control colorectal carcinoma group (25/55, 45% vs 18/73, 25%, P=0.014). In addition, 8/55 patients (15%) in the early-onset colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence of their tumor while no patients in the control colorectal carcinoma group developed local recurrence (P<0.001), likely due to the increased incidence of rectal carcinoma in the patients with early-onset colorectal carcinoma. Our study demonstrates that colorectal carcinoma is not infrequently diagnosed in patients ?40 years of age and is not frequently the result of underlying Lynch syndrome or associated with other cancer-predisposing genetic conditions or chronic inflammatory conditions. These tumors have a striking predilection for the distal colon, particularly the sigmoid colon and rectum and are much more likely to demonstrate adverse histologic factors, including signet ring cell differentiation, venous invasion, and perineural invasion. PMID:22481281

Chang, Daniel T; Pai, Rish K; Rybicki, Lisa A; Dimaio, Michael A; Limaye, Maneesha; Jayachandran, Priya; Koong, Albert C; Kunz, Pamela A; Fisher, George A; Ford, James M; Welton, Mark; Shelton, Andrew; Ma, Lisa; Arber, Daniel A; Pai, Reetesh K

2012-04-06

129

Ecological Constraints on Hydrology in Early Hominid Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimate studies increasingly apply the hydrogen isotopic composition of individual biomarkers as a proxy for the composition of environmental waters. However, the environmental, physical and ecologic influences on hydrologic signatures are complex. Here, we separate the influences of climate and physiology on the hydrogen isotopic compositions of plant and algae lipids in order to reconstruct ancient precipitation and lake waters in semi-arid East Africa using Plio-Pleistocene lake sediments from Olduvai Gorge (2°48'S, 35°06'E). We measured bulk organic ?13C and molecular ?13C and ?D from perennial lacustrine sediments dated between ~1.79 and 1.95 million years ago, a time slice with recognized hominid diversification events. During this interval, bulk organic ?13C varies ~10‰ and correlates strongly with molecular ?13C signatures of alkane biomarkers derived from terrestrial plants (n-C31), which range between -20‰ and -36‰ (PDB). Molecular ?D signatures of n-C31 range between ~-125‰ and -165‰ (SMOW). The ?D of algal biomarkers (n-C17) range between ~-85‰ and -135‰ (SMOW). To account for physiological effects, we used the ?13C of n-C31 to estimate relative C4 monocot versus C3 dicot abundance in the Olduvai watershed, establishing a mixing line for deuterium fractionation between rainwater and plant lipids. This approach is based on models of modern ecologic succession in East Africa, where C4 monocots and C3 dicots dominate landscape biomass. In the present day, the isotopic composition of mean annual precipitation in East Africa is controlled by the ‘amount effect.’ Olduvai currently receives ~550 mm yr-1 of precipitation and ?D = -10‰, with an average ‘amount effect’ of 32 mm per 7‰ change in ?D, albeit based on sparse sampling. Using these constraints and assuming negligible evapotranspiration, we conservatively calculate that Olduvai experienced ~440 mm of precipitation during arid times and nearly 800 mm during wetter times - a reconstruction that is strikingly similar to regional estimations for the early Pleistocene derived from pollen spectra and pedogenic carbonates. We estimated the paleochemistry of paleolake Olduvai using lake-sediment outcrops, faunal remains and analogous modern lakes in East Africa. We used the percent total organic carbon in Olduvai sediments as a relative indication of depth within the constraints of previously published depth boundaries. Fossil remains of tilapia and catfish constrain a lower lake salinity level of 10-30‰, while the presence of trona and gaylussite indicate hypersaline conditions in a framework of modern East African alkaline lakes. We then accounted for fractionation variability in algae due to changes in salinity, calculating that ?D ranged between ~+80‰ and 0‰ in paleolake Olduvai waters - values within the modern range of ?D for lake waters. In summary, our results indicate that Olduvai experienced essentially complete transitions between C4 monocot and C3 dicot landscape dominance, accompanied by a doubling of mean annual rainfall. Consequent salinity changes in paleolake Olduvai resulted in algal hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors that varied by ~40‰.

Magill, C.; Ashley, G. M.; Freeman, K. H.

2010-12-01

130

Non-Verbal Reasoning Ability and Academic Achievement as Moderators of the Relation Between Adverse Life Events and Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Early Adolescence: The Importance of Moderator and Outcome Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on\\u000a emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as\\u000a moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural problems was non-quadratic.\\u000a Intelligence rather

Eirini Flouri; Nikos Tzavidis

2011-01-01

131

Effect of the Large Scale Environment on the Internal Dynamics of Early-Type Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the population-density relation in very sparse environments, from poor clusters to isolated galaxies, and we find that early-type galaxies with a young stellar population are preferably found in the lowest density environments. We show a marginal indication that this effect is due to an enhancement of the stellar formation independent of the morphological segregation, but we failed to find any effect from the internal dynamics.

Maubon, G.; Prugniel, Ph.

132

The early life social environment and DNA methylation: DNA methylation mediating the long-term impact of social environments early in life.  

PubMed

Although epidemiological data provides evidence that there is an interaction between genetics (nature) and the social and physical environments (nurture) in human development; the main open question remains the mechanism. The pattern of distribution of methyl groups in DNA is different from cell-type to cell type and is conferring cell specific identity on DNA during cellular differentiation and organogenesis. This is an innate and highly programmed process. However, recent data suggests that DNA methylation is not only involved in cellular differentiation but that it is also involved in modulation of genome function in response to signals from the physical, biological and social environments. We propose that modulation of DNA methylation in response to environmental cues early in life serves as a mechanism of life-long genome "adaptation" that molecularly embeds the early experiences of a child ("nurture") in the genome ("nature"). There is an emerging line of data supporting this hypothesis in rodents, non-human primates and humans that will be reviewed here. However, several critical questions remain including the identification of mechanisms that transmit the signals from the social environment to the DNA methylation/demethylation enzymes. PMID:21772123

Szyf, Moshe

2011-08-01

133

Providing Early Intervention within Natural Environments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this study were to determine the state of current practice in early intervention in Finland and to compare them to American data. Professional women (N = 52), representing child care, elementary school, healthcare, and social work, completed the Families in Natural Environments Scale of Service Evaluation, a 34-item questionnaire…

Rantala, Anja; Uotinen, Sanna; McWilliam, R. A.

2009-01-01

134

Providing Early Intervention within Natural Environments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purposes of this study were to determine the state of current practice in early intervention in Finland and to compare them to American data. Professional women (N = 52), representing child care, elementary school, healthcare, and social work, completed the Families in Natural Environments Scale of Service Evaluation, a 34-item questionnaire…

Rantala, Anja; Uotinen, Sanna; McWilliam, R. A.

2009-01-01

135

The Influence of Early Language and Communication Environments on the Development of Language in Deaf Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seventy-two deaf Ss (10- to 19-years-old) were tested, employing the Test of Syntactic Ability (TSA), the language sub-tests of the Stanford Achievement Test (SAT), and analyses of written language samples, in a study of the influence of early language and communication environment on their later syntactic language ability. Ss were divided into…

Brasel, Kenneth E.; Quigley, Stephen P.

136

A Longitudinal Assessment of the Home Literacy Environment and Early Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal assessment concentrated on the relation between the home literacy environment (HLE) and early language acquisition during infancy and toddlerhood. In study 1, after controlling for socio-economic status, a broadly defined HLE predicted language comprehension in 50 infants. In study 2, 27 children returned for further analyses.…

Schmitt, Sara A.; Simpson, Adrianne M.; Friend, Margaret

2011-01-01

137

Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated With Borderline Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood trauma experiences (e.g., sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, and early separation experiences) and family environment characteristics were assessed with a questionnaire from a sample of depressed female inpatients; 17 were diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 19 received no such diagnosis (NBPD). Significantly more BPD individuals than NBPD individuals reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse,

Terri L. Weaver; George A. Clum

2000-01-01

138

Early life stress, MAOA, and gene-environment interactions predict behavioral disinhibition in children.  

PubMed

Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth-3 years) stressors to influence behavior in prepubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first 3 years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3.5 years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1.5 and 2.5 years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of prepubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR- stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

Enoch, M-A; Steer, C D; Newman, T K; Gibson, N; Goldman, D

2009-09-09

139

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.  

PubMed

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions. PMID:20195285

Anzman, S L; Rollins, B Y; Birch, L L

2010-03-02

140

Value of Early Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance for the Prediction of Adverse Arrhythmic Cardiac Events After a First Noncomplicated ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction.  

PubMed

Background- Infarct size (IS) determined by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has proven an additional value, on top of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), in prediction of adverse arrhythmic cardiac events (AACEs) in chronic ischemic heart disease. Its value soon after an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction remains unknown. Our aim was to determine whether early CMR can improve AACE risk prediction after acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Methods and Results- Patients admitted for a first noncomplicated ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction were prospectively followed up. A total of 440 patients were included. All of them underwent CMR 1 week after admission. CMR-derived LVEF and IS (grams per meter squared) were quantified. AACEs included postdischarge sudden death, sustained ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation either documented on ECG or recorded via an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Within a median follow-up of 2 years, 11 AACEs (2.5%) were detected: 5 sudden deaths (1.1%) and 6 spontaneous ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. In the whole group, AACEs associated with more depressed LVEF (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.90 [0.83-0.97]; P<0.01) and larger IS (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.06 [1.01-1.12]; P=0.01). According to the corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, LVEF ?36% and IS ?23.5 g/m(2) best predicted AACEs. The vast majority of AACEs (10/11) occurred in patients with simultaneous depressed LVEF ?36% and IS ?23.5 g/m(2) (n=39). Conclusions- In the era of reperfusion therapies, occurrence of AACEs in patients with an in-hospital noncomplicated first ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction is low. In this setting, assessment of an early CMR-derived IS could be useful for further optimization of AACE risk prediction. PMID:23926195

Izquierdo, Maite; Ruiz-Granell, Ricardo; Bonanad, Clara; Chaustre, Fabian; Gomez, Cristina; Ferrero, Angel; Lopez-Lereu, Pilar; Monmeneu, Jose V; Nuñez, Julio; Chorro, F Javier; Bodi, Vicent

2013-08-07

141

Depositional environments of the Wilcox Group, Texas Gulf Coast: Stratigraphic and early diagenetic signatures  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of the late Paleocene-early Eocene Wilcox Group is controversial. Are Wilcox reservoirs entirely of shallow-marine origin, or are basinal turbidites also present The authors analyzed over 5,000 ft of core from 15 wells along the Texas Gulf Coast to constrain the environments of deposition. They attribute all cores examined to date to 12 subenvironments of the delta plain to continental shelf. These include distributary channel, lake, marine bay, crevasse-splay delta, shoreface, lagoon, tidal flat, tidal channel, distributary-mouth bar, distal bar, prodelta, and shelf. Each subenvironment displays a characteristic well-log signature. Criteria for recognition in core include grain-size variations, physical sedimentary structures, trace fossils, mineralogy, bedding styles, and vertical sequences, all resulting from the interplay of specific physical, biological, and chemical processes operative in each subenvironment. They did not identify any submarine-fan deposits. They also attempted to determine the importance of depositional facies and provenance on diagenetic trends. Early diagenetic patterns appear to be related to factors such as sediment texture, detrital composition, organic content, and original water chemistry, which were, in turn, controlled directly or indirectly by depositional environment. Rapid lateral and vertical changes in depositional environments produced markedly different early diagenetic patterns in sand units only a few feet or even inches apart. Thus, diagenetic facies defined on the basis of texture, composition, and cements can be used to complement, and test, their interpretations of depositional environments based solely on traditional sedimentologic and genetic-sequence criteria.

May, J.A.; Stonecipher, S.A. (Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, CO (USA))

1990-09-01

142

Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars.  

PubMed

There are two groups of microorganisms that live and grow in hypersaline (>10-15% NaCl) environments: the halophilic Archaea and the halotolerant Bacteria and algae. In order to grow and reproduce in such high-salt, low-water activity environments, these organisms have made basic biochemical adaptations in their proteins, osmoregulation mechanisms, nucleic acids, and lipids. The environment of the halophiles and especially how the halophilic Archaea have adapted to that environment are reviewed in this paper. Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life. PMID:11543079

Litchfield, C D

1998-07-01

143

Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved Oâ, NO⁻â, NO⁻â, and SO²⁻â were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several

T. J. Shaw; J. M. Gieskes; R. A. Jahnke

1990-01-01

144

Evaluating the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS): Assessing differences between the first and revised edition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before 1998, most large-scale studies of center-based child care programs measured quality using the 1980 version of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS). To know whether data from studies conducted after 1998 using the revised ECERS-R can be fairly compared to data from studies using the 1980 ECERS, simultaneous assessments using both measures in a sample of 68 classrooms

Laura M Sakai; Marcy Whitebook; Alison Wishard; Carollee Howes

2003-01-01

145

Enhancing the communication learning environment of an early years unit through action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on an action research project in which an external consultant, special educational needs coordinator and staff of the early years unit of a mainstream school worked together to understand and enhance the communication learning environment provided for 3-5 year-old pupils. A transactional rather than deficit model was adopted, such that bi-directional influences in communication difficulties and communication

Melanie Nind

2003-01-01

146

Quantitative trait loci for early plant vigour of maize grown in chilly environments.  

PubMed

Maize (Zea mays L.) is particularly sensitive to chilling in the early growth stages. The objective of this study was to determine quantitative trait loci (QTL) for early plant vigour of maize grown under cool and moderately warm conditions in Central Europe. A population of 720 doubled haploid (DH) lines was derived from a cross between two dent inbred lines contrasting in early vigour and were genotyped with 188 SSR markers. The DH lines per se and their testcrosses with a flint line were evaluated in field experiments across 11 environments in 2001 and 2002. Plants were harvested after six to eight leaves had been fully developed to assess fresh matter yield as a criterion of early vigour. Seven QTL were detected for line performance and ten QTL for testcross performance, explaining 64 and 49% of the genetic variance. Six out of seven QTL detected in the lines per se were also significant in their testcrosses. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed, but no relationship existed between the size of the QTL effects and the mean temperature in the individual environment. The correlation between fresh matter yield and days to silking was non-significant, indicating that differences in early plant vigour were not simply caused by maturity differences. For three additional chilling-related traits, leaf chlorosis, leaf purpling, and frost damage seven, six, and five QTL were detected, respectively. Three QTL for leaf chlorosis, two for leaf purpling, and two for frost damage co-localized with QTL for fresh matter yield. Results are considered as a reliable basis for further genetic, molecular, and physiological investigations. PMID:17340099

Presterl, Thomas; Ouzunova, Milena; Schmidt, Walter; Möller, Evelyn M; Röber, Frank K; Knaak, Carsten; Ernst, Karin; Westhoff, Peter; Geiger, Hartwig H

2007-03-06

147

Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water  

SciTech Connect

The cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland. Dissolved O{sub 2}, NO{sup {minus}}{sub 3}, NO{sup {minus}}{sub 2}, and SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} were also measured at each site to establish the position of redox boundaries pertinent to this study. Sites were chosen to allow the comparison of several parameters of potential importance to the cycling of these metals: bottom water O{sub 2} concentration; sediment redox conditions; cycling of metal oxide carrier phases and the relative contribution of biogenic and terrigenous material to the detrital metal flux. In general, metal cycling associated with the early diagenesis of sediments was observed to decouple transport processes from burial processes for the transition metals measured in this study.

Shaw, T.J.; Gieskes, J.M. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (USA)); Jahnke, R.A. (Skidaway Institute of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (USA))

1990-05-01

148

Restoring tropical biodiversity: Leaf traits predict growth and survival of late-successional trees in early-successional environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural succession after abandonment of degraded land often results in a low-diversity secondary forest that persists for decades. Planting late-successional species in early-successional environments may help to bypass this low-diversity stage by overcoming dispersal limitation. To identify which late-successional species perform best in early-successional environments, we tested growth and survival of species with different expressions of leaf traits over 4

Cristina Martínez-Garza; Victor Peña; Martin Ricker; Alvaro Campos; Henry F. Howe

2005-01-01

149

Long term effects of pre- and early postnatal nutrition and environment on the gut.  

PubMed

The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis formulated in the early 1990 s has stimulated research on long-term effects of early nutrition and environment over the last decades. Long-term is understood in this review as physiologically relevant periods such as after weaning, around sexual maturity, and in adulthood, as opposed to early developmental periods. The small and large intestines as targets for the study of long-term effects have received little attention until recent years and the stomach has been considered very rarely. Data have accumulated for laboratory animal models but they are still scarce in the swine species. Following the epidemics of metabolic diseases and obesity in western countries, experimental evidence has been published showing that nutritional factors, including energy, fat and fatty acids, protein, and micronutrients impact various facets of gut function. These include alterations in intestinal digestive, absorptive, secretory, barrier, and defense systems, often in a way potentially detrimental to the host. Environmental factors with long-term influence include stress (e.g., maternal deprivation, neonatal gut irritation), chemical pollutants (e.g., bisphenol A), and gut microbiota disturbances (e.g., by antibiotics). Examples of such long-term effects on the gut are provided in both laboratory animals and pigs together with underlying physiological mechanisms whenever available. Experimental evidence for the involvement of underlying epigenetic modifications (e.g., genomic DNA methylation) in long-term studies has just started to emerge with regard to the gastrointestinal tract. Also, interactions between the microbiota and the host are being considered pivotal in the early programming of gut functions. Finally, suggestions for future research are provided in order to better understand and then control early programming as an attempt to optimize vital functions of the gastrointestinal tract throughout adult life. PMID:23365399

Lallès, J P

2012-12-01

150

The Bidirectional Effects of Early Poverty on Children's Reading and Home Environment Scores: Associations and Ethnic Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the author reports secondary analyses that examine the bidirectional effects of the duration of early poverty on children's reading and home environment scores. The author focuses on three specific questions: (1) Does the duration of early childhood poverty affect children's reading…

Lee, Kyunghee

2009-01-01

151

Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study  

PubMed Central

Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

2011-01-01

152

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. IV. SCALING RELATIONS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z {approx} 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 10{sup 10} < M/M{sub Sun} < 10{sup 11.5}, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z {approx} 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z {approx} 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} and those with masses M {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, {approx}35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Shankar, F. [Max-Planck-Instituet fuer Astrophysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tanaka, M. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ford, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

2012-02-01

153

Early-type Galaxies at z ~ 1.3. IV. Scaling Relations in Different Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Kormendy and mass-size relations (MSR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) as a function of environment at z ~ 1.3. Our sample includes 76 visually classified ETGs with masses 1010 < M/M ? < 1011.5, selected in the Lynx supercluster and in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey/Chandra Deep Field South field; 31 ETGs in clusters, 18 in groups, and 27 in the field, all with multi-wavelength photometry and Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys observations. The Kormendy relation, in place at z ~ 1.3, does not depend on the environment. The MSR reveals that ETGs overall appear to be more compact in denser environments: cluster ETGs have sizes on average around 30%-50% smaller than those of the local universe and a distribution with a smaller scatter, whereas field ETGs show an MSR with a similar distribution to the local one. Our results imply that (1) the MSR in the field did not evolve overall from z ~ 1.3 to present; this is interesting and in contrast to the trend found at higher masses from previous works; (2) in denser environments, either ETGs have increased in size by 30%-50% on average and spread their distributions, or more ETGs have been formed within the dense environment from non-ETG progenitors, or larger galaxies have been accreted to a pristine compact population to reproduce the MSR observed in the local universe. Our results are driven by galaxies with masses M <~ 2 × 1011 M? and those with masses M ~ 1011 M? follow the same trends as that of the entire sample. Following the Valentinuzzi et al. definition of superdense ETGs, ~35%-45% of our cluster sample is made up of superdense ETGs.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

2012-02-01

154

The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the Prospective Adoption Design to Examine Genotype-Environment Interplay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption design consisting of 360 linked sets of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children followed from 3 months postpartum through child age 7 years and an additional 200 linked sets for whom recruitment is underway. The EGDS brings together the study of genotype-environment correlation and Genotype × Environment (G×E)

Leslie D. Leve; Jenae M. Neiderhiser; Laura V. Scaramella; David Reiss

2008-01-01

155

Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with

Teresa Tamayo; Christian Herder; Wolfgang Rathmann

2010-01-01

156

Tectonics and depositional environments in early Pennsylvanian of south-central New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvanian Magdalena Group unconformably overlies Precambrian to Mississippian strata throughout south-central New Mexico. Regional southward tilting, warping, and erosion resulted in progressively older pre-Pennsylvanian subcrop relations from south to north. Normal marine shelf sedimentation was represented by upward shoaling cycles containing mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. Channels cut into Ordovician strata in the southern Caballo Mountain area suggest that this area was a relatively deep valley or trough during Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian erosion. Marine transgression from the south backfilled the preexisting stream valleys with sequences of packstone, wackestone, shale, and coarse quartzarenite. Topographically higher areas were blanketed with thin beds of laminated bioclastic packstone, grainstone, lime mudstone, and shale. Semirestricted tidal to nearshore environments are reflected in local sections by finely laminated hematitic dolomites, oncolitic wackestones, limestone conglomerates containing reworked Mississippian chert, and terrigenous shales supporting petrified wood float. Depositional onlap farther north resulted in a thinner and younger sequence. The cyclic nature of these deposits reflects a proximity to the shoreline and suggests an abruptly shifting base level, possibly controlled by Early Pennsylvanian glacial eustasy. The time-stratigraphic position of the valley-fill depositional unit may be broadly correlated to other Late Mississippian-Early Pennsylvanian valley-fill sequences recognized in the Delaware basin and Grand Canyon.

Kalesky, J. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces (USA))

1987-02-01

157

HERITABILITY OF AND EARLY ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON VARIATION IN MATING PREFERENCES  

PubMed Central

Many species show substantial between-individual variation in mating preferences, but studying the causes of such variation remains a challenge. For example, the relative importance of heritable variation versus shared early environment effects (like sexual imprinting) on mating preferences has never been quantified in a population of animals. Here, we estimate the heritability of and early rearing effects on mate choice decisions in zebra finches based on the similarity of choices between pairs of genetic sisters raised apart and pairs of unrelated foster sisters. We found a low and nonsignificant heritability of preferences and no significant shared early rearing effects. A literature review shows that a low heritability of preferences is rather typical, whereas empirical tests for the relevance of sexual imprinting within populations are currently limited to very few studies. Although effects on preference functions (i.e., which male to prefer) were weak, we found strong individual consistency in choice behavior and part of this variation was heritable. It seems likely that variation in choice behavior (choosiness, responsiveness, sampling behavior) would produce patterns of nonrandom mating and this might be the more important source of between-individual differences in mating patterns.

Schielzeth, Holger; Bolund, Elisabeth; Forstmeier, Wolfgang

2010-01-01

158

The role of environment on the formation of early-type galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of environment on galaxy formation poses one of the best constraints on the interplay between mass assembly and star formation in galaxies. We present here a detailed study of the stellar populations of a volume-limited sample of early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), across a range of environments - defined as the mass of the host dark matter halo, according to the groups catalogue of Yang et al. The stellar populations are explored through the SDSS spectra, via projection on to a set of two spectral vectors determined from principal component analysis. This method has been found to highlight differences not seen when using standard, model-dependent comparisons of photo-spectroscopic data. We find the velocity dispersion of the galaxy to be the main driver behind the different star formation histories of early-type galaxies. However, environmental effects are seen to play a role (although minor). Our principal components allow us to distinguish between the effects of environment as a change in average age (mapping the time lapse of assembly) or the presence of recent star formation (reflecting environment-related interactions). Galaxies populating the lowest mass haloes have stellar populations on average ~1 Gyr younger than the rest of the sample. The fraction of galaxies with small amounts of recent star formation is also seen to be truncated when occupying haloes more massive than MH >~ 3 × 1013Msolar. The sample is split into satellite and central galaxies for a further analysis of environment. Small but measurable differences are found between these two subsamples. For an unbiased comparison, we have to restrict this analysis to a range of halo masses over which a significant number of central and satellite galaxies can be found. Over this mass range, satellites are younger than central galaxies of the same stellar mass. The younger satellite galaxies in MH ~ 6 × 1012Msolar haloes have stellar populations consistent with the central galaxies found in the lowest mass haloes of our sample (i.e. MH ~ 1012Msolar). This result is indicative of galaxies in lower mass haloes being accreted into larger haloes.

Rogers, Ben; Ferreras, Ignacio; Pasquali, Anna; Bernardi, Mariangela; Lahav, Ofer; Kaviraj, Sugata

2010-06-01

159

The ``Mission to Early Earth" to Explore the Biogeochemical Traces of Ancient Life and its Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand our own origins and to search for habitable environments and biospheres elsewhere, we must discriminate between attributes that are universal among all biospheres versus those that represent principally the outcomes of long-term survival specifically on Earth. Certain key agents that drive long-term environmental change (e.g., stellar evolution, impacts, geothermal heat flow, tectonics, etc.) can help us to discern ancient climates and to compare their evolution among populations of Earth-like planets. The early, tectonically "hyperactive" Earth provided abundant chemical energy for life through oxidation-reduction reactions. Most examples of present-day biochemical machinery that harvest chemical energy from the environment are more pervasive and ancient among our microbial ancestors than are the present-day examples of photosynthesis. The geologic rock record indicates that, as early as 3.5 billion years ago (3.5 Ga), microbial biofilms were widespread within the coastal environments of microcontinents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing within the coastal environments of microcontinents and tectonically unstable volcanic islands. Non oxygen-producing (non-oxygenic) photosynthesis preceded oxygenic photosynthesis, but all types of photosynthesis contributed substantially to the long-term increase in global primary biological productivity. Evidence of photosynthesis is tentative by 3.5 Ga and compelling by 2.7 Ga. Evidence of oxygenic photosynthesis is strong by 2.7 Ga and compelling by 2.3 Ga. These successive innovations transformed life from localized entities that survived principally by catalyzing chemical equilibration to a globally dominant agent that created and sustained pervasive chemical disequililbria. Major biogeochemical perturbations ca. 2.3 to 2.1 Ga, 1.3 Ga and 0.8 to 0.6 Ga contributed to the irreversible oxidation of the global environment and perhaps also triggered evolutionary innovations that became the foundation of our modern biosphere. Understanding the nature and timing of the ascent of life on Earth is crucial for discerning our own beginnings. This understanding also empowers our search for the origins, evolution and distribution of life elsewhere in our solar system and beyond. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute. beyond. This work was supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute.

Des Marais, D. J.

2003-05-01

160

Readily available phosphate from minerals in early aqueous environments on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If the chemistry essential to life was present in water-containing environments on Mars, the processes that led to life on Earth may have also occurred on the red planet. Phosphate is one of the chemical nutrients thought to be essential for life and is also considered critical to reactions that may have led to life on Earth. However, low prebiotic availability of phosphate may have been a complicating factor in terrestrial abiogenesis, suggesting that a similar hurdle may have confronted the development of life on Mars. Phosphate available for biological reactions can be introduced into aqueous environments through dissolution of primary phosphate minerals during water-rock interactions, but little is known about the dissolution of the dominant phosphate minerals found in martian meteorites and presumably on Mars. Here we present dissolution rates, phosphate release rates and solubilities of phosphate minerals found in martian rocks as determined from laboratory measurements. Our experimental findings predict phosphate release rates during water-rock interactions on Mars that are as much as 45 times higher than on Earth and phosphate concentrations of early wet martian environments more than twice those of Earth. We suggest that available phosphate may have mitigated one of the hurdles to abiogenesis on Mars.

Adcock, C. T.; Hausrath, E. M.; Forster, P. M.

2013-10-01

161

Potential Utility of Data-Mining Algorithms for Early Detection of Potentially Fatal\\/Disabling Adverse Drug Reactions: A Retrospective Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to apply 2 data-mining algorithms to a drug safety database to determine if these methods would have flagged potentially fatal\\/disabling adverse drug reactions that triggered black box warnings\\/drug withdrawals in advance of initial identification via “traditional” methods. Relevant drug-event combinations were identified from a journal publication. Data-mining algorithms using commonly cited disproportionality thresholds were

Manfred Hauben; Lester Reich

2005-01-01

162

Non-verbal reasoning ability and academic achievement as moderators of the relation between adverse life events and emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence: the importance of moderator and outcome specificity.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to model the functional form of the effect of contextual risk (number of adverse life events) on emotional and behavioural problems in early adolescence, and to test how intelligence and academic achievement compare as moderators of this effect. The effect of number of adverse life events on emotional and behavioural problems was non-quadratic. Intelligence rather than academic achievement moderated the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems. However, the interaction effect was significant only on peer problems. These findings suggest that both moderator and outcome specificity should be considered when evaluating the role of intellectual competence in the association between contextual risk and children's emotional and behavioural problems. PMID:20730483

Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos

2011-02-01

163

Shifting adaptive landscapes: progress and challenges in reconstructing early hominid environments.  

PubMed

Since Darwin situated humans in an evolutionary framework, much discussion has focused on environmental factors that may have shaped or influenced the course of human evolution. Developing adaptive or causal perspectives on the morphological and behavioral variability documented in the human fossil record requires establishing a comprehensive paleoenvironmental context. Reconstructing environments in the past, however, is a complex undertaking, requiring assimilation of diverse datasets of varying quality, scale, and relevance. In response to these difficulties, human evolution has traditionally been interpreted in a somewhat generalized framework, characterized primarily by increasing aridity and seasonality periodically punctuated by pulses or intervals of environmental change, inferred largely from global climatic records. Although these broad paradigms provide useful heuristic approaches for interpreting human evolution, the spatiotemporal resolution remains far too coarse to develop unambiguous causal links. This challenge has become more acute as the emerging paleoenvironmental evidence from equatorial Africa is revealing a complex pattern of habitat heterogeneity and persistent ecological flux throughout the interval of human evolution. In addition, recent discoveries have revealed significant taxonomic diversity and substantially increased the geographic and temporal range of early hominids. These findings raise further questions regarding the role of the environment in mediating or directing the course of human evolution. As a consequence, it is imperative to critically assess the environmental criteria on which many theories and hypotheses of human evolution hinge. The goals here are to 1) compile, review, and evaluate relevant paleoecological datasets from equatorial Africa spanning the last 10 Ma, 2) develop a hierarchical perspective for developing and evaluating hypotheses linking paleoecology to patterns and processes in early hominid evolution, and 3) suggest a conceptual framework for modeling and interpreting environmental data relevant to human evolution in equatorial Africa. PMID:18046753

Kingston, John D

2007-01-01

164

Landscape genetics of an early successional specialist in a disturbance-prone environment.  

PubMed

Species that specialize in disturbed habitats may have considerably different dispersal strategies than those adapted to more stable environments. However, little is known of the dispersal patterns and population structure of such species. This information is important for conservation because many postfire specialists are at risk from anthropogenic changes to natural disturbance regimes. We used microsatellite markers to assess the effect of landscape variation and recent disturbance history on dispersal by a small mammal species that occupies the early seral stage of vegetation regeneration in burnt environments. We predicted that a postfire specialist would be able to disperse over multiple habitat types (generalist) and not exhibit sex-biased dispersal, as such strategies should enable effective colonization of spatially and temporally variable habitat. We found significant differentiation between sites that fitted an isolation-by-distance pattern and spatial autocorrelation of multilocus genotypes to a distance of 2-3 km. There was no consistent genetic evidence for sex-biased dispersal. We tested the influence of different habitat- and fire-specific landscape resistance scenarios on genetic distance between individuals and found a significant effect of fire. Our genetic data supported recently burned vegetation having greater conductance for gene flow than unburnt habitat, but variation in habitat quality between vegetation types and occupied patches had no effect on gene flow. Postfire specialists must evolve an effective dispersal ability to move over distances that would ensure access to early successional stage vegetation. Natural disturbance and natural heterogeneity may therefore not influence population genetic structure as negatively as expected. PMID:23379886

Pereoglou, F; Lindenmayer, D B; MacGregor, C; Ford, F; Wood, J; Banks, S C

2013-02-04

165

Early environment and recruitment of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) into the breeding population  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In geese, growth regulates survival in the first year. We examined whether early growth, which is primarily governed by environmental conditions, also affects the probability that individuals that survive their first year enter the breeding population. We used logistic regression on a sample of Black Brant (Brauta bernicla nigricans) that were weighed at a known age in their first summer and observed during winter (indicating that they had survived the principal mortality period in their first year) to study whether early growth influenced the probability that those individuals would be recruited into the breeding population. We also examined the effects of cohort (1986-1996), sex, age when measured, and area where individuals were reared. The model with the lowest Akaike's Information Criterion score contained body mass, age (days) at measurement, cohort, sex, and brood-rearing area. Models that included variable mass had 85% of the cumulative model weight of the models we considered, indicating that gosling mass had a substantial effect on probability of them entering the breeding population. Females were more likely to be detected breeding than males, which is consistent with the differential fidelity of the sexes. Of individuals that survived the first year, larger goslings were more likely to become breeders. More recent cohorts were less likely to have been detected as breeders. Our findings indicate that environment during the growth period affects the ability of individuals to enter the breeding population, even after accounting for the effects of growth on survival.

Sedinger, J. S.; Herzog, M. P.; Ward, D. H.

2004-01-01

166

Normal and abnormal cerebrovascular development: gene-environment interactions during early life with later life consequences.  

PubMed

A greater understanding of cerebrovascular health and disease requires the consideration of recent neuroscience advances concerning neuroplasticity in the context of classical developmental neurology principles. Consideration of the ontogenetic interplay of nature and nurture influencing brain development during prenatal and early postnatal time periods should consider the concept of the developmental origins of neurological health and disease. Adaptive and maladaptive effects of neuroplasticity require a systems biology approach integrating molecular, receptor, cellular, neural network, and behavioral perspectives, culminating in the structural and functional cerebrovascular phenotypes that express health or disease across the lifespan. Cognizance of the interrelationships among maternal, placental, fetal, and neonatal factors requires an interdisciplinary appreciation of genetic/epigenetic forces of neuroplasticity during early life that incrementally influence cerebrovascular health or disease throughout childhood and adulthood. Knowledge of the systemic effects of multiorgan function on cerebrovascular development further broadens the systems biology approach to general plasticity of the individual as a whole organism. Short- and long-term consequences of the positive and negative effects of neuroplasticity must consider ongoing gene-environment interactions with maturation and aging, superimposed on earlier fetal/neonatal experiences that sustain neurological health or contribute to disease during childhood and adulthood. PMID:23622309

Scher, Mark S

2013-01-01

167

Optical combo sensor for early diagnostics within the built and natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the Built and Natural Environment early analysis of structural conditions, air quality monitoring, pollutant and irritant detection by optical sensor technology is advancing. Combining the two technologies, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Surface Enhance Raman Scattering (SERS) into a single instrument is the aim of the research, with a resulting fingerprint library of measurands being produced. The combo sensor will provide unique fingerprints of the measurands, monitoring conditions, such as the carbonation of concrete, microbial and chemical loading and ageing effects of structures, along with their severity. Analysed conditions will be crossed referenced with the library allowing smart feedback for timely maintenance. SPR and SERS work on the principle that specific surfaces, when excited by a light source passing through a glass prism, will change their rate and scale of vibration when their surface holds or is contaminated by particular a component, in this case the monitoring condition analyte. A ligand, which binds specifically to the monitoring analyte, is held in specialised surface coatings which are applied to the surface of the sensor glass or prism itself. The sensing takes place through detection of differences in the original laser light source and reflections/refractions of that light source from the glass prisms. The advances and obstacles of early research are discussed along with initial results and findings being examined in the development a new optical combo sensor.

Bryce, Emma; Sommerville, James

2008-05-01

168

Processing of meteoritic organic materials as a possible analog of early molecular evolution in planetary environments.  

PubMed

The composition of the Sutter's Mill meteorite insoluble organic material was studied both in toto by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the powders and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of compounds released upon their hydrothermal treatment. Results were compared with those obtained for other meteorites of diverse classifications (Murray, GRA 95229, Murchison, Orgueil, and Tagish Lake) and found to be so far unique in regard to the molecular species released. These include, in addition to O-containing aromatic compounds, complex polyether- and ester-containing alkyl molecules of prebiotic appeal and never detected in meteorites before. The Sutter's Mill fragments we analyzed had likely been altered by heat, and the hydrothermal conditions of the experiments realistically mimic early Earth settings, such as near volcanic activity or impact craters. On this basis, the data suggest a far larger availability of meteoritic organic materials for planetary environments than previously assumed and that molecular evolution on the early Earth could have benefited from accretion of carbonaceous meteorites both directly with soluble compounds and, for a more protracted time, through alteration, processing, and release from their insoluble organic materials. PMID:24019471

Pizzarello, Sandra; Davidowski, Stephen K; Holland, Gregory P; Williams, Lynda B

2013-09-09

169

The Pilbara: one Billion Years of the Early Evolution of Earth's Surface Environments and Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pilbara contains the most complete sequence of sedimentary and volcanic rocks dating from 3.5 to 2.4 Ga. Because many of these rocks have experienced only low-grade metamorphism it is our best available natural laboratory for studying the origins and early evolution of life on Earth (and other planets) and the environments it inhabited. Indeed discoveries of the oldest possible microfossils, stromatolites and molecular fossils, as well as key mineral, geochemical and isotopic evidence of surface environments and the biosphere have all been reported from Pilbara rocks. Unfortunately complex geology and deep weathering (since the Mesozoic) makes interpretation of some of this record ambiguous leading to heated debates over evidence for life and environmental conditions. It is not surprising then that the first stages of the Astrobiology Drilling Program have been drilled in the Pilbara to obtain samples of sedimentary rocks unaffected by modern weathering. The drill cores potentially provide the best evidence yet of when and how life evolved on Earth, the nature of the environments it inhabited and a template for evaluating possible evidence of life from Mars and other planets. This talk will briefly outline the evolution of the Pilbara as one of the Earth's first continents and the interpreted environmental settings of the range of sites being drilled by the Archean Biosphere and Deep Time Drilling Programs. These include 3.52 to 2.5 Ga submarine and lacustrine black shales, 3.45 Ga deep- and shallow-marine banded cherts, 2.72 Ga stromatolite reefs, an interpreted 2.76 Ga paleosol, and banded iron formations.

Barley, M. E.

2004-12-01

170

The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity is on a global-wide increase, but still the aetiology of adult obesity is poorly understood. It has been shown that overweight children suffer from adverse psychological events, but less is known about the potential effects of adverse psychological factors among normal weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE (silverplatter 1977-2008), PsycINFO (1972-2008) and PsycINFO Weekly (week 1 January 2007-week 3 July 2008) to identify studies of interest. Six prospective and two retrospective studies were identified. Psychosocial factors related to adult obesity were lack of childhood care, abuse and childhood anxiety disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants for developing obesity in adulthood. PMID:19656308

Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

2009-07-30

171

Adverse prognostic value of peritumoral vascular invasion: is it abrogated by adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy? Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy for early breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Peritumoral vascular invasion (PVI) may assist in assigning optimal adjuvant systemic therapy for women with early breast cancer. Patients and methods: Patients participated in two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials testing chemoendocrine adjuvant therapies in premenopausal (trial VIII) or postmenopausal (trial IX) node-negative breast cancer. PVI was assessed by institutional pathologists and/or central review on hematoxylin–eosin-stained slides in 99% of patients (analysis cohort 2754 patients, median follow-up >9 years). Results: PVI, present in 23% of the tumors, was associated with higher grade tumors and larger tumor size (trial IX only). Presence of PVI increased locoregional and distant recurrence and was significantly associated with poorer disease-free survival. The adverse prognostic impact of PVI in trial VIII was limited to premenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive tumors randomized to therapies not containing goserelin, and conversely the beneficial effect of goserelin was limited to patients whose tumors showed PVI. In trial IX, all patients received tamoxifen: the adverse prognostic impact of PVI was limited to patients with receptor-negative tumors regardless of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Adequate endocrine adjuvant therapy appears to abrogate the adverse impact of PVI in node-negative disease, while PVI may identify patients who will benefit particularly from adjuvant therapy.

Viale, G.; Giobbie-Hurder, A.; Gusterson, B. A.; Maiorano, E.; Mastropasqua, M. G.; Sonzogni, A.; Mallon, E.; Colleoni, M.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Regan, M. M.; Brown, R. W.; Golouh, R.; Crivellari, D.; Karlsson, P.; Ohlschlegel, C.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

2010-01-01

172

[The socially enriched environment in early age alters the exploratory activity and ability for learning in rats].  

PubMed

The effects of socially enriched environment on exploration activity in early age and avoidance learning in adult rats were studied. Rats reared in enriched environment were housed with mother and three young rats before weaning. Control rats were housed with mother only. An increase in exporation activity in the open-field test and modified plus-maze was observed in the socially reared rats. The capability for two-way avoidance conditioning was significantly improved in adult socially reared rats. PMID:10984911

Shishelova, A Iu

173

Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environments are effected by the organisms that live in them. An environment is everything that surrounds and influences an organism. An environmental factor is one part of an environment-it can be living or nonliving.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-07

174

Gene-environment interaction during early development in the heterozygous reeler mouse: clues for modelling of major neurobehavioral syndromes.  

PubMed

Autism and schizophrenia are multifactorial disorders with increasing prevalence in the young population. Among candidate molecules, reelin (RELN) is a protein of the extracellular matrix playing a key role in brain development and synaptic plasticity. The heterozygous (HZ) reeler mouse provides a model for studying the role of reelin deficiency for the onset of these syndromes. We investigated whether early indices of neurobehavioral disorders can be identified in the infant reeler, and whether the consequences of ontogenetic adverse experiences may question or support the suitability of this model. A first study focused on the link between early exposure to Chlorpyryfos and its enduring neurobehavioral consequences. Our data are interesting in view of recently discovered cholinergic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia, and may suggest new avenues for early pharmacological intervention. In a second study, we analyzed the consequences of repeated maternal separation early in ontogeny. The results provide evidence of how unusual stress early in development are converted into altered behavior in some, but not all, individuals depending on gender and genetic background. A third study aimed to verify the reliability of the model at critical age windows. Data suggest reduced anxiety, increased impulsivity and disinhibition, and altered pain threshold in response to morphine for HZ, supporting a differential organization of brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems in this genotype. In conclusion, HZ exhibited a complex behavioral and psycho-pharmacological phenotype, and differential responsivity to ontogenetic adverse conditions. HZ may be used to disentangle interactions between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Such an approach could help to model the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental psychiatric diseases. PMID:18845182

Laviola, Giovanni; Ognibene, Elisa; Romano, Emilia; Adriani, Walter; Keller, Flavio

2008-09-20

175

The Relationship Between Parenting Style, Cognitive Style, and Anxiety and Depression: Does Increased Early Adversity Influence Symptom Severity Through the Mediating Role of Cognitive Style?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the central role accorded to cognitive style in mediating the relationship between negative parenting and the development of anxiety and depression, few studies have empirically examined this relationship. Using a clinical sample, this study examined the relationship between early experiences with low care, increased control, abuse and neglect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression, via the mediating effects of

Lata K. McGinn; Daniel Cukor; William C. Sanderson

2005-01-01

176

Current research trends in early-life stress and depression: Review of human studies on sensitive periods, gene-environment interactions, and epigenetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early-life stress, such as childhood abuse, neglect and loss, is a well established major risk factor for developing depressive disorders later in life. We here summarize and discuss current developments in human research regarding the link between early-life stress and depression. Specifically, we review the evidence for the existence of sensitive periods for the adverse effects of early-life stress in

Christine Heim; Elisabeth B. Binder

177

Early Fasciotomy in Patients with Extremity Vascular Injury is Associated with Decreased Risk of Adverse Limb Outcomes: A Review of the National Trauma Data Bank  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives Lower Extremity (LE) arterial trauma and its treatment may lead to extremity compartment syndrome (ECS). In that setting, the decision to perform fasciotomies is multifactoral and is not well delineated. We evaluated the outcomes of patients with surgically treated LE arterial injury who underwent early or delayed fasciotomies. Methods The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was retrospectively reviewed for patients who had LE arterial trauma and underwent both open vascular repair and fasciotomies. Exclusion criteria were additional non-LE vascular trauma, head or spinal cord injuries, crush injuries, burn injuries, and declaration of death on arrival. Patients were divided into those who had fasciotomies performed within 8 hours (Early Group) or > 8 hours after open vascular repair (Late Group). Comparative analyses of demographics, injury characteristics, complications, and outcomes were performed. Results Of the 1,469 patient admissions with lower extremity arterial trauma that met inclusion criteria there were 612 patients (41.7%) who underwent fasciotomies. There were 543 and 69 patients in the Early and Late Fasciotomy Groups, respectively. There was no significant difference in age, injury severity, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, and type of vascular repair between the groups. A higher rate of iliac artery injury was observed in the Late Fasciotomy Group (23.2% vs. 5.9%, P<.001). Patients in the Early Fasciotomy Group had lower amputation rate (8.5% vs. 24.6%, P<.001), lower infection rate (6.6% vs. 14.5%, P=.028) and shorted total hospital stay (18.5±20.7 days vs. 24.2±14.7 days, P=.007) than those in the Late Fasciotomy Group. On multivariable analysis, early fasciotomy was associated with a 4-fold lower risk of amputation (Odds Ratio 0.26, 95% CI 0.14–0.50, p<.0001) and 23% shorter hospital LOS (Means Ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.64–0.94, P=.01). Conclusion Early fasciotomy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with lower extremity vascular trauma treated with surgical intervention. Our findings suggest that appropriate implementation of early fasciotomy may reduce amputation rates in extremity arterial injury.

Farber, Alik; Tan, Tze-Woei; Hamburg, Naomi M; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Joglar, Fernando; Onigman, Timna; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Eberhardt, Robert T

2013-01-01

178

Early Developing Pig Embryos Mediate Their Own Environment in the Maternal Tract  

PubMed Central

The maternal tract plays a critical role in the success of early embryonic development providing an optimal environment for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Preparation of this environment requires an intimate dialogue between the embryo and her mother. However, many intriguing aspects remain unknown in this unique communication system. To advance our understanding of the process by which a blastocyst is accepted by the endometrium and better address the clinical challenges of infertility and pregnancy failure, it is imperative to decipher this complex molecular dialogue. The objective of the present work is to define the local response of the maternal tract towards the embryo during the earliest stages of pregnancy. We used a novel in vivo experimental model that eliminated genetic variability and individual differences, followed by Affymetrix microarray to identify the signals involved in this embryo-maternal dialogue. Using laparoscopic insemination one oviduct of a sow was inseminated with spermatozoa and the contralateral oviduct was injected with diluent. This model allowed us to obtain samples from the oviduct and the tip of the uterine horn containing either embryos or oocytes from the same sow. Microarray analysis showed that most of the transcripts differentially expressed were down-regulated in the uterine horn in response to blastocysts when compared to oocytes. Many of the transcripts altered in response to the embryo in the uterine horn were related to the immune system. We used an in silico mathematical model to demonstrate the role of the embryo as a modulator of the immune system. This model revealed that relatively modest changes induced by the presence of the embryo could modulate the maternal immune response. These findings suggested that the presence of the embryo might regulate the immune system in the maternal tract to allow the refractory uterus to tolerate the embryo and support its development.

Alminana, Carmen; Heath, Paul R.; Wilkinson, Stephen; Sanchez-Osorio, Jonatan; Cuello, Cristina; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Gil, Maria A.; Vazquez, Jose L.; Vazquez, Juan Maria; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A.; Fazeli, Alireza

2012-01-01

179

Adverse effects of cannabis.  

PubMed

Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to establish a causal relationship in either direction, because of these methodological limitations. In Australia, the marked increase in cannabis use has not been accompanied by an increased incidence of schizophrenia. On the basis of the available data, we cannot reach firm conclusions on whether or not cannabis use causes psychosis. It seems prudent to inform apparently vulnerable individuals that cannabis may cause acute psychotic decompensation, especially at high doses. Users can feel dependent on cannabis, but this dependence is usually psychological. Withdrawal symptoms tend to occur within 48 hours following cessation of regular cannabis use, and include increased irritability, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep difficulties and aggression. Symptoms subside within 2 to 12 weeks. Driving under the influence of cannabis doubles the risk of causing a fatal road accident. Alcohol consumption plays an even greater role. A few studies and a number of isolated reports suggest that cannabis has a role in the occurrence of cardiovascular adverse effects, especially in patients with coronary heart disease. Numerous case-control studies have investigated the role of cannabis in the incidence of some types of cancer. Its role has not been ruled out, but it is not possible to determine whether the risk is distinct from that of the tobacco with which it is often smoked. Studies that have examined the influence of cannabis use on the clinical course of hepatitis C are inconclusive. Alcohol remains the main toxic agent that hepatitis C patients should avoid. In practice, the adverse effects of low-level, recreational cannabis use are generally minor, although they can apparently be serious in vulnerable individuals. The adverse effects of cannabis appear overall to be less serious than those of alcohol, in terms of neuropsychological and somatic effects, accidents and violence. PMID:21462790

2011-01-01

180

Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.  

PubMed

Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA), and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA). Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA), which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative. PMID:21779385

George, David; Blieck, Alain

2011-07-14

181

Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential Environment Characteristics as Determinants of Early Childhood Neurodevelopment  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We evaluated whether neighborhood characteristics correlated with early neurodevelopment and whether these characteristics confounded the previously reported association between exposure to chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate insecticide) and neurodevelopment. Methods. We obtained prenatal addresses, chlorpyrifos exposure data, and 36-month Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) scores for a birth cohort in New York City (born 1998–2002). We used data from the 2000 US Census to estimate measures of physical infrastructure, socioeconomic status, crowding, demographic composition, and linguistic isolation for 1-kilometer network areas around each child's prenatal address. Generalized estimating equations were adjusted for demographics, maternal education and IQ, prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, caretaking environment quality, and building dilapidation. Results. Of 266 children included as participants, 47% were male, 59% were Dominican, and 41% were African American. For each standard deviation higher in neighborhood percent poverty, the PDI score was 2.6 points lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = ?3.7, ?1.5), and the MDI score was 1.7 points lower (95% CI = ?2.6, ?0.8). Neighborhood-level confounding of the chlorpyrifos-neurodevelopment association was not apparent. Conclusions. Neighborhood context and chlorpyrifos exposure were independently associated with neurodevelopment, thus providing distinct opportunities for health promotion.

Quinn, James W.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Garfinkel, Robin; Hoepner, Lori; Whyatt, Robin; Rundle, Andrew

2011-01-01

182

Gene-environment interactions: early life stress and risk for depressive and anxiety disorders  

PubMed Central

Rationale Prior reviews have examined how stress, broadly defined, interacts with genetic diathesis in the pathogenesis of internalizing (i.e., depressive and anxiety) disorders. Recent findings have suggested a unique role for early life stress (ELS) in the development of internalizing disorders, contributing to the rapid proliferation of research in this area. Objective This paper critically reviews studies in humans examining gene–environment interaction (GxE) effects of ELS on the risk for depression and anxiety, primarily from a candidate gene perspective. Major methodological challenges that are unique to such studies are considered. Results The majority of published studies have focused on candidates that regulate the serotonin system, especially the serotonin transporter. More recent work has addressed interactions of ELS with candidates from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotrophin system. Available studies vary greatly with respect to definitions of ELS, examination of gene–gene interactions, consideration of gender effects, and attention to analytic limitations. Conclusions Overall, there is support for GxE effects of ELS on the risk for depressive and anxiety outcomes. Future studies of ELS in this context will require careful attention to methodologic considerations. Such studies would benefit from more systematic assessment of positive environmental factors (e.g., social support) and greater utilization of developmentally sensitive paradigms.

Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

2013-01-01

183

Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity\\u000a disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation.\\u000a In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of whom 144 were adopted\\u000a into the UK from deprived

Emma Colvert; Michael Rutter; Jana Kreppner; Celia Beckett; Jenny Castle; Christine Groothues; Amanda Hawkins; Suzanne Stevens; Edmund J. S. Sonuga-Barke

2008-01-01

184

Prediction of drug-related cardiac adverse effects in humans--B: use of QSAR programs for early detection of drug-induced cardiac toxicities.  

PubMed

This report describes the use of three quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) programs to predict drug-related cardiac adverse effects (AEs), BioEpisteme, MC4PC, and Leadscope Predictive Data Miner. QSAR models were constructed for 9 cardiac AE clusters affecting Purkinje nerve fibers (arrhythmia, bradycardia, conduction disorder, electrocardiogram, palpitations, QT prolongation, rate rhythm composite, tachycardia, and Torsades de pointes) and 5 clusters affecting the heart muscle (coronary artery disorders, heart failure, myocardial disorders, myocardial infarction, and valve disorders). The models were based on a database of post-marketing AEs linked to 1632 chemical structures, and identical training data sets were configured for three QSAR programs. Model performance was optimized and shown to be affected by the ratio of the number of active to inactive drugs. Results revealed that the three programs were complementary and predictive performances using any single positive, consensus two positives, or consensus three positives were as follows, respectively: 70.7%, 91.7%, and 98.0% specificity; 74.7%, 47.2%, and 21.0% sensitivity; and 138.2, 206.3, and 144.2 chi(2). In addition, a prospective study using AE data from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch Program showed 82.4% specificity and 94.3% sensitivity. Furthermore, an external validation study of 18 drugs with serious cardiotoxicity not considered in the models had 88.9% sensitivity. PMID:19941924

Frid, Anna A; Matthews, Edwin J

2009-11-24

185

Potential utility of data-mining algorithms for early detection of potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions: a retrospective evaluation.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to apply 2 data-mining algorithms to a drug safety database to determine if these methods would have flagged potentially fatal/disabling adverse drug reactions that triggered black box warnings/drug withdrawals in advance of initial identification via "traditional" methods. Relevant drug-event combinations were identified from a journal publication. Data-mining algorithms using commonly cited disproportionality thresholds were then applied to the US Food and Drug Administration database. Seventy drug-event combinations were considered sufficiently specific for retrospective data mining. In a minority of instances, potential signals of disproportionate reporting were provided clearly in advance of initial identification via traditional pharmacovigilance methods. Data-mining algorithms have the potential to improve pharmacovigilance screening; however, for the majority of drug-event combinations, there was no substantial benefit of either over traditional methods. They should be considered as potential supplements to, and not substitutes for, traditional pharmacovigilance strategies. More research and experience will be needed to optimize deployment of data-mining algorithms in pharmacovigilance. PMID:15778418

Hauben, Manfred; Reich, Lester

2005-04-01

186

Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

Etter, Darryl W.; Gauthier, Justin R.; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B.

2013-01-01

187

Restricting Microbial Exposure in Early Life Negates the Immune Benefits Associated with Gut Colonization in Environments of High Microbial Diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Acquisition of the intestinal microbiota in early life corresponds with the development of the mucosal immune system. Recent work on caesarean-delivered infants revealed that early microbial composition is influenced by birthing method and environment. Furthermore, we have confirmed that early-life environment strongly influences both the adult gut microbiota and development of the gut immune system. Here, we address the impact of limiting microbial exposure after initial colonization on the development of adult gut immunity. Methodology/Principal Findings Piglets were born in indoor or outdoor rearing units, allowing natural colonization in the immediate period after birth, prior to transfer to high-health status isolators. Strikingly, gut closure and morphological development were strongly affected by isolator-rearing, independent of indoor or outdoor origins of piglets. Isolator-reared animals showed extensive vacuolation and disorganization of the gut epithelium, inferring that normal gut closure requires maturation factors present in maternal milk. Although morphological maturation and gut closure were delayed in isolator-reared animals, these hard-wired events occurred later in development. Type I IFN, IL-22, IL-23 and Th17 pathways were increased in indoor-isolator compared to outdoor-isolator animals during early life, indicating greater immune activation in pigs originating from indoor environments reflecting differences in the early microbiota. This difference was less apparent later in development due to enhanced immune activation and convergence of the microbiota in all isolator-reared animals. This correlated with elevation of Type I IFN pathways in both groups, although T cell pathways were still more affected in indoor-reared animals. Conclusions/Significance Environmental factors, in particular microbial exposure, influence expression of a large number of immune-related genes. However, the homeostatic effects of microbial colonization in outdoor environments require sustained microbial exposure throughout development. Gut development in high-hygiene environments negatively impacts on normal succession of the gut microbiota and promotes innate immune activation which may impair immune homeostasis.

Mulder, Imke E.; Schmidt, Bettina; Lewis, Marie; Delday, Margaret; Stokes, Christopher R.; Bailey, Mick; Aminov, Rustam I.; Gill, Bhupinder P.; Pluske, John R.; Mayer, Claus-Dieter; Kelly, Denise

2011-01-01

188

Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Resource Booklets, No. 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and secure setting. Such an environment…

Harrison, Linda

189

Psychopathology and adversities from early- to late-adolescence: a general population follow-up study with the CBCL DSM-Oriented Scales.  

PubMed

Aims. Adolescence is a critical transition phase between childhood and adulthood, when the burden of mental disorder may still be prevented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the continuity and discontinuity of behavioural problems in adolescence while taking into account the multiple co-variation of psychopathological traits and the complex role of recent stressful life events (SLEs). Methods. This is a 5-year follow-up investigation of emotional and behavioural problems assessed by the newly developed Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) DSM-Oriented Scales (DOSs) in 420 general population subjects aged 15-19 years. Results. The DOSs showed good stability, even when multiple co-variation was taken into account. Longitudinal data showed that homotypic evolution of psychopathology was to be expected in the first place. Equifinality and multifinality were also found. Oppositional Defiant Problems emerged to be polyvalent predictors of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, Oppositional Defiant Problems predicted more SLEs, which in turn predicted more Depression, Anxiety and Oppositional Defiant Problems. Mediational analyses confirmed the role of SLEs in partially accounting for the continuity of Oppositional Defiant Problems and for the heterotypic progression towards Affective Problems. Conclusions. These data underscore early adolescence behavioural problems as an important focus for primary and secondary intervention. PMID:22794669

Nobile, M; Colombo, P; Bellina, M; Molteni, M; Simone, D; Nardocci, F; Carlet, O; Battaglia, M

2012-04-11

190

Infant difficult behaviors in the context of perinatal biomedical conditions and early child environment  

PubMed Central

Background Problems experienced within the first year of an infant's life can be precursors of later mental health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency and continuity of difficult behaviors in infants at 3 and 6 months of age and the associations of these difficulties with biomedical and psychosocial factors. Methods This study was a part of an ongoing prospective birth-cohort study. Study participants were 189 uniparous mothers and their full-term newborns. The index of infant difficult behavior was constructed. This index was then associated with the following factors: delivery mode, newborn function after birth, maternal emotional well-being, risk behavior, subjective evaluation of the quality of the relationship of the couple, and attitudes toward infant-rearing. Results Common difficult behaviors, including crying, sleeping and eating problems, were characteristic for 30.2% of 3 month old and for 22.2% of 6 month old full-term infants. The expression of infant difficult behaviors at the age of 3 months increased the likelihood of the expression of these difficulties at 6 months by more than 5 times. Factors including younger maternal age, poor prenatal and postnatal emotional well-being, prenatal alcohol consumption, low satisfaction with the couple's relationship before pregnancy, and deficiency of infant-centered maternal attitudes towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of difficult behaviors in infants at the age of 3 months. Low maternal satisfaction with the relationship of the couple before pregnancy, negative emotional reactions of both parents toward pregnancy (as reported by the mother) and the deficiency of an infant-centered maternal attitude towards infant-rearing increased the likelihood of infant difficult behaviors continuing between the ages of 3 to 6 months. Perinatal biomedical conditions were not related to the difficult behaviors in infants. Conclusions Our study suggests that early onset of difficult behavior highly increases the risk for the continuation of difficult behavior during infancy. In general, the impact of prenatal psychosocial environment on infant behavior decreases from the ages of 3 to 6 months; however, some prenatal and preconceptional psychosocial factors have direct associations with the continuity of difficult behaviors through the first half-year of an infant's life.

2012-01-01

191

Manchester asthma and allergy study: Low-allergen environment can be achieved and maintained during pregnancy and in early life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early exposure to dust mite allergens may be critical for primary sensitization. Reducing exposure may offer a realistic chance for primary prevention of sensitization and asthma, but it is essential to implement measures that can achieve and maintain the low-allergen environment.Objective: Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness of mite allergen avoidance measures in achieving and maintaining a low-allergen

Adnan Custovic; Bridget M. Simpson; Angela Simpson; Claire Hallam; Mark Craven; Martin Brutsche; Ashley Woodcock

2000-01-01

192

Sleep-wake patterns in preterm infants and 6 month's home environment: implications for early cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study examined the relationship between early organization of sleep-wake states and developmental outcome at 6-month-old premature infants. Study design: This was a prospective randomized study that evaluated the sleep-wake states of healthy premature infants in the nursery environment for two successive 72-h periods, at 32 and 36 weeks gestational age. Subjects: Thirty-four healthy premature infants. Outcome measures: Three

Smadar Gertner; Charles W. Greenbaum; Avi Sadeh; Zipora Dolfin; Leah Sirota; Yocheved Ben-Nun

2002-01-01

193

The Top 10 Mistakes in Early Intervention in Natural Environments--And the Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early intervention for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families has strayed from its conceptual roots and the intent of the original legislation. The author describes the top 10 mistakes commonly made in early intervention, including what happens at intake, assessment, plan development, and delivery of services. He proposes five…

McWilliam, R. A.

2011-01-01

194

Promoting Health in Early Childhood Environments: A Health-Promotion Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper investigates the mechanisms by which a health-promotion intervention might influence the health-promoting behaviours of staff members working in early childhood centres. The intervention was an ecological health-promotion initiative that was implemented within four early childhood centres in South-East Queensland, Australia. In-depth,…

Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Wardrope, Cheryl; Johnston, Donni; Kendall, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

195

Financing Early Care and Education: Funding and Policy Choices in a Changing Fiscal Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because of an increasingly challenging fiscal climate, state lawmakers are faced with making tough financial decisions regarding their early childhood systems. This document describes and examines various funding sources used when making decisions about possible early childhood initiatives combined with policy choices that may be considered in…

Clothier, Steffanie; Clemens, Beth; Poppe, Julie

196

Does the quality of stimulation and support in the home environment moderate the effect of early education programs?  

PubMed

The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families from 17 program sites. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to examine the interaction of EHS with (a) early maternal emotional warmth and (b) provision of a stimulating home environment on children's development at ages 3 and 5. Findings showed EHS sometimes differentially benefited children who came from households where the levels of warmth and stimulation were lowest. However, there was evidence of other forms of moderation as well. PMID:22004351

Bradley, Robert H; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

2011-10-17

197

Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

Kartal, Hulya

2007-01-01

198

Maternal IQ and home environment as determinants of early childhood intellectual competence: A developmental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children at risk for sociocultural mental retardation were studied longitudinally from birth to 4 yrs of age. Maternal IQs were assessed before the children's births, and children's IQs and home environments were assessed at regular intervals during the 1st 4 yrs of life. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to separate the contributions of maternal IQ and home environment to child

Keith O. Yeates; David MacPhee; Frances A. Campbell; Craig T. Ramey

1983-01-01

199

Parent training, home environment, and early childhood development: A long?term follow?up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Families and children who participated in a primary prevention experiment called Home Oriented Preschool Education (HOPE) were assessed during a follow?up study approximately ten years following the experiment. Home environment and social class were assessed for families, and children's ability and achievement test scores and grade point averages were obtained from school records. Home environment was shown to be only

Edward E. Gotts

1987-01-01

200

Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis.  

PubMed

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts - indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation - on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date. PMID:24096775

Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

2013-10-01

201

Urbanicity, social adversity and psychosis  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in research on geographical variation in the incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In this paper, we review the evidence on variation in incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in terms of place, as well as the individual- and area-level factors that account for this variation. We further review findings on potential mechanisms that link adverse urban environment and psychosis. There is evidence from earlier and more recent studies that urbanicity is associated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis. In addition, considerable variation in incidence across neighbourhoods has been observed for these disorders. Findings suggest it is unlikely that social drift alone can fully account for geographical variation in incidence. Evidence further suggests that the impact of adverse social contexts – indexed by area-level exposures such as population density, social fragmentation and deprivation – on risk of psychosis is explained (confounding) or modified (interaction) by environmental exposures at the individual level (i.e., cannabis use, social adversity, exclusion and discrimination). On a neurobiological level, several studies suggest a close link between social adversity, isolation and stress on the one hand, and monoamine dysfunction on the other, which resembles findings in schizophrenia patients. However, studies directly assessing correlations between urban stress or discrimination and neurobiological alterations in schizophrenia are lacking to date.

Heinz, Andreas; Deserno, Lorenz; Reininghaus, Ulrich

2013-01-01

202

The environment and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Psychotic syndromes can be understood as disorders of adaptation to social context. Although heritability is often emphasized, onset is associated with environmental factors such as early life adversity, growing up in an urban environment, minority group position and cannabis use, suggesting that exposure may have an impact on the developing 'social' brain during sensitive periods. Therefore heritability, as an index of genetic influence, may be of limited explanatory power unless viewed in the context of interaction with social effects. Longitudinal research is needed to uncover gene-environment interplay that determines how expression of vulnerability in the general population may give rise to more severe psychopathology. PMID:21068828

van Os, Jim; Kenis, Gunter; Rutten, Bart P F

2010-11-11

203

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2013-07-01

204

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2010-07-01

205

40 CFR 717.12 - Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Significant adverse reactions that must be recorded...REPORTS OF ALLEGATIONS THAT CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES CAUSE SIGNIFICANT ADVERSE REACTIONS TO HEALTH OR THE ENVIRONMENT...12 Significant adverse reactions that must be...

2009-07-01

206

Investigational Adverse Experience Reporting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discussion centers on the adverse experience reporting techniques and governmental requirements for investigational products (Phases I-III). The adverse experience reporting rate for investigational products has steadily increased over the past six years. To meet this increased reporting rate, the computer systems at Merck have become highly sophisticated. The specific governmental AE reporting requirements for investigational products of North America

Robert A. Michalak

1987-01-01

207

Genes, environments, and developmental research: methods for a multi-site study of early substance abuse.  

PubMed

The importance of including developmental and environmental measures in genetic studies of human pathology is widely acknowledged, but few empirical studies have been published. Barriers include the need for longitudinal studies that cover relevant developmental stages and for samples large enough to deal with the challenge of testing gene-environment-development interaction. A solution to some of these problems is to bring together existing data sets that have the necessary characteristics. As part of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Gene-Environment-Development Initiative, our goal is to identify exactly which genes, which environments, and which developmental transitions together predict the development of drug use and misuse. Four data sets were used of which common characteristics include (1) general population samples, including males and females; (2) repeated measures across adolescence and young adulthood; (3) assessment of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use and addiction; (4) measures of family and environmental risk; and (5) consent for genotyping DNA from blood or saliva. After quality controls, 2,962 individuals provided over 15,000 total observations. In the first gene-environment analyses, of alcohol misuse and stressful life events, some significant gene-environment and gene-development effects were identified. We conclude that in some circumstances, already collected data sets can be combined for gene-environment and gene-development analyses. This greatly reduces the cost and time needed for this type of research. However, care must be taken to ensure careful matching across studies and variables. PMID:23461817

Costello, E Jane; Eaves, Lindon; Sullivan, Patrick; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Adkins, Daniel E; Angold, A; Clark, Shaunna L; Erkanli, Alaattin; McClay, Joseph L; Copeland, William; Maes, Hermine H; Liu, Youfang; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; van den Oord, Edwin

2013-03-06

208

Motor applications in adverse mining environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and physical conditions in the hard rock mining industry include the high temperatures of desert southwest open pit mines, the thin air of high altitude mines and concentrators, the humidity and heat of mile-deep mines, and exposure to dust and corrosive agents in smelters and refineries. These variations in ambient temperature, elevation, moisture, and corrosive agents require careful selection

JERRY M. TURNER

1994-01-01

209

Dispersal patterns, active behaviour, and flow environment during early life history of coastal cold water fishes.  

PubMed

During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V R; Deyoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S

2012-09-28

210

Childhood Victimization; Early Adversity, Later Psychopathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect have both immediate and long-term effects. Different types of abuse have a range of consequences for a childs later physical and psychological well-being, cognitive development, and behavior. But there i...

C. S. Widom

2000-01-01

211

What's Appropriate about Developmentally Appropriate Practices? Observing Early Childhood Development Center Classroom Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This chapter is part of a book that recounts the year's work at the Early Childhood Development Center (ECDC) at Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi. Rather than an "elitist" laboratory school for the children of university faculty, the dual-language ECDC is a collaboration between the Corpus Christi Independent School District and the…

Ricard, Richard J.; Brown, Angela; Sanders, Jana

212

Children's cortisol patterns and the quality of the early learning environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool?aged children. Cortisol was measured during one day across five time points. The quality of learning

Nina Sajaniemi; Eira Suhonen; Elina Kontu; Pekka Rantanen; Harri Lindholm; Sirpa Hyttinen; Ari Hirvonen

2011-01-01

213

Examination of Work Environment Factors Relating to Burnout Syndrome of Early Childhood Educators in Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early childhood education is a profession which requires the professional staff to spend considerable time in intense involvement with other people. The pressure from the demands this profession has can create a sense of physical and emotional exhaustion that often leads to burnout. Thus, previous research has linked perceptions of the work…

Rentzou, Konstantina

2012-01-01

214

Factors Influencing Overall Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Early Childhood Work Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research sought to clarify how certain personal and organizational factors influence the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of early childhood educators who work in center-based programs. Several important conclusions emerged. A fairly stable set of job clusters were identified as contributing sources of satisfaction and frustration: co-worker relations; supervisor relations; the nature of the work itself; pay and opportunities

Paula Jorde-Bloom

1988-01-01

215

Early life environment and developmental immunotoxicity in inflammatory dysfunction and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and dendritic cells are instrumental in determining the fate of immune responses and are, also, among the most sensitive targets of early life environmental alterations including developmental immunotoxicity (DIT). DIT can impede innate immune cell maturation, disrupt tissue microenvironment, alter immune responses to infectious challenges, and disrupt regulatory responses. Dysregulation of

Cynthia A. Leifer; Rodney R. Dietert

2011-01-01

216

Preservice Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Outdoor Settings as Learning Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they…

Ernst, Julie; Tornabene, Ladona

2012-01-01

217

Allergic Sensitization and Disease in Mother-Child Pairs from Germany: Role of Early Childhood Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Early childhood influences are important for the development of the allergic phenotype. In East Germany, tremendous lifestyle changes took place after 1990 and it can be hypothesized that the allergic phenotypes in mothers and their children are less similar than in West Germany. This was investigated in our study done in mothers and their 6-year-old children from East and

C. Cramer; U. Ranft; J. Ring; M. Möhrenschlager; H. Behrendt; H. Oppermann; M. Wilhelm; U. Krämer

2007-01-01

218

The Antislavery Movement in Early America: Religion, Social Environment and Slave Manumissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although traditional explanations of the historic slave manumission movement during the early Republic have stressed religion, rival ones have emphasized broader environmental forces. However, the literature has offered non-systematic conceptualizations of religion and impressionistic empirical analyses of the facilitators of liberations. In response, I examine the Methodist church’s efforts to convince the faithful to free their slaves in Brunswick County,

Art Budros

2005-01-01

219

Assessment of environment-, health- and safety aspects of fine chemical processes during early design phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most environmental-, health- and safety problems (EHS) of a chemical process are fixed during the early stages of the design process, when the chemical reaction pathway and the reaction parameters (e.g. solvents, temperature) are selected. Although a large variety of methods exist for assessing EHS problems of existing processes, none of them can be applied as a general method during

Guntram Koller; Ulrich Fischer; Konrad Hungerbühler

1999-01-01

220

Children's Cortisol Patterns and the Quality of the Early Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early educational quality on children's cortisol levels. It was hypothesised that the environmental stressors might load children's immature stress regulative systems thus affecting their diurnal cortisol levels. The study sample consisted of 146 preschool-aged children. Cortisol was measured…

Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina; Rantanen, Pekka; Lindholm, Harri; Hyttinen, Sirpa; Hirvonen, Ari

2011-01-01

221

Preservice early childhood educators’ perceptions of outdoor settings as learning environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of encouraging the use of natural settings for educational experiences with young children, an exploratory study using survey research and photographs of outdoor settings was conducted to understand how preservice early childhood educators perceive these settings and what educational opportunities, motivations, and barriers they associate with them. Based on the results of 110 participants, this study suggests

Julie Ernst; Ladona Tornabene

2012-01-01

222

Genetic Variants of NPAT-ATM and AURKA are Associated With an Early Adverse Reaction in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Patients With Cervical Cancer Treated With Pelvic Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study sought to associate polymorphisms in genes related to cell cycle regulation or genome maintenance with radiotherapy (RT)-induced an early adverse reaction (EAR) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: This study enrolled 243 cervical cancer patients who were treated with pelvic RT. An early gastrointestinal reaction was graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2. Clinical factors of the enrolled patients were analyzed, and 208 patients were grouped for genetic analysis according to their EAR (Grade {<=}1, n = 150; Grade {>=}2, n = 58). Genomic DNA was genotyped, and association with the risk of EAR for 44 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 19 candidate genes was assessed by single-locus, haplotype, and multilocus analyses. Results: Our analysis revealed two haplotypes to be associated with an increased risk of EAR. The first, comprising rs625120C, rs189037T, rs228589A, and rs183460G, is located between the 5' ends of NPAT and ATM (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.21-2.87), whereas the second is located in the AURKA gene and comprises rs2273535A and rs1047972G (OR = 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.78). A third haplotype, rs2273535T and rs1047972A in AURKA, was associated with a reduced EAR risk (OR = 0.42; 95% CI, 0.20-0.89). The risk of EAR was significantly higher among patients with both risk diplotypes than in those possessing the other diplotypes (OR = 3.24; 95% CI, 1.52-6.92). Conclusions: Individual radiosensitivity of intestine may be determined by haplotypes in the NPAT-ATM and AURKA genes. These variants should be explored in larger association studies in cervical cancer patients.

Ishikawa, Atsuko; Suga, Tomo; Shoji, Yoshimi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kato, Shingo; Ohno, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Yoshinaga, Shinji [Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Ohara, Kiyoshi [Tsukuba University Hospital, Tsukuba (Japan); Ariga, Hisanori [Tohoku University Hospital, Miyagi (Japan); Nomura, Kuninori [Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Shibamoto, Yuta [Nagoya City University Hospital, Aichi (Japan); Ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Moritake, Takashi; Michikawa, Yuichi; Iwakawa, Mayumi [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Imai, Takashi, E-mail: imait@nirs.go.jp [RadGenomics Project, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

2011-11-15

223

Reducing crying and irritability in neonates using a continuously controlled early environment.  

PubMed

A mother's "holding" environment has been shown to be effective in reducing infant crying and irritability. When mothers hold or cuddle their infants they create a microenvironment with stimuli similar to those of the intrauterine environment. Several of these same stimuli were incorporated into a cradle designed to provide a similar "holding" environment for the infant when the mother was not there. Ninety healthy term newborn infants were randomized to an experimental (n = 45) or control group (n = 45). The experimental group used a cradle that produced motion, sound, tactile (containment), and reduced-light stimuli at stimulus levels that initially approximated intrauterine sensory stimulation levels and gradually decreased to the levels of the home environment over 16 weeks. The control group used an identical cradle with no stimulus modulation features. Infants were placed in their respective cradles from 2 hours after birth during the times they would normally be placed in an infant bed. The mother-infant interaction or parenting style was not changed or manipulated. Mothers' use of the cradles did not differ significantly. An electronic status monitor measured and recorded infant presence and crying in the cradles. The Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale test was done at 1 to 2, 14, and 24 days of age by "blinded" examiners. Additionally, phone calls and home visits were conducted by a registered nurse.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7666271

Gatts, J D; Fernbach, S A; Wallace, D H; Singra, T S

224

The Early Maternal Linguistic Environment of Normal and Down's Syndrome (Mongoloid) Language Learning Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To demonstrate that the child learning language constructs his theory of language on the basis of the linguistic data available to him, this study investigated 21 linguistic parameters that Down's Syndrome and normal children are exposed to in their maternal linguistic environment. It was found that mothers produced certain levels of linguistic…

Buium, Nissan; Rynders, John

225

Inclusive Learning Environments: An Analysis of Early Intervention Service Options for Preschoolers with Special Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the quest to restructure educational programming toward higher student outcomes for preschoolers with special needs, professional educators are continuously challenged to provide with integrity a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restricted environment (LRE) as mandated by law. This study analyzed the effectiveness of an inclusive programming model for preschoolers with special needs by examining achievement gains

Mimi L. Heath

2009-01-01

226

Why Use the Online Environment with Face-to-Face Students? Insights from Early Adopters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study illustrates the convergence of two teaching and learning media, face-to-face and online, as reflective lecturers seek to address the limitations of a single medium. Innovative university lecturers at a large Western Australia university were interviewed about their use of online environments with face-to-face students. The interview…

Bunker, Alison; Vardi, Iris

227

Genotype–Environment Correlations in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence: Antisocial Behavioral Problems and Coercive Parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question for understanding the interplay between nature and nurture in development is the direction of effects in socialization. A longitudinal adoption design provides a unique opportunity to investigate this issue in terms of genotype–environment correlations for behavioral problems. As part of the Colorado Adoption Project, adopted children were classified as being at genetic risk (N = 38) or

Thomas G. OConnor; Kirby Deater-Deckard; David Fulker; Michael Rutter; Robert Plomin

1998-01-01

228

Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

2011-01-01

229

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

230

Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…

Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.

2011-01-01

231

The Interaction of Child and Environment in the Early Development of Drug Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review covers four areas of work: first it provides an overview of the large scale studies of adolescent drinking and drug involvement, with particular focus on findings related to person-environment interaction, as these effects account for onset of drug use and involvement in drug use during the teen years. Of special interest is the extent to which different aspects

Robert A Zucker; Robert B Noll

1987-01-01

232

Early Child Language Mediates the Relation between Home Environment and School Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Home environment quality is a well-known predictor of school readiness (SR), although the underlying processes are little known. This study tested two hypotheses: (a) child language mediates the association between home characteristics (socioeconomic status and exposure to reading) and SR, and (b) genetic factors partly explain the association…

Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

2009-01-01

233

The early phase of dielectric surface flashover in a simulated Low Earth Orbit environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Low Earth Orbit (LEO) the environment space plasma and UV radiation influences the surface charging and the surface flashover voltage of insulators, and thus the performance of high voltage systems. Understanding the mechanisms leading to surface flashover will make it possible to apply certain shielding techniques (e.g. electric and magnetic shielding) which can increase the dielectric flashover voltage drastically.

F. Hegeler; H. Krompholz; I. L. Hatfield; M. Kristiansen

1994-01-01

234

A Hundred Ways of Listening: Gathering Children's Perspectives of Their Early Childhood Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores how young children can play active roles as researchers, explorers, and designers of their outdoor environment. It introduces the Mosaic approach, a framework for listening and responding to young children's perspectives, first developed in a study in a London preschool in 1999 (Clark & Moss 2001). The author used this…

Clark, Alison

2007-01-01

235

Environmental variability in the early rearing environment generates behaviourally flexible cod: implications for rehabilitating wild populations  

PubMed Central

The release of hatchery-reared fishes for restoring threatened and endangered populations is one of the most controversial issues in applied ecology. A central issue has been to determine whether releases cause extinction of local wild populations. This may arise either through domesticated or non-local fishes hybridizing with wild fishes, or through inappropriate behavioural interactions; for example, many hatchery fishes show exaggerated aggressive and competitive behaviour and out-compete wild counterparts. The impact of the impoverished hatchery environment in shaping behaviour is only now receiving attention. Attempts to counteract hatchery-related behavioural deficiencies have utilized intensive training programmes shortly before the fishes are released. However, we show here that simple exposure to variable spatial and foraging cues in the standard hatchery environment generates fishes with enhanced behavioural traits that are probably associated with improved survival in the wild. It appears that fishes need to experience a varying and changeable environment to learn and develop flexible behaviour. Using variable hatchery rearing environments to generate suitable phenotypes in combination with a knowledge of appropriate local genotypes, rehabilitation of wild fishes is likely to succeed, where to date it has largely failed.

Braithwaite, Victoria A; Salvanes, Anne G.V

2005-01-01

236

Understanding Relations among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined…

O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

237

Suspected adverse reactions, 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports to the UK Suspected Adverse Reaction Surveillance Scheme (SARSS) in 2008 increase by around 11 per cent compared with 2007Low incidence of suspected adverse reactions following bluetongue virus vaccinationIncrease in reports of suspected lack of efficacy to canine parvovirus vaccinationRabbit deaths reported after off-label use of dexmedetomidineThese are some of the results from the SARSS in 2008, as discussed

F. Dyer; E. Brown; S. Cooles; A. Tait

2009-01-01

238

Stable reprogramming of brain transcription profiles by the early social environment in a cooperatively breeding fish.  

PubMed

Adult social behaviour can be persistently modified by early-life social experience. In rodents, such effects are induced by tactile maternal stimulation resulting in neuroendocrine modifications of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis involved in stress responsiveness. Whether similar long-term alterations can occur in the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis of poikilothermic vertebrates is unknown. We compared the expression of four genes of the HPI axis in adults of the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, which had been exposed to two early-life social treatments 1.5 years prior to brain sampling. Fish reared with parents and siblings had less brain expression of corticotropin-releasing factor and of the functional homologue of the mammalian glucocorticoid receptor (GR1) than individuals reared with same-age siblings only. Expression of the mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) did not differ between treatments, but the MR/GR1 expression ratio was markedly higher in fish reared with parents and siblings. Thus, we show here that early social experience can alter the programming of the stress axis in poikilothermic vertebrates, suggesting that this mechanism is deeply conserved within vertebrates. Moreover, we show for the first time that reprogramming of the stress axis of a vertebrate can be induced without tactile stimulation by parents. PMID:23269853

Taborsky, Barbara; Tschirren, Linda; Meunier, Clémence; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2012-12-26

239

Nature and Nurture of Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies in Low Density Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study stellar population parameters of a sample of 13 dwarf galaxies located in poor groups of galaxies using high resolution spectra observed with VIMOS at the ESO-VLT [Grützbauch et al., A&A 502, 473 (2009)]. LICK-indices were compared with Simple Stellar Population models to derive ages, metallicities and [?/Fe]-ratios. Comparing the dwarfs with a sample of giant ETGs residing in comparable environments we find that the dwarfs are on average younger, less metal-rich, and less enhanced in alpha-elements than giants. Age, Z, and [?/Fe] ratios are found to correlate both with velocity dispersion and with morphology. We also find possible evidence that low density environment (LDE) dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formation histories than Coma dwarfs, however, larger samples are needed to draw firm conclusions.

Grützbauch, R.; Annibali, F.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

240

Early Holocene chronology and environment of Ampasambazimba, A Malagasy subfossil lemur site  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a traditional but hitherto untested reconstruction of Madagascar’s Holocene environment, continuous forest preceded\\u000a the monotonous grassland formations that now cover most of the island’s interior. Preliminary analyses of pollen samples collected\\u000a near14C-dated horizons at Ampasambazimba (central Madagascar) indicate that a mosaic of woodlands, bushlands, and savanna existed\\u000a close to this important vertebrate subfossil site around 7000–8000 BP. Although

R. D. E. MacPhee; D. A. Burney

1985-01-01

241

Family Child Care Learning Environments: Caregiver Knowledge and Practices Related to Early Literacy and Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers’ backgrounds, caregiving environments,\\u000a practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive\\u000a results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are older, less educated, and care for a wider\\u000a age-range of children than center-based providers. Provider education was unrelated

Beth M. PhillipsErika; Erika E. Morse

2011-01-01

242

Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination  

PubMed Central

This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning.

BURNEY, IAN

2013-01-01

243

Our Environment in Miniature: Dust and the Early Twentieth-Century Forensic Imagination.  

PubMed

This article explores the articulation of the crime scene as a distinct space of theory and practice in the early twentieth century. In particular it focuses on the evidentiary hopes invested in what would at first seem an unpromising forensic object: dust. Ubiquitous and, to the uninitiated, characterless, dust nevertheless featured as an exemplary object of cutting-edge forensic analysis in two contemporary domains: writings of criminologists and works of detective fiction. The article considers how in these texts dust came to mark the furthest reach of a new forensic capacity they were promoting, one that drew freely upon the imagination to invest crime scene traces with meaning. PMID:23766552

Burney, Ian

2013-01-01

244

Early Pennsylvanian paleotopography and depositional environments, Rock Island County, Illinois, guidebook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geological Society of America, North-Central Section, presents a one-day field trip to Rock Island County, Illinois, where there will be the opportunity to examine the pre-Pennsylvanian unconformity, overlying sediments, and an early Pennsylvanian upland compression flora. The guidebook itself is a reprint of Leary (1979). Some revisions have been made to update the guidebook with new exposures, new data, and new references. The geology of the field-trip area has been discussed by Leary (1981). Phillips and Pepers (1984) have summarized regional paleoenvironmental patterns of coal swamps and discussed the effect of climate on coal occurrence in Euramerican coal fields.

Leary, R. L.; Trask, C. B.

245

Trajectories of Childhood Weight Gain: The Relative Importance of Local Environment versus Individual Social and Early Life Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the association between local environmental factors with child weight status in a longitudinal study, using a semi-parametric, group-based method, while also considering social and early life factors. Methods Standardized, directly measured BMI from 4–10 y of age, and group-based trajectory modeling (PROC TRAJ) were used to estimate developmental trajectories of weight change in a Québec birth cohort (n?=?1,566). Associations between the weight trajectories and living location, social cohesion, disorder, and material and social deprivation were estimated after controlling for social and early life factors. Results Four weight trajectory groups were estimated: low-increasing (9.7%); low-medium, accelerating (36.2%); medium-high, increasing (43.0%); and high-stable (11.1%). In the low-increasing and medium-high trajectory groups, living in a semi-urban area was inversely related to weight, while living in a rural area was positively related to weight in the high-stable group. Disorder was inversely related to weight in the low-increasing group only. Other important risk factors for high-stable weight included obesity status of the mother, smoking during pregnancy, and overeating behaviors. Conclusions In this study, associations between local environment factors and weight differed by trajectory group. Early life factors appear to play a more consistent role in weight status. Further work is needed to determine the influence of place on child weight.

Carter, Megan A.; Dubois, Lise; Tremblay, Mark S.; Taljaard, Monica; Jones, Bobby L.

2012-01-01

246

Persistent Effects of Early Augmented Acoustic Environment on the Auditory Brainstem  

PubMed Central

Acoustic experiences significantly shape the functional organization of the auditory cortex during postnatal ‘critical periods’. Here, we investigate the effects of a non-traumatic augmented acoustic environment (AAE) on the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and lower brainstem nuclei in rat during the critical period. Our results show that an AAE during P9–P28 had a persistent effect on the evoked auditory brainstem responses leading to a decreased latency and an increased amplitude of the response at and above the frequency of the stimulus used for the AAE. These findings are correlated with increased numbers of sites in the ICC that responded to the AAE frequency and show higher thresholds. There also were persistent effects in neurons with a best frequency higher than the AAE stimulus. These neurons showed decreased activity at low sound levels in the low frequency tail of the frequency response area. This was at, below and above the AAE stimulus frequency. Less often, increased activity at higher sound levels also was seen. Together, these findings suggest multifaceted interactions between activity-dependent plasticity, homeostasis, and development in the brainstem during the initial stages of hearing. A neonate exposed to an altered auditory environment may experience long-lasting change over the entire network of the auditory system.

Oliver, Douglas L.; Izquierdo, Marco A.; Malmierca, Manuel S.

2011-01-01

247

Non-lethal effects of an invasive species in the marine environment: the importance of early life-history stages.  

PubMed

Studies examining the effects of invasive species have focussed traditionally on the direct/lethal effects of the invasive on the native community but there is a growing recognition that invasive species may also have non-lethal effects. In terrestrial systems, non-lethal effects of invasive species can disrupt early life-history phases (such as fertilisation, dispersal and subsequent establishment) of native species, but in the marine environment most studies focus on adult rather than early life-history stages. Here, we examine the potential for an introduced sessile marine invertebrate (Styela plicata) to exert both lethal and non-lethal effects on a native species (Microcosmus squamiger) across multiple early life-history stages. We determined whether sperm from the invasive species interfered with the fertilisation of eggs from the native species and found no effect. However, we did find strong effects of the invasive species on the post-fertilisation performance of the native species. The invasive species inhibited the settlement of native larvae and, in the field, the presence of the invasive species was associated with a ten-fold increase in the post-settlement mortality of the native species, as well as an initial reduction of growth in the native. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species avoid settling near the invasive species due to reduced post-settlement survival in its presence. Overall, we found that invasive species can have complex and pervasive effects (both lethal and non-lethal) across the early life-history stages of the native species, which are likely to result in its displacement and to facilitate further invasion. PMID:19156442

Rius, Marc; Turon, Xavier; Marshall, Dustin J

2009-01-21

248

Formic Acid and Monmorillonite Clay in an Early Earth Environment (<10 GPa, <1000K)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient temperature experiments have shown that silicate minerals such as Na-montmorillonite clay ((Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O) can act as templates for the creation of ordered organic macro-molecules, a mechanism promoted for the origin of replication and chirality of prebiotic molecules. As montmorillonite clay is a weathering product of mafic and intermediate rocks, it was present early in Earth's history, along with organic material delivered by meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, and as such both materials would have been subject to high pressures and temperatures due to burial, subduction or impacts. Infrared spectroscopy of the reaction between montmorillonite and formic acid (HCOOH) in the diamond anvil cell at pressures up to 10 GPa has shown the irreversible formation of peaks not seen in either material. Larger volumes of reacted sample for quantitative analytical study can be created in the piston-cylinder press.

Montgomery, W.; Tuff, J. R.; Kohn, S. C.

2008-12-01

249

Adverse reactions to sulfites  

PubMed Central

Sulfites are widely used as preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. In the United States more than 250 cases of sulfite-related adverse reactions, including anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attacks, urticaria and angioedema, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, seizures and death, have been reported, including 6 deaths allegedly associated with restaurant food containing sulfites. In Canada 10 sulfite-related adverse reactions have been documented, and 1 death suspected to be sulfite-related has occurred. The exact mechanism of sulfite-induced reactions is unknown. Practising physicians should be aware of the clinical manifestations of sulfite-related adverse reactions as well as which foods and pharmaceuticals contain sulfites. Cases should be reported to health officials and proper advice given to the victims to prevent further exposure to sulfites. The food industry, including beer and wine manufacturers, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider using alternative preservatives. In the interim, they should list any sulfites in their products.

Yang, William H.; Purchase, Emerson C.R.

1985-01-01

250

Understanding Relations Among Early Family Environment, Cortisol Response, and Child Aggression via a Prevention Experiment  

PubMed Central

This study examined relations among family environment, cortisol response, and behavior in the context of a randomized controlled trial with 92 children (M = 48 months) at risk for antisocial behavior. Previously, researchers reported an intervention effect on cortisol response in anticipation of a social challenge. The current study examined whether changes in cortisol response were related to later child aggression. Among lower warmth families, the intervention effect on aggression was largely mediated by the intervention effect on cortisol response. Although the intervention also resulted in significant benefits on child engaging behavior, cortisol response did not mediate this effect. These findings demonstrate meaningful associations between cortisol response and aggression among children at familial risk for antisocial behavior.

O'Neal, Colleen R.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Calzada, Esther J.; Pine, Daniel S.

2012-01-01

251

A wicked problem: early childhood safety in the dynamic, interactive environment of home.  

PubMed

Young children being injured at home is a perennial problem. When parents of young children and family workers discussed what influenced parents' perceptions and responses to child injury risk at home, both "upstream" and "downstream" causal factors were identified. Among the former, complex and interactive facets of society and contemporary living emerged as potentially critical features. The "wicked problems" model arose from the need to find resolutions for complex problems in multidimensional environments and it proved a useful analogy for child injury. Designing dynamic strategies to provide resolutions to childhood injury, may address our over-dependence on 'tame solutions' that only deal with physical cause-and-effect relationships and which cannot address the complex interactive contexts in which young children are often injured. PMID:23615453

Simpson, Jean; Fougere, Geoff; McGee, Rob

2013-04-24

252

[Adverse reactions to insulin].  

PubMed

The prevalence of allergic reactions to insuline has decreased during the last few years. Probably this is due to the use of the newly-developed recombinant human insuline. At present, adverse reactions to insuline occur in 5-10% of patients on therapy with insuline. Adverse reactions may be local (more frequent) or systemic (rare). Insuline resistance consists in a different type of immunological reaction. Diagnosis of allergy to insuline is based on clinical history and cutaneous and serological tests. Treatment depends upon the severity of the reaction. When insuline is indispensable despite a previous allergic reaction, a desensitization protocol may be implemented. PMID:9410127

Liñana, J J; Montoro, F J; Hernández, M D; Basomba, A

1997-07-01

253

The Hi content of early-type galaxies from the ALFALFA survey. II. The case of low density environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present the analysis of the Hi content of a sample of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in low-density environments (LDEs) using the data set provided by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We compare their properties to the sample in the Virgo cluster that we studied in a previous paper (di Serego Alighieri et al. 2007, A&A, 474, 851, Paper I). Our aim is both to investigate how the cool interstellar medium (ISM) of these systems depends on the galaxy mass and the environment and to relate the properties of the neutral hydrogen to the warm phases of the ISM. Methods: We have selected a sample of 62 nearby ETGs (V< 3000 km s-1) in an area of the sky where the ALFALFA data are already available (8h < RA < 16^h, 4° < Dec < 16°), avoiding the region of the Virgo cluster. Among these, 39 have absolute B magnitudes fainter than MB = -17. Results: Fifteen out of 62 galaxies have been firmly detected with ALFALFA (~25%). Five additional galaxies show a weaker Hi emission (S/N ~ 4) and they will need deeper observations to be confirmed. Eight objects had 21-cm measurements reported in the literature. One by one comparison with the available material confirms, as expected, that ALFALFA data are, with rare exceptions, of equal or better quality than the best spectra previously obtained for these objects. All together, our analysis doubles the number of known gas-rich ETGs in this area. The Hi detection rate is 44% in luminous ETGs (MB < -17) and 13% in dwarf ETGs (MB > -17). In both cases it is 10 times higher than that of the Virgo cluster. The presence of gas can be related to a recent star formation activity: 60% of all ETGs with Hi have optical emission line ratios typical of star-forming galaxies and blue colours suggesting the presence of young stellar populations, especially in the dwarf subsample. Conclusions: We show that the Hi detection rate of ETGs depends both on the environment and mass. The fraction of early-type systems with neutral hydrogen is higher in more massive objects when compared to early-type dwarfs. The ETGs in LDEs seem to have more heterogeneous properties than their Virgo cluster counterparts, since they are able to retain a cold interstellar gas component and to support star formation activity even at recent epochs.

Grossi, M.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Giovanardi, C.; Gavazzi, G.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Kent, B. R.; Pellegrini, S.; Stierwalt, S.; Trinchieri, G.

2009-05-01

254

The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats  

PubMed Central

Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli.

Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

2010-01-01

255

The medial preoptic area is necessary for motivated choice of pup- over cocaine-associated environments by early postpartum rats.  

PubMed

Converging evidence suggests that the motivation to seek cocaine during the postpartum period is significantly impacted by the competing incentives of offspring, a stimulus unique to this life stage. In the present study, the functional role of the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a critical site involved in maternal responsiveness, on processing incentive value of pup-associated cues and influencing response allocation for pup- over cocaine-associated environments was investigated using a concurrent pup/cocaine choice conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Early postpartum females with bilateral guide cannulae aimed into the mPOA or into anatomical control sites were conditioned, from postpartum days (PPD) 4 to 7, to associate different uniquely featured environments with pups or cocaine. CPP was tested on PPD8 following intra-mPOA infusions of either 2% bupivacaine or saline vehicle. In two additional experiments, the effects of intra-mPOA infusions of bupivacaine on expression of conditioned responding induced by environments associated with either pups or cocaine were examined separately. Transient inactivation of the mPOA selectively blocked the conditioned preferences for pup-associated environments, significantly contrasting the robust pup-CPP found in non-surgical and intra-mPOA vehicle-treated females. In contrast, mPOA inactivation failed to alter cocaine-CPP in postpartum females. When given a choice between environments associated with pups or cocaine, transient functional inactivation of the mPOA altered choice behavior, biasing the preference of females toward cocaine-associated environments, such that almost all preferred cocaine- and none the pup-associated option. The anatomical specificity was revealed when inactivation of adjacent regions to the mPOA did not affect CPP responses for pups. The findings support a critical role for the mPOA in mediating pup-seeking behavior, and further suggest that the competing properties of pups over alternative incentives, including drugs of abuse, rely on mPOA integrity to provide relevant pup-related information to the circuitry underlying the choice behavior between pups and alternative stimuli. PMID:20156528

Pereira, M; Morrell, J I

2010-02-12

256

Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

257

Adverse Termination Procedures -or- \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT When an employee is terminated, his or her access to the organization’s network and computer systems must be removed. However, the most difficult employee to terminate is often the person that built the system. We propose a three tier model for coordinating access removal that is useful in normal,and adverse termination scenarios. We then work through a number ,of

Matthew F. Ringel; Thomas A. Limoncelli

1999-01-01

258

Finding Meaning in Adversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing hardship, suffering and loss and finding a way to learn from one's experiences rather than being overtaken, diminished and embittered by them, constitutes an inevitable human challenge. Yet surprisingly, little has been written about the structure of the experience of adversity. Equally astounding is the fact that although there is considerable knowledge about the personality traits and behavioral patterns

Nancy E. Johnston

2003-01-01

259

Finding meaning in adversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing hardship, suffering and loss and finding a way to learn from one's experiences rather than being overtaken, diminished and embittered by them, constitutes an inevitable human challenge. Yet surprisingly, little has been written about the structure of the experience of adversity. Equally astounding is the fact that although there is considerable knowledge about the personality traits and behavioral patterns

Nancy E Johnston

2003-01-01

260

Early Miocene depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean, southwestern Anatolia  

SciTech Connect

The continental and shallow marine clastics and carbonates exposed around the towns of Kale and Acipayam in southwestern Anatolia were investigated to interpret the depositional environments in the northern margin of the Mediterranean in terms of lithofacies and biozones. These deposits include Miogypsina intermedia and M. irregularis, indicating Burdigalian age when correlated with the same species in the different parts of the Tethys Sea and Indian-Pacific Oceans. The clastic lower part of the succession is characterized by sheet flow and braided-stream deposits of an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex. Marine carbonates overlie these deposits, but in some places a transgressive lag deposit lies between the unconformity surface and the carbonates. The lag deposit unit corresponds to the Gastropoda biozone, including Ostrea, Terebralia, and Pecten. Four carbonate facies are recognized: (1) Clayey limestones with ahermatypic corals, ostracods, macrofossils, and foraminifers. This facies corresponds to the Textularia-Rotalia biozone. (2) Packstones and grainstones with abundant nearshore and some offshore foraminifers, corresponding to the Miliolidae biozone. (3) Packstones and wackestones with offshore foraminifers. This facies includes the Miogypsina irregularis-Miogypsina intermedia biozone. (4) Boundstones and very poorly sorted reef-talus conglomerates including hermatypic corals, foraminifers, and binding foraminifers. This facies is the coral biozone. These sediments define the northern extent of the Tethys Sea in the investigated area during the Burdigalian. They were deposited in a shallow carbonate platform at the southern margin of the Anatolian mainland, which had a steep coast characterized by an alluvial-fan/fan-delta complex.

Yavuz, H.H.; Oercen, S.

1988-08-01

261

Gender and the development of oppositional defiant disorder: contributions of physical abuse and early family environment.  

PubMed

Research is needed to understand the role of gender in the stability, course and etiology of antisocial behavior. Family environment, given its proximal association with children's behavior, holds great promise in understanding risk for antisocial behavior. The present study examined the role of parental acceptance and emotional responsivity as assessed using the HOME, caregiver report of intimate partner violence (IPV), and levels of physical abuse as assessed using the Conflict Tactics Scales, on subsequent symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), a childhood disorder characterized by antisocial behavior. Data were drawn from Waves 1-3, cohorts 3 and 6 of the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Results suggest only minor gender differences in levels of ODD symptoms, with equal rates of stability from Wave 2 to 3 in symptom levels. For boys and girls, IPV was associated with an increased risk of ODD symptoms, and higher acceptance was associated with reduced risk of ODD symptoms. However, gender differences emerged in the impact of physical abuse and emotional responsiveness, in that the former was a significant predictor for girls only, and the latter was significant for boys only. Potential implications for these findings, including the role of gender socialization are discussed. PMID:23420295

Burnette, Mandi L

2013-02-17

262

Environmental Opportunities Questionnaire: development of a measure of the environment supporting early motor development in the first year of life.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The development and testing of a measure evaluating the quality and variability in the home environment as it relates to the motor development of infants during the first year of life. Methods: A sample of 112 boys and 95 girls with a mean age of 7.1 months (SD 1.8) and GA of 39.6 weeks (SD 1.5) participated in the study. The measurement development process was divided into three phases: measurement development (item generation or selection of items from existing measurement tools), pilot testing to determine acceptability and feasibility to parents, and exploratory factor analysis to organize items into meaningful concepts. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also determined. Results: The Environmental Opportunities Questionnaire (EOQ) is a feasible 21-item measure comprised of three factors including opportunities in the play space, sensory variety and parental encouragement. Overall, test-retest reliability was 0.92 (CI 0.84-0.96) and the internal consistency is 0.79. The EOQ emphasizes quality of the environment and access to equipment and toys that have the potential to facilitate early motor development. Conclusion: The preliminary analyses reported here suggest more work could be done on the EOQ to strengthen its use for research or clinical purposes; however, it is adequate for use in its current form. Implications for Rehabilitation New and feasible 21-item questionnaire that enables identification of malleable environmental factors that serve as potential points of intervention for children that are not developing typically. Therapeutic tool for use by therapists to inform and guide discussions with caregivers about potential influences of environmental, social and attitudinal factors in their child's early development. PMID:23350756

Doralp, Samantha; Bartlett, Doreen J

2013-01-25

263

Adverse effects of bisphosphonates.  

PubMed

Use of bisphosphonates has been growing steadily in the last decade. This follows the introduction of simpler dosing regimes, the availability of lower-priced generics, and concerns about the safety of hormone-replacement therapy. Bisphosphonates have a relatively good safety record and are tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse events in bisphosphonate-treated patients was based on published information from case reports, case series, claims databases, national databases, surveys, adverse event reporting databases, and single or pooled clinical trials. The most common acute adverse events with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis are gastrointestinal discomfort and acute influenza-like illness. Renal complications are very rare with oral bisphosphonates and rare with i.v. bisphosphonates when used appropriately. Based on our current knowledge, skeletal events in the form of osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical fragility fractures are rare compared with the risk of osteoporotic fractures, at least in patients with the same risk of fractures as those in the phase III trials. It is biologically plausible that atypical fragility fractures could follow from suppression of bone remodeling, but high-quality studies proving causality are lacking. Physicians are advised to critically reassess BMD and risk profile after 3-5 years of therapy to avoid treatment in patients at low risk. PMID:20407762

Abrahamsen, Bo

2010-04-21

264

Adverse antiepileptic drug effects  

PubMed Central

Background: Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are a major impediment to optimal dosing for seizure control. Better understanding of clinical properties of AEs is a prerequisite for systematic research of their neurobiological underpinnings. This study aimed to define specific patterns of AE occurrence and determine their clinical relevance based on their association with subjective health status. Methods: Two hundred subjects with epilepsy completed validated self-report health assessments, including the Adverse Event Profile (AEP) and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory (QOLIE)-89. Factor analysis was performed on the 19 AEP items to identify distinct classes of AEs. Correlations between AE class scores and QOLIE-89 scores were evaluated. Multivariate analysis was used to assess contributions of AE class scores to QOLIE-89 scores after controlling for depression and seizure frequency. Relationships between changes in AE class scores and changes in QOLIE-89 scores were also investigated in a subgroup of 62 subjects enrolled in a randomized trial. Results: The mean number of AEs per subject was 6.5. AEs were segregated into five classes: Cognition/Coordination, Mood/Emotion, Sleep, Weight/Cephalgia, and Tegument/Mucosa. Higher scores in each AE class were associated with lower QOLIE-89 scores. Cognition/Coordination scores were the strongest predictor of QOLIE-89 scores. Improvements in Cognition/Coordination, Mood/Emotion, and Tegument/Mucosa scores were associated with improvements in QOLIE-89 scores. Improved Cognition/Coordination was the only predictor of improved QOLIE-89. Conclusion: Adverse effects (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs can be classified in five biologically plausible factors. When specific classes of AEs are identified and attempts are made to reduce them, quality of life is significantly improved. GLOSSARY AE = adverse effect; AED = antiepileptic drug; AEP = Adverse Event Profile; BDI = Beck Depression Inventory; GABA = ?-aminobutyric acid; HRQOL = Health-Related Quality of Life; QOLIE = Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory.

Perucca, Piero; Carter, Jewell; Vahle, Victoria; Gilliam, Frank G.

2009-01-01

265

Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the south where coal beds are preserved, and more arid in the north where evaporites and eolian deposits are common. Fluctuations in paleoclimate that caused lake levels to rise and fall in hydrologically closed basins are preserved as lacustrine cycles of various scales, including major shifts in the Late Triassic from a wet Carnian to an arid Norian. In contrast, fluvial deposits were mainly formed in response to the tectonic evolution of the basins, but to some extent also reflect climatic changes. The Newark Supergroup illustrates the complexity of rift-basin sedimentation and the problems that may arise from using a single modern analog for sedimentary deposition spanning millions of years. It also shows that a tremendous wealth of depositional, climatic, and tectonic information is preserved in ancient rift-basin deposits which can be recovered if the depositional processes of modern rift-basin deposits are understood. ?? 1991.

Smoot, J. P.

1991-01-01

266

Marker-assisted selection for early-season cold tolerance in sorghum: QTL validation across populations and environments.  

PubMed

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] landraces from China generally exhibit excellent emergence and seedling vigor under cool conditions, and are being used as sources of genes for improvement of seedling cold tolerance in other cultivars. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) could expedite the introgression of genes from landraces into elite lines, however, only a few studies have empirically demonstrated efficacy of MAS for quantitatively inherited agronomic traits. In a preceding study we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for early-season performance in a recombinant inbred (RI) population, one parent of which was a cold-tolerant Chinese line, 'Shan Qui Red' (SQR). In this study, three SSR markers (Xtxp43, Xtxp51, and Xtxp211), each representing a QTL, were tested in two new populations: (Tx2794 x SQR F(3)) and (Wheatland x SQR BC(1)F(3)). Individual families were genotyped, and early-season field performance was measured for two years. Statistical analyses showed that the SQR allele of Xtxp43 had favorable effects on seedling vigor in both populations, and on emergence in the Tx2794 population. A large positive effect of the SQR allele of Xtxp51 was observed in the Tx2794 population for vigor and emergence. Slight genotype by environment interaction was observed for Xtxp51 in the Wheatland population. Marker Xtxp211 had small but significant effects on seedling vigor and emergence in both populations. Various interactions between loci were also significant. This study validated QTL markers in various genetic backgrounds, and demonstrated the utility of MAS for a quantitative trait, early-season cold tolerance, evaluated in the field. PMID:18092147

Knoll, Joseph; Ejeta, Gebisa

2007-12-19

267

Maternal Environment Influences Cocaine Intake in Adulthood in a Genotype-Dependent Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAccumulating epidemiological evidence points to the role of genetic background as a modulator of the capacity of adverse early experiences to give rise to mental illness. However, direct evidence of such gene-environment interaction in the context of substance abuse is scarce. In the present study we investigated whether the impact of early life experiences on cocaine intake in adulthood depends

Rixt van der Veen; Muriel Koehl; D. Nora Abrous; E. Ronald de Kloet; Pier-Vincenzo Piazza; Véronique Deroche-Gamonet; Huibert D. Mansvelder

2008-01-01

268

The role of children's negative attributions on depressive symptoms: an inherited characteristic or a product of the early environment?  

PubMed

Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic predisposition, elevating depressive responses to stress, other data suggest that negative attributions in children are more likely to reflect early environmental experiences on symptoms. Here, we assess the degree to which negative attributional style and depressive symptoms arise from common genetic, shared and non-shared environmental influences in childhood. Monozygotic and dizygotic twins reported on attributional style and depressive symptoms at age 8 (n = 300 pairs) and at age 10 (n = 250 pairs). Two multivariate models with varying assumptions on the nature of the relationship between negative attributions and depressive symptoms within and across time were fit to the data. The Common Pathway model provided better fit than the Cholesky decomposition. A common, latent factor influenced both attributional style and depressive symptoms at both time-points in children. The only significant influences on this factor were shared and non-shared aspects of the environment. Placing the present findings with those of adolescents suggests possible developmental differences in the relationship between attributional style and depressive symptoms. PMID:22709405

Lau, Jennifer Y F; Belli, Stefano D; Gregory, Alice M; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C

2012-07-01

269

Reported early family environment covaries with menarcheal age as a function of polymorphic variation in estrogen receptor-?.  

PubMed

Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, (a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and (b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation. PMID:21262040

Manuck, Stephen B; Craig, Anna E; Flory, Janine D; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E

2011-02-01

270

The Early Growth and Development Study: Using the Prospective Adoption Design to Examine Genotype-Environment Interplay  

PubMed Central

The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption design consisting of 360 linked sets of birth parents, adoptive parents, and adopted children followed from 3 months postpartum through child age 7 years, and an additional 200 linked sets for whom recruitment is underway. The EGDS brings together the study of genotype–environment correlation (rGE) and Genotype x Environment (GxE) interaction to inform intervention development by examining mechanisms whereby family processes mediate or moderate the expression of genetic influences. Participants in the EGDS are recruited through domestic adoption agencies located throughout the United States of America. The assessments occur at 6-month intervals until child age 4-½ years and at ages 6 and 7, when the children are in their 1st and 2nd years of formal schooling (kindergarten and first grade). The data collection includes measures of child characteristics, birth and adoptive parent characteristics, adoptive parenting, prenatal exposure to drugs and maternal stress, birth parent and adopted child salivary cortisol reactivity, and DNA from all participants. The preliminary analyses suggest evidence for GxE interaction beginning in infancy. An intervention perspective on future developments in the field of behavioral genetics is described.

Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

2009-01-01

271

Reported Early Family Environment Covaries with Menarcheal Age as a Function of Polymorphic Variation in Estrogen Receptor-? (ESR1)  

PubMed Central

Age at menarche, a sentinel index of pubertal maturation, was examined in relation to early family relationships (conflict, cohesion) and polymorphic variation in the gene encoding estrogen receptor-? (ESR1) in a midlife sample of 455 European American women. Consistent with prior literature, women who reported being raised in families characterized by close interpersonal relationships and little conflict tended to reach menarche at a later age than participants reared in families lacking cohesion and prone to discord. Moreover, this association was moderated by ESR1 variation, such that quality of the family environment covaried positively with menarcheal age among participants homozygous for minor alleles of the two ESR1 polymorphisms studied here (rs9304799, rs2234693), but not among women of other ESR1 genotypes. In addition, a) family relationship variables were unrelated to ESR1 variation, and b) genotype-dependent effects of childhood environment on age at menarche could not be accounted for by personality traits elsewhere shown to explain heritable variation in reported family conflict and cohesion. These findings are consistent with theories of differential susceptibility to environmental influence, as well as the more specific hypothesis (by Belsky) that girls differ genetically in their sensitivity to rearing effects on pubertal maturation.

Manuck, Stephen B.; Craig, Anna E.; Flory, Janine D.; Halder, Indrani; Ferrell, Robert E.

2010-01-01

272

Early NICU discharge of very low birth weight infants: a critical review and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge has been advocated for selected preterm infants to reduce both the adverse environment of prolonged hospital stay and to encourage earlier parental involvement by empowering parents to contribute to the ongoing care of their infant, and thereby reducing costs of care. Randomized trials and descriptive experiences of early discharge programs are critically reviewed

T. Allen Merritt; DeAnn Pillers; Susan L. Prows

2003-01-01

273

Adverse events reported by postmenopausal women in controlled trials with raloxifene 1 1 David A. Cox, PhD, contributed to interpretation and presentation of the results and prepared early drafts of the manuscript  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the incidence of adverse events in postmenopausal women treated with raloxifene compared with placebo, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), or unopposed estrogen.Methods: Common treatment groups were pooled across eight randomized, parallel clinical trials (6–30 months’ duration) of raloxifene to create the following three databases: placebo-controlled, HRT-controlled, and estrogen-controlled databases. Incidence and severity of all treatment-emergent adverse events, defined

Graham C Davies; William J Huster; Yili Lu; Leo Plouffe; Mark Lakshmanan

1999-01-01

274

Adverse reaction to tetrazepam.  

PubMed

Adverse reactions caused by benzodiazepines rarely occur. We present a case of a 70-year-old man who developed a maculopapular exanthema after the ingestion of tetrazepam. For his diagnosis, skin tests were performed, including prick and patch tests, not only with the benzodiazepine implicated in the reaction, but also with benzodiazepines of other groups. Single-blind oral challenge tests were also performed in the patient, in order to assess his tolerance to other benzodiazepines. PMID:11642573

Palacios Benito, R; Domínguez Ortega, J; Alonso Llamazares, A; Rodríguez Morales, A; Plaza Díaz, A; Chamorro Gómez, M; Martínez-Cócera, C

2001-01-01

275

Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces Following Early Deprivation  

PubMed Central

A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo task. PI children showed heightened activity of the amygdala, a region that supports emotional learning and reactivity to emotional stimuli, and corresponding decreases in cortical regions that support perceptual and cognitive functions. Amygdala activity was associated with decreased eye-contact as measured by eye-tracking methods and during a live dyadic interaction. The association between early rearing environment and subsequent eye-contact was mediated by amygdala activity. These data support the hypothesis that early adversity alters human brain development in a way that can persist into childhood, and they offer insight into the socio-emotional disturbances in human behavior following early adversity.

Tottenham, N.; Hare, T.A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J.; Casey, B.J.

2010-01-01

276

Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning in subduction and strike-slip environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the application of GPS data to earthquake early warning and investigate whether the coseismic ground deformation can be used to provide fast and reliable magnitude estimations and ground shaking predictions. We use an algorithm to extract the permanent static offset from GPS displacement time series and invert for the slip distribution on the fault plane, which is discretized into a small number of rectangular patches. We developed a completely "self-adapting" strategy in which the initial fault plane model is built based on a quick, approximate magnitude estimation and is then allowed to increase in size based on the evolutionary magnitude estimation resulting from the slip inversion. Two main early warning outputs are delivered in real-time: magnitude and the along-strike extent of the rupture area. These are finally used to predict the expected ground shaking due to the finite source. We tested the proposed strategy by simulating real-time environments for three earthquakes. For the Mw 9.0, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, our algorithm provides the first magnitude estimate of 8.2 at 39 s after the origin time and then gradually increases to 8.9 at 120 s. The estimated rupture length remains constant from the outset at ~360 km. For the Mw 8.3, 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake, the initial magnitude estimate is 8.5 at 24 s and drops to 8.2 at 40 s with a rupture length of 290 km. Finally, for the Mw 7.2, 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, the magnitude estimate is 7.0 from the outset with a rupture length of 140 km. The accuracy of the ground shaking prediction using the GPS-based magnitude and finite extent is significantly better than existing seismology-based point source approaches. This approach would also facilitate more rapid tsunami warnings.

Colombelli, Simona; Allen, Richard M.; Zollo, Aldo

2013-07-01

277

The neurobiological correlates of childhood adversity and implications for treatment.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This article provides an overview of research on the neurobiological correlates of childhood adversity and a selective review of treatment implications. METHOD: Findings from a broad array of human and animal studies of early adversity were reviewed. RESULTS: Topics reviewed include neuroendocrine, neurotrophic, neuroimaging, and cognitive effects of adversity, as well as genetic and epigenetic influences. Effects of early-life stress on treatment outcome are considered, and development of treatments designed to address the neurobiological abnormalities is discussed. CONCLUSION: Early adversity is associated with abnormalities of several neurobiological systems that are implicated in the development of psychopathology and other medical conditions. Early-life stress negatively impacts treatment outcome, and individuals may require treatments that are specific to this condition. PMID:23662634

Tyrka, A R; Burgers, D E; Philip, N S; Price, L H; Carpenter, L L

2013-05-10

278

A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families with Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age  

PubMed Central

We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months. At each assessment, every mother-child and father-child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital quality when children were 15, 52, and 67 months. Growth curve analyses, using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, examined (a) developmental changes in emotions, (b) within-relationship influence of the partner’s emotions, (c) across-relationship influences of emotions in other parent’s interactions with the child, and (d) associations between marital quality and emotions over time. Parents’ emotional expressiveness was highest early in the child’s development, and declined thereafter. Children’s anger was highest at 15 months, and declined thereafter, and their positive emotions, particularly with mothers, increased over time. Generally, one’s positive emotions and better marital quality were associated with greater positive emotion within- and across-relationships, whereas one’s anger was associated with greater anger within- and across-relationships. However, any emotion expression elicited greater affection in the interaction partner. Parents’ neuroticism did not account for the convergence of emotions across relationships.

Barry, Robin A.; Kochanska, Grazyna

2010-01-01

279

Stressful life events and depressive problems in early adolescent boys and girls: The influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStressful life events increase the probability of depressive problems in early adolescence. Several genetic and environmental risk factors may change individual sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of these events. We examined modification by parental depression and gender, and mediation of the former by temperament and family environment.

Esther M. C. Bouma; Johan Ormel; Frank C. Verhulst; Albertine J. Oldehinkel

2008-01-01

280

Measuring the Quality of Program Environments in Head Start and Other Early Childhood Programs: A Review and Recommendations for Future Research. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) tracks children throughout the country as they move from kindergarten through fifth grade. As part of the ECLS planning process, the possibility was considered of assessing the program environments of Head Start children before they entered the ECLS kindergartens. A review was conducted of selected…

Love, John M.; Meckstroth, Alicia; Sprachman, Susan

281

The relative contribution of genes and environment to alcohol use in early adolescents: Are similar factors related to initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present study assessed the relative contribution of genes and environment to individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking among early adolescents and examined the extent to which the same genetic and environmental factors influence both individual differences in initiation of alcohol use and frequency of drinking. \\u000aMethods: Questionnaire data collected by the Netherlands Twin

Evelien A. P. Poelen; Eske M. Derks; Rutger C. M. E. Engels; R. H. J. Scholte; A. H. M. Willemsen; Gonneke Willemsen; Dorret I. Boomsma

2008-01-01

282

The ‘Right Kind of Man’: the ambiguities of regendering the early years school environment—the case of England and Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the issue of recruitment of men into primary teaching, with particular reference to the early years of schooling. The latest UK statistics reveal that there are 27,000 male primary teachers and 141,000 females. However there are disproportionately greater numbers of male head teachers. The presence of men in this environment is perceived as crucial. The public discourse,

Deborah Jones

2003-01-01

283

Effects of seed size and in-row spacing on growth and yield of early potato in a mediterranean-type environment in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimizing plant density and seed size are the most important subjects of early potato production systems in mediterranean-type environments due to their effects on seed cost, plant development, yield and quality of the crop. The effects of different in-row spacing (20, 25, 30 and 35 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) treatments on yield components and tuber yield

Leyla Güllüoglu; Halis Arioglu

284

A New Approach to Predicting the Thermal Environment in Buildings at the Early Design Stage. Building Research Establishment Current Paper 2/74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper argues that existing computer programs for thermal predictions do not produce suitable information for architects, particularly at the early stages of design. It reviews the important building features that determine the thermal environment and the need for heating and cooling plant. Graphical design aids are proposed, with examples to…

Milbank, N. O.

285

Research report Stressful life events and depressive problems in early adolescent boys and girls: The influence of parental depression, temperament and family environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Stressful life events increase the probability of depressive problems in early adolescence. Several genetic and environmental risk factors may change individual sensitivity to the depressogenic effect of these events. We examined modification by parental depression and gender, and mediation of the former by temperament and family environment. Methods: Data were collected as part of a longitudinal cohort study of

Esther M. C. Bouma; Johan Ormel; Frank C. Verhulst; Albertine J. Oldehinkel

286

Early Enriched Environment Exposure Protects Spatial Memory and Accelerates Amyloid Plaque Formation in APPSwe/PS1L166P Mice  

PubMed Central

Enriched environment exposure improves several aspects of cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease patients and in animal models and, although the role of amyloid plaques is questionable, several studies also assessed their response to enriched environment, with contrasting results. Here we report that rearing APPSwe/PS1L166P mice in an enriched environment since birth rescued the spatial memory impairment otherwise present at 6 months of age. At the same time, the exposure to the enriched environment caused a transient acceleration of plaque formation, while there was no effect on intracellular staining with the 6E10 antibody, which recognizes ?-amyloid, full length amyloid precursor protein and its C-terminal fragments. The anticipation of plaque formation required exposure during early development, suggesting an action within critical periods for circuits formation. On the other hand, chronic neuronal activity suppression by tetrodotoxin decreased the number of plaques without affecting intracellular amyloid. These results indicate that enriched environment exposure since early life has a protective effect on cognitive deterioration although transiently accelerates amyloid deposition. In addition, the effects of the enriched environment might be due to increased neuronal activity, because plaques were reduced by suppression of electrical signaling by tetrodotoxin.

Montarolo, Francesca; Parolisi, Roberta; Hoxha, Eriola; Boda, Enrica; Tempia, Filippo

2013-01-01

287

Distribution of Thermophilic Acidophiles at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua, an Analog for Acid-Sulfate Weathering Environments on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerro Negro, Nicaragua is an excellent terrestrial analog for putative acid-sulfate weathering systems on early Mars. Sulfur- and sulfate-reducing acidophiles are found throughout Cerro Negro and can further elucidate the habitability of early Mars.

Rogers, K. L.; Stephenson, S.; McCollom, T. M.; Hynek, B. M.

2010-04-01

288

At-Home Environment, Out-of-Home Environment, Snacks and Sweetened Beverages Intake in Preadolescence, Early and Mid-Adolescence: The Interplay Between Environment and Self-Regulation.  

PubMed

Obesity-related behaviors, such as intake of snacks and sweetened beverages (SSB), are assumed to result from the interplay between environmental factors and adolescents' ability to self-regulate their eating behaviors. The empirical evidence supporting this assumption is missing. This study investigated the relationships between perceptions of at-home and out-of-home food environment (including SSB accessibility, parental, and peers' social pressure to reduce intake of SSB), nutrition self-regulatory strategies (controlling temptations and suppression), and SSB intake. In particular, we hypothesized that these associations would differ across the stages of preadolescence, early and mid-adolescence. Self-reported data were collected from 2,764 adolescents (10-17 years old; 49 % girls) from 24 schools in the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. Path analysis indicated that direct associations between peers' social influence and SSB intake increased with age. Direct negative associations between at-home and out-of-home accessibility and SSB intake as well as direct positive associations between parental pressure and intake become significantly weaker with age. Accessibility was related negatively to self-regulation, whereas higher social pressure was associated with higher self-regulation. The effects of the environmental factors were mediated by self-regulation. Quantitative and qualitative differences in self-regulation were observed across the stages of adolescence. The associations between the use of self-regulatory strategies and lower SSB intake become significantly stronger with age. In preadolescence, SSB intake was regulated by means of strategies that aimed at direct actions toward tempting food. In contrast, early and mid-adolescents controlled their SSB intake by means of a combination of self-regulatory strategies focusing on direct actions toward tempting food and strategies focusing on changing the psychological meaning of tempting food. PMID:23354418

Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John B F; de Vet, Emely; Januszewicz, Anna; Liszewska, Natalia; Johnson, Fiona; Pratt, Michelle; Gaspar, Tania; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Stok, F Marijn

2013-01-26

289

Creating Welcoming and Inclusive Environments for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Families in Early Childhood Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children's identities and sense of self are inextricably tied to their families. The experience of being welcome or unwelcome, visible or invisible begins in early childhood. The goal of early childhood professionals is to ensure that all children and their families are welcomed in early childhood settings and provided with quality care and…

Burt, Tracy; Gelnaw, Aimee; Lesser, Lee Klinger

2010-01-01

290

Evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity in the early successional Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. compared to the late successional Hymenaea courbaril L. grown in contrasting light environments.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in photosynthetic characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (early successional species) and Hymenaea courbaril L. (late successional species) grown in contrasting light conditions as a way of assessing photosynthetic plasticity. Early successional species typically inhabit gap environments being exposed to variability in multiple resources, hence it is expected that these species would show higher photosynthetic plasticity than late successional ones. In order to test this hypothesis, light and CO2 response curves and chlorophyll content (Chl) were measured in plants grown in high and low light environments. G. ulmifolia presented the highest amounts of both Chl a and b, especially in the low light, and both species presented higher Chl a than b in both light conditions. The Chl a/b ratio was higher in high light leaves of both species and greater in G. ulmifolia. Taken together, these results evidence the acclimation potential of both species, reflecting the capacity to modulate light harvesting complexes according to the light environment. However, G. ulmifolia showed evidence of higher photosynthetic plasticity, as indicated by the greater amplitude of variation on photosynthetic characteristics between environments shown by more significant shade adjusted parameters (SAC) and principal component analysis (PCA). Thus, the results obtained were coherent with the hypothesis that the early successional species G. ulmifolia exhibits higher photosynthetic plasticity than the late successional species H. courbaril. PMID:20231962

Portes, M T; Damineli, D S C; Ribeiro, R V; Monteiro, J A F; Souza, G M

2010-02-01

291

Can Adverse Neonatal Experiences Alter Brain Development and Subsequent Behavior?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-destructive behavior in current society promotes a search for psychobiological factors underlying this epidemic. Perinatal brain plasticity increases the vulnerability to early adverse experiences, thus leading to abnormal development and behavior. Although several epidemiological investigations have correlated perinatal and neonatal complications with abnormal adult behavior, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains rudimentary. Models of early experience, such as repetitive

K. J. S. Anand; Frank M. Scalzo

2000-01-01

292

The nature of coarse-grained crystalline hematite and its implications for the early environment of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has detected deposits of coarse-grained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris. We argue that the key to the origin of gray hematite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 °C. We discuss thermal crystallization (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in low-temperature waters, or (2) as precipitation from hydrothermal solution. In Aram Chaos, a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps due to accumulation from physical weathering. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. Concentration of iron into such an ore-like body would be chemically favored by saline, Cl-rich hydrothermal fluids. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of ˜3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse-grained hematite. This depth of burial and re-exposure is difficult to reconcile with commonly inferred martian geological processes. However, shallow burial accompanied by post-burial hydrothermal activity remains plausible. When the hematite regions originally formed, redox balance requires that much hydrogen must have been evolved to complement the extensive oxidation. Finally, we suggest that the coexistence of several factors required to form the gray hematite deposits would have produced a favorable environment for primitive life on early Mars, if it ever existed. These factors include liquid water, abundant electron donors in the form of H 2, and abundant electron acceptors in the form of Fe 3+.

Catling, David C.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

2003-10-01

293

How Well Do Adverse Selection Components Measure Adverse Selection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of five adverse selection models are examined by comparing their component estimates to other measures of information asymmetry and informed trading. The models produce mixed results. Adverse selection components correlate with various volatility measures, but appear unrelated to measures of uncertainty. Only three of the five models have the expected relation with informed trader proxies, suggesting that the

Bonnie F. Van Ness; Robert A. Van Ness; Richard S. Warr

2001-01-01

294

Does the Quality of Stimulation and Support in the Home Environment Moderate the Effect of Early Education Programs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study was designed to investigate how the quality of stimulation and support available to children in the home interacts with participation in Early Head Start to determine children's development. Data were obtained as part of the national evaluation of Early Head Start (EHSRE), a randomized trial involving 3,001 children and families…

Bradley, Robert H.; McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

2011-01-01

295

Early environment and child-to-adult growth trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genetics and environmental conditions early in life are known to influence height. However, evidence is restricted to studies conducted at a specific age, and thus the effect on the entire growth trajectory has been neglected. Objective: The objective was to determine when parental height and factors early in offspring life start to affect offspring height, when these variables have

Leah Li; Orly Manor; Chris Power

296

Impact of extreme rainfall in the central Sudan during 1999 as a partial analogue for reconstructing early Holocene prehistoric environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year 1999 was an exceptionally wet year, with severe floods in China, India and Australia and very high flow in the Nile. In Sudan, the July rainfall was unusually early and heavy, and persistent rains throughout August and early September caused severe floods in much of central Sudan, including Khartoum.The synoptic conditions historically associated with extreme rainfall events in

Martin Williams; Justin Nottage

2006-01-01

297

Early Life History Variation among Hatchery and Wild-Origin Lake Trout Reared in a Hatchery Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hatcheries play a key role in augmenting populations for conservation, harvest, or both, although rapid domestication and adaptation to hatchery conditions may lead to fish that are maladapted to natural environments. Three processes may lead to domestication: (1) negative selection against fish adapted to wild environments, (2) positive selection for fish that thrive in artificial conditions, or (3) relaxation of

Jenni L. McDermid; William N. Sloan; Chris C. Wilson; Brian J. Shuter

2010-01-01

298

Planning Appropriate Learning Environments for Children under Three. Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc. Resource Book Series No. 1. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet, revised from the March 1990 version, provides suggestions for reassessing, modifying, and arranging child care center environments to best serve the needs of children and staff. The booklet notes that a well-planned environment can provide young children with appropriate and challenging learning experiences within a consistent and…

Harrison, Linda

299

Adverse Life Events and Resilience  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAdverse life events are well-documented risk factors of psychopathology and psychological dysfunction in children and adolescents. Youth with good adjustment despite high levels of adverse life events are considered resilient. This study identifies factors that characterize resilience.

QUYEN Q. TIET; HECTOR R. BIRD; MARK DAVIES; CHRISTINA HOVEN; PATRICIA COHEN; PETER S. JENSEN; SHERRYL GOODMAN

1998-01-01

300

Bisphosphonate-associated adverse events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adverse events of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates are reviewed. Oral bisphos- phonates (alendronate, risedronate and ibandronate), mainly used for the treatment of os- teoporosis, have been associated with adverse events from the upper gastrointestinal tract, acute phase response, hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and ocular events. Intravenous bisphosphonates (pamidronate, ibandronate and zoledronic acid), used in

Peter D. Papapetrou

2009-01-01

301

Adverse drug events in children: the US Food and Drug Administration perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adverse events are unwelcome occurrences associated with drug use. Some of these events are predictable or preventable, whereas others are idiosyncratic. The “off-label” use of drugs in pediatric patients further complicates the assessment of adverse events because pediatric dosing based on recommended adult doses may not be appropriate. Adverse events often occur in pediatric patients in an environment of

William Rodriguez; Rosemary Roberts; Dianne Murphy

2001-01-01

302

Gene-environment interaction between dopamine receptor D4 7-repeat polymorphism and early maternal sensitivity predicts inattention trajectories across middle childhood.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that the 7-repeat variant of a 48 base pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene may be associated with the development of attention problems. A parallel literature suggests that genes linked to dopaminergic functioning may be associated with differential sensitivity to context, such that the direction of the genetic effect is hypothesized to vary across environmental experience. Guided by these literatures, we used data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to consider (a) whether individual differences in children's inattention problems across middle childhood are predicted by gene-environment interactions between the DRD4 gene 7-repeat polymorphism and children's experiences of maternal sensitivity across infancy and early childhood and (b) the degree to which such interactions are consistent with the differential-sensitivity model. Largely consistent with the hypothesized model, gene-environment interactions indicated that, in the context of insensitive early maternal care, the DRD4 7-repeat polymorphism was associated with higher levels of inattention. Although somewhat less consistently, there was also evidence that, in the context of highly sensitive care, the 7-repeat polymorphism was associated with lower levels of inattention. Overall, the magnitude of the absolute genetic effect increased over time, as children's inattention trajectories diverged. PMID:23627945

Berry, Daniel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; McCartney, Kathleen; Wang, Zhe; Petrill, Stephen A

2013-05-01

303

Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.  

PubMed

Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (?36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. PMID:21541932

Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

2011-05-03

304

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

305

Post-Institutionalization: The Effects of Early Deprivation on Development of Romanian Adoptees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounts of childhood adversity and extreme deprivation are not new to psychological literature. Intensive case studies of children raised in isolation or extreme deprivation have provided developmental psychologists a better understanding of the effects of early environment on later development (see Curtiss, 1977, for a detailed account of the developmental sequelae of Genie, a girl rescued from 13 years of

Samantha L. Wilson

2003-01-01

306

Early Childhood Intervention in South Africa in Relation to the Developmental Systems Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As highlighted in recent series in "The Lancet" (2007, 2011), children from low and middle income countries are more likely to be adversely affected by early biological and psychosocial experiences that have their origins in environments characterized by poverty, violence, nutritional deficiencies, HIV infections, substance abuse, and inadequate…

Samuels, Alecia M.; Slemming, Wiedaad; Balton, Sadna

2012-01-01

307

Identification of structure-activity relationships for adverse effects of pharmaceuticals in humans: Part B. Use of (Q)SAR systems for early detection of drug-induced hepatobiliary and urinary tract toxicities.  

PubMed

This report describes the development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting rare drug-induced liver and urinary tract injury in humans based upon a database of post-marketing adverse effects (AEs) linked to approximately 1600 chemical structures. The models are based upon estimated population exposure using AE proportional reporting ratios. Models were constructed for 5 types of liver injury (liver enzyme disorders, cytotoxic injury, cholestasis and jaundice, bile duct disorders, gall bladder disorders) and 6 types of urinary tract injury (acute renal disorders, nephropathies, bladder disorders, kidney function tests, blood in urine, urolithiases). Identical training data sets were configured for 4 QSAR programs (MC4PC, MDL-QSAR, BioEpisteme, and Predictive Data Miner). Model performance was optimized and was shown to be affected by the AE scoring method and the ratio of the number of active to inactive drugs. The best QSAR models exhibited an overall average 92.4% coverage, 86.5% specificity and 39.3% sensitivity. The 4 QSAR programs were demonstrated to be complementary and enhanced performance was obtained by combining predictions from 2 programs (average 78.4% specificity, 56.2% sensitivity). Consensus predictions resulted in better performance as judged by both internal and external validation experiments. PMID:19422098

Matthews, Edwin J; Ursem, Carling J; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Benz, R Daniel; Sabaté, David Aragonés; Yang, Chihae; Klopman, Gilles; Contrera, Joseph F

2009-06-01

308

Bisphosphonate-associated adverse events.  

PubMed

The adverse events of the nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates are reviewed. Oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate and ibandronate), mainly used for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been associated with adverse events from the upper gastrointestinal tract, acute phase response, hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism, musculoskeletal pain, osteonecrosis of the jaw and ocular events. Intravenous bisphosphonates (pamidronate, ibandronate and zoledronic acid), used in oncology and for the treatment of osteoporosis, have been associated with all the above adverse events, except those from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, pamidronate and zoledronic acid have been associated with renal toxicity. Association of bisphosphonates with atrial fibrillation and atypical fractures of the femoral diaphysis remains uncertain. There are a few case reports relating bisphosphonates to cutaneous reactions, oral ulcerations, hepatitis and esophageal cancer. Generally, intravenous are more potent than oral bisphosphonates and the frequency and severity of some of the bisphosphonate- associated adverse events are dose and potency dependent. PMID:19570737

Papapetrou, Peter D

309

Required Postmarketing Adverse Experience Information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... All postmarketing adverse experience information required under 21 CFR 600.80 (Postmarketing 15-day "alert Reports", Postmarketing 15-day ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

310

Adverse effects of anabolic steroids.  

PubMed

Anabolic steroids are used therapeutically for various disorders and as ergogenic aids by athletes to augment strength, muscular development, and to enhance performance. There is a wide range of concomitant temporary and permanent adverse effects with steroid administration. Several well-documented adverse actions of these hormones may develop rapidly within several weeks or less (i.e. altered reproductive function) or require up to several years of steroid intake (i.e. liver carcinoma). More recent studies indicate that glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, increased cardiovascular disease risk profiles, cerebral dangers, musculoskeletal injuries, prostate cancer, psychosis and schizophrenic episodes, among others, accompany anabolic steroid intake. There is, at present, no evidence to support the claim that athletes are less susceptible to adverse effects than those individuals receiving hormone treatment in a clinical setting. Based on the available information which has accumulated primarily from cross-sectional, short term longitudinal, and case studies, there is a need: (a) to develop a comprehensive battery of specific and sensitive markers of adverse effects, particularly those that would be able to detect the onset of adverse actions; and (b) to conduct controlled long term longitudinal studies in order to fully understand the extensiveness and mechanisms involved in the occurrence of adverse effects. PMID:2671596

Hickson, R C; Ball, K L; Falduto, M T

311

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed Central

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently “re-programed” via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting “re-wiring” of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders.

Karsten, Carley A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

2013-01-01

312

How Does a Neuron "know" to Modulate Its Epigenetic Machinery in Response to Early-Life Environment/Experience?  

PubMed

Exciting information is emerging about epigenetic mechanisms and their role in long-lasting changes of neuronal gene expression. Whereas these mechanisms are active throughout life, recent findings point to a critical window of early postnatal development during which neuronal gene expression may be persistently "re-programed" via epigenetic modifications. However, it remains unclear how the epigenetic machinery is modulated. Here we focus on an important example of early-life programing: the effect of sensory input from the mother on expression patterns of key stress-related genes in the developing brain. We focus on the lasting effects of this early-life experience on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression in the hypothalamus, and describe recent work that integrates organism-wide signals with cellular signals that in turn impact epigenetic regulation. We describe the operational brain networks that convey sensory input to CRH-expressing cells, and highlight the resulting "re-wiring" of synaptic connectivity to these neurons. We then move from intercellular to intracellular mechanisms, speculating about the induction, and maintenance of lifelong CRH repression provoked by early-life experience. Elucidating such pathways is critical for understanding the enduring links between experience and gene expression. In the context of responses to stress, such mechanisms should contribute to vulnerability or resilience to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related disorders. PMID:23966959

Karsten, Carley A; Baram, Tallie Z

2013-08-15

313

Early and Late Neurodevelopmental Influences in the Prodrome to Schizophrenia: Contributions of Genes, Environment, and Their Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both early (i.e., pre- and perinatal periods) and late (i.e., adolescent period) neurodevelopmental processes are thought to participate in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, whether markers of these processes would be expected to predict an imminent onset of psychosis, as is hoped in the current generation of prodromal research programs, depends on whether their disruptions result from genetic

Tyrone D. Cannon; Theo G. M. van Erp; Carrie E. Bearden; Rachel Loewy; Paul Thompson; Arthur W. Toga; Matti O. Huttunen; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Larry J. Seidman; Ming T. Tsuang

2003-01-01

314

Early Cretaceous benthic associations (foraminifera and calcareous algae) of a shallow tropical-water platform environment (Mljet Island, southern Croatia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lower Cretaceous shallow-marine succession of Mljet Island in Croatia records the geological history of the southern part of the Adriatic Platform during its last tectonically quiet period, prior to the Late Cretaceous collision processes between the Adria Microplate and the Eurasian Plate. We studied the Early Cretaceous biostratigraphy of benthic foraminifera and calcareous algae in order to establish a

Antun Husinec; Branko Soka?

2006-01-01

315

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in\\u000apoor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS@VLT. Ages,\\u000ametallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived from the Lick indices Hbeta,\\u000aMgb, Fe5270 and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population\\u000a(SSP) models accounting for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial\\u000asubsample of 10 early-type dwarfs we derive

F. Annibali; R. Grutzbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2010-01-01

316

Influence of Early Water Deficit on Seed Yield and Quality of Faba Bean under Arid Environment of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under limited water resources of arid and semi-arid environment, the great challenge of developing agriculture is to increasing water use efficiency. For that field traits in Complete Randomize Block Design were carried out in Agriculture Research Station, Faculty of Food and Agriculture Sciences, Derab, near Riyadh, King Saud University. The experiments included six water irrigation schedules viz., 2000, 3000, 4000,

N. A. Al-Suhaibani

317

Comparing Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) and Early-Time TEM for Mapping Highly Conductive Groundwater in Mars Analog Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of (diffusive) Time Domain Electromagnetics (TEM) for sounding of subsurface water in conductive Mars analog environments. To provide a baseline for such studies, I show data from two field studies: 1) Diffusive sounding data (TEM) from Pima County, Arizona; and 2) Shallower sounding data using the Fast-Turnoff TEM method

J. A. Jernsletten

2005-01-01

318

The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

2012-01-01

319

The Role of Children's Negative Attributions on Depressive Symptoms: An Inherited Characteristic or a Product of the Early Environment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Negative attributional style has been associated with depressive symptoms in children. Yet, it is unclear whether these cognitive biases reflect inherited characteristics of the broader depressive phenotype or are a product of children's environments. While existing data in adolescents show that negative attributions reflect a genetic…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Belli, Stefano D.; Gregory, Alice M.; Napolitano, Maria; Eley, Thalia C.

2012-01-01

320

Predictors of externalizing behavior problems in early elementary-aged children: the role of family and home environments.  

PubMed

As children enter elementary school they display behavioral orientations that reveal potential developmental trajectories. Developmental transitions offer unique opportunities for examining developmental pathways and the factors that influence emerging pathways. The primary goal of this investigation was to examine characteristics of family and home contexts in predicting externalizing behavior problems among children transitioning into elementary school. Dimensions of the family and home environments of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 177) were examined and used to predict externalizing behavior problems. Maltreatment was assessed using case file information, characteristics of the family and home environment were rated by interviewers, and externalizing behavior was assessed by mother's ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist. Relative to nonmaltreated children, the family environments of physically abused children were characterized by higher levels of negative social interactions. Also, in comparison to nonmaltreated children, the home environments of children who experienced neglect were characterized as less organized and clean. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that physical abuse was the strongest predictor of externalizing behavior. After controlling for the contribution of physical abuse, mother's negative behavior toward the focal child, aggression between siblings, and the lack of an organized and clean home were each predictive of externalizing behavior. PMID:23991617

Price, Joseph M; Chiapa, Amanda; Walsh, Natalia Escobar

321

Adverse reproductive events and electromagnetic radiation  

SciTech Connect

In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.

Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.

1991-07-31

322

The early diagenetic and PETROphysical behaviour of recent cold-water CARbonate mounds in Deep Environments (PETROCARDE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sub-recent cold-water carbonate mounds localized in deeper slope settings on the Atlantic continental margins cannot be any longer neglected in the study of carbonate systems. They clearly play a major role in the dynamics of mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and/or carbonate-dominated continental slopes. Carbonate accumulation rates of cold-water carbonate mounds are about 4 to 12 % of the carbonate accumulation rates of tropical shallow-water reefs but exceed the carbonate accumulation rates of their slope settings by a factor of 4 to 12 (Titschack et al., 2009). These findings emphasize the importance of these carbonate factories as carbonate niches on the continental margins. The primary environmental architecture of such carbonate bodies is well-characterized. However, despite proven evidences of early diagenesis overprinting the primary environmental record (e.g. aragonite dissolution) (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), the extent of early diagenetic and biogeochemical processes shaping the petrophysical nature of mounds is until now not yet fully understood. Understanding (1) the functioning of a carbonate mound as biogeochemical reactor triggering early diagenetic processes and (2) the impact of early diagenesis on the petrophysical behaviour of a carbonate mound in space and through time are necessary (vital) for the reliable prediction of potential late diagenetic processes. Approaching the fossil carbonate mound record, through a profound study of recent carbonate bodies is innovative and will help to better understand processes observed in the fossil mound world (such as cementation, brecciation, fracturing, etc…). In this study, the 155-m high Challenger mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW of Ireland), drilled during IODP Expedition 307 aboard the R/V Joides Resolution (Foubert & Henriet, 2009), and mounds from the Gulf of Cadiz (Moroccan margin) will be discussed in terms of early diagenetic processes and petrophysical behaviour. Early differential diagenesis overprints the primary environmental signals in Challenger mound, with extensive coral dissolution and the genesis of small-scaled semi-lithified layers in the Ca-rich intervals. The low cementation rates compared to the extensive dissolution patterns can be explained by an open-system diagenetic model. Moreover, Pirlet et al. (2009) emphasizes the occurrence of gypsum and dolomite in another mound system (Mound Perseverance) in Porcupine Seabight, which might be also related with fluid oxidation events in a semi-open diagenetic system. Along the Moroccan margins, fluid seepage and fluxes in pore water transport affect the development of mound structures, enhancing extensive cold-water coral dissolution and precipitation of diagenetic minerals such as dolomite, calcite, pyrite, etc. (Foubert et al., 2008). Recent carbonate mounds provide indeed an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic processes in carbonate systems without the complications of burial and/or later meteoric diagenesis. References Foubert, A. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Nature and Significance of the Recent Carbonate Mound Record: The Mound Challenger Code. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Vol. 126. Springer, 298 pp. ISBN: 978-3-642-00289-2. Pirlet, H., Wehrmann, L., Brunner, B., Frank, N., Dewanckele, J., Van Rooij, D., Foubert, A., Swennen, R., Naudts, L., Boone, M., Cnudde, V. and Henriet, J.P. (2009) Diagenetic formation of gypsum and dolomite in a cold-water coral mound in the Porcupine Seabight, off Ireland. Sedimentology. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3091.2009.01119.x. Titschack, J., Thierens, M., Dorschel, B., Schulbert, C., Freiwald, A., Kano, A., Takashima, C., Kawagoe, N., Li, X. and the IODP Expedition 307 Scientific Party (2009) Carbonate budget of a cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound, IODP Exp. 307). Marine Geology, 259, 36-46.

Foubert, Anneleen; Pirlet, Hans; Thierens, Mieke; de Mol, Ben; Henriet, Jean-Pierre; Swennen, Rudy

2010-05-01

323

A Longitudinal Investigation of the Affective Environment in Families With Young Children: From Infancy to Early School Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the affective environment in 102 families studied longitudinally when children were 7, 15, 25, 38, 52, and 67 months of age. At each assessment, every mother–child and father–child dyad was observed in typical daily contexts. Each person’s emotions of affection, joy, and anger were coded. Both parents rated marital satisfaction when children were 15, 52, and 67 months.

Robin A. Barry; Grazyna Kochanska

2010-01-01

324

Home Environment and Behavioral Development During Early Adolescence: The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Self-Efficacy Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of self-efficacy beliefs as a mediator and moderator of the relation between the home environment and well-being was examined for both European American and African American children ages 10 through 15. There was evidence that self-efficacy beliefs pertaining to school and to family functioned as a mediator between EAHOME scores and social behavior and also between EA-HOME scores

Robert H. Bradley; Robert F. Corwyn

2001-01-01

325

2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: Placental programming: how the maternal environment can impact placental function.  

PubMed

Proper establishment of the placenta is important for fetal survival; however, placental adaptations to inadequate maternal nutrition or other stressors are imperative for fetal growth to be optimal. The effects of maternal nutritional status and activity level on placental vascular function and uteroplacental blood flows are important to understand as improper placental function leads to reduced growth of the fetus. In environments where fetal growth can be compromised, potential therapeutics may augment placental function and delivery of nutrients to improve offspring performance during postnatal life. Factors that could enhance placental function include supplementation of specific nutrients, such as protein, hormone supplements, such as indolamines, and increased activity levels of the dam. To understand the mechanism of how the maternal environment can impact uterine or umbilical blood flows, assessment of placental vascular reactivity has been studied in several large animal models. As we begin to understand how the maternal environment impacts uterine and umbilical blood flows and other uteroplacental hemodynamic parameters, development of management methods and therapeutics for proper fetal growth can be achieved. PMID:23307854

Vonnahme, K A; Lemley, C O; Shukla, P; O'Rourke, S T

2013-01-10

326

Depositional environments of the lower Permian Dwyka diamictite and Prince Albert shale inferred from the geochemistry of early diagenetic concretions, southwest Karoo Basin, South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Dwyka and lower Ecca Groups in the Karoo Basin of South Africa document the climatic and palaeoenvironmental changes associated with the final Permo-Carboniferous deglaciation of the Gondwana supercontinent. The depositional environments of these groups have, until recently, been interpreted on the basis of sedimentological and palaeontological evidence. Here we use the geochemistry of early diagenetic concretions septarian calcite concretions from the upper Dwyka Group and phosphatic chert concretions and beds from the lower Ecca Group to infer the depositional environment of these rocks in the southwestern Karoo Basin. ?18O values (7.8 to 8.9‰ SMOW) suggest that the calcite concretions precipitated from a mixture of meteoric and glacial melt waters rather than Permian seawater. ?13C values (- 15 to - 3‰ PDB) indicate that the carbon was derived from a mixture of craton-derived calcareous material and organic matter, bacterially degraded in the lower sulphate-reduction to upper methanogenesis zones during early burial diagenesis. The rare-earth element (REE) patterns, Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.716 0.737) significantly greater than Permian seawater (0.708), together also support the interpretation that calcite and phosphatic concretions formed in glacial, fresh water sediments.

Herbert, C. T.; Compton, J. S.

2007-02-01

327

[Cutaneous adverse drug reactions: clinical aspects and identification].  

PubMed

Clinically, mucocutaneous adverse drug reactions are very variable and heterogenic. As they may strongly resemble other clinical pictures they regularly constitute a diagnostic challenge. Moreover, skin manifestations may mirror adverse drug reactions in other organs. Risk factors for cutaneous adverse reactions can be drug- or patient-related and are not always known. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are usually mild and transient, but they can also be severe or life-threatening. Early recognition and adequate management is the key to preventing progression and restoring health. Supportive therapy may help to reduce the symptoms. Distinguishing between allergic and non-allergic reactions is important in deciding whether to withdraw the suspected medication. Confirming a suspected cutaneous drug reaction necessitates a stepwise approach. The strategy is focused on recognition and characterisation of the reaction pattern, and identification of the suspected medication, followed by adequate management. PMID:23484517

Kardaun, Sylvia H

2013-01-01

328

The early-mid Pliocene Marine Environment from McMurdo Sound Antarctica as recorded in the ANDRILL AND-1B Core.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A productive open-marine environment is recorded within the early-mid Pliocene diatomites of the ANDRILL AND-1B core. This is in stark contrast with the current sub-shelf environment present at the site with only transported diatoms from the Ross Sea present in surface sediments. Biosiliceous sedimentation in the Ross Sea today is dominated by species highly associated with the modern sea-ice environment; the species observed in the AND-1B diatomites indicate open-water production with often low numbers of sea ice associated species. One diatomite interval of particular interest is 80m in length with continuous deposition preserved in the upper 60m. This whole diatomite unit is subdivided by several debris flows of mixed sedimentological origin but with abundant volcanic clasts; several of which are thought to have significant losses of time associated with them. Sedimentation rates change throughout this unit, indicated by the presence of both bioturbation and laminations. Species indicative of a near-shore open-marine setting with cooler waters and local sea-ice influence is observed at the base, while the diatomite above contains several species in high abundance that today are only observed in such numbers far to the north of this site. The lowest samples in the upper 60m interval have species indicating cool environmental conditions and the presence of local sea ice. These are followed by several distinct intervals reflecting changes in the local marine environment that persisted for extended periods of time represented in 10-20m of diatomite each. The relative proportions of species known to be associated with sea ice, those associated with open water near sea ice and those negatively correlated with sea ice fluctuate within this upper 60m and record a dynamic and varying marine environment.

Winter, D. M.; Sjunneskog, C.; Scherer, R.; Riesselman, C.

2008-12-01

329

Evidence of gene-environment correlation for peer difficulties: disruptive behaviors predict early peer relation difficulties in school through genetic effects.  

PubMed

Early disruptive behaviors, such as aggressive and hyperactive behaviors, known to be influenced by genetic factors, have been found to predict early school peer relation difficulties, such as peer rejection and victimization. However, there is no consensus regarding the developmental processes underlying this predictive association. Genetically informative designs, such as twin studies, are well suited for investigating the underlying genetic and environmental etiology of this association. The main goal of the present study was to examine the possible establishment of an emerging gene-environment correlation linking disruptive behaviors to peer relationship difficulties during the first years of school. Participants were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of twins who were assessed with respect to their social behaviors and their peer relation difficulties in kindergarten and in Grade 1 through peer nominations measures and teacher ratings. As predicted, disruptive behaviors were concurrently and predictively associated with peer relation difficulties. Multivariate analyses of these associations indicate that they were mainly accounted for by genetic factors. These results emphasize the need to adopt an early and persistent prevention framework targeting both the child and the peer context to alleviate the establishment of a negative coercive process and its consequences. PMID:23398754

Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Feng, Bei; Tremblay, Richard E; Dionne, Ginette

2013-02-01

330

A window on the past: male ornamental plumage reveals the quality of their early-life environment.  

PubMed

It is well established that the expression of many ornamental traits is dependent on the current condition of the bearer. However, conditions experienced in early life are also known to be important for an individual's subsequent fitness and therefore, directly or indirectly, for the fitness of their mate. Specifically, a recent hypothesis suggests that sexually selected traits might be sensitive to conditions experienced during early-life development and thereby function as honest indicators of developmental history. Whether this applies to colourful male plumage, however, is largely unknown. We tested this idea with a field experiment by manipulating neonatal nutrition in a sexually dichromatic passerine, the hihi (Notymystis cincta). We found that carotenoid supplementation increased nestling plasma carotenoid concentration, which was in turn correlated with increased yellow saturation in male breeding plumage after moulting. We also found that the post-moult luminance (lightness) of the white ear-tufts tended to be reduced in males that had received an all-round nutritional supplement as nestlings. Black breeding plumage was not affected by neonatal nutritional treatment. Although the mechanisms that generate colourful plumage are evidently diverse, our results show that at least some parts of this display are accurate indicators of environmental conditions during development. PMID:23407833

Walker, Leila K; Stevens, Martin; Karada?, Filiz; Kilner, Rebecca M; Ewen, John G

2013-02-13

331

Adverse reproductive outcomes in women who subsequently develop rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rates of adverse reproductive outcomes in 40 women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were compared with 67 of their unaffected female relatives. All women were aged between 35 and 65 years at the time of inquiry. Seven of the women with RA reported a perinatal death (six stillbirths, one early neonatal death) compared with one women in the unaffected group:

A J Silman; E Roman; V Beral; A Brown

1988-01-01

332

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

2005-01-01

333

Adverse ocular reactions to drugs.  

PubMed Central

Drugs acting on various parts of the body may also affect the eye insidiously. Increased awareness of such drug toxicity by the prescribing doctor should encourage him to consider effects on the cornea, lens, retina, optic nerve and elsewhere when checking the patient's progress. The following review concerns adverse ocular effects of systemic drug administration.

Spiteri, M. A.; James, D. G.

1983-01-01

334

Predicting Adverse Outcomes in Syncope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syncope is a common presentation to the Emergency Department (ED); however, appropriate management and indications for hospitalization remain an ongoing challenge. The objective of this study was to determine if a predefined decision rule could accurately identify patients with syncope likely to have an adverse outcome or critical intervention. A prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted of consecutive ED patients

Shamai A. Grossman; Christopher Fischer; Lewis A. Lipsitz; Lawrence Mottley; Kenneth Sands; Scott Thompson; Peter Zimetbaum; Nathan I. Shapiro

2007-01-01

335

Adverse Selection and Pay Equity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous studies have shown that adverse incentives can lead firms to weaken the link between pay and performance, which leads to more equal pay across workers. In these models, high-powered incentives encourage workers to neglect some aspects of their jo...

J. Stewart

1995-01-01

336

Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about…

Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

2005-01-01

337

Adverse Selection in Health Insurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual choice among health insurance policies may result in risk-based sorting across plans. Such adverse selection induces three types of losses: efficiency losses from individuals' being allocated to the wrong plans; risk-sharing losses, because premium variability is increased; and losses from insurers' distorting their policies to improve their mix of insureds. We discuss the potential for these losses and present

David M. Cutler; Richard J. Zeckhauser

1998-01-01

338

Adverse drug reactions in horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in horses are rare but cause serious anxiety to patients, owners, and veterinarians when they occur and are frequently the reason for legal action against veterinarians. Although not every ADR can be prevented or predicted, equine practitioners should be aware of some of the most common or most serious reactions to frequently used drugs. The most

Patricia M. Dowling

2002-01-01

339

Disclosing Adverse Events to Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Institutional and professional policies that require the routine disclosure of adverse events to patients were first seen in the mid-1980s and are now emerging in many health care settings. However, the ethical and legal rationale for such policies is not...

2003-01-01

340

Root Shock Revisited: Perspectives of Early Head Start Mothers on Community and Policy Environments and Their Effects on Child Health, Development, and School Readiness  

PubMed Central

Racial differences in school readiness are a form of health disparity. By examining, from the perspective of low-income minority families participating in an Early Head Start study, community and policy environments as they shape and inform lived experiences, we identified several types of social and economic dislocation that undermine the efforts of parents to ready their children for school. The multiple dislocations of community triggered by housing and welfare reform and “urban renewal” are sources of stress for parents and children and affect the health and development of young children. Our findings suggest that racial differences in school readiness result not from race but from poverty and structural racism in American society.

McAllister, Carol L.; Thomas, Tammy L.; Green, Beth L.

2009-01-01

341

Adverse drug reactions/interactions in maintenance therapy.  

PubMed

This paper begins with a brief review of the early onset, recidivism, and multiple consequences of recurrent major depressions. Increasing attention to these factors underscores the importance of long-term maintenance therapy. Successful maintenance rests on optimizing the risk:benefit profile for the patient. Literature is reviewed that the serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors exhibit a significantly lower discontinuation rate due to adverse events than do other conventional antidepressants. Adverse events clearly detract from patient compliance and, in turn, ultimately contribute to the risk of depressive recurrence. An overview of adverse events, in both short- and long-term anti-depressant trial experience is provided. In addition, extended pharmacotherapy carries an increased probability of concomitant drug therapy. Relevant drug:drug interaction issues are reviewed, including specific attention to those mediated by the hepatic isoenzyme cytochrome P450 IID6. Lastly, long-term clinical trial experience with fluoxetine relative to short- and long-term emergence of adverse events and adverse event experience following drug discontinuation is presented. Overall fluoxetine adverse events do not increase with chronic administration. When side effects occur, they typically emerge early in the course of acute treatment and wane in the face of continued treatment. Upon drug discontinuation, these events usually reverse at a much faster pace than the drug's half-life. In conclusion, the importance of maintenance therapy in recurrent major depression is increasingly recognized as a critical care issue. To optimize a therapeutic outcome, the clinician is challenged to maximize patient compliance through depression awareness education, regular follow-up, minimization of adverse drug events, and sensitivity to other intercurrent psychosocial events. PMID:8253706

Tollefson, G D

1993-08-01

342

The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have been associated with adolescent well-being, but the majority of studies were cross-sectional, and the time window over which the neighbourhood may impact on development is unknown. Therefore, the contribution of the neighbourhood environment to adolescents' quality of life and the course of these effects during the period of transition from childhood to early adolescence was examined. Methods A cohort of adolescents living in Maastricht (The Netherlands), with a mean age of 11.2 years at baseline and of 13.5 years at follow-up was followed. Adolescents who responded both at baseline and at follow-up were included in the analysis (n = 475). Multilevel regression analyses estimated neighbourhood effects while controlling for individual-level effects. Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic and social capital variables, individual-level confounders, and baseline values of the outcome measures were included in the models. Results None of the neighbourhood factors was associated with changes in general health or mental health over the two-year period. However, two-year exposure to greater disparity between individual level socioeconomic status on the one hand and neighbourhood level of socioeconomic status on the other (e.g. high socioeconomic status adolescents living in deprived neighbourhoods and vice versa) negatively impacted on self-esteem and satisfaction. Conclusion The neighbourhood environment per se does not contribute to change in quality of life during the transition to early adolescence. However, adolescents living in families whose socioeconomic status deviates from the mean level of neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation may be negatively affected.

Drukker, Marjan; Kaplan, Charles; Schneiders, Josien; Feron, Frans JM; van Os, Jim

2006-01-01

343

[Adverse reactions after vaccination against influenza in chronically ill people].  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the early and late adverse reactions after vaccination against influenza with the help of SmithKline Beecham's Fluarix vaccine in chronically ill people. 1010 people was selected to undergo vaccination. These included 621 woman aged average 44.2 and 389 men aged average 48.2. The vaccination was conducted simultaneously and the period of monitoring adverse reactions lasted 9 months. The vaccination was done in accordance with recommendations of manufacturer. All the vaccinated people suffered from circulatory system disorders, bone system disorders, mental disorders and endocrinological problems, during the vaccination they were in period of remission. The observed early symptoms fell into two categories: local and general. The late adverse reaction assessed with appearance of aggravation of main chronic disease or with appearance of the new chronic disease. The local symptoms included swelling, reddening and pain in the vaccinated area. 67 people (6.6%) reported swelling, 85 (8.4%) reported reddening, 12 people (1.2%) reported pain in the vaccinated area. The general symptoms included headache, bad mood and temperature over 37.5 degrees C. 19 people (1.9%) reported bad mood, 10 people (1%)--headache and 8 people (0.8%) reported temperature over 37.5 degrees C. Coexistence of two or three types of symptoms was present in 15 cases (1.5%). There were no late adverse reactions in the study group. The low percentage of early adverse reactions and no late adverse reactions encourages a wider use of vaccines against influenza in chronically ill people. PMID:12362669

Ga?aj, Andrzej; Grze?k, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Szadujkis-Szadurski, Leszek; Sinjab, Thabit

2002-06-01

344

The Influence of Childhood Adversity on Mothers' Behavior with Preschoolers: Role of Maternal Attachment Coherence, Dissociative Symptoms, and Marital Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between mothers' experiences of childhood adversities and emotional and task-related support of their preschoolers were examined. Mothers, n = 48, were observed with their children and partners and assessed with the AAI, SCID, DES, and for marital aggression. Early adverse experiences were coded from interviews. AAI coherence mediated the link between adverse events and other variables, and was associated

Judith A. Crowell; Dorothy E. Warner; Cynthia R. Davis; Marisa Marraccini; Eric Dearing

2010-01-01

345

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. II. MASSES AND AGES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON STELLAR POPULATION MODEL ASSUMPTIONS  

SciTech Connect

We have derived masses and ages for 79 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in different environments at z {approx} 1.3 in the Lynx supercluster and in the GOODS/CDF-S field using multi-wavelength (0.6-4.5 {mu}m; KPNO, Palomar, Keck, Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer) data sets. At this redshift the contribution of the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase is important for ETGs, and the mass and age estimates depend on the choice of the stellar population model used in the spectral energy distribution fits. We describe in detail the differences among model predictions for a large range of galaxy ages, showing the dependence of these differences on age. Current models still yield large uncertainties. While recent models from Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual offer better modeling of the TP-AGB phase with respect to less recent Bruzual and Charlot models, their predictions do not often match. The modeling of this TP-AGB phase has a significant impact on the derived parameters for galaxies observed at high redshift. Some of our results do not depend on the choice of the model: for all models, the most massive galaxies are the oldest ones, independent of the environment. When using the Maraston and Charlot and Bruzual models, the mass distribution is similar in the clusters and in the groups, whereas in our field sample there is a deficit of massive (M {approx}> 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) ETGs. According to those last models, ETGs belonging to the cluster environment host on average older stars with respect to group and field populations. This difference is less significant than the age difference in galaxies of different masses.

Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Huertas-Company, M. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 5 Place J. Janssen, 92190 Meudon Cedex (France); Nakata, F.; Kodama, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Stanford, S. A.; Rettura, A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holden, B. P.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95065 (United States); Postman, M.; White, R. L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Rosati, P. [European South Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Tanaka, M., E-mail: anand.raichoor@brera.inaf.it [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

2011-05-01

346

Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic risk factors for idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions in the past 30 years. These reactions can affect various tissues and organs, including liver, skin, muscle and heart, in a drug-dependent manner. Using both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, various genes that make contributions of varying extents to each of these forms of reactions have been identified. Many of the associations identified for reactions affecting the liver and skin involve human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and for reactions relating to the drugs abacavir and carbamazepine, HLA genotyping is now in routine use prior to drug prescription. Other HLA associations are not sufficiently specific for translation but are still of interest in relation to underlying mechanisms for the reactions. Progress on non-HLA genes affecting adverse drug reactions has been less, but some important associations, such as those of SLCO1B1 and statin myopathy, KCNE1 and drug-induced QT prolongation and NAT2 and isoniazid-induced liver injury, are considered. Future prospects for identification of additional genetic risk factors for the various adverse drug reactions are discussed. PMID:23360680

Daly, Ann K

2013-01-29

347

Isotopic composition and speciation of sulfur in the Miocene Monterey Formation: Reevaluation of sulfur reactions during early diagenesis in marine environments  

SciTech Connect

The timing and pathways of early diagenetic sulfur transfer from dissolved species in pore waters to solid inorganic and organic compounds in sediments have been studied in the Miocene Monterey Formation, Santa Maria Basin (onshore), California. Correlation between concentrations of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), in addition to concentrations of titanium, aluminum, total iron, and reactive iron, have been used to infer organic matter reactivity, redox conditions, and relative rates of clastic and biogenic input for each lithofacies. Isotopic compositions of six sulfur species (acid-volatile, disulfide, kerogen, bitumen, sulfate, and elemental) have provided information regarding relative timing of sulfur incorporation, sulfate diffusivity in the upper centimeters of the sediments, and the sources of sulfur for individual species. Consistent ordering of isotopic values for sulfur species (disulfide < acid-volatile sulfide {le} kerogen) indicates that pyrite precipitated nearest to the sediment-water interface under mildly reducing conditions and with little or no decrease in sulfate concentration relative to seawater. Enrichment of {sup 34}S in acid-volatile sulfide and kerogen sulfur resulted from formation of these species at greater depths or in restricted micro-environments under more reducing conditions and with low concentrations of porewater sulfate. The formation of acid-volatile sulfide after pyrite but during early diagenesis is significant because it implies more strongly reducing conditions than are generally recognized in deep-water marine sediments.

Zaback, D.A.; Pratt, L.M. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1992-02-01

348

Meeting Report: Moving upstream - evaluating adverse upstream end points for improved risk assessment and decision making (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Assessing adverse effects from environmental chemical exposure is integral to public health policies. Toxicology assays identifying early biological changes from chemical exposure are increasing our ability to evaluate links between early biological disturbances and ...

349

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [?/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re/2 aperture from the Lick indices H?, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [?/Fe] ratios. For a fiducial subsample of 10 early-type dwarfs, we derived median values and scatters around the medians of 5.7 ± 4.4 Gyr, -0.26 ± 0.28, and -0.04 ± 0.33 for age, log Z/Z?, and [?/Fe] , respectively. For a selection of bright early-type galaxies (ETGs) from an earlier sample residing in a comparable environment, we derive median values of 9.8 ± 4.1 Gyr, 0.06 ± 0.16, and 0.18 ± 0.13 for the same stellar population parameters. It follows that dwarfs are on average younger, less metal rich, and less enhanced in the ?-elements than giants, in agreement with the extrapolation to the low-mass regime of the scaling relations derived for giant ETGs. From the total (dwarf + giant) sample, we find that age ? ?0.39 ± 0.22, Z ? ?0.80 ± 0.16, and ?/Fe ? ?0.42 ± 0.22. We also find correlations with morphology, in the sense that the metallicity and the [?/Fe] ratio increase with the Sersic index n or with the bulge-to-total light fraction B/T. The presence of a strong morphology-[?/Fe] relation appears to contradict the possible evolution along the Hubble sequence from low B/T (low n) to high B/T (high n) galaxies. We also investigate the role played by environment by comparing the properties of our LDE dwarfs with those of Coma red passive dwarfs from the literature. We find possible evidence that LDE dwarfs experienced more prolonged star formations than Coma dwarfs, however larger data samples are needed to draw firmer conclusions. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

Annibali, F.; Grützbauch, R.; Rampazzo, R.; Bressan, A.; Zeilinger, W. W.

2011-04-01

350

Defining Early Adolescent Childbearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determined the age group for defining early adolescent childbearing based on rates of adverse clinical outcomes. Data on infant mortality, very low birth weight, and very pre-term delivery per 1,000 live births for women age 12-23 years in the 1995 U.S. birth cohort indicate that early adolescent childbearing is best defined as giving birth at…

Phipps, Maureen G.; Sowers, MaryFran

2002-01-01

351

Coupling of early diagenetic processes and sedimentary dynamics in tropical shelf environments: the Gulf of Papua deltaic complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical mobile mud belts represent a major class of biogeochemical and diagenetic systems characterized by extensive and frequent physical reworking of fine-grained, organic-rich deposits underlying oxygenated waters. Large regions of the Gulf of Papua, Papua New Guinea deltaic complex are dominated by such conditions. A reworked mud belt lies within the inner shelf between ˜10 and 20 m depth on a sedimentary clinoform derived from coalescing deltas. Deposits across the topset are typically suboxic, nonsulfidic over the upper ˜0.5-1 m, and have low to moderate maximum pore water concentrations of dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) (˜100-200, but up to ˜800 ?M). Sediments are reactive, with surficial ?CO2 production ˜0.1-0.3 mM d-1 and benthic O2 fluxes ˜23±15 mmol m-2 d-1 (upper ˜20 cm). The highest rates occur within inner topset deposits (˜10-20 m) and near the high accumulation rollover region of the topset-foreset beds (˜40-50 m). Lower rates are found inshore along intertidal channels—mangrove fringe and within scoured or exposed consolidated deposits of the middle topset region. Remineralization rate patterns are independent of relative dominance by terrestrial or marine carbon in sediments. Dissolved O2 usually penetrates ˜2-5 mm into surface sediments when macrofaunal burrows are absent. More than 75% of the highly reactive sedimentary Fe(III) pool (˜350-400 ?mol g-1) is typically diagenetically reduced in the upper ˜0.5 m. Pore water SO42- can be measureably depleted at depths >0.5 m, but dissolved H2S generally remains below detection over the upper ˜1-2 m. As in other deltaic topset regions, SO42- concentration gradients often indicate that compared to many marine deposits of similar sediment accumulation rates, relatively refractory Corg is supplied to the SO4 reducing zone. Sedimentary C/S ratios are ˜4-6 within the suboxic topset regions but decrease to <3 in offshore foreset beds where sulfidic diagenesis dominates. Only ˜15-20% of the diagenetically reduced Fe(II) is pyritic and a maximum of ˜10-25% is carbonate, implying that most Fe(II) is associated with authigenic or lithogenic silicates or oxides. The dominance of suboxic, nonsulfidic diagenetic processes reflect coupling between delivery of oxide-rich terrestrial debris, remobilization and reoxidation of deposits, and repetitive entrainment/remineralization of both labile and refractory organics. Distinct sedimentary indicators of reactive, suboxic mobile mud belts within tropical climatic zones are: abundant total highly reactive Fe (?FeR )>300 ?mol g-1; most reactive Fe is diagenetically reduced (?Fe(II)/?FeR˜0.7-0.8); the proportion of diagenetically reduced Fe present as pyrite is low (Py-Fe(II)<0.2); C/S ˜4-8; and Corg/particle surface area <0.4 (mg C m-2). These depositional environments must be most common in tropical climates during high sea stand.

Aller, Robert. C.; Hannides, Angelos; Heilbrun, Christina; Panzeca., Caterina

2004-12-01

352

The Corrosion of High Performance Steel in Adverse Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion products that have formed on weathering steel bridges exposed to different weather conditions in the United States have been evaluated. They have been analyzed by spectroscopic techniques to determine the relationship between protective and non-protective rust coatings, and their relationship to the exposure conditions. Bridges constructed recently using High Performance Steel, as well as older bridges built with Type A588B weathering steel, were evaluated for corrosion performance of the rust coatings. In locations where the steel is subjected to regular wet-dry cycling, where the surface is wet for less than about 20% of the time, a protective patina starts to form after a few months exposure, and continues to an adherent, impervious coating after a decade. The protective patina is characterized by the formation of only goethite and lepidocrocite. The goethite makes up about 80% of the rust, and itself consists of a nanophase component, < 15 nm, making up about 70% of the goethite. The nanophase goethite is basically undetected by X-ray diffraction. In the presence of high time-of-wetness, >40%, or infrequent drying cycles, (regions close to waterways, fog or having high humidity), the weathering steel forms a rust coating that consists of a large amount of maghemite, and goethite that contains very little of the nanophase component. The rust coating ex-foliates from the steel and is not protective. Under exposure conditions in which chlorides are deposited onto the weathering steel surface, (marine or de-icing salt locations), the protective patina also does not form. Instead, the rust coating consists of a large fraction of akaganeite that forms at the expense of the lepidocrocite and nanophase goethite. The bridges exposed to high chloride concentrations, 1.5 wt%, and therefore having no protective patina, have corrosion rates measured to be 6 times larger than expected for weathering steel with the protective patina.

Cook, Desmond C.

2005-04-01

353

Early family adversity as a precursor to narcotic addiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study examined differences among three groups of urban males in the prevalence of various family risk factors occurring before age 11 and their independent contributions to subsequent deviance. The groups included: narcotic addicts; never-addicted peer controls who were associates of the addicts at age 11; and never-addicted community controls not associated with the addicts. Sixty-four percent of the

David N. Nurco; Timothy W. Kinlock; Kevin E. O'Grady; Thomas E. Hanlon

1996-01-01

354

Children's Recovery after Early Adversity: Lessons from Intercountry Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on children who have been internationally adopted provides many strong examples of resilience. This paper discusses what counts as resilience in intercountry adoption and includes new data from the first study in this area conducted in Ireland. As with studies conducted in other jurisdictions, the Irish data indicate a remarkable…

Greene, Sheila; Kelly, Ruth; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Greg; Borska, Zofia; Murphy, Sile; Daly, Aoife

2008-01-01

355

Chlorhexidine: uses and adverse reactions.  

PubMed

Chlorhexidine is increasingly being used not only as an antiseptic to prevent hospital infections and an adjuvant in oral hygiene but also as a preservative in personal care products. As exposure to the agent becomes more widespread, reports of adverse reactions to it are increasing. Complications range from mild irritant contact dermatitis to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Allergic contact dermatitis in some cases precedes anaphylaxis. It is imperative that physicians be aware of the many possible sources of contact with this antiseptic and be alert to recognize the potentially debilitating and catastrophic reactions that may occur because of chlorhexidine sensitization. PMID:23665831

Silvestri, Dianne L; McEnery-Stonelake, Melissa

356

Childhood Adversity Modifies the Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Cortisol Secretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000aInternalizing psychiatric disorders and early childhood adversity have both been associated with altered basal cortisol secretion. The aim of the present study is to investigate if early childhood adversity modifies the relationship between anxiety and mood disorders and cortisol secretion.\\u000aMethods\\u000aA sample of 429 international adoptees was followed from childhood to adulthood. In childhood, adoptive parents provided information

Esther J. M. van der Vegt; Jan van der Ende; Anja C. Huizink; Frank C. Verhulst; Henning Tiemeier

2010-01-01

357

Effect of parental mate choice and semi-natural early rearing environment on the growth performance and seawater tolerance of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.  

PubMed

To assess whether parental mate choice and early rearing in a semi-natural spawning channel may benefit the culture of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 90 day growth trials were conducted using hatchery O. tshawytscha (hatchery), mate choice O. tshawytscha (i.e. the offspring of parents allowed to choose their own mate) that spent 6 months in a spawning channel prior to hatchery rearing (channel) and mate choice O. tshawytscha transferred to the hatchery as fertilized eggs (transfer). During the growth trials, all O. tshawytscha stocks were reared separately or in either mixed channel and hatchery or transfer and hatchery groups for comparison of performance to traditional practices. After 60 days in fresh water, all O. tshawytscha were transferred to seawater for an additional 30 days. Reared separately, all stocks grew c. 4.5 fold over 90 days but specific growth rate (G) and food conversion efficiency were higher in fresh water than after seawater transfer on day 60. In contrast, hatchery O. tshawytscha from mixed hatchery and channel and hatchery and transfer growth trials had a larger mass and length gain than their counterparts on day 60, but reduced G in seawater. In general, plasma levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I and cortisol did not differ among any O. tshawytscha groups in either the separate or mixed growth trials. Despite some differences in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, all O. tshawytscha had a high degree of seawater tolerance and experienced virtually no perturbation in plasma chloride following seawater transfer. Overall, all O. tshawytscha exhibited similar growth and seawater performance under traditional hatchery conditions and any benefit derived from either parental mate choice or semi-natural early rearing environment was only observed in the presence of mutual competition with hatchery O. tshawytscha. PMID:23398072

Madison, B N; Heath, J W; Heath, D D; Bernier, N J

2013-01-29

358

VIOLENT CRIME EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES: A GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEFINED COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Area-level socioeconomic disparities have long been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Crime is an important element of the neighborhood environment inadequately investigated in the public health literature. Using geocoded linked birth, crime and cens...

359

Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow fever (YF) vaccine has been used for prevention of YF since 1937 with over 500 million doses administered. However, rare reports of severe adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns about the vaccine’s safety. We reviewed reports of adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2000 to 2006. We used

Nicole P. Lindsey; Betsy A. Schroeder; Elaine R. Miller; M. Miles Braun; Alison F. Hinckley; Nina Marano; Barbara A. Slade; Elizabeth D. Barnett; Gary W. Brunette; Katherine Horan; J. Erin Staples; Phyllis E. Kozarsky; Edward B. Hayes

2008-01-01

360

Electronic adverse incident reporting in hospitals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to assess attitudes toward and use of an electronic adverse incident reporting system in all four hospitals in one National Health Service Scotland Health Board area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire was used to assess medical consultants', managers', and nurses' attitudes and perceptions about electronic adverse incident reporting. Actual adverse incident reporting data

Kerry Walsh; Calvin Burns; Jiju Antony

2010-01-01

361

Adverse Selection and the Opaqueness of Insurers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract While adverse selection problems between insureds and insurers are well known to insurance researchers, few explore adverse selection in the insurance industry from a capital markets perspective. This study examines adverse selection in the quoted prices of insurers' common stocks with a particular focus on the opacity of both asset portfolios and underwriting liabilities. We find that more opaque

Tao Zhang; Larry A. Cox; Robert A. Van Ness

2009-01-01

362

Pitfalls of adverse event reporting in paediatric cardiac intensive care  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the pitfalls of incident reporting in a complex medical environment. Methods: Retrospective review of 211 incident reports in a paediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). Two adverse event reporting databases were compared: database A (DA), the hospital's official reporting system, is non-anonymous and reports are predominantly made by nurses; database B (DB) is anonymous and reports are submitted by a CICU consultant who collects data from daily ward rounds. Both databases classify adverse events into incident type (drug errors, ventilation, cannulae/indwelling lines, chest drains, blood transfusion, equipment, operational) and severity (0 = no, 1 = minor, 2 = major, 3 = life threatening consequences). Results: Between 1 April 1998 and 31 July 2001 there were 211 adverse events involving 178 patients (11.87%), among 1500 patients admitted to CICU. A total of 112 incidents were reported in DA, 143 in DB, and 44 in both. In isolation, both databases gave an unrepresentative picture of the true frequency and severity of adverse events. Under-reporting was especially notable for less severe events (grade 0, or near misses) Conclusion: Incident reporting in the medical field is highly variable, and is heavily influenced by profession of the reporters as well as anonymity. When adverse event reporting is based predominantly on the observations of a single professional group, the data are grossly inaccurate.

Ricci, M; Goldman, A; de Leval, M R; Cohen, G; Devaney, F; Carthey, J

2004-01-01

363

Unpacking Educational Environments: Visions from Reggio Emilia, Australia, Sweden, Denmark and the United States. A Selection of Papers Presented at the Conference (Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia, May 16, 1998).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four early childhood education conference papers discuss ideas and themes to create healthy educational environments inspired by preschool sites in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The first paper, "Environmental Visions: Daisies and the Possible" (Alma Fleet and Janet Robertson), discusses the influences of Reggio Emilia. The paper notes how the…

Fleet, Alma, Ed.; Robertson, Janet, Ed.

364

The evolution of the mass-size relation for early-type galaxies from z ˜ 1 to the present: dependence on environment, mass range and detailed morphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the dependence of the galaxy size evolution on morphology, stellar mass and large-scale environment for a sample of 298 group and 384 field quiescent early-type galaxies from the COSMOS survey, selected from z ˜ 1 to the present, and with masses log(M/M?) > 10.5. From a detailed morphological analysis we infer that ˜80 per cent of passive galaxies with mass log(M/M?) > 10.5 have an early-type morphology and that this fraction does not evolve over the last 6 Gyr. However, the relative abundance of lenticular and elliptical galaxies depends on stellar mass. Elliptical galaxies dominate only at the very high mass end - log(M/M?) > 11 - while S0 galaxies dominate at lower stellar masses - 10.5 < log(M/M?) < 11. The galaxy size growth depends on galaxy mass range and early-type galaxy morphology, e.g. elliptical galaxies evolve differently than lenticular galaxies. At the low-mass end - 10.5 < log(M/M?) < 11 - ellipticals do not show strong size growth from z ˜ 1 to the present (10 to 30 per cent depending on the morphological classification). On the other end, massive ellipticals - log(M/M?) > 11.2 - approximately doubled their size. Interestingly, lenticular galaxies display different behaviour: they appear more compact on average and they do show a size growth of ˜60 per cent since z = 1 independent of stellar mass range. We compare our results with state-of-the art semi-analytic models. While major and minor mergers can account for most of the galaxy size growth, we find that with present data and the theoretical uncertainties in the modelling we cannot state clear evidence favouring either merger or mass-loss via quasar and/or stellar winds as the primary mechanism driving the evolution. The galaxy mass-size relation and size growth do not depend on environment in the halo mass range explored in this work (field to group mass log(Mh/M?) < 14), i.e. group and field galaxies follow the same trends. At low redshift, where we examine both Sloan Digital Sky Survey and COSMOS groups, this result is at variance with predictions from some current hierarchical models that show a clear dependence of size growth on halo mass for massive ellipticals (log(M*/M?) > 11.2). In future work, we will analyse in detail if this result is specific of the observations and model used in this work. Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCG) and satellite galaxies lie on the same mass-size relation, at variance with predictions from hierarchical models, which predict that BCGs should have larger sizes than satellites because they experience more mergers in groups over the halo mass range probed.

Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Shankar, F.; Delaye, L.; Raichoor, A.; Covone, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Kneib, J. P.; Le, Fèvre O.; Povic, M.

2013-01-01

365

Why might adverse childhood experiences lead to underage drinking among US youth? Findings from an emergency department-based qualitative pilot study.  

PubMed

Research suggests that adverse childhood experiences (e.g., child abuse, interparental violence) predispose youth to early drinking initiation, but specifics about how and why adolescents progress from these exposures to alcohol use are not well understood. This National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism supported study presents data from semistructured interviews with 22 adolescents who reported both initiating drinking ?18 years old and ?2 adverse childhood experiences. Data were collected in 2007 as part of a formative research effort for an emergency department-based intervention to reduce adolescent drinking. Findings suggest that prevention initiatives for youth from challenging environments may need to do more than address conformity and social motivations for underage alcohol initiation. Study limitations are noted and future research is suggested. PMID:20482338

Rothman, Emily F; Bernstein, Judith; Strunin, Lee

2010-05-19

366

EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 1.3. III. ON THE DEPENDENCE OF FORMATION EPOCHS AND STAR FORMATION HISTORIES ON STELLAR MASS AND ENVIRONMENT  

SciTech Connect

We study the environmental dependence of stellar population properties at z {approx} 1.3. We derive galaxy properties (stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories) for samples of massive, red, passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in two high-redshift clusters, RXJ0849+4452 and RXJ0848+4453 (with redshifts of z = 1.26 and 1.27, respectively), and compare them with those measured for the RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster at z = 1.24 and with those measured for a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the GOODS-South field. Robust estimates of the aforementioned parameters have been obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with extensive 8- to 10-band photometric coverage, from the rest-frame far-ultraviolet to the infrared. We find no variations of the overall stellar population properties among the different samples of cluster ETGs. However, when comparing cluster versus field stellar population properties we find that, even if the ages are similar and depend only on galaxy mass, the ones in the field do employ longer timescales to assemble their final mass. We find that, approximately 1 Gyr after the onset of star formation, the majority (75%) of cluster galaxies have already assembled most (>80%) of their final mass, while, by the same time, fewer (35%) field ETGs have. Thus, we conclude that while galaxy mass regulates the timing of galaxy formation, the environment regulates the timescale of their star formation histories.

Rettura, A.; Stanford, S. A.; Jee, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mei, S.; Ford, H. C.; Huertas-Company, M. [University of Paris Denis Diderot, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Raichoor, A. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France); Moran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Holden, B.; Illingworth, G. [UCO/Lick Observatories, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 92065 (United States); Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [European Southern Observatory, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ellis, R. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nakata, F. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Blakeslee, J. P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Demarco, R. [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kodama, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2011-05-10

367

Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)’s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) on the relationship between antidepressants and suicide. We obtain point estimates and 95 per cent confidence (posterior) intervals for the rate multiplier for each drug (e.g. antidepressants), which can be used to determine whether a particular drug has an increased risk of association with a particular AE (e.g. suicide). Confidence (posterior) intervals that do not include 1.0 provide evidence for either significant protective or harmful associations of the drug and the adverse effect. We also examine EB, parametric Bayes, and semiparametric Bayes estimators of the rate multipliers and associated confidence (posterior) intervals. Results of our analysis of the FDA AERS data revealed that newer antidepressants are associated with lower rates of suicide adverse event reports compared with older antidepressants. We recommend improvements to the existing AERS system, which are likely to improve its public health value as an early warning system.

Gibbons, Robert D.; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Brown, C. Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M.; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J. John

2008-01-01

368

Medically serious adverse effects of newer antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although safer than tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, the newer antidepressants may be associated\\u000a with certain medically serious adverse effects, of which cardiovascular adverse effects, seizures, abnormal bleeding, hyponatremia,\\u000a and agranulocytosis are discussed in this review. Data regarding the incidence and risk factors are summarized, and strategies\\u000a for reducing the risk of these adverse effects and managing them are

Rajnish Mago; Rajeev Mahajan; Michael E. Thase

2008-01-01

369

Childhood adversity in an Australian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of adversity in childhood is well established in clinical populations, but there is little information about adversity in wider populations. The aim of this paper is to report and to explore the distribution of childhood family adversity in an Australian population. Method: A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in 20–24, 40–44 and 60–64 year age bands

Stephen Rosenman; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

370

Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children With an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child × Environment Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers. As anticipated, children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude

Heidi Gazelle

2006-01-01

371

Refugees, trauma and Adversity-Activated Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the refugee phenomenon is examined and the position of mental health professionals is located in relation to it. The various uses of the word ‘trauma’ are explored and its application to the refugee context is examined. It is proposed that refugees’ response to adversity is not limited to being traumatized but includes resilience and Adversity-Activated Development (AAD).

Renos K. Papadopoulos

2007-01-01

372

Adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution is increasingly recognized as an important and modifiable determinant of cardiovascular disease in urban communities. Acute exposure has been linked to a range of adverse cardiovascular events including hospital admissions with angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Long-term exposure increases an individual's lifetime risk of death from coronary heart disease. The main arbiter of these adverse health effects

Ken Donaldson; Paddy W Hadoke; Nicholas A Boon; William MacNee; Flemming R Cassee; Thomas Sandström; Anders Blomberg; David E Newby; Nicholas L Mills

2008-01-01

373

Report of adverse event with electroacupuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroacupuncture (EA) is becoming more common as a treatment for chronic musculoskeletal pain. It can be associated with adverse events related to the small electric currents used, in addition to the adverse events related to needle penetration of tissues. This paper reports a case of minor tissue damage following high intensity EA for 30 min with a device delivering a

Mike Cummings

2011-01-01

374

Understanding adverse events: human factors.  

PubMed Central

(1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with forgetting. States of mind contributing to error are thus extremely difficult to manage; they can happen to the best of people at any time. (7) People do not act in isolation. Their behaviour is shaped by circumstances. The same is true for errors and violations. The likelihood of an unsafe act being committed is heavily influenced by the nature of the task and by the local workplace conditions. These, in turn, are the product of "upstream" organisational factors. Great gains in safety can ve achieved through relatively small modifications of equipment and workplaces. (8) Automation and increasing advanced equipment do not cure human factors problems, they merely relocate them. In contrast, training people to work effectively in teams costs little, but has achieved significant enhancements of human performance in aviation. (9) Effective risk management depends critically on a confidential and preferable anonymous incident monitoring system that records the individual, task, situational, and organisational factors associated with incidents and near misses. (10) Effective risk management means the simultaneous and targeted deployment of limited remedial resources at different levels of the system: the individual or team, the task, the situation, and the organisation as a whole.

Reason, J

1995-01-01

375

Class Climate Moderates Peer Relations and Emotional Adjustment in Children with an Early History of Anxious Solitude: A Child x Environment Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom emotional climate was hypothesized to moderate psychosocial adjustment in 1st grade for children with an early childhood history of anxious solitude. Participants were 1,364 children in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and their mothers, child-care providers, and teachers.…

Gazelle, Heidi

2006-01-01

376

Environment and vulnerability to major psychiatric illness: a case control study of early parental loss in major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current focus on identifying genes which predispose to psychiatric illness sharpens the need to identify environmental factors which interact with genetic predisposition and thus contribute to the multifactorial causation of these disorders. One such factor may be early parental loss (EPL). The putative relationship between early environmental stressors such as parental loss and psychopathology in adult life has intrigued

O Agid; B Shapira; J Zislin; M Ritsner; B Hanin; H Murad; T Troudart; M Bloch; U Heresco-Levy; B Lerer

1999-01-01

377

Overview of medical errors and adverse events  

PubMed Central

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures.

2012-01-01

378

Overview of medical errors and adverse events.  

PubMed

Safety is a global concept that encompasses efficiency, security of care, reactivity of caregivers, and satisfaction of patients and relatives. Patient safety has emerged as a major target for healthcare improvement. Quality assurance is a complex task, and patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more likely than other hospitalized patients to experience medical errors, due to the complexity of their conditions, need for urgent interventions, and considerable workload fluctuation. Medication errors are the most common medical errors and can induce adverse events. Two approaches are available for evaluating and improving quality-of-care: the room-for-improvement model, in which problems are identified, plans are made to resolve them, and the results of the plans are measured; and the monitoring model, in which quality indicators are defined as relevant to potential problems and then monitored periodically. Indicators that reflect structures, processes, or outcomes have been developed by medical societies. Surveillance of these indicators is organized at the hospital or national level. Using a combination of methods improves the results. Errors are caused by combinations of human factors and system factors, and information must be obtained on how people make errors in the ICU environment. Preventive strategies are more likely to be effective if they rely on a system-based approach, in which organizational flaws are remedied, rather than a human-based approach of encouraging people not to make errors. The development of a safety culture in the ICU is crucial to effective prevention and should occur before the evaluation of safety programs, which are more likely to be effective when they involve bundles of measures. PMID:22339769

Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Philippart, François; Bruel, Cédric; Max, Adeline; Lau, Nicolas; Misset, B

2012-02-16

379

Adverse events associated with acupuncture: three multicentre randomized controlled trials of 1968 cases in China  

PubMed Central

Background In order to evaluate the safety of acupuncture in China objectively, we investigated the adverse events associated with acupuncture based on three multicentre randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the safety of acupuncture, identifying the common types of acupuncture adverse events, and analysing the related risk factors for their occurrence. Methods This observational study included patients who received acupuncture from three multicentre RCTs respectively for migraine, functional dyspepsia and Bell's palsy. The 1968 patients and their acupuncturists documented adverse events associated with acupuncture after treatment. We collected data about adverse events due to acupuncture treatment from their case report forms. We analysed the incidence and details of the adverse effects, and studied the risk factors for acupuncture adverse events with non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 1968 patients, 74 patients (3.76%) suffered at least one adverse event throughout the treatment period. We did not observe the occurrence of serious adverse events. 73 patients with adverse events recovered within 2 weeks through effective treatment such as physiotherapy or self-treatment. A total of 3 patients withdrew because of adverse events. There were 9 types of adverse events related to acupuncture, including subcutaneous haematoma, bleeding, skin bruising and needle site pain. Subcutaneous haematoma and haemorrhage in the needling points were the most common adverse events. Age and gender were related to the occurrence of acupuncture adverse events. The older the patients were, the higher the risk of adverse events was. In addition, male patients had slightly higher risk of an adverse event than female patients. Conclusions Acupuncture is a safe therapy with low risk of adverse events in clinical practice. The risk factors for adverse events (AEs) were related to the patients' gender and age and the local anatomical structure of the acupoints. AEs could be reduced and mitigated by improving the medical environment, ensuring a high technical level of the acupuncture practitioners and establishing a good relationship of mutual trust between doctor and patient. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00599586, NCT00599677, NCT00608660

2011-01-01

380

Depressive Symptoms, Including Lack of Future Orientation, as Mediators in the Relationship between Adverse Life Events and Delinquent Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study provided a cross-sectional examination of associations among adverse life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency in a community sample of 123 early adolescent boys and girls. We also examined whether depressive cognitions, including hopelessness, differentially mediated the relations between exposure to adverse events and delinquent behaviors. Depressive cognitions, especially lack of future orientation, were associated with delinquent behaviors

Maureen A. Allwood; Carly Baetz; Sarah DeMarco; Debora J. Bell

2012-01-01

381

Early neglect is associated with alterations in white matter integrity and cognitive functioning  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits have been reported in children who experienced early neglect, especially children raised in institutionalized settings. Previous research suggests early neglect may differentially affect the directional organization of white matter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This may be one mechanism to explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect. To test this idea, properties of white matter and neurocognitive performance was assessed in children who suffered early neglect and those raised in typical environments (n=63, Mean Age=11.75 years). As predicted, prefrontal white matter microstructure was affected, consistent with more diffuse organization, in children that suffered early neglect and this was related to neurocognitive deficits. Such findings underscore how early adversity may affect the PFC and explain cognitive deficits associated with neglect.

Hanson, JL; Adluru, N; Chung, MK; Alexander, AL; Davidson, RJ; Pollak, SD

2012-01-01

382

FORMATION EPOCHS, STAR FORMATION HISTORIES, AND SIZES OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN CLUSTER AND FIELD ENVIRONMENTS AT z = 1.2: INSIGHTS FROM THE REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET  

SciTech Connect

We derive stellar masses, ages, and star formation histories (SFHs) of massive early-type galaxies in the z = 1.237 RDCS1252.9-2927 cluster and compare them with those measured in a similarly mass-selected sample of field contemporaries drawn from the Great Observatories Origin Deep Survey South Field. Robust estimates of these parameters are obtained by comparing a large grid of composite stellar population models with 8-9 band photometry in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, optical, and IR, thus sampling the entire relevant domain of emission of the different stellar populations. Additionally, we present new, deep U-band photometry of both fields, giving access to the critical far-ultraviolet rest frame, in order to empirically constrain the dependence of the most recent star formation processes on the environment. We also analyze the morphological properties of both samples to examine the dependence of their scaling relations on their mass and environment. We find that early-type galaxies, both in the cluster and in the field, show analogous optical morphologies, follow comparable mass versus size relation, have congruent average surface stellar mass densities, and lie on the same Kormendy relation. We also show that a fraction of early-type galaxies in the field employ longer timescales, tau, to assemble their mass than their cluster contemporaries. Hence, we conclude that while the formation epoch of early-type galaxies only depends on their mass, the environment does regulate the timescales of their SFHs. Our deep U-band imaging strongly supports this conclusion. We show that cluster galaxies are at least 0.5 mag fainter than their field contemporaries of similar mass and optical-to-infrared colors, implying that the last episode of star formation must have happened more recently in the field than in the cluster.

Rettura, Alessandro; Demarco, R.; Ford, H. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rosati, P.; Gobat, R. [ESO-European Southern Observatory, Garching bei Muenchen, D- 85748 (Germany); Nonino, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Fosbury, R. A. E. [ST-ECF-Karl Schwarzschild strasse, 2, Garching bei Muenchen, D- 85748 (Germany); Menci, N. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Strazzullo, V. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mei, S., E-mail: arettura@pha.jhu.ed [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, Meudon Cedex (France)

2010-01-20

383

24 CFR 586.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 586.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-04-01

384

32 CFR 176.40 - Adverse determinations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ASSISTANCE-COMMUNITY REDEVELOPMENT AND HOMELESS ASSISTANCE § 176.40 Adverse determinations...interest submitted by representatives of the homeless. In addition, in such instances or...consult with the representatives of the homeless, if any, for purposes of...

2013-07-01

385

Annual Adverse Drug Experience Report: 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report was to analyze adverse drug experience (ADE) reports received and computerized by FDA in 1991. ADE reports received were broken down by reporting source categories of domestic, foreign, spontaneous, study or literature, health pr...

J. R. Swann P. Reinstein D. E. Knapp

1992-01-01

386

Annual Adverse Drug Experience Report: 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report was to analyze adverse experience (ADE) reports received and computerized by FDA in 1995. Reports were analyzed by source, clinical outcomes, body systems, age, gender, reporter location, drug class and other variables.

D. E. Knapp J. I. Robinson A. L. Britt

1997-01-01

387

Annual Adverse Drug Experience Report: 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report was to analyze adverse experience (ADE) reports received and computerized by FDA in 1994. Reports were analyzed by source, clinical outcomes, body systems, age, gender, reporter location, drug class and other variables.

P. F. Reinstein J. I. Robinson

1995-01-01

388

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Childhood Adversity as a Risk Factor for Adult CFS ... and in 2007, over 3 million reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined ...

389

Adverse skin reactions following intravitreal bevacizumab injection  

PubMed Central

The authors describe two separate cases of skin eruption following intravitreal bevacizumab injection with evidence to suggest that these were adverse drug reactions to bevacizumab. The authors also discuss how each case was treated and report on the final outcome.

Ameen, S; Entabi, M; Lee, N; Stavrakoglou, A

2011-01-01

390

Energy "Drinks" and Supplements: Investigations of Adverse ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... to FDA. Therefore, all adverse event reports that FDA has received in connection with these products are voluntary. It is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recalls,%20outbreaks%20&%20emergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

391

Information for Healthcare Professionals: Mandatory Adverse ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... of the medication error and/or adverse event(s). Section G, Box 1: Provide name, address, phone number, and e-mail address of the reporter who is ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

392

Adverse event reporting is valued information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Potential drug treatments are tested on paper, in laboratories and eventually ... adverse event reporting program that helps health care providers and ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/specialfeatures

393

Adverse Outcome Pathways: From Definition to Application  

EPA Science Inventory

A challenge for both human health and ecological toxicologists is the transparent application of mechanistic (e.g., molecular, biochemical, histological) data to risk assessments. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework designed to meet this need. Specifical...

394

Annual Adverse Biologic Reaction Report: 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review provides a descriptive overview of the adverse biologic reaction (ABR) reports received by the US Food and Drug Administration during 1988. As well as general information, the ABR reports are profiled by types of reports, outcomes, body systems...

Z. A. Perry A. L. Britt D. E. Knapp

1989-01-01

395

Airborne Ultrasound: Measurement and Possible Adverse Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature study was undertaken to investigate research effects concerning possible adverse effects of airborne ultrasound on humans. Findings of this research, as well as proposed exposure-limiting criteria are presented. Measurement techniques for air...

B. A. Herman D. Powell

1981-01-01

396

Information on Adverse Event Reports and Heparin  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Drugs. ... The fact that someone reports an adverse event does not necessarily mean that a specific drug caused the medical event or death. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/postmarketdrugsafetyinformationforpatientsandproviders

397

The Public's Stake in Adverse Event Reporting  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Health care facilities, practitioners, and patients submit reports to the FDA and to manufacturers on adverse events, medical errors, and product ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/surveillance

398

Energy "Drinks" and Supplements: Investigations of Adverse ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... to FDA. Therefore, all adverse event reports that FDA has received in connection with these products are voluntary. It is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/recallsoutbreaksemergencies/safetyalertsadvisories

399

Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are used as ergogenic aids by athletes and non-athletes to enhance performance by augmenting muscular development and strength. AAS administration is often associated with various adverse effects that are generally dose related. High and multi-doses of AAS used for athletic enhancement can lead to serious and irreversible organ damage. Among the most common adverse effects of AAS

C. Maravelias; A. Dona; M. Stefanidou; C. Spiliopoulou

2005-01-01

400

Design of Adverse Drug Events-Scorecards.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design of Adverse Drug Event-Scorecards. The scorecards described are innovative and novel, not having previously been reported in the literature. The Scorecards provide organizations (e.g. hospitals) with summary information about Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) using a Web-based platform. The data used in the Scorecards are routinely updated and report on ADEs detected through data mining processes. The development of the ADE Scorecards is ongoing and they are currently undergoing clinical testing. PMID:21335740

Marcilly, Romaric; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Hackl, Werner; B?ceanu, Adrian; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth M

2011-01-01

401

Developmental exposure to a mixture of two mechanistically distinct antiandrogens results in cumulative adverse reproductive effects in adult male rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Typically, toxicological studies have focused on the adverse effects from exposure to single chemicals. However, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are detected in the environment as mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that mixtures of EDCs with the same mechanism of action...

402

Decreasing Computer Anxiety and Increasing Computer Usage among Early Childhood Education Majors through a Hands-On Approach in a Nonthreatening Environment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practicum was designed to lessen the computer anxiety of early childhood education majors enrolled in General Curriculum or General Methods courses, to assist them in learning more about computer applications, and to increase the amount of time spent using computers. Weekly guidelines were given to the students, and a hands-on approach was…

Castleman, Jacquelyn B.

403

Space and Place as a Source of Belonging and Participation in Urban Environments: Considering the Role of Early Childhood Education and Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of spatial and place research when exploring concepts of belonging, participation and citizenship in relation to young children and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in urban societies. Particular attention is paid to the position of marginalised children and those most at risk of…

Kernan, Margaret

2010-01-01

404

Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

2008-01-01

405

The "Right Kind of Man": The Ambiguities of Regendering the Early Years School Environment--The Case of England and Wales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the issue of recruitment of men into primary teaching, with particular reference to the early years of schooling. The latest UK statistics reveal that there are 27,000 male primary teachers and 141,000 females. However there are disproportionately greater numbers of male head teachers. The presence of men in this…

Jones, Deborah

2003-01-01

406

Space and Place as a Source of Belonging and Participation in Urban Environments: Considering the Role of Early Childhood Education and Care Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of spatial and place research when exploring concepts of belonging, participation and citizenship in relation to young children and early childhood education and care (ECEC) in urban societies. Particular attention is paid to the position of marginalised children and those most at risk of…

Kernan, Margaret

2010-01-01

407

Adverse events following immunization with DTP vaccine.  

PubMed

The Monitoring System for Adverse Events Following Immunization became fully operational in late 1978 in all 50 States, New York City and Washington, D.C. This system compiles information on adverse events temporally associated (within four weeks) to the administration of a vaccine. A total of 2,062 reports of adverse events following diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine (DTP) were received between 1979 and 1982. The number of reports received in 1979 was 387, increasing to 707 reports in 1982. The increase is predominantly in local reactions and fever. The number of persons with serious illnesses temporally associated with vaccine remained relatively constant over the four year period. The overall rate of reported adverse events following DTP (70.8 per million doses administered in the public sector) was about twice that of Td (33.5) or DT (38.4); however it was not substantially different from those following measles- or rubella-containing vaccines. Those who had convulsions (whether febrile or non-febrile) following receipt of DTP vaccine were substantially more likely to have had a personal history of convulsions than those who had a non-neurologic adverse event following DTP (p less than 0.0001). This information, along with data from the literature, has led to recent recommendations by advisory groups in the United States that any infant or child with a personal history of convulsions should be thoroughly evaluated before initiating or continuing immunization with pertussis vaccine. PMID:3879686

Stetler, H C; Mullen, J R; Brennan, J P; Orenstein, W A; Bart, K J; Hinman, A R

1985-01-01

408

Blind Trust: Market Control, Legal Environments, and the Dynamics of Competitive Intensity in the Early American Film Industry, 1893–1920  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the emergence of the film industry in the U.S. between 1893 and 1920 contributes to the growing literature linking legal environments and population dynamics. This was an era characterized by a shift to active anti-trust policy, which manifested itself in legal action to disband a trust that had dominated the industry, the Motion Pictures Patents Corporation (MPPC).

Stephen J. Mezias; Elizabeth Boyle

2005-01-01

409

The wider social environment and changes in self-reported quality of life in the transition from late childhood to early adolescence: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and social capital have been associated with adolescent well-being, but the majority of studies were cross-sectional, and the time window over which the neighbourhood may impact on development is unknown. Therefore, the contribution of the neighbourhood environment to adolescents' quality of life and the course of these effects during the period of transition from childhood to

Marjan Drukker; Charles Kaplan; Josien Schneiders; Frans JM Feron; Jim van Os

2006-01-01

410

Sixty Years after the Magic Carpet Ride: The Long-Run Effect of the Early Childhood Environment on Social and Economic Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14884  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper estimates the effect of the childhood environment on a large array of social and economic outcomes lasting almost 60 years, for both the affected cohorts and for their children. To do this, we exploit a natural experiment provided by the 1949 Magic Carpet operation, where over 50,000 Yemenite immigrants were airlifted to Israel. The…

Gould, Eric D.; Lavy, Victor; Paserman, M. Daniele

2009-01-01

411

[Adverse reactions to mosquito bites in scholars from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.  

PubMed

Background: Allergic reactions to insect bites are a global problem, the true incidence and prevalence of morbidity from adverse reactions to mosquito bites are unknown. Objective: To describe the adverse reactions to mosquito bites in school-age children of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Material and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was made via a randomized application of questionnaires to children from public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Results: A total of 11 public schools randomly selected were included in the study. One thousand questionnaires were submitted, of which 506 fulfilled the inclusion criteria; 55% were females. Seventy-six percent referred adverse reactions to mosquito bites, itching (75%) and rash (72%) being the most frequent ones, in the last 12 months. Conclusions: Adverse reactions to mosquito bites occur frequently. Early detection is important to establish a prompt treatment. PMID:21255516

Manrique López, María Amelia; González Díaz, Sandra N; Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Sedó Mejía, Giovanni A; Canseco Villarreal, José Ignacio; Gómez Retamoza, Ernesto Antonio; Padrón López, Olga Magdalena; Cruz Moreno, Miguel Angel; Cisneros Salazar, Guillermo Daniel

412

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR.  

PubMed

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in "street" families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the "code of the street." Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A; Brody, Gene H; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A; Gibbons, Frederick X

2012-01-01

413

SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR  

PubMed Central

Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes.

Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2011-01-01

414

Understanding the Relationship Between the Retail Food Environment Index and Early Childhood Obesity Among WIC Participants in Los Angeles County Using GeoDa.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association between the local food environment and obesity proportions among 3- to 4-year-old children who were participants in the WIC program in Los Angeles County using spatial analyses techniques. ArcGIS, spatial analysis software, was used to compute the retail food environment index (RFEI) per ZIP code. GeoDa, spatial statistics software was employed to check for spatial autocorrelation and to control for permeability of the boundaries. Linear regression and ANOVA were used to examine the impact of the food environment on childhood obesity. Fast-food restaurants represented 30% and convenience stores represented 40% of the sum of food outlets in areas where WIC participants reside. Although there was no statistically significant association between RFEI and 3- to 4-year-old obesity proportions among WIC children, analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests demonstrated statistically significant positive associations between obesity and the number of convenience stores and the number of supermarkets. Our findings suggest that RFEI, as currently constructed, may not be the optimal way to capture the food environment. This study suggests that convenience stores and supermarkets are a likely source of excess calories for children in low-income households. Given the ubiquity of convenience stores in low-income neighborhoods, interventions to improve availability of healthy food in these stores should be part of the many approaches to addressing childhood obesity. This study adds to the literature by examining the validity of the RFEI and by demonstrating the need and illustrating the use of spatial analyses, using GeoDA, in the environment/obesity studies. PMID:23569623

Koleilat, Maria; Whaley, Shannon E; Afifi, Abdelmonem A; Estrada, Leobardo; Harrison, Gail G

2012-05-17

415

42 CFR 456.136 - Notification of adverse decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Notification of adverse decision. 456.136 Section 456...Stay § 456.136 Notification of adverse decision. The UR plan must provide that written notice of any adverse final decision on the need for...

2012-10-01

416

Adverse perinatal events associated with ART.  

PubMed

Since the advent of ART, much research has focused on the potential adverse for resultant harm. Prematurity, low birth-weight, PIH, congenital malformations, and CP are closely tied to multiple gestation. With the increase in elective single embryo transfer, there will be a reduction in adversity related to multiple birth. It is understood that underlying causes of infertility, including advanced maternal age, PCOS, thyroid disease, and uterine fibroids, predispose to adverse outcomes. However, imprinting abnormalities do not appear to stem from multiple births, and thus the need to consider the association between fertility treatment and methylation disorders remains essential. These, as well as risks of multi-fetal gestation, must be discussed with patients when considering using assisted reproduction. PMID:22549708

Skora, Daniel; Frankfurter, David

2012-04-27

417

Veterinary Medicines and the Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Veterinary medicines may be emitted either directly or indirectly into the environment, following its use. As veterinary medicines\\u000a are biologically active compounds, there is a concern that their occurrence in the environment may have an adverse impact\\u000a on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This chapter reviews the major sources by which veterinary medicines enter the environment,\\u000a the fate, behaviour and occurrence

Alistair B. A. Boxall

418

The role of gene-environment correlations and interactions in middle childhood depressive symptoms.  

PubMed

Depression is known to be associated with a wide array of environmental factors. Such associations are due at least in part to genetic influences on both. This issue has been little explored with preadolescent children. Measures of family chaos and parenting style at age 9 and child depressive symptoms at age 12 were completed by 3,258 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study and their parents. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to explore common and unique genetic and environmental influences on both family environment and later depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms at age 12 were significantly heritable. Moderate genetic effects influenced parenting style and family chaos at the age of 9, indicating gene-environment correlation. There were significant genetic correlations between family environment and depressive symptoms. There was some evidence of a Gene × Environment interaction, with stronger genetic effects on depressive symptoms for children with more suboptimal family environment. There was an Environment × Environment interaction, with effects of nonshared environment on depressive symptoms stronger for twins with more adverse parenting experiences. There is some evidence for gene-environment correlation between aspects of family environment in middle childhood and subsequent depressive symptoms. This suggests that one of the mechanisms by which genes lead to depressive symptoms may be by themselves influencing depressogenic environments. PMID:23398755

Wilkinson, Paul O; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Haworth, Claire M A; Eley, Thalia C

2013-02-01

419

ATM SEQUENCE VARIANTS ARE PREDICTIVE OF ADVERSE RADIOTHERAPY RESPONSE AMONG PATIENTS TREATED FOR PROSTATE CANCER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To examine whether the presence of sequence variants in the ATM (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia) gene is predictive for the development of radiation-induced adverse responses resulting from 125I prostate brachytherapy for early-stage prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven patients with a minimum of 1-year follow-up who underwent 125I prostate brachytherapy of early-stage prostate cancer were screened for DNA sequence variations

JAMIE A. CESARETTI; RICHARD G. STOCK; STEVEN LEHRER; DAVID A. ATENCIO; JONINE L. BERNSTEIN; NELSON N. STONE; SYLVAN WALLENSTEIN; SHERYL GREEN; KAREN LOEB; MARISA KOLLMEIER; MICHAEL SMITH; BARRY S. ROSENSTEIN

2005-01-01

420

[Adverse reactions induced by food additives: sulfites].  

PubMed

Many chemicals are used to preserve, color and flavor foods and drugs. There have been numerous reports of adverse reactions, including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, asthma an anaphylaxis following the ingestion of food additives such as tartrazine, monosodium glutamate and benzoic acid. Recently the food and drug additives reaching medical awareness as a cause of sensitivity are the sulfiting agents. Sulfites are widely used in the food and beverage industry as preservatives and antioxidants. They are also used by the pharmaceutical industry. This work describes the common uses of sulfiting agents, the mechanisms of sulfite sensitivity, the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of adverse reactions to sulfites. PMID:2672278

Montaño García, M L

421

Rotigotine adverse effects affecting patient's sexual partner.  

PubMed

Somnolence is one of the most common adverse effects of a dopaminergic agonist, rotigotine. We report putative adverse effects experienced by a spouse of a man treated with this compound because of advanced Parkinson disease. We propose the exposure to rotigotine through the seminal fluid because protected sexual intercourse eliminated her postcoital symptoms. This previously unrecognized mechanism may be more common and associated with other psychoactive compounds penetrating the blood-testis barrier, and it may account for otherwise unexplained postcoital somnolence or fatigue. PMID:20124785

Hedera, Peter

422

Using Data Mining to Predict Safety Actions from FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the value of data mining in early identification of drug safety signals from spontaneous reporting databases. Methods: A single data mining algorithm was applied to the 2001–2003 public release of Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) data for all therapeutic new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in 2001. The list of detected signals was compared

Alan M. Hochberg; Stephanie J. Reisinger; Ronald K. Pearson; Donald J. OHara; Kevin Hall

2007-01-01

423

The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

2005-01-01

424

An exclusive causal-leverage measure for detecting adverse drug reactions from electronic medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of causal relationships between drugs and their associated adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can prevent harmful consequences or even deaths. Rare ADRs cannot be detected by pre-marketing clinical trials due to limitations in their size and duration. Existing postmarketing surveillance methods mainly rely on spontaneous reporting which is limited by severe underreporting (<10 percentage reporting rate), latency and inconsistency.

Yanqing Ji; Hao Ying; Peter Dews; John Tran; Ayman Mansour; Richard E. Miller; R. Michael Massanari

2011-01-01

425

Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents' psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sample of 296 8th-grade middle school students, the authors examined the role of personal achievement goals and feelings of school belonging in mediating the relation between perceptions of the school psychological environment and school-related beliefs, affect, and achievement. Sequential regression analyses indicated that perceiving a task goal structure in middle school was positively related to academic self-efficacy and

Robert W. Roeser; Carol Midgley; Timothy C. Urdan

1996-01-01

426

Nature vs. nurture in the low-density environment: structure and evolution of early-type dwarf galaxies in poor groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the stellar population properties of 13 dwarf galaxies residing in poor groups (low-density environment, LDE) observed with VIMOS at VLT. Ages, metallicities, and [alpha\\/Fe] ratios were derived within an r < re\\/2 aperture from the Lick indices Hbeta, Mgb, Fe5270, and Fe5335 through comparison with our simple stellar population (SSP) models that account for variable [alpha\\/Fe] ratios. For

F. Annibali; R. Grützbauch; R. Rampazzo; A. Bressan; W. W. Zeilinger

2011-01-01

427

The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma study.  

PubMed

Childhood asthma is not distributed evenly throughout the population, and children who grow up in crowded urban neighborhoods have higher rates of asthma and experience greater morbidity because of asthma. There are several environmental and lifestyle factors associated with urban living that are suspected to promote the development of asthma, particularly in the first few years of life. Collectively, this information suggests the hypothesis that exposure in early life to adverse environmental and lifestyle factors associated with disadvantaged urban environments modifies immune development to increase the risk for allergic diseases and asthma. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study was initiated in 2004 to test this hypothesis. The study population was recruited prenatally and consisted of 560 families from 4 urban areas who were at high risk for allergies and/or asthma on the basis of parental histories, along with an additional 49 families without atopic parents. Immune development, respiratory illnesses, and exposure to stress, indoor pollutants, microbial products, and allergens were measured prospectively, and the major study outcomes are recurrent wheeze at 3 years of age and asthma at age 7 years. This review summarizes the study design, methods, and early findings of the URECA study. PMID:20226291

Gern, James E

2010-03-01

428

The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma Study  

PubMed Central

Childhood asthma is not distributed evenly throughout the population, and children who grow up in crowded urban neighborhoods have higher rates of asthma and experience greater morbidity due to asthma. There are several environmental and lifestyle factors associated with urban living that are suspected to promote the development of asthma, particularly in the first few years of life. Collectively, this information suggests the hypothesis that exposure in early life to adverse environmental and lifestyle factors associated with disadvantaged urban environments modifies immune development to increase the risk for allergic diseases and asthma. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma birth cohort study was initiated in 2004 to test this hypothesis. The study population was recruited prenatally, and consisted of 560 families from four urban areas who were at high risk for allergies and/or asthma on the basis of parental histories, along with an additional 49 families without atopic parents. Immune development, respiratory illnesses, and exposure to stress, indoor pollutants, microbial products, and allergens were measured prospectively, and the major study outcomes are recurrent wheeze at three years of age and asthma at age seven. This review summarizes the study design, methods, and early findings of the URECA study.

Gern, James E.

2010-01-01

429

Enduring psychobiological effects of childhood adversity.  

PubMed

This mini-review refers to recent findings on psychobiological long-term consequences of childhood trauma and adverse living conditions. The continuum of trauma-provoked aftermath reaches from healthy adaptation with high resilience, to severe maladjustment with co-occurring psychiatric and physical pathologies in children, adolescents and adults. There is increasing evidence of a strong interconnectivity between genetic dispositions, epigenetic processes, stress-related hormonal systems and immune parameters in all forms of (mal)-adjustment to adverse living conditions. Unfavorable constellations of these dispositions and systems, such as low cortisol levels and elevated markers of inflammation in maltreated children, seem to promote the (co)-occurrence of psychiatric and physical pathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder, obesity, or diabetes. Although findings from prospective study designs support a deepened understanding of causal relations between adverse living conditions, including traumatic experiences, during childhood and its psychobiological effects, so far, little is known about the temporal coincidence of stress-sensitive developmental stages during childhood and adolescence and trauma consequences. Taken together, childhood adversity is a severe risk factor for the onset of psychobiological (mal)-adjustment, which has to be explained under consideration of diverse physiological systems and developmental stages of childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850228

Ehlert, Ulrike

2013-07-10

430

Hydramnios prediction of adverse perinatal outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether hydramnios is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.Methods: Computerized records of all ultrasound examinations done at the University of Alabama at Birmingham from 1986 to 1996 (n = 40,065) were reviewed to identify 370 women with singleton pregnancies beyond 20 weeks’ gestation and hydramnios diagnosed sonographically by amniotic fluid index of 25 cm

Joseph R Biggio; Katharine D Wenstrom; Mary B Dubard; Suzanne P Cliver

1999-01-01

431

Cutaneous Adverse Reactions to Tattoos and Piercings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piercings and tattoos have become very popular in western society in recent decades, particularly among younger generations. Reports of medical complications associated with these decorative techniques have increased in parallel with the rise in their popularity. Due to their high frequency, adverse cutaneous reactions are particularly important among these potential complications. Tattoo-related complications include a number of cutaneous and systemic

J. Mataix; J. F. Silvestre

2009-01-01

432

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD EXPERIENCES AND REPEAT INDUCED ABORTION  

PubMed Central

Objective To characterize the backgrounds of women who have repeat abortions. Study Design In a cross-sectional study of 259 women (M=35.2±5.6 years), the relation between adverse experiences in childhood and risk of having 2+ abortions versus 0 or 1 abortion was examined. Self-reported adverse events occurring between ages 0-12 were summed. Results Independent of confounding factors, women who experienced more abuse, personal safety, and total adverse events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=2.56, 95% CI=1.15-5.71; OR=2.74, 95% CI=1.29-5.82; OR=1.59, 95% CI=1.21-2.09) and versus 1 abortion (OR=5.83, 95% CI=1.71-19.89; OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.03-4.81; OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.81). Women who experienced more family disruption events in childhood were more likely to have 2+ versus 0 abortions (OR=1.75, 95% CI=1.14-2.69) but not versus 1 abortion (OR=1.16, 95% CI=0.79-1.70). Conclusions Women who have repeat abortions are more likely to have experienced childhood adversity than those having 0 or 1 abortion.

BLEIL, Maria E.; ADLER, Nancy E.; PASCH, Lauri A.; STERNFELD, Barbara; REIJO-PERA, Renee A.; CEDARS, Marcelle I.

2010-01-01

433

Speech recognition in adverse conditions: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a review of the effects of adverse conditions (ACs) on the perceptual, linguistic, cognitive, and