Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of
Zhiyong Xi; Jose L. Ramirez; George Dimopoulos
We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from premises of laboratory-confirmed dengue patients over a 12-month period (March 2007 to February 2008) in Merida, Mexico. Backpack aspiration from 880 premises produced 1,836 females and 1,292 males indoors (predomi- nantly from bedrooms) and 102 females and 108 males from patios\\/backyards. The mean
Julian Garcia-Rejon; Maria Alba Loroño-Pino; Jose Arturo Farfan-Ale; Luis Flores-Flores; Elsy Del Pilar Rosado-Paredes; Nubia Rivero-Cardenas; Rosario Najera-Vazquez; Salvador Gomez-Carro; Victor Lira-Zumbardo; Pedro Gonzalez-Martinez; Saul Lozano-Fuentes; Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga; Barry J. Beaty; Lars Eisen
Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens molestus mosquitoes were infected with Tiulenii virus, a Group B arbovirus isolated in the Far East from Ixodes(Ceratixodes) putus ticks. The mosquitoes were infected through a biologic membrane, the virus titers in the inf...
D. K. Lvov I. N. Kostyrko V. L. Gromashevskii
West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito
Tonya M. Colpitts; Jonathan Cox; Dana L. Vanlandingham; Fabiana M. Feitosa; Gong Cheng; Sebastian Kurscheid; Penghua Wang; Manoj N. Krishnan; Stephen Higgs; Erol Fikrig
Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission.
Present study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of natural (Culex quinquefasciatus) and experimental (Aedes aegypti) vectors for supporting the development of W. bancrofti larvae for onward transmission. Both the species permitted development of W. bancrofti mf to infective larvae (L3) within 11 to 13 days. The mf intake by both the species of mosquitoes was directly related to mf density in donor's blood. Culex exhibited higher L3 recovery than Aedes. In Aedes maximum percent L3 development occurred after ingesting 4 mf whereas Culex exhibited best establishment at an average mf intake of 11.5. Nevertheless wide variation in mf density in donor's blood did not significantly affect the larval establishment in Aedes mosquito while in Culex very high (> 400 mf/40 microliters) or low (< 50 mf/40 microliters) mf counts in donor's blood adversely affected the L3 recovery. The results reveals that A. aegypti has an edge over the natural vector, Culex in being a voracious feeder, their easy laboratory maintenance and better transmission potential. PMID:11349538
Misra-Bhattacharya, S; Tyagi, K
Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease world-wide, with Aedes aegypti being the major vector. Interactions between the mosquito host and dengue viruses (DENV) are complex and vector competence varies among geographically-distinct Ae. aegypti populations. Additionally, dengue is caused by four antigenically-distinct viral serotypes (DENV1–4), each with multiple genotypes. Each virus genotype interacts differently with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Analyses of alterations in mosquito transcriptional profiles during DENV infection are expected to provide the basis for identifying networks of genes involved in responses to viruses and contribute to the molecular-genetic understanding of vector competence. In addition, this knowledge is anticipated to support the development of novel disease-control strategies. RNA-seq technology was used to assess genome-wide changes in transcript abundance at 1, 4 and 14 days following DENV2 infection in carcasses, midguts and salivary glands of the Ae. aegypti Chetumal strain. DENV2 affected the expression of 397 Ae. aegypti genes, most of which were down-regulated by viral infection. Differential accumulation of transcripts was mainly tissue- and time-specific. Comparisons of our data with other published reports reveal conservation of functional classes, but limited concordance of specific mosquito genes responsive to DENV2 infection. These results indicate the necessity of additional studies of mosquito-DENV interactions, specifically those focused on recently-derived mosquito strains with multiple dengue virus serotypes and genotypes.
Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dunn, W. Augustine; Campbell, Corey L.; Olson, Ken E.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; James, Anthony A.
The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods.
Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Epidemic dengue has emerged throughout the tropical world. In the continued absence of a vaccine against dengue virus (DENV), mosquito vector surveillance and control programs are essential to reduce human infections. An effective test to detect DENV in infected mosquitoes would be a valuable addition to the surveillance effort. We investigated DENV detection in infected Aedes aegypti using a commercially available DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) ELISA kit (Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag), and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation assays. The DENV-infected mosquitoes were subjected to field-relevant conditions and assayed individually and pooled with uninfected mosquitoes. Overall, DENV NS1 antigen was detected in 98% of infected mosquitoes/pools versus 79% for RT-PCR and 29% for virus isolation. Our results indicate that NS1 is an excellent analyte for detection of DENV in Ae. aegypti and that the tested NS1 antigen kit provides a sensitive, rapid, and convenient test for DENV surveillance in mosquitoes.
Voge, Natalia V.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Blair, Carol D.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.
Background Mosquitoes are vectors of many serious pathogens in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Current control strategies almost entirely rely upon insecticides, which increasingly face the problems of high cost, increasing mosquito resistance and negative effects on non-target organisms. Alternative strategies include the proposed use of inherited life-shortening agents, such as the Wolbachia bacterium. By shortening mosquito vector lifespan, Wolbachia could potentially reduce the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. We have recently been able to stably transinfect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop, and are assessing various aspects of its interaction with the mosquito host to determine its likely impact on pathogen transmission as well as its potential ability to invade A. aegypti populations. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have examined the probing behavior of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in an attempt to understand both the broader impact of Wolbachia infection on mosquito biology and, in particular, vectorial capacity. The probing behavior of wMelPop-infected mosquitoes at four adult ages was examined and compared to uninfected controls during video-recorded feeding trials on a human hand. Wolbachia-positive insects, from 15 days of age, showed a drastic increase in the time spent pre-probing and probing relative to uninfected controls. Two other important features for blood feeding, saliva volume and apyrase content of saliva, were also studied. Conclusions/Significance As A. aegypti infected with wMelPop age, they show increasing difficulty in completing the process of blood feeding effectively and efficiently. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on average produced smaller volumes of saliva that still contained the same amount of apyrase activity as uninfected mosquitoes. These effects on blood feeding behavior may reduce vectorial capacity and point to underlying physiological changes in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.
Moreira, Luciano A.; Saig, Emad; Turley, Andrew P.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Background Arthropod-borne viral infections cause several emerging and resurging infectious diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, chikungunya is responsible for a high level of severe human disease worldwide. The salivary glands of mosquitoes are the last barrier before pathogen transmission. Methods We undertook a proteomic approach to characterize the key virus/vector interactions and host protein modifications that occur in the salivary glands that could be responsible for viral transmission by using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis. Results We defined the protein modulations in the salivary glands of Aedes aegypti that were triggered 3 and 5 days after an oral infection (3 and 5 DPI) with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Gel profile comparisons showed that CHIKV at 3 DPI modulated the level of 13 proteins, and at 5 DPI 20 proteins. The amount of 10 putatively secreted proteins was regulated at both time points. These proteins were implicated in blood-feeding or in immunity, but many have no known function. CHIKV also modulated the quantity of proteins involved in several metabolic pathways and in cell signalling. Conclusion Our study constitutes the first analysis of the protein response of Aedes aegypti salivary glands infected with CHIKV. We found that the differentially regulated proteins in response to viral infection include structural proteins and enzymes for several metabolic pathways. Some may favour virus survival, replication and transmission, suggesting a subversion of the insect cell metabolism by arboviruses. For example, proteins involved in blood-feeding such as the short D7, an adenosine deaminase and inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, may favour virus transmission by exerting an increased anti-inflammatory effect. This would allow the vector to bite without the bite being detected. Other proteins, like the anti-freeze protein, may support vector protection.
Introduction Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV), is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV replication led to trial field releases of these mosquitoes in Cairns, Australia as a biocontrol strategy for the virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Field collected wMel mosquitoes that were challenged with three DENV serotypes displayed limited rates of body infection, viral replication and dissemination to the head compared to uninfected controls. Rates of dengue infection, replication and dissemination in field wMel mosquitoes were similar to those observed in the original transinfected wMel line that had been maintained in the laboratory. We found that wMel was distributed in similar body tissues in field mosquitoes as in laboratory ones, but, at seven days following blood-feeding, wMel densities increased to a greater extent in field mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that virus-blocking is likely to persist in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes after their release and establishment in wild populations, suggesting that Wolbachia biocontrol may be a successful strategy for reducing dengue transmission in the field.
Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti was recently transinfected with a life-shortening strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop) as the first step in developing a biocontrol strategy for dengue virus transmission. In addition to life-shortening, the wMelPop-infected mosquitoes also exhibit increased daytime activity and metabolic rates. Here we sought to quantify the blood-feeding behaviour of Wolbachia-infected females as an indicator of any virulence or energetic drain associated with Wolbachia infection. Methodology/Principal Findings In a series of blood-feeding trials in response to humans, we have shown that Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes do not differ in their response time to humans, but that as they age they obtain fewer and smaller blood meals than Wolbachia-uninfected controls. Lastly, we observed a behavioural characteristic in the Wolbachia infected mosquitoes best described as a “bendy” proboscis that may explain the decreased biting success. Conclusions/Significance Taken together the evidence suggests that wMelPop infection may be causing tissue damage in a manner that intensifies with mosquito age and that leads to reduced blood-feeding success. These behavioural changes require further investigation with respect to a possible physiological mechanism and their role in vectorial capacity of the insect. The selective decrease of feeding success in older mosquitoes may act synergistically with other Wolbachia-associated traits including life-shortening and viral protection in biocontrol strategies.
Turley, Andrew P.; Moreira, Luciano A.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Improved control of vector-borne diseases requires an understanding of the molecular factors that determine vector competence. Apoptosis has been shown to play a role in defense against viruses in insects and mammals. Although some observations suggest a correlation between apoptosis and resistance to arboviruses in mosquitoes, there is no direct evidence tying apoptosis to arbovirus vector competence. To determine whether apoptosis can influence arbovirus replication in mosquitoes, we manipulated apoptosis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by silencing the expression of genes that either positively or negatively regulate apoptosis. Silencing of the A. aegypti anti-apoptotic gene iap1 (Aeiap1) caused apoptosis in midgut epithelium, alterations in midgut morphology, and 60 to 70% mosquito mortality. Mortality induced by Aeiap1 silencing was rescued by cosilencing the initiator caspase gene Aedronc, indicating that the mortality was due to apoptosis. When mosquitoes which had been injected with Aeiap1 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were orally infected with Sindbis virus (SINV), increased midgut infection and virus dissemination to other organs were observed. This increase in virus infection may have been due to the effects of widespread apoptosis on infection barriers or innate immunity. In contrast, silencing the expression of Aedronc, which would be expected to inhibit apoptosis, reduced SINV midgut infection and virus dissemination. Thus, our data suggest that some level of caspase activity and/or apoptosis may be necessary for efficient virus replication and dissemination in mosquitoes. This is the first study to directly test the roles of apoptosis and caspases in determining mosquito vector competence for arboviruses.
Wang, Hua; Gort, Taryn; Boyle, Daniel L.
We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from schools in Mérida, México, during 2008 and 2009. Backpack aspiration from 24 schools produced 468 females of Ae. aegypti and 1,676 females of another human biter, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae. aegypti females were collected most commonly from classrooms followed by offices and bathrooms. Of these females, 24.7% were freshly fed. Examination of 118 pools of Ae. aegypti females (total of 415 females) for presence of DENV RNA produced 19 positive pools (16.1%). DENV-infected pools were detected from 11 (45.8%) of 24 schools and came from different room types, including classrooms, offices, and bathrooms. The overall rate of DENV infection per 100 Ae. aegypti females was 4.8. We conclude that schools in Mérida present a risk environment for students, teachers, and other personnel to be exposed to mosquitoes and bites of DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females.
Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Farfan-Ale, Jose Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; Lopez-Uribe, Mildred P.; del Rosario Najera-Vazquez, Maria; Nunez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars
Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and IFN-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-?, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection.
McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.
Incidence of disease due to dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses is increasing in many parts of the world. The viruses are primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a highly domesticated mosquito species that is notoriously difficult to control. When transinfected into Ae. aegypti, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia has recently been shown to inhibit replication of DENVs, CHIKV, malaria parasites and filarial nematodes, providing a potentially powerful biocontrol strategy for human pathogens. Because the extent of pathogen reduction can be influenced by the strain of bacterium, we examined whether the wMel strain of Wolbachia influenced CHIKV and YFV infection in Ae. aegypti. Following exposure to viremic blood meals, CHIKV infection and dissemination rates were significantly reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia compared to Wolbachia-uninfected controls. However, similar rates of infection and dissemination were observed in wMel infected and non-infected Ae. aegypti when intrathoracic inoculation was used to deliver virus. YFV infection, dissemination and replication were similar in wMel-infected and control mosquitoes following intrathoracic inoculations. In contrast, mosquitoes with the wMelPop strain of Wolbachia showed at least a 104 times reduction in YFV RNA copies compared to controls. The extent of reduction in virus infection depended on Wolbachia strain, titer and strain of the virus, and mode of exposure. Although originally proposed for dengue biocontrol, our results indicate a Wolbachia-based strategy also holds considerable promise for YFV and CHIKV suppression.
van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Pyke, Alyssa T.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; McElroy, Kate; Day, Andrew; Higgs, Stephen; O'Neill, Scott L.
Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to evaluate the differential expression of midgut genes of feral populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia that are naturally refractory or susceptible to Dengue-2 virus infection. A total of 165 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in the subtracted libraries. The analysis showed a higher number of differentially expressed genes in the susceptible Ae. aegypti individuals than the refractory mosquitoes. The functional annotation of ESTs revealed a broad response in the susceptible library that included immune molecules, metabolic molecules and transcription factors. In the refractory strain, there was the presence of a trypsin inhibitor gene, which could play a role in the infection. These results serve as a template for more detailed studies aiming to characterize the genetic components of refractoriness, which in turn can be used to devise new approaches to combat transmission of dengue fever.
Baron, Olga L.; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul J.; Lowenberger, Carl A.; Ocampo, Clara B.
The intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia has been artificially transinfected into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, where it is being investigated as a potential dengue biological control agent. Invasion of Wolbachia in natural populations depends upon the fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti relative to uninfected competitors. Although Wolbachia infections impose fitness costs on the adult host, effects at the immature stages are less clear, particularly in competitive situations. We look for effects of two Wolbachia infections, wMel and wMelPop, on intra-strain and inter-strain larval competition in Ae. aegypti. Development of Wolbachia-infected larvae is delayed in mixed cohorts with uninfected larvae under crowded-rearing conditions. Slow developing wMelPop-infected larvae have reduced adult size compared with uninfected larvae, and larvae with the wMel infection are somewhat larger and have greater viability relative to uninfected larvae when in mixed cohorts. Implications for successful invasion by these Wolbachia infections under field conditions are considered. PMID:24732463
Ross, Perran A; Endersby, Nancy M; Yeap, Heng Lin; Hoffmann, Ary A
Background Aedes aegypti is the primary mosquito vector for dengue virus (DENV) worldwide. Infectivity of dengue virus varies among natural populations of this mosquito. How A. aegypti responds to DENV infection relative to which genes and associated pathways contribute to its differential susceptibility as a vector is not well defined. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we used custom cDNA microarrays to identify groups of genes that were differentially expressed in midgut tissues between susceptible and refractory strains in a highly time specific manner. While genes involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, mRNA surveillance, and the proteasome were significantly up-regulated in the susceptible strain, several metabolic processes including glycolysis, glycan biosynthesis and Wnt pathway were active in the refractory strain. In addition, several key signaling genes were expressed as common responsive genes in both susceptible and refractory mosquitoes that may be necessary for signal transduction to trigger the appropriate host response to the viral infection. These are coordinately expressed in the form of tight gene networks and expression clusters that may be necessary to differentially contribute to the progression of dengue infection between the two strains. Conclusions Our data show that highly correlated differential expression of responsive genes throughout the post infection period in A. aegypti midgut tissues is necessary for a coordinated transcriptional response of the mosquito genes to host or defend the viral infection.
deBruyn, Becky; Lovin, Diane D.; Harker, Brent W.; Gomez-Machorro, Consuelo; Mori, Akio; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Severson, David W.
Dengue (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) remains the leading arboviral cause of mortality in the tropics. Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to interrupt DENV transmission and is presently being trialled as a biological control. However, deployment issues have arisen on methods to temporarily suppress wild mosquito populations before Wolbachia-infected mosquito releases. By suppressing wild populations, fewer Ae. aegypti releases are required to achieve a sustainable Wolbachia density threshold. Furthermore, public distress is reduced. This study tests the application of domestic bleach (4% NaCIO) to temporarily "crash" immature Aedes populations in water-filled containers. Spray application NaClO (215 ppm) resulted in a mean 48-h mortality of 100, 100, 97, and 88% of eggs, second-instar larvae, fourth-instar larvae, and pupae, respectively. In the field, NaClO delayed ovipositing by 9 d in cooler months, and 11 d in hotter months, after which oviposition resumed in treated receptacles. We found bleach treatment of pot-plant bases did not cause wilting, yellowing, or dropping of leaves in two ornamental plants species. Domestically available NaClO could be adopted for a "crash and release" strategy to temporarily suppress wild populations of Ae. aegypti in containers before release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. The "crash and release" strategy is also applicable to other mosquito species, e.g., Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in strategies using released mosquitoes. PMID:23540123
Jacups, Susan P; Ball, Tamara S; Paton, Christopher J; Johnson, Petrina H; Ritchie, Scott A
The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV) transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve
Shuzhen Sim; José L. Ramirez; George Dimopoulos
New monitoring methods of dengue vector and evaluation of public policies on dengue control are major concerns for several tropical countries. Drawback on monitoring methods base on oviposition surveys are the counting process of mosquito eggs, information store and analysis. Here we present a new automated egg counting system for remote Aedes aegypti population survey. The system is base on an optical scanning platform, a man-machine interface, and a software for mosquitoes eggs counting. Acquired information are sent over the internet and remotely analyzed. Prototypes of the device were installed and implement in two different cities. PMID:22255902
da Silva, M G N M; Rodrigues, M A B; de Araujo, R E
Summary A virulent strain of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis that shortens insect lifespan has recently been transinfected into the primary mosquito vector of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti L. The microbe's ability to shorten lifespan and spread through host populations under the action of cytoplasmic incompatibility means it has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent to reduce dengue virus transmission. Wolbachia is present in many host tissues and may have local effects on diverse biological processes. In other insects, Wolbachia infections have been shown to alter locomotor activity and response time to food cues. In mosquitoes, locomotor performance relates to the location of mates, human hosts, resting sites and oviposition sites. We have therefore examined the effect of the virulent, life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop on the locomotion of Ae. aegypti as they age and as the pathogenicity of the infection increases. In parallel experiments we also examined CO2 production as a proxy for metabolic rate, to investigate a potential mechanistic explanation for any changes in locomotion. Contrary to expectation, we found that the infection increased activity and metabolic rate and that these effects were relatively consistent over the insect's lifespan. The results do not fit a standard model of bacterial pathogenesis in insects, and instead may reveal additional physiological changes induced by infection, such as either increased hunger or defects in the nervous system.
Evans, Oliver; Caragata, Eric P.; McMeniman, Conor J.; Woolfit, Megan; Green, David C.; Williams, Craig R.; Franklin, Craig E.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Background Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. Methodology/Principal findings We orally challenged 4–5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes’ motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. Conclusions/Significance DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes’ motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue.
Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C.
It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.
Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy
We have isolated and partially characterized from an apparently healthy C6/36 subclone of Aedes albopictus cell line a small icosahedral non-enveloped DNA virus, designated AaPV. This virus proved to be highly pathogenic for Aedes aegypti neonate larvae. Viral infection persisted for over 4 years in the cell culture without any cytopathic effect. Attempts to infect suckling mice, Drosophila melanogaster adults and Spodoptera littoralis larvae with AaPV were unsuccessful. Similarly, the AaPV failed to replicate in vertebrate and Drosophila cell lines. Virions, about 22 nm in diameter, had a buoyant density of 1.43 g/cm3 and contained three capsid polypeptides with molecular weights of 53, 41 and 40 kDa. A preliminary study of the viral genome indicated the presence of single-stranded DNA. By its biophysical and biochemical properties, this virus appears to be related to the genus Densovirus within the family Parvoviridae, but lacks serological relationships with the other members of this genus. PMID:8212862
Jousset, F X; Barreau, C; Boublik, Y; Cornet, M
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans, and DENV is the most important arbovirus across most of the subtropics and tropics worldwide. The early time periods after infection with DENV define critical cellular processes that determine ultimate success or failure of the virus to establish infection in the mosquito. Methods and Results To identify genes involved in these processes, we performed genome-wide transcriptome profiling between susceptible and refractory A. aegypti strains at two critical early periods after challenging them with DENV. Genes that responded coordinately to DENV infection in the susceptible strain were largely clustered in one specific expression module, whereas in the refractory strain they were distributed in four distinct modules. The susceptible response module in the global transcriptional network showed significant biased representation with genes related to energy metabolism and DNA replication, whereas the refractory response modules showed biased representation across different metabolism pathway genes including cytochrome P450 and DDT [1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane] degradation genes, and genes associated with cell growth and death. A common core set of coordinately expressed genes was observed in both the susceptible and refractory mosquitoes and included genes related to the Wnt (Wnt: wingless [wg] and integration 1 [int1] pathway), MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase), mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase - Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) pathways. Conclusions Our data revealed extensive transcriptional networks of mosquito genes that are expressed in modular manners in response to DENV infection, and indicated that successfully defending against viral infection requires more elaborate gene networks than hosting the virus. These likely play important roles in the global-cross talk among the mosquito host factors during the critical early DENV infection periods that trigger the appropriate host action in susceptible vs. refractory mosquitoes.
Behura, Susanta K.; Gomez-Machorro, Consuelo; Harker, Brent W.; deBruyn, Becky; Lovin, Diane D.; Hemme, Ryan R.; Mori, Akio; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Severson, David W.
Background Cytosine methylation is one of several reversible epigenetic modifications of DNA that allow a greater flexibility in the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Methylation in the simplest models dampens gene expression by modifying regions of DNA critical for transcription factor binding. The capacity to methylate DNA is variable in the insects due to diverse histories of gene loss and duplication of DNA methylases. Mosquitoes like Drosophila melanogaster possess only a single methylase, DNMT2. Description Here we characterise the methylome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and examine its relationship to transcription and test the effects of infection with a virulent strain of the endosymbiont Wolbachia on the stability of methylation patterns. Conclusion We see that methylation in the A. aegypti genome is associated with reduced transcription and is most common in the promoters of genes relating to regulation of transcription and metabolism. Similar gene classes are also methylated in aphids and honeybees, suggesting either conservation or convergence of methylation patterns. In addition to this evidence of evolutionary stability, we also show that infection with the virulent wMelPop Wolbachia strain induces additional methylation and demethylation events in the genome. While most of these changes seem random with respect to gene function and have no detected effect on transcription, there does appear to be enrichment of genes associated with membrane function. Given that Wolbachia lives within a membrane-bound vacuole of host origin and retains a large number of genes for transporting host amino acids, inorganic ions and ATP despite a severely reduced genome, these changes might represent an evolved strategy for manipulating the host environments for its own gain. Testing for a direct link between these methylation changes and expression, however, will require study across a broader range of developmental stages and tissues with methods that detect splice variants.
Ye, Yixin H.; Woolfit, Megan; Huttley, Gavin A.; Rances, Edwige; Caragata, Eric P.; Popovici, Jean; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.
Aedes aegypti densonucleosis virus (AeDNV) has two promoters that have been shown to be active by reporter gene expression analysis (B. N. Afanasiev, Y. V. Koslov, J. O. Carlson, and B. J. Beaty, Exp. Parasitol. 79: 322-339, 1994). Northern blot analysis of cells infected with AeDNV revealed two transcripts 1,200 and 3,500 nucleotides in length that are assumed to express
TODD W. WARD; MICHAEL W. KIMMICK; BORIS N. AFANASIEV; JONATHAN O. CARLSON
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) recently emerged as a global threat to public health through its adaptation to the cosmopolitan mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse. Aedes albopictus is highly susceptible to the emergent strain of CHIKV, relative to the historical vector of CHIKV, Aedes aegypti (L.). We hypothesized that the high susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to CHIKV may have a cost in terms of longevity and fecundity among infected vs non-infected mosquitoes, relative to Ae. aegypti. We performed a longevity experiment comparing Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus exposed to the emergent strain of CHIKV (LR-2006OPY1). We found a small but significant decrease in longevity of Ae. albopictus, but not Ae. aegypti, in response to exposure to CHIKV. We did not observe significant differences in numbers of eggs laid by either species in response to exposure. Longevity and body titer of infected Ae. albopictus were significantly negatively correlated, such that individuals that lived longer had lower viral body titers when they died. The cost of exposure, while not high, suggests there may be physiological constraints in the evolution of viral infectiousness in its insect vector.
Westbrook, Catherine J.; Lounibos, L. Philip
Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti.
The Aedes aegypti midgut is restructured during metamorphosis; its epithelium is renewed by replacing the digestive and endocrine cells through stem or regenerative cell differentiation. Shortly after pupation (white pupae) begins, the larval digestive cells are histolized and show signs of degeneration, such as autophagic vacuoles and disintegrating microvilli. Simultaneously, differentiating cells derived from larval stem cells form an electron-dense layer that is visible 24h after pupation begins. Forty-eight hours after pupation onset, the differentiating cells yield an electron-lucent cytoplasm rich in microvilli and organelles. Dividing stem cells were observed in the fourth instar larvae and during the first 24h of pupation, which suggests that stem cells proliferate at the end of the larval period and during pupation. This study discusses various aspects of the changes during midgut remodeling for pupating A. aegypti. PMID:24472855
Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Serrão, José Eduardo; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira
Outbreaks of Mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of Mayaro virus (MAYV) transmission in South America. To evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit MAYV, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with Aedes aegypti from Iquitos, Peru. Oral infection in Ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log10 and 7.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. Transmission of MAYV by 70% (21/30) of infected mosquitoes was shown by saliva collection and exposure to suckling mice. Amount of viral RNA in febrile humans, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ranged from 2.7 to 5.3 log10 PFU equivalents/mL. Oral susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to MAYV at titers encountered in viremic humans may limit opportunities to initiate an urban cycle; however, transmission of MAYV by Ae. aegypti shows the vector competence of this species and suggests potential for urban transmission.
Long, Kanya C.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Hausser, Nicole L.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Higgs, Stephen; Tesh, Robert B.
Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries. PMID:24605471
Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E
Background Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease world-wide and its primary vector is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The current lack of commercially-available vaccines makes control of vector populations the only effective strategy to prevent dengue transmission. Aedes aegypti geographic populations exhibit great variability in insecticide resistance and susceptibility to dengue infection. The characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as molecular markers to study quantitatively this variation is needed greatly because this species has a low abundance of microsatellite markers and limited known restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers. Results We used RNA-seq to characterize SNPs in three Ae. aegypti strains, including the Liverpool (LVP) strain, from which the current genome annotation is derived. We identified 131,764 unique genome locations with at least one alternative nucleotide to what is reported in the reference annotation. These comprised changes in both open-reading frames (ORFs) and untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts. An in depth-look at sequence variation in immunity genes revealed that those associated with autophagy, MD2-like receptors and Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins had more sequence variation in their 3’UTRs than mutations associated with non-synonymous changes. This supports the conclusion that these genes had maintained their functional specificity while being adapted to different regulatory domains. In contrast, a number of peroxidases, serpins and Clip-domain serine proteases exhibited conservation of putative UTR regulatory sequences while displaying diversification of the ORFs. Transcriptome evidence also was found for ~2500 novel transcriptional units (NTUs) not annotated in the reference genome. Conclusions The transcriptome-wide assessment of within and inter-strain polymorphisms in Ae. aegypti adds considerably to the number of molecular markers available for genetic studies in this mosquito. Additionally, data supporting NTU discovery emphasizes the need for continuous amendments of the reference genome annotation.
We present a draft sequence of the genome of Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, which at ~1376 million base pairs is about 5 times the size of the genome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Nearly 50% of the Ae. aegypti genome consists of transposable elements. These contribute to a factor of ~4 to
Vishvanath Nene; Jennifer R. Wortman; Daniel Lawson; Brian Haas; Chinnappa Kodira; Z. Tu; Brendan Loftus; Zhiyong Xi; Karyn Megy; Manfred Grabherr; Quinghu Ren; E. M. Zdobnov; N. F. Lobo; K. S. Campbell; S. E. Brown; M. F. Bonaldo; Jingsong Zhu; S. P. Sinkins; D. G. Hogenkamp; Paolo Amedeo; Peter Arensburger; P. W. Atkinson; Shelby Bidwell; Jim Biedler; Ewan Birney; Robert V. Bruggner; Javier Costas; M. R. Coy; Jonathan Crabtree; Matt Crawford; Becky deBruyn; David DeCaprio; Karin Eiglmeier; Eric Eisenstadt; Hamza El-Dorry; W. M. Gelbart; S. L. Gomes; Martin Hammond; Linda I. Hannick; M. H. Holmes; J. R. Hogan; David Jaffe; J. S. Johnston; R. C. Kennedy; Hean Koo; Saul Kravitz; Evgenia V. Kriventseva; David Kulp; Kurt LaButti; Eduardo Lee; Song Li; Diane D. Lovin; Chunhong Mao; Evan Mauceli; C. F. M. Menck; J. R. Miller; Philip Montgomery; Akio Mori; A. L. Nascimento; H. F. Naveira; Chad Nusbaum; S. O'Leary; Joshua Orvis; Mihaela Pertea; Hadi Quesneville; K. R. Reidenbach; Yu-Hui Rogers; C. W. Roth; J. R. Schneider; Michael Schatz; Martin Shumway; Mario Stanke; E. O. Stinson; J. M. C. Tubio; J. P. VanZee; Sergio Verjovski-Almeida; Doreen Werner; Owen White; Stefan Wyder; Qiandong Zeng; Qi Zhao; Yongmei Zhao; C. A. Hill; A. S. Raikhel; M. B. Soares; D. L. Knudson; N. H. Lee; James Galagan; S. L. Salzberg; I. T. Paulsen; George Dimopoulos; F. H. Collins; Bruce Birren; C. M. Fraser-Liggett; D. W. Severson
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility\\u000a of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic
Adriano R Paula; Aline T Carolino; Carlos P Silva; Richard I Samuels
To address concerns that a flavivirus vaccine/wild-type recombinant virus might have a high mosquito infectivity phenotype, the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D backbone of the ChimeriVax– dengue 4 virus was replaced with the corresponding gene sequences of the virulent YFV Asibi strain. Field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under investigation and held for 14 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in titrated body or head triturates. Our data indicate that, even in the highly unlikely event of recombination or substantial backbone reversion, virulent sequences do not enhance the transmissibility of ChimeriVax viruses. In light of the low-level viremias that have been observed after vaccination in human volunteers coupled with low mosquito infectivity, it is predicted that the risk of mosquito infection and transmission of ChimeriVax vaccine recombinant/revertant viruses in nature is minimal.
McGee, Charles E.; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; McElroy, Kate L.; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Decelle, Thierry; Higgs, Stephen
Background Recent releases have been carried out with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMelPop mosquito cell-line adapted (wMelPop-CLA) strain of Wolbachia. This infection introduced from Drosophila provides strong blockage of dengue and other arboviruses but also has large fitness costs in laboratory tests. The releases were used to evaluate the fitness of released infected mosquitoes, and (following termination of releases) to test for any effects of wMelPop-CLA on wing size and shape when mosquitoes were reared under field conditions. Methods We monitored gravid females via double sticky traps to assess the reproductive success of wMelPop-CLA-infected females and also sampled the overall mosquito population post-release using Biogent Sentinel traps. Morphometric analyses were used to evaluate infection effects on wing shape as well as size. Results Oviposition success as assessed through double sticky traps was unrelated to size of released mosquitoes. However, released mosquitoes with lower wing loading were more successful. Furthermore, wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes had 38.3% of the oviposition success of uninfected mosquitoes based on the predicted infection frequency after release. Environmental conditions affected wing shape and particularly size across time in uninfected mosquitoes, but not in naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes. Although the overall size and shape do not differ between naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, the infected mosquitoes tended to have smaller wings than uninfected mosquitoes during the cooler November in comparison to December. Conclusion These results confirm the lower fitness of wMelPop-CLA infection under field conditions, helping to explain challenges associated with a successful invasion by this strain. In the long run, invasion may depend on releasing strains carrying insecticide resistance or egg desiccation resistance, combined with an active pre-release population suppression program.
The success and sustainability of control measures aimed at reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases will depend on how they influence the fitness of mosquitoes in targeted populations. We investigated the effects of the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis on the survival, blood-feeding behaviour and reproductive success of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the main vector of dengue. Infection reduced survival to adulthood and increased adult female mosquito age-dependent mortality relative to uninfected individuals; this additional mortality was closely correlated with the number of parasite spores they harboured when they died. In the first gonotrophic cycle, infected females were less likely to blood-feed, took smaller meals when they did so, and developed fewer eggs than uninfected females. Even though the conditions of this laboratory study favoured minimal developmental times, the costs of infection were already being experienced by the time females reached an age at which they could first reproduce. These results suggest there will be selection pressure for mosquitoes to evolve resistance against this pathogen if it is used as an agent in a control program to reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne human diseases.
Sy, Victoria E; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis
The success and sustainability of control measures aimed at reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases will depend on how they influence the fitness of mosquitoes in targeted populations. We investigated the effects of the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis on the survival, blood-feeding behaviour and reproductive success of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the main vector of dengue. Infection reduced survival to adulthood and increased adult female mosquito age-dependent mortality relative to uninfected individuals; this additional mortality was closely correlated with the number of parasite spores they harboured when they died. In the first gonotrophic cycle, infected females were less likely to blood-feed, took smaller meals when they did so, and developed fewer eggs than uninfected females. Even though the conditions of this laboratory study favoured minimal developmental times, the costs of infection were already being experienced by the time females reached an age at which they could first reproduce. These results suggest there will be selection pressure for mosquitoes to evolve resistance against this pathogen if it is used as an agent in a control program to reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne human diseases. PMID:24822081
Sy, Victoria E; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis
Following per oral infection of Aedes aegypti larvae with Aedes albopictus parvovirus (AaPV), infected males and females adults were tested for their ability to transmit the virus venereally and vertically, respectively. Both types of transmission were observed. A low percentage (2.2%) of AaPV-free females were found contaminated by the virus after mating with AaPV-infected males. Although no significant difference was observed in the fecundity of orally infected and virus-free females, 17.1% of infected ones died before egg laying, whereas no mortality occurred during the same period in virus-free females. There was a clear relationship between the virus titer in the orally infected females and both mortality and infection in their offspring. The virus titer averaged 10(6.2) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50s) in F1 females and 10(3.3) TCID50 in F1 females. Nevertheless, AaPV did not persist in an experimentally infected population of mosquitoes beyond the second generation. PMID:9288802
Barreau, C; Jousset, F X; Bergoin, M
Aedes aegypti is the main vector in the transmission of dengue fever, a vector-borne disease affecting world population living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Better understanding of the dynamics of its population growth will help in the efforts of controlling the spread of this disease. In looking at the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, this paper explored the stage-structured modeling of the population growth of the mosquito using the matrix population model. The life cycle of the mosquito was divided into five stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, adult1 and adult2. Developmental rates were obtained for the average Malaysian temperature and these were used in constructing the transition matrix for the matrix model. The model, which was based only on temperature, projected that the population of Aedes aegypti will blow up with time, which is not realistic. For further work, other factors need to be taken into account to obtain a more realistic result.
Yusoff, Nuraini; Budin, Harun; Ismail, Salemah
Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.
Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.
Attraction of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), CO2, lactic acid, or ammonia emitted by vertebrate hosts is not only contingent on the presence of odorants in the environment, but is also influenced by the insect s physiological s...
B. T. Vinyard J. C. Dickens J. D. Bohbot N. F. Durand
Aedes aegypti is the mosquito vector for dengue fever and has historically been considered to prefer 'clean' water for development. A 2006 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) demonstrated large numbers of adult Ae. aegypti mosqui...
R. L. Burke
The vector mosquitoes of dengue and chikungunya fever, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have adapted to feed on humans and undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections. Although several studies reported, still, much information is required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small temporary containers. In an investigation conducted in the chikungunya affected areas of Kerala state, India, the presence of Bdelloid rotifer, Philodina in 95% of breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus was recorded. The role of Philodina in the breeding containers was investigated. It was found that while in control the number of Philodina was found increasing in the water sample during the study period of seven days, the number found decreased in the containers with larvae of Aedes. The gut content analysis also confirmed the presence of the rotating wheel, corona of Philodina in some of the specimen suggests its role as major larval food. PMID:23202612
Muniaraj, M; Arunachalam, N; Paramasivan, R; Mariappan, T; Philip Samuel, P; Rajamannar, V
Background Aedes aegypti, the “yellow fever mosquito”, is the primary vector to humans of the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV) and is a known vector of Chikungunya virus. There are two recognized subspecies of Ae. aegypti sensu latu (s.l.): the presumed ancestral form, Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), a primarily sylvan mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ae. aegypti aegypti (Aaa), found globally in tropical and subtropical regions typically in association with humans. The designation of Ae. aegypti s.l. subspecies arose from observations made in East Africa in the late 1950s that the frequency of pale “forms” of Ae. aegypti was higher in populations in and around human dwellings than in those of the nearby bush. But few studies have been made of Ae. aegypti s.l. in West Africa. To address this deficiency we have been studying the population genetics, subspecies composition and vector competence for DENV-2 of Ae. aegypti s.l. in Senegal. Methods and Findings A population genetic analysis of gene flow was conducted among 1,040 Aedes aegypti s.l. from 19 collections distributed across the five phytogeographic regions of Senegal. Adults lacking pale scales on their first abdominal tergite were classified as Aedes aegypti formosus (Aaf) following the original description of the subspecies and the remainder were classified as Aedes aegypti aegypti (Aaa). There was a clear northwest–southeast cline in the abundance of Aaa and Aaf. Collections from the northern Sahelian region contained only Aaa while southern Forest gallery collections contained only Aaf. The two subspecies occurred in sympatry in four collections north of the Gambia in the central Savannah region and Aaa was a minor component of two collections from the Forest gallery area. Mosquitoes from 11 collections were orally challenged with DENV-2 virus. In agreement with the early literature, Aaf had significantly lower vector competence than Aaa. Among pure Aaa collections, the disseminated infection rate (DIR) was 73.9% with a midgut infection barrier (MIB) rate of 6.8%, and a midgut escape barrier (MEB) rate of 19.3%, while among pure Aaf collections, DIR?=?34.2%, MIB rate?=?7.4%, and MEB rate?=?58.4%. Allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed at 11 nuclear single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci using allele specific PCR and melting curve analysis. In agreement with a published isozyme gene flow study in Senegal, only a small and statistically insignificant percentage of the variance in allele frequencies was associated with subspecies. Conclusions These results add to our understanding of the global phylogeny of Aedes aegypti s.l., suggesting that West African Aaa and Aaf are monophyletic and that Aaa evolved in West Africa from an Aaf ancestor.
Sylla, Massamba; Bosio, Christopher; Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Ndiaye, Mady; Black, William C.
Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were found in large numbers emerging from septic tanks in southern Puerto Rico during the dry season. Previous studies suggested that Ae. aegypti uses subterranean aquatic habitats only during dry periods when surface containers do not have water. This research investigated whether septic tanks are alternative aquatic habitats that this mosquito uses during unfavorable times of the year, or whether Ae. aegypti uses this aquatic habitat throughout the year. To assess temporal change, exit traps were used to collect mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks in Playa/Playita, southern Puerto Rico, from November 2006 to October 2007. We also investigated the hypotheses that (1) the production of Ae. aegypti in septic tanks was larger than in surface containers and (2) adult mosquitoes emerging from septic tanks were larger than those emerging from surface containers. This study demonstrated that unsealed septic tanks produced large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the year, without any significant relationship with rainfall. The number of adult Ae. aegypti emerging per day from septic tanks in each community was 3 to 9 times larger than those produced in surface containers. It was also demonstrated that Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks were significantly larger than those emerging from surface container habitats. It is recommended that dengue prevention programs include regular inspection and maintenance of septic tanks in communities lacking sewerage. PMID:20099586
Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Diaz, Annette; Smith, Josh; Barrera, Roberto
AaPV, a denso-like virus isolated from a C6/36 clone of the Aedes albopictus cell line, proved to be very pathogenic for Aedes aegypti first and third instar larvae following per os infection. The mortality reached 90% in 10 days for larvae infected at the first instar. Several factors, such as temperature, larval density and stage, and duration of contact with infectious particles, influenced infection. The virus titer in females surviving infection at the third larval instar reached 10(8) TCID50. Adult mosquitoes were sensitive to virus inoculation and to cytotransfection by viral DNA. Histological and ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of dense nuclei in almost all of the larval tissues with the exception of the midgut. PMID:8931366
Barreau, C; Jousset, F X; Bergoin, M
The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya.
Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J
Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti, which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragme...
J. W. Crim M. R. Brown R. Predel S. Neupert S. F. Garczynski
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UD(MEL), and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference. PMID:24492376
Akbari, Omar S; Papathanos, Philippos A; Sandler, Jeremy E; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.
Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.
Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion.
We report computational simulations for the evolution of the population of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results suggest that controlling the mosquito population, on the basis of intraspecific competition at the larval stage, can be an efficient mechanism for controlling the spread of the epidemic. The results also show the presence of a kind of genetic evolution in vector population, which results mainly in increasing the average lifespan of individuals in adulthood.
Paixão, C. A.; Charret, I. C.; Lima, R. R.
The mosquito immune system is involved in pathogen-elicited defense responses. The NF-?B factors REL1 and REL2 are downstream transcription activators of Toll and IMD immune pathways, respectively. We have used genome-wide microarray analyses to characterize fat-body-specific gene transcript repertoires activated by either REL1 or REL2 in two transgenic strains of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Vitellogenin gene promoter was used in
Zhen Zou; Jayme Souza-Neto; Zhiyong Xi; Vladimir Kokoza; Sang Woon Shin; George Dimopoulos; Alexander Raikhel
Competitive interactions between mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) may depend on environmental conditions. Pesticides may alleviate density-dependent competition for limited food, and a differential species response to sublethal concentrations may modify interspecific competition. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to malathion alters interspecific resource competition between these two species. In the absence of malathion, Ae. aegypti survivorship and per capita rate of population change were negatively affected by increasing densities of Ae. albopictus. However, the asymmetrical negative effect ofAe. albopictus on Ae. aegypti was eliminated in the presence of malathion. In addition, the presence of malathion resulted in shorter development time compared with the controls. The relative importance of pesticide-mediated coexistence in nature has not been evaluated, so its role in mediating coexistence is unclear; however, these findings underscore the potential of environmental concentrations of malathion, and perhaps other pesticides to facilitate coexistence between species. PMID:24843928
Alto, Barry W; Lampman, Richard L; Kesavaraju, Banugopan; Muturi, Ephantus J
Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus .
Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeco, Claudia Torres; Honorio, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip
Two stable infections of Wolbachia pipientis, wMelPop and wMel, now established in Aedes aegypti, are being used in a biocontrol program to suppress the transmission of dengue. Any effects of Wolbachia infection on insecticide resistance of mosquitoes may undermine the success of this program. Bioassays of Ae. aegypti were conducted to test for differences in response to insecticides between Wolbachia infected (wMelPop, wMel) and uninfected lines. Insecticides screened were bifenthrin, the pyrethroid commonly used for adult knockdown, as well as larvicides: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, the organophosphate, temephos and the insect growth regulator, s-methoprene. While differences in response between lines were detected for some insecticides, no obvious or consistent effects related to presence of Wolbachia infection were observed. Spreading Wolbachia infections are, therefore, unlikely to affect the efficacy of traditional chemical control of mosquito outbreaks. PMID:23149015
Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A
Since the reintroduction of Aedes aegypti in the state of São Paulo, in the middle of the 1980-decade, organo- phosphate insecticides are being used to control the dengue vector. In 1996, an annual program for monitoring the susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to the insecticides was implemented. Some of the results of this monitoring program are presented. Ae. aegypti populations from
Maria de Lourdes G Macoris; Maria Teresa M Andrighetti; Luiz Takaku; Carmen M Glasser; Vanessa C Garbeloto; José Eduardo Bracco
West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. Consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact WNV are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node. Macrophages and dendritic cells are critical early responders in host defense against WNV infection, not just because of their role in orchestrating the immune response, but also because of their
Bradley S. Schneider; Lynn Soong; Lark L. Coffey; Heather L. Stevenson; Charles E. McGee; Stephen Higgs; Jane Deng
O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are closely related alphaviruses that cause human disease in Africa and Asia. Like most alphaviruses, CHIKV is vectored by culicine mosquitoes. ONNV is considered unusual as it primarily infects anopheline mosquitoes; however, there are relatively few experimental data to support this. In this study, three strains of ONNV and one strain of CHIKV
DANA L. VANLANDINGHAM; CHAO HONG; KIMBERLY KLINGLER; KONSTANTIN TSETSARKIN; KATE L. MCELROY; ANN M. POWERS; MICHAEL J. LEHANE; STEPHEN HIGGS
A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated in both mosquito strains. The median lethal concentration/median emergency inhibition values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, were: temephos, 3.058 and 6.632 ppb, permethrin, 3.143 and 4.933 ppb, cis-permethrin, 4.457 and 10.068 ppb, trans-permethrin, 1.510 and 3.883 ppb, Bti, 0.655 and 0.880 ppb and pyriproxyfen, 0.00774 and 0.01642 ppb. Ae. albopictus was more tolerant than Ae. aegypti to all six larvicides evaluated. The order of susceptibility for Ae. aegypti was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > temephos > permethrin > cis-permethrin and for Ae. albopictus was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > permethrin > temephos > cis-permethrin. Because both species can be found together in common urban, suburban and rural breeding sites, the results of this work provide baseline data on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to insecticides commonly used for controlling Ae. aegypti in the field. PMID:22241122
Gómez, Andrea; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana
West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. Consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact WNV are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node. Macrophages and dendritic cells are critical early responders in host defense against WNV infection, not just because of their role in orchestrating the immune response, but also because of their importance as sites of early peripheral viral replication. Antigen-presenting cell (APC) signals have a profound effect on host antiviral responses and disease severity. During transmission, WNV is intimately associated with mosquito saliva. Due to the ability of mosquito saliva to affect inflammation and immune responses, and the importance of understanding early events in WNV infection, we investigated whether mosquito saliva alters APC signaling during arbovirus infection, and if alterations in cell recruitment occur when WNV infection is initiated with mosquito saliva. Accordingly, experiments were performed with cultured dendritic cells and macrophages, flow cytometry was used to characterize infiltrating cell types in the skin and lymph nodes during early infection, and real-time RT-PCR was employed to evaluate virus and cytokine levels. Our in vitro results suggest that mosquito saliva significantly decreases the expression of interferon-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages (by as much as 50 and 70%, respectively), whilst transiently enhancing interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression. In vivo results indicate that the predominate effect of mosquito feeding is to significantly reduce the recruitment of T cells, leading the inoculation site of mice exposed to WNV alone to have up to 2.8 fold more t cells as mice infected in the presence of mosquito saliva. These shifts in cell population are associated with significantly elevated IL-10 and WNV (up to 4.0 and 10 fold, respectively) in the skin and draining lymph nodes. These results suggest that mosquito saliva dysregulates APC antiviral signaling, and reveal a possible mechanism for the observed enhancement of WNV disease mediated by mosquito saliva via a reduction of T lymphocyte and antiviral activity at the inoculation site, an elevated abundance of susceptible cell types, and a concomitant increase in immunoregulatory activity of IL-10.
Schneider, Bradley S.; Soong, Lynn; Coffey, Lark L.; Stevenson, Heather L.; McGee, Charles E.; Higgs, Stephen
Aedes aegypti is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases -dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. To identify volatile chemicals which could be used in odour based traps for Aedes mosquito surveillance, a few synthetic compounds and compound blends have been evaluated in an indigenously designed olfactometer. A total of 24 compounds and seven compound blends were screened against unfed adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes for attraction and compared with control group. The attractancy or repellency index of the test material to mosquitoes was calculated and rated them as class-1, class-2 and class-3 with rating values ranging 1-15, 16-33 and 34-100 respectively. Out of the 24 compounds tested, six were showing significant attractancy (P?0.05) and among that 1-octene-3-ol showed maximum attractancy with a rating value of 57.81. Sixteen compounds showed significant repellency (P?0.05) and among that with a rating value of 72.47, 1-hexene-3-ol showed strong repellent action against Ae. aegypti. All the seven blends showed significant mosquito attractancy (P?0.05) and among that with a rating of 62.08 Myristic acid, Lactic acid and CO(2) blend exhibited first-rate mosquito attractancy. PMID:23306388
Mathew, Nisha; Ayyanar, Elango; Shanmugavelu, Sabesan; Muthuswamy, Kalyanasundaram
Many studies of interspecific competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae. aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito larvae consume. We tested whether different detritus types alter the intensity of larval competition by raising 10 different density/species combinations of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti larvae under standard laboratory conditions, with one of four detritus types (oak, pine, grass, or insect) provided as a nutrient base. Intraspecific competitive effects on survival were present with all detritus types. Ae. albopictus survivorship was unaffected by interspecific competition in all treatments. Negative interspecific effects on Ae. aegypti survivorship were present with three of four detritus types, but absent with grass. Estimated finite rate of increase (?’) was lower with pine detritus than with any other detritus type for both species. Furthermore, Ae. aegypti ?’ was negatively affected by high interspecific density in all detritus types except grass. Thus, our experiment confirms competitive asymmetry in favor of Ae. albopictus with oak, pine, or insect detritus, but also demonstrates that certain detritus types may eliminate interspecific competition among the larvae of these species, which may allow for stable coexistence. Such variation in competitive outcome with detritus type may help to account for observed patterns of coexistence/exclusion of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti in the field.
MURRELL, EBONY G.; JULIANO, STEVEN A.
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces insecticidal toxins active against insects. Cry4B, one of the major insecticidal toxins produced by Bt subsp. israelensis, is highly toxic to mosquitoes in the genus Aedes: the major vectors of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Previous work has shown that Cry4B binds to several mid-gut membrane proteins in Aedes aegypti larvae including prohibitin, a protein recently identified as a receptor that also mediates entry of dengue virus into Aedes cells. This study confirms the interaction between Cry4B and prohibitin by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and demonstrates colocalization of prohibitin and Cry4B by confocal microscopy. While activated Cry4B toxin showed high larvicidal activity, it was not cytotoxic to two Aedes cell lines, allowing determination of its effect on dengue virus infectivity in the absence of Cry4B-induced cell lysis. Pre-exposure of Aedes cells to Cry4B resulted in a significant reduction in the number of infected cells compared to untreated cells. PMID:22767320
Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Smith, Duncan R; Berry, Colin
Essential oils extracted from ten plant species were screened for repellency against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three oils; Zanthoxylum piperitum, Anethum graveolens and Kaempferia galanga, exerted protection against A. aegypti, with median complete-protection times of 1, 0.5 and 0.25 h, respectively. The protection times were increased significantly by incorporating 10% vanillin. The highest potential was established from Z. piperitum oil +10% vanillin (2.5 h, range=1-2.5 h). Mixtures from pairs of the effective oils possessed slight repellency that ranged from 0-0.5 h. None of the oil combinations repelled A. aegypti for longer than their constituent oil alone. With vanillin added, however, each oil mixture provided improved protection, which was approximately equal to oil on its own. GC/MS analysis revealed that the main component of Z. piperitum fruit oil was limonene (37.99%), with minor amounts of sabinene (13.30%) and beta-myrcene (7.17%). Repellent testing of stored samples of Z. piperitum fruit oil against A. aegypti demonstrated that repellent activity of those kept at -20 degrees C or 4 degrees C was present for a period of at least 3 months. Therefore, the essential oil of Z. piperitum fruit may prove useful in the development of mosquito repellents as an effective personal protection measure against mosquito bites. PMID:17512681
Choochote, W; Chaithong, U; Kamsuk, K; Jitpakdi, A; Tippawangkosol, P; Tuetun, B; Champakaew, D; Pitasawat, B
Eleven microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic population structure and spread of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Pakistan using mosquitoes collected from 13 different cities. There is a single genetic cluster of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan with a pattern of isolation by distance within the population. The low level of isolation by distance suggests the long-range passive dispersal of this mosquito, which may be facilitated by the tyre trade in Pakistan. A decrease in genetic diversity from south to north suggests a recent spread of this mosquito from Karachi. A strong negative correlation between genetic distance and the quality of road connections shows that populations in cities connected by better road networks are less differentiated, which suggests the human-aided passive dispersal of Ae. aegypti in Pakistan. Dispersal on a large spatial scale may facilitate the strategy of introducing transgenic Ae. aegypti or intracellular bacteria such as Wolbachia to control the spread of dengue disease in Pakistan, but it also emphasizes the need for simple measures to control container breeding sites. PMID:23662926
Rasheed, S B; Boots, M; Frantz, A C; Butlin, R K
The present dengue situation and methods to control Aedes aegypti larvae in Cebu City, Philippines, were evaluated for the development of an integrated community-based dengue control program. The study included the detection of dengue infection among Filipino patients, surveying mosquito breeding sites to determine larval population density of Aedes aegypti, an evaluation of public knowledge, attitude, and personal protection practices against dengue, and an evaluation of the efficacy of VectoBac DT/Culinex Tab tablets based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against Ae. aegypti larvae. Of the 173 human sera samples that were assayed for dengue viruses, 94.9% were positive, 2.2% negative and 2.8% equivocal. Thirty households were randomly chosen per Barangay "Villages" (lowest level of formal local administration). Of the 489 breeding sites surveyed, 29.4% were infested with Ae. aegypti larvae, with discarded tires having the highest infestation rate (69.4%). A survey of people's knowledge, attitude, and practices for integrated community-based dengue control showed that 68.7% of the interviewees were aware that dengue is transmitted by mosquitoes, but only 4.3% knew that a virus was the cause of the disease. The efficacy of one and two tablets of VectoBac DT/Culinex Tab, based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, was assessed against the larvae of Ae. aegypti exposed to sunshine and shaded water containers in semi-field and field tests. In semi-field tests, 100% mortality was achieved until the 18th and 30th day after the application of one and two tablets, respectively, in sun-exposed containers. In shaded containers, 100% mortality was observed until the 30th and 36th day after the application of one and two tablets, respectively. In field tests, the tablets were effective for approximately 3 weeks. PMID:16599163
Mahilum, Milagros M; Ludwig, Mario; Madon, Minoo B; Becker, Norbert
We report key physiological traits that link larval nutritional experience to adult immune status in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae). Many lines of defence make up the innate immune system of mosquitoes. Among defences, the epithelium-lined midgut is the first barrier, circulating haemocytes are cellular components of innate immunity and, when triggered, the Toll and Imd pathways signal production of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) as part of humoral defences. We quantified three lines of defence in Ae. aegypti in response to larval nutritional stress, and our data show that important female immune functions are modified by the larval rearing environment. Adult midgut basal lamina thickness was not affected by larval nutrient stress as has been observed in another Aedes sp. However, nutrient stresses experienced by larvae lead to a reduced number of haemocytes in females. Transcripts of Spaetzle (upstream regulator of Toll pathway that leads to induction of AMPs) and some immune-related genes were less abundant in stressed larvae but showed increased expression in females derived from stressed larvae. Results indicate a potential for compensation by the humoral branch for a reduced cellular branch of innate immunity in adults in response to larval nutrient stress. PMID:22112201
Telang, A; Qayum, A A; Parker, A; Sacchetta, B R; Byrnes, G R
During the rainy season of 2001, the incidence of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus was examined in different habitats of two cities (Rio de Janeiro and Nova Iguaçu) in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and in two cities (Palm Beach and Boca Raton) in Florida. Oviposition trap collections were performed in urban, suburban, and rural habitats in both areas. Our hypothesis that the abundances and frequencies of occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae albopictus are affected in opposite ways by increasing urbanization was only partially supported. City, habitat, and their interaction significantly affected the abundance of both species. Cities with high abundance of Ae. aegypti also had a high abundance of Ae. albopictus. The two species were most abundant in the cities of Rio de Janeiro state and the lowest in Boca Raton. Habitat had a significant but opposite effect on the abundances of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In general, Ae. aegypti was most prevalent in highly urbanized areas and Ae. albopictus in rural, suburban, and vegetated urban areas in Rio de Janeiro state and Florida. However, abundances of the two species were similar in most suburban areas. Analyses of frequencies of occurrence showed an unexpected high level of co-occurrence of both species in the same oviposition trap. Despite the different geographical origins of Ae. albopictus in Brazil and the United States, the habitats used by this recent invader are remarkably similar in the two countries. PMID:14765654
Braks, Marieta A H; Honório, Nildimar A; Lourençqo-De-Oliveira, Ricardo; Juliano, Steven A; Lounibos, L Philip
Attraction of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), CO2, lactic acid, or ammonia emitted by vertebrate hosts is not only contingent on the presence of odorants in the environment, but is also influenced by the insect’s physiological state. For anautogenous mosquito species, like A. aegypti, newly emerged adult females neither respond to host odors nor engage in blood-feeding; the bases for these behaviors are poorly understood. Here we investigated detection of two components of an attractant blend emitted by vertebrate hosts, octenol, and CO2, by female A. aegypti mosquitoes using electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular approaches. An increase in sensitivity of octenol olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) was correlated with an increase in odorant receptor gene (Or) expression and octenol-mediated attractive behavior from day 1 to day 6 post-emergence. While the sensitivity of octenol ORNs was maintained through day 10, behavioral responses to octenol decreased as did the ability of females to discriminate between octenol and octenol?+?CO2. Our results show differing age-related roles for the peripheral receptors for octenol and higher order neural processing in the behavior of female mosquitoes.
Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Durand, Nicolas F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Dickens, Joseph C.
Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue and a number of other diseases worldwide. Because of the domestic nature of this mosquito, the relative importance of macroclimate in shaping its distribution has been a controversial issue. We have captured here the worldwide macroclimatic conditions occupied by A. aegypti in the last century. We assessed the ability of this information to predict the species' observed distribution using supra-continental spatially-uncorrelated data. We further projected the distribution of the colonized climates in the near future (2010-2039) under two climate-change scenarios. Our results indicate that the macroclimate is largely responsible for setting the maximum range limit of A. aegypti worldwide and that in the near future, relatively wide areas beyond this limit will receive macroclimates previously occupied by the species. By comparing our projections, with those from a previous model based strictly on species-climate relationships (i.e., excluding human influence), we also found support for the hypothesis that much of the species' range in temperate and subtropical regions is being sustained by artificial environments. Altogether, these findings suggest that, if the domestic environments commonly exploited by this species are available in the newly suitable areas, its distribution may expand considerably in the near future. PMID:24643859
Capinha, César; Rocha, Jorge; Sousa, Carla A
Attraction of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), CO2, lactic acid, or ammonia emitted by vertebrate hosts is not only contingent on the presence of odorants in the environment, but is also influenced by the insect's physiological state. For anautogenous mosquito species, like A. aegypti, newly emerged adult females neither respond to host odors nor engage in blood-feeding; the bases for these behaviors are poorly understood. Here we investigated detection of two components of an attractant blend emitted by vertebrate hosts, octenol, and CO2, by female A. aegypti mosquitoes using electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular approaches. An increase in sensitivity of octenol olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) was correlated with an increase in odorant receptor gene (Or) expression and octenol-mediated attractive behavior from day 1 to day 6 post-emergence. While the sensitivity of octenol ORNs was maintained through day 10, behavioral responses to octenol decreased as did the ability of females to discriminate between octenol and octenol?+?CO2. Our results show differing age-related roles for the peripheral receptors for octenol and higher order neural processing in the behavior of female mosquitoes. PMID:23471139
Bohbot, Jonathan D; Durand, Nicolas F; Vinyard, Bryan T; Dickens, Joseph C
New mosquito control strategies centred on the modifying of populations require knowledge of existing population densities at release sites and an understanding of breeding site ecology. Using a quantitative pupal survey method, we investigated production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cairns, Queensland, Australia, and found that garden accoutrements represented the most common container type. Deliberately placed 'sentinel' containers were set at seven houses and sampled for pupae over 10 weeks during the wet season. Pupal production was approximately constant; tyres and buckets represented the most productive container types. Sentinel tyres produced the largest female mosquitoes, but were relatively rare in the field survey. We then used field-collected data to make estimates of per premises population density using three different approaches. Estimates of female Ae. aegypti abundance per premises made using the container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) model [95% confidence interval (CI) 18.5-29.1 females] concorded reasonably well with estimates obtained using a standing crop calculation based on pupal collections (95% CI 8.8-22.5) and using BG-Sentinel traps and a sampling rate correction factor (95% CI 6.2-35.2). By first describing local Ae. aegypti productivity, we were able to compare three separate population density estimates which provided similar results. We anticipate that this will provide researchers and health officials with several tools with which to make estimates of population densities. PMID:23205694
Williams, C R; Johnson, P H; Ball, T S; Ritchie, S A
Background The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field. Methods Here we apply generalised additive models to data from 351 published adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus survival experiments in the laboratory to create survival models for each species across their range of viable temperatures. These models are then adjusted to estimate survival at different temperatures in the field using data from 59 Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus field survivorship experiments. The uncertainty at each stage of the modelling process is propagated through to provide confidence intervals around our predictions. Results Our results indicate that adult Ae. albopictus has higher survival than Ae. aegypti in the laboratory and field, however, Ae. aegypti can tolerate a wider range of temperatures. A full breakdown of survival by age and temperature is given for both species. The differences between laboratory and field models also give insight into the relative contributions to mortality from temperature, other environmental factors, and senescence and over what ranges these factors can be important. Conclusions Our results support the importance of producing site-specific mosquito survival estimates. By including fluctuating temperature regimes, our models provide insight into seasonal patterns of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics that may be relevant to seasonal changes in dengue virus transmission. Our models can be integrated with Aedes and dengue modelling efforts to guide and evaluate vector control, better map the distribution of disease and produce early warning systems for dengue epidemics.
The paucity of information concerning mosquito flight ability resulted in experiments designed to estimate some aspects of mosquito flight potential under laboratory conditions. Each day for 6 weeks, eight female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were flown on fli...
W. A. Rowley C. L. Graham
The effects of pyriproxyfen were tested against a local population of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Iquitos, Peru . Bioassays showed that, when applied to late instars, pyriproxyfen prevented adult emergence at extremely low concentrations (LC50= 0.012 ppb). Ther...
A. Orellana-Rios E. Zamora-Perea J. D. Stancil M. Sihuincha V. Lopez-sifuentes
Larval competition is common in container-breeding mosquitoes. The impact of competition on larval growth has been thoroughly examined and findings that larval competition can lead to density-dependent effects on adult body size have been documented. The effects of larval competition on adult longevity have been less well explored. The effects of intraspecific larval densities on the longevity of adults maintained under relatively harsh environmental conditions were tested in the laboratory by measuring the longevity of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) that had been reared under a range of larval densities and subsequently maintained in high- or low-humidity regimes (85% or 35% relative humidity [RH], respectively) as adults. We found significant negative effects of competition on adult longevity in Ae. aegypti, but not in Ae. albopictus. Multivariate analysis of variance suggested that the negative effect of the larval environment on the longevity of Ae. aegypti adults was most strongly associated with increased development time and decreased wing length as adults. Understanding how larval competition affects adult longevity under a range of environmental conditions is important in establishing the relationship between models of mosquito population regulation and epidemiological models of vector-borne disease transmission.
LOUNIBOS, L. P.
The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquito...
A. Pongsiri A. Ponlawat P. W. McCardle S. Kurusarttra T. Fansiri
Sindbis virus expression vectors have been used successfully to express and silence genes of interest in vivo in several mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. triseriatus,Culex pipiens, Armigeres subalbatus and Anopheles gambiae. Here we describe the expression of an endogenous gene, defensin, in Ae. aegypti using the orally infectious Sindbis virus, MRE/3?2J expression vector. We optimized conditions to infect mosquito larvae per os using C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells infected with the recombinant virus to maximize virus infection and expression of defensin. Infection with the parental Sindbis virus (MRE/3?2J) did not induce defensin expression. Mosquito larvae infected by ingestion of recombinant Sindbis virus-infected C6/36 cells expressed defensin when they emerged as adults. Defensin expression was observed by western analysis or indirect fluorescent assay in all developmental stages of mosquitoes infected with MRE/3?2J virus that contained the defensin insert. The multiplicity of infection of C6/36 cells and the quantity of infected cells consumed by larvae played an important role in defensin expression. Parental viruses, missing the defensin insert, and/or other defective interfering virus may have contributed to these observations.
Cheng, L.L.; Bartholomay, L.C.; Olson, K.E.; Lowenberger, C.; Vizioli, J.; Higgs, S.; Beaty, B.J.; Christensen, B.M.
Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that inhibits RNAi, to determine the effects of linking arbovirus infection with RNAi inhibition. Results B2 protein expression from SINV (TE/3'2J) inhibited the accumulation of non-specific small RNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cell culture and virus-specific small RNAs both in infected cell culture and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. Following infectious oral bloodmeal, significantly more mosquitoes died when TE/3'2J/B2 was ingested. The virus was 100% lethal following intrathoracic inoculation of multiple mosquito species and lethality was dose-dependent in Ae. aegypti. Conclusion We show that RNAi is active in Ae. aegypti cell culture and that B2 protein inhibits RNAi in mosquito cells when expressed by a recombinant SINV. Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. Finally, TE/3'2J/B2 kills mosquitoes in a dose-dependent manner independent of infection route and mosquito species.
One hundred ninety hexanic and ethanolic extract from 27 plant species from the Cerrado biome of Brazil were tested for larvicidal activity against 3rd-stage Aedes aegypti larvae at 500 microg/ml. Fourteen extracts from 7 species showed activity (>65% mortality) against the larvae. Of these Dugeutia furfuracea, Piptocarpha rotundifolia, Casearia sylvestris var. lingua, Serjania lethalis, and Xylopia aromatica were active at 56.6, 162.31, 232.4, 285.76, and 384.37 microg/ml, respectively. Annona crassiflora and Cybistax antisyphilitica showed activity at 23.06 and 27.61 microg/ml. The larvicidal properties of these species are described for the first time, and may prove to be promising in active chemical compound isolation. PMID:17019779
Rodrigues, A M S; De Paula, J E; Degallier, N; Molez, J E; Espindola, L S
The Grand Cayman population of Aedes aegypti is highly resistant to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Glutathione transferase, cytochrome P450, and esterase levels were increased in the Grand Cayman population relative to a susceptible laboratory strain, but synergist studies did not implicate elevated insecticide detoxification as a major cause of resistance. The role of target site resistance was therefore investigated. Two substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel were identified, V1016I in domain II, segment 6 (IIS6) (allele frequency = 0.79) and F1534C in IIIS6 (allele frequency = 0.68). The role of the F1534C mutation in conferring resistance to insecticides has not been previously established and so a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction assay was designed and used to genotype mosquitoes that had been exposed to insecticides. The F1534C mutation was strongly correlated with resistance to DDT and permethrin.
Harris, Angela F.; Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Ranson, Hilary
We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010–2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small, rural communities (<6,000 inhabitants) in the north-central part of Yucatán State. These new collection records for Ae. cozumelensis demonstrate that this mosquito has a far broader geographic range in the Yucatán Peninsula than previously known. Ae. cozumelensis immatures were collected from both residential premises and cemeteries, with specimens recovered from rock holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México’s Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur.
Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Lopez-Uribe, Mildred P.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; Lopez-Uribe, Genny M.; Coba-Tun, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black IV, William C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars
Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.
Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru
Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units. PMID:24551965
Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan
The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251
Hugo, Leon E; Jeffery, Jason A L; Trewin, Brendan J; Wockner, Leesa F; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Nguyen, Hoang Le; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H
The objective of this study was to develop a herbal formulation to control dengue vector mosquitoes. PONNEEM, a novel herbal formulation prepared using the oils of neem (Azadirachta indica), karanj (Pongamia glabra) and their extracts, was tested for larvicidal, ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at 1, 0.5, 0.3 and 0.1 ppm concentrations. Cent percent larvicidal and ovicidal activities were observed at 0.1 ppm in the two mosquito species under laboratory and sunlight-exposed conditions up to 12 months from the date of manufacture. Oviposition deterrent activity of 69.97% and 71.05% was observed at 1 ppm concentration of PONNEEM against A. aegypti and A. albopictus, respectively. Reduction in enzyme levels for ?-esterase was 0.089 ± 0.008 and 0.099 ± 0.140 ?g napthol produced/min/mg larval protein; for ?-esterase, it was 0.004 ± 0.009 and 0.001 ± 0.028 ?g napthol produced/min/mg larval protein; for glutathione S-transferase, it was 10.4814 ± 0.23 and 11.4811 ± 0.21 ?mol/min/mg larval protein and for total protein, it was 0.177 ± 0.010 and 0.008 ± 0.005 mg/individual larva in treated groups of A. aegypti and A. albopictus, respectively. The nontarget organisms such as Gambusia affinis and Diplonychus indicus were not affected. No mortality was observed in control. PONNEEM can be used effectively for the management of human vector mosquitoes. PMID:22042505
Maheswaran, Rajan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu
BackgroundThe yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for the viruses that cause yellow fever, mostly in tropical regions of Africa and in parts of South America, and human dengue, which infects 100 million people yearly in the tropics and subtropics. A better understanding of the structural biology of olfactory proteins may pave the way for the development
Ney Ribeiro Leite; Renata Krogh; Wei Xu; Yuko Ishida; Jorge Iulek; Walter S. Leal; Glaucius Oliva; Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira
We examined the potential added risk posed by global climate change on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti abundance using CLIMEX, a powerful tool for exploring the relationship between the fundamental and realised niche of any species. After calibrating the model using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records, we estimated potential distributions of the mosquito under current and future potential scenarios. The impact of climate change on its potential distribution was assessed with two global climate models, the CSIRO-Mk3.0 and the MIROC-H, run with two potential, future emission scenarios (A1B and A2) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compared today's climate situation with two arbitrarily chosen future time points (2030 and 2070) to see the impact on the worldwide distribution of A. aegypti . The model for the current global climate indicated favourable areas for the mosquito within its known distribution in tropical and subtropical areas. However, even if much of the tropics and subtropics will continue to be suitable, the climatically favourable areas for A. aegypti globally are projected to contract under the future scenarios produced by these models, while currently unfavourable areas, such as inland Australia, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Iran and some parts of North America may become climatically favourable for this mosquito species. The climate models for the Aedes dengue vector presented here should be useful for management purposes as they can be adapted for decision/making regarding allocation of resources for dengue risk toward areas where risk infection remains and away from areas where climatic suitability is likely to decrease in the future. PMID:24893017
Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit
Exposure to vectors of infectious diseases has been associated with antibody responses against salivary antigens of arthropods among people living in endemic areas. This immune response has been proposed as a surrogate marker of exposure to vectors appropriate for evaluating the protective efficacy of antivectorial devices. The existence and potential use of such antibody responses in travellers transiently exposed to Plasmodium or arbovirus vectors in tropical areas has never been investigated. The IgM and IgG antibody responses of 88 French soldiers against the saliva of Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti were evaluated before and after a 5-month journey in tropical Africa. Antibody responses against Anopheles and Aedes saliva increased significantly in 41% and 15% of the individuals, respectively, and appeared to be specific to the mosquito genus. A proteomic and immunoproteomic analysis of anopheles and Aedes saliva allowed for the identification of some antigens that were recognized by most of the exposed individuals. These results suggest that antibody responses to the saliva of mosquitoes could be considered as specific surrogate markers of exposure of travellers to mosquito vectors that transmit arthropod borne infections. PMID:17913537
Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Almeras, Lionel; Denis de Senneville, Laure; Barbe, Solenne; Remoué, Franck; Villard, Claude; Cornelie, Sylvie; Penhoat, Kristell; Pascual, Aurélie; Bourgouin, Catherine; Fontenille, Didier; Bonnet, Julien; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Reiter, Paul; Pagés, Frederic; Laffite, Daniel; Boulanger, Denis; Simondon, François; Pradines, Bruno; Fusaï, Thierry; Rogier, Christophe
We evaluated the potential of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans, and two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes taeniorhynchus, to transmit Bacillus anthracis Vollum 1B mechanically. After probing on Hartley guinea pigs with a bacteremia of ca. 10(8.6) CFU of B. anthracis per ml of blood, individual or pools of two to four stable flies or mosquitoes were allowed to continue feeding on either uninfected guinea pigs or A/J mice. All three insect species transmitted lethal anthrax infections to both guinea pigs and mice. Both stable flies and mosquitoes transmitted anthrax, even when they were held at room temperature for 4 h after exposure to the bacteremic guinea pig before being allowed to continue feeding on the susceptible animals. This study confirms that blood-feeding insects can mechanically transmit anthrax and supports recent anecdotal reports of fly-bite-associated cutaneous human anthrax. The potential for flies to mechanically transmit anthrax suggests that fly control should be considered as part of a program for control of epizootic anthrax.
Turell, M J; Knudson, G B
Transposons are used in insect science as genetic tools that enable the transformation of insects and the identification and isolation of genes though their ability to insert in or near to them. Four transposons, piggyBac, Mos1, Hermes and Minos are commonly used in insects beyond Drosophila melanogaster with piggyBac, due to its wide host range and frequency of transposition, being the most commonly chosen. The utility of these transposons as genetic tools is directly proportional to their activity since higher transposition rates would be expected to lead to higher transformation frequencies and higher frequencies of insertion throughout the genome. As a consequence there is an ongoing need for hyperactive transposases for use in insect genetics, however these have proven difficult to obtain. IPB7 is a hyperactive mutant of the piggyBac transposase that was identified by a genetic screen performed in yeast, a mammalian codon optimized version of which was then found to be highly active in rodent embryonic stem cells with no apparent deleterious effects. Here we report the activity of IPB7 in D. melanogaster and the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Somatic transposition assays revealed an increase in IPB7's transposition rate from wild-type piggyBac transposase in D. melanogaster but not Ae. aegypti. However the use of IPB7 in D. melanogaster genetic transformations produced a high rate of sterility and a low transformation rate compared to wild-type transposase. This high rate of sterility was accompanied by significant gonadal atrophy that was also observed in the absence of the piggyBac vector transposon. We conclude that IPB7 has increased activity in the D. melanogaster germ-line but that a component of the sterility associated with its activity is independent of the presence of the piggyBac transposon. PMID:23835045
Wright, Jennifer A; Smith, Ryan C; Li, Xianghong; Craig, Nancy L; Atkinson, Peter W
The leaf extract of Cassia fistula with different solvens viz, methanol, benzene and acetone were studied for the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity against Aedes aegypti. The extract exhibited dose dependent activity and produced significant mortality. The 24 h LC50 concentration of the extract against Aedes aegypti were observed at 10.69, 18.27 and 23.95 mg/l respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120.00 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The crude extract of Cassia fistula shows significant repellency against Aedes aegypti. These results clearly reveal that the crude extract of Cassia fistula served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent agent against chikungunya vector mosquito, PMID:19499844
Background Several studies have shown that American genotype dengue 2 viruses (DENV2) have reduced viral fitness in the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, compared to other DENV2 genotypes. Diminished replication efficiency or inability to efficiently traverse membrane barriers encompassing organs such as the midgut or salivary glands are considered major factors negatively impacting viral fitness in the mosquito. Results We analyzed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti for two American DENV2 strains, QR94 and PR159 originating from Mexico and Puerto-Rico, respectively. Both strains infected mosquito midguts following acquisition of infectious bloodmeals. However, DENV2-QR94 and DENV2-PR159 poorly disseminated from the midgut at 7 or 14 days post-bloodmeal (pbm). We detected one virus isolate, EM33, among 31 DENV2-QR94 infected mosquitoes, and one isolate, EM41, among 121 DENV2-PR159 infected mosquitoes, generating high virus titers in mosquito carcasses at 7 days pbm. In oral challenge experiments, EM33 and EM41 showed midgut dissemination rates of 40-50%. Replication efficiency of EM41 in secondary mosquito tissue was similar to that of a dissemination-competent control strain, whereas the replication efficiency of EM33 was significantly lower than that of the control virus. The genome sequence of DENV2-QR94 encoded seven unique amino acids (aa), which were not found in 100 of the most closely related DENV2 strains. EM33 had one additional aa change, E202K, in the E protein. DENV2-PR159 encoded four unique aa residues, one of them E202K, whereas EM41 had two additional aa substitutions, Q77E in the E protein and E93D in NS3. Conclusions Our results indicate that the midgut of Ae. aegypti acts as a selective sieve for DENV2 in which genetically distinct, dissemination-competent virus variants are rapidly selected from the viral quasispecies to be transmitted to vertebrates.
The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinal plants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plant extracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,
G Ciccia; J Coussio; E Mongelli
Studies of transcriptome dynamics provide a basis for understanding functional elements of the genome and the complexity of gene regulation. The dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, exhibits great adaptability to diverse ecological conditions, is phenotypically polymorphic, and shows variation in vectorial capacity to arboviruses. Previous genome sequencing showed richness in repetitive DNA and transposable elements that can contribute to genome plasticity. Population genetic studies revealed a varying degree of worldwide genetic polymorphism. However, the extent of functional genetic polymorphism across strains is unknown. The transcriptomes of three Ae. aegypti strains, Chetumal (CTM), Rexville D-Puerto Rico (Rex-D) and Liverpool (LVP), were compared. CTM is more susceptible than Rex- D to infection by dengue virus serotype 2. A total of 4188 transcripts exhibit either no or small variation (<2-fold) among sugar-fed samples of the three strains and between sugar- and blood-fed samples within each strain, corresponding most likely to genes encoding products necessary for vital functions. Transcripts enriched in blood-fed mosquitoes encode proteins associated with catalytic activities, molecular transport, metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids, and functions related to blood digestion and the progression of the gonotropic cycle. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were found in individual transcripts among strains including differential representation of paralogous gene products. The majority of immunity-associated transcripts decreased in accumulation after a bloodmeal and the results are discussed in relation to the different susceptibility of CTM and Rex-D mosquitoes to DENV2 infection. PMID:22384387
Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dunn, W Augustine; Campbell, Corey L; Olson, Ken E; Marinotti, Osvaldo; James, Anthony A
Studies of transcriptome dynamics provide a basis for understanding functional elements of the genome and the complexity of gene regulation. The dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, exhibits great adaptability to diverse ecological conditions, is phenotypically polymorphic, and shows variation in vectorial capacity to arboviruses. Previous genome sequencing showed richness in repetitive DNA and transposable elements that can contribute to genome plasticity. Population genetic studies revealed a varying degree of worldwide genetic polymorphism. However, the extent of functional genetic polymorphism across strains is unknown. The transcriptomes of three Ae. aegypti strains, Chetumal (CTM), Rexville D-Puerto Rico (Rex-D) and Liverpool (LVP), were compared. CTM is more susceptible than Rex- D to infection by dengue virus serotype 2. A total of 4188 transcripts exhibit either no or small variation (<2-fold) among sugar-fed samples of the three strains and between sugar- and blood-fed samples within each strain, corresponding most likely to genes encoding products necessary for vital functions. Transcripts enriched in blood-fed mosquitoes encode proteins associated with catalytic activities, molecular transport, metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids, and functions related to blood digestion and the progression of the gonotropic cycle. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were found in individual transcripts among strains including differential representation of paralogous gene products. The majority of immunity-associated transcripts decreased in accumulation after a bloodmeal and the results are discussed in relation to the different susceptibility of CTM and Rex-D mosquitoes to DENV2 infection.
Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dunn, W. Augustine; Campbell, Corey L.; Olson, Ken E.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; James, Anthony A.
Background Aedes aegypti is extensively spread throughout South America where it has been responsible for large dengue epidemics during the last decades. Intriguingly, dengue transmission has not been reported in Uruguay and is essentially prevalent in subtropical northern Argentina which borders Uruguay. Methods We assessed vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) of Ae. aegypti populations collected in subtropical Argentina (Corrientes) as well as temperate Uruguay (Salto) and Argentina (Buenos Aires) in 2012 using experimental oral infections with DENV-2. Mosquitoes were incubated at 28°C and examined at 14 and 21 days p.i. to access viral dissemination and transmission. Batches of the Buenos Aires mosquitoes were also incubated at 15°C and 20°C. Results Although mosquitoes from temperate Uruguay and Argentina were competent to transmit DENV, those from subtropical Argentina were more susceptible, displaying the highest virus titters in the head and presenting the highest dissemination of infection and transmission efficiency rates when incubated at 28°C. Interestingly, infectious viral particles could be detected in saliva of mosquitoes from Buenos Aires exposed to 15°C and 20°C. Conclusions There is a potential risk of establishing DENV transmission in Uruguay and for the spread of dengue outbreaks to other parts of subtropical and temperate Argentina, notably during spring and summer periods.
The utilization of detritus sources by mosquito larvae during development may significantly affect adult life history traits and mosquito population growth. Many studies have shown invertebrate carcasses to be an important detritus source in larval habitats, but little is known regarding how invertebrate carcasses are utilized by mosquito larvae. We conducted two studies to investigate the rate of detritus consumption and its effect on larval development and life history traits. Overall, we found that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae rapidly consumed larval detritus, while pupal detritus was consumed at a significantly slower rate. We also found that the consumption of larval detritus significantly increased larval survivorship and decreased male development time but did not significantly influence female development time or pupal cephalothorax length for either sex. Our results suggest that the direct consumption of larval detritus can support the production of adults in larval habitats that lack allochthonous detritus inputs or where such organic inputs are insufficient. These studies indicate that different forms of invertebrate detritus are utilized in distinct ways by mosquito larvae, and therefore different forms of invertebrate detritus may have distinct effects on larval development and adult life history traits. PMID:24820554
Bara, J J; Clark, T M; Remold, S K
Background Laser microdissection microscopy (LMM) has potential as a research tool because it allows precise excision of target tissues or cells from a complex biological specimen, and facilitates tissue-specific sample preparation. However, this method has not been used in mosquito vectors to date. To this end, we have developed an LMM method to isolate midgut RNA using Aedes aegypti. Results Total RNA was isolated from Ae. aegypti midguts that were either fresh-frozen or fixed with histological fixatives. Generally, fresh-frozen tissue sections are a common source of quality LMM-derived RNA; however, our aim was to develop an LMM protocol that could inactivate pathogenic viruses by fixation, while simultaneously preserving RNA from arbovirus-infected mosquitoes. Three groups (10 - 15 mosquitoes per group) of female Ae. aegypti at 24 or 48-hours post-blood meal were intrathoracically injected with one of seven common fixatives (Bouin's, Carnoy's, Formoy's, Cal-Rite, 4% formalin, 10% neutral buffered formalin, or zinc formalin) to evaluate their effect on RNA quality. Total RNA was isolated from the fixed abdomens using a Trizol® method. The results indicated that RNA from Carnoy's and Bouin's fixative samples was comparable to that of fresh frozen midguts (control) in duplicate experiments. When Carnoy's and Bouin's were used to fix the midguts for the LMM procedure, however, Carnoy's-fixed RNA clearly showed much less degradation than Bouin's-fixed RNA. In addition, a sample of 5 randomly chosen transcripts were amplified more efficiently using the Carnoy's treated LMM RNA than Bouin's-fixed RNA in quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, suggesting there were more intact target mRNAs in the Carnoy's fixed RNA. The yields of total RNA ranged from 0.3 to 19.0 ng per ~3.0 × 106 ?m2 in the LMM procedure. Conclusions Carnoy's fixative was found to be highly compatible with LMM, producing high quality RNA from Ae. aegypti midguts while inactivating viral pathogens. Our findings suggest that LMM in conjunction with Carnoy's fixation can be applied to studies in Ae. aegypti infected with arboviruses without compromising biosafety and RNA quality. This LMM method should be applicable to other mosquito vector studies.
Background Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose–response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99?=?3.95??g/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28??g/L; EI90= 12.47??g/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59??g/L; EI90= 2.63??g/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they point to the need of constant monitoring of the susceptibility status of vector populations to CSIs.
Background Resistance to chemical insecticides plus high morbidity rates have lead to rising interest in fungi as candidates for biocontrol agents of mosquito vectors. In most studies fungal infections have been induced by exposure of mosquitoes to various surfaces treated with conidia. In the present study eight Mexican strains of Beauveria bassiana were assessed against Aedes aegypti by direct exposure of females to 6 × 108 conidia ml -1 on a filter paper, afterwards, the transmission of the least and most virulent isolates was evaluated by mating behavior from virgin, fungus-contaminated male to females, to examine this ethological pattern as a new approach to deliver conidia against the dengue vector. Methods In an exposure chamber with a filter paper impregnated with 6 × 108 conidia ml -1 of the least and most virulent strains of B. bassiana, 6-8 day old males of A. aegypti were exposed for 48 hours, and then transferred individually (each one was a replicate) to another chamber and confined with twenty healthy females of the same age. Clean males were used in controls. Survival, infection by true mating (insemination) or by mating attempts (no insemination) and fecundity were daily registered until the death of last female. Data analysis was conducted with proc glm for unbalanced experiments and means were separated with the Ryan test with SAS. Results All strains were highly virulent with LT50 ranging from 2.70 (± 0.29) to 5.33 (± 0.53) days. However the most (Bb-CBG2) and least virulent (Bb-CBG4) isolates were also transmitted by mating behavior; both killed 78-90% of females in 15 days after being confined with males that had previously been exposed for 48 hours to fungi. Of these mortality rates, 23 and 38% respectively, were infections acquired by copulations where insemination occurred. The LT50 for sexually-infected females were 7.92 (± 0.46) and 8.82 (± 0.45) days for both strains, while the one in control was 13.92 (± 0.58). Likewise, fecundity decreased by 95% and 60% for both Bb-CBG2 and Bb-CBG4 isolates in comparison with control. The role of mating attempts in this delivery procedure of B. bassiana is discussed. Conclusions This is the first report about transmission of B. bassiana by mating behavior from virgin, fungus-contaminated males to females in A. aegypti. Fungal infections acquired by this route (autodissemination) infringed high mortality rates (90%) in mated or approached females. However, prior to releasing virgin, fungus-contaminated males to spread B. basasiana among females of A. aegypti, this novel alternative needs further investigations.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue, one of the most devastating arthropod-borne viral infections in humans. The isoform specific A/B region, called the N-terminal domain (NTD), is hypervariable in sequence and length and is poorly conserved within the Ultraspiracle (Usp) family. The Usp protein together with ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) forms a heterodimeric complex. Up until now, there has been little data on the molecular properties of the isolated Usp-NTD. Here, we describe the biochemical and biophysical properties of the recombinant NTD of the Usp isoform B (aaUsp-NTD) from A. aegypti. These results, in combination with in silico bioinformatics approaches, indicate that aaUsp-NTD exhibits properties of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP). We also present the first experimental evidence describing the dimerization propensity of the isolated NTD of Usp. These characteristics also appear for other members of the Usp family in different species, for example, in the Usp-NTD from Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori. However, aaUsp-NTD exhibits the strongest homodimerization potential. We postulate that the unique dimerization of the NTD might be important for Usp function by providing an additional platform for interactions, in addition to the nuclear receptor superfamily dimerization via DNA binding domains and ligand binding domains that has already been extensively documented. Furthermore, the unique NTD-NTD interaction that was observed might contribute new insight into the dimerization propensities of nuclear receptors. PMID:24704038
Pieprzyk, Joanna; Zbela, Agnieszka; Jakób, Micha?; O?yhar, Andrzej; Or?owski, Marek
The passage of tracers of various molecular weights into resting and vitellogenic ovarian follicles of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was studied ultrastructurally. The outermost layer of the follicular sheath (the basement lamina) is a coarse mechanical filter. It is freely permeable to particles with molecular weights ranging from 12,000 to 500,000 (i.e. cytochrome c, peroxidase, hemoglobin, catalase, ferritin, immunoglobulin (IgG)-peroxidase, iron dextran and Thorotrast) that have dimensions less than 110 A. Molecules as large as carbon (300-500 A) are totally excluded. Whereas proteins and polysaccharide tracers permeate the basement lamina with apparent ease, certain inert particles (e.g. Thorotrast, Fellows-Testager Div., Fellows Mfg. Co., Inc., Detroit, Mich.) penetrate more slowly. With respect to the tracers tested, resting follicles are as permeable as vitellogenic follicles. The follicle epithelium of resting or vitellogenic follicles is penetrated by narrow intercellular channels. Our observations suggest that these spaces are lined with mucopolysaccharide material. After permeating the basement lamina, exogenous tracers fill these channels, while the bulk of material accumulates in the perioocytic space. Within 3 hr after imbibing blood, the pinocytotic mechanism of the oocyte is greatly augmented. Pinocytosis is not selective with regard to material in the perioocytic space, since double tracer studies show that exogenous compounds are not separated, but are incorporated into the same pinocytotic vesicle. During later stages of vitellogenesis, 36-48 hr after the blood-meal, the pinocytotic mechanism of the oocyte is diminished. Simultaneously, the intercellular channels become occluded by desmosomes, and the vitelline membrane plaques separate the oocyte and follicle epithelium. PMID:4104968
Anderson, W A; Spielman, A
Mosquitoes are unique in having evolved two alanine glyoxylate aminotransferases (AGTs). One is 3-hydroxykynurenine transaminase (HKT), which is primarily responsible for catalyzing the transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) to xanthurenic acid (XA). Interestingly, XA is used by malaria parasites as a chemical trigger for their development within the mosquito. This 3-HK to XA conversion is considered the major mechanism mosquitoes use to detoxify the chemically reactive and potentially toxic 3-HK. The other AGT is a typical dipteran insect AGT and is specific for converting glyoxylic acid to glycine. Here we report the 1.75A high-resolution three-dimensional crystal structure of AGT from the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AeAGT) and structures of its complexes with reactants glyoxylic acid and alanine at 1.75 and 2.1A resolution, respectively. This is the first time that the three-dimensional crystal structures of an AGT with its amino acceptor, glyoxylic acid, and amino donor, alanine, have been determined. The protein is dimeric and adopts the type I-fold of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP)-dependent aminotransferases. The PLP co-factor is covalently bound to the active site in the crystal structure, and its binding site is similar to those of other AGTs. The comparison of the AeAGT-glyoxylic acid structure with other AGT structures revealed that these glyoxylic acid binding residues are conserved in most AGTs. Comparison of the AeAGT-alanine structure with that of the Anopheles HKT-inhibitor complex suggests that a Ser-Asn-Phe motif in the latter may be responsible for the substrate specificity of HKT enzymes for 3-HK. PMID:16990263
Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Gao, Yi Gui; Vogelaar, Nancy; Wilson, Scott R; Rizzi, Menico; Li, Jianyong
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Use of insecticides is one of the primary ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito c...
D. A. Strickman G. G. Clark J. J. Becnel J. W. Pridgeon L. Zhao
Cytochrome c is a highly conserved protein that is found in many multicellular and unicellular organisms. Cytochrome c is a critical intermediate in apoptosis: a controlled form of cell death that kills cells as part of their natural process of development and in response to environmental condition. To detect whether cytochrome c of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (AeaCytC) is
Liming Zhao; Julia W. Pridgeon; James J. Becnel; Gary G. Clark; Kenneth J. Linthicum
A finding of vertical transmission of the DEN 3 virus in male specimens of Aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in Puerto Iguazú city, Misiones, Argentina, using the RT-PCR technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. This result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of Argentina's northeast border.
Espinosa, Manuel; Giamperetti, Sergio; Abril, Marcelo; Seijo, Alfredo
Seeking an alternative approach for producing a larvicidal product from Balanites aegyptiaca plants, callus was produced from in vitro cultures of root explants and its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae was evaluated. Concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 1500ppm of saponins from the root-derived callus of B. aegyptiaca were used to determine larvicidal effects and consequent
Bishnu P. Chapagain; Vinod Saharan; Zeev Wiesman
BackgroundThe mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins
Lisa L. Drake; Dmitri Y. Boudko; Osvaldo Marinotti; Victoria K. Carpenter; Angus L. Dawe; Immo A. Hansen; Pedro Lagerblad Oliveira
The effects of pyriproxyfen were tested against a local population of Aedes aegypti (L.) in Iquitos, Peru´ . Bioassays showed that, when applied to late instars, pyriproxyfen prevented adult emergence at extremely low concentrations (LC50 0.012 ppb). There was no adult emergence from water sampled from storage tanks that had been seeded with the equivalent of 50 Ð 83 ppb
Moisés Sihuincha; Elvira Zamora-perea; Wagner Orellana-rios; Jeffrey D. Stancil; Victor López-sifuentes; Carlos Vidal-oré; Gregor J. Devine
Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of Aedes aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for Aedes aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of Aedes aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical.
Hemme, Ryan R.; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D.; Severson, David W.
As part of a larger research program evaluating chemical threshold levels for a Push-Pull intervention to reduce man-vector (Aedes aegypti) contact, this qualitative study explored local perceptions and strategies associated with mosquito control within d...
A. C. Morrison E. J. Rios-Lopez K. Mundal V. Plasai V. A. Paz-Soldan
To access the relative potency of pesticides to control adult mosquitoes, 19 pesticides with various modes of action were evaluated against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values afte...
G. G. Clark J. J. Becnel J. W. Pridgeon R. M. Pereira S. A. Allan
The endosymbiont Wolbachia represents a promising method of dengue control, as it reduces the ability of the primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, to transmit viruses. When mosquitoes infected with the virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop are fed non-human blood, there is a drastic reduction in mosquito fecundity and egg viability. Wolbachia has a reduced genome and is clearly dependent on its host for a wide range of nutritional needs. The fitness defects seen in wMelPop-infected A. aegypti could be explained by competition between the mosquito and the symbiont for essential blood meal nutrients, the profiles of which are suboptimal in non-human blood. Here, we examine cholesterol and amino acids as candidate molecules for competition, as they have critical roles in egg structural development and are known to vary between blood sources. We found that Wolbachia infection reduces total cholesterol levels in mosquitoes by 15-25%. We then showed that cholesterol supplementation of a rat blood meal did not improve fecundity or egg viability deficits. Conversely, amino acid supplementation of sucrose before and after a sheep blood meal led to statistically significant increases in fecundity of approximately 15-20 eggs per female and egg viability of 30-40%. This mosquito system provides the first empirical evidence of competition between Wolbachia and a host over amino acids and may suggest a general feature of Wolbachia-insect associations. These competitive processes could affect many aspects of host physiology and potentially mosquito fitness, a key concern for Wolbachia-based mosquito biocontrol. PMID:24337107
Caragata, Eric P; Rancès, Edwige; O'Neill, Scott L; McGraw, Elizabeth A
Background Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is a threat for public health worldwide and its primary vector Aedes aegypti is becoming resistant to chemical insecticides. These factors have encouraged studies to evaluate entomopathogenic fungi against the vector. Here we evaluated mortality, infection, insemination and fecundity rates in A. aegypti females after infection by autodissemination with two Mexican strains of Metarhizium anisopliae. Methods Two M. anisopliae strains were tested: The Ma-CBG-1 least virulent (lv), and the Ma-CBG-2 highly virulent (hv) strain. The lv was tested as non mosquito-passed (NMP), and mosquito-passed (MP), while the hv was examined only as MP version, therefore including the control four treatments were used. In the first bioassay virulence of fungal strains towards female mosquitoes was determined by indirect exposure for 48 hours to conidia-impregnated paper. In the second bioassay autodissemination of fungal conidia from fungus-contaminated males to females was evaluated. Daily mortality allowed computation of survival curves and calculation of the LT50 by the Kaplan-Meier model. All combinations of fungal sporulation and mating insemination across the four treatments were analyzed by ?2. The mean fecundity was analyzed by ANOVA and means contrasted with the Ryan test. Results Indirect exposure to conidia allowed a faster rate of mortality, but exposure to a fungal-contaminated male was also an effective method of infecting female mosquitoes. All females confined with the hv strain-contaminated male died in fifteen days with a LT50 of 7.57 (± 0.45) where the control was 24.82 (± 0.92). For the lv strain, it was possible to increase fungal virulence by passing the strain through mosquitoes. 85% of females exposed to hv-contaminated males became infected and of them just 10% were inseminated; control insemination was 46%. The hv strain reduced fecundity by up to 99%, and the lv strain caused a 40% reduction in fecundity. Conclusions The hv isolate infringed a high mortality, allowed a low rate of insemination, and reduced fecundity to nearly zero in females confined with a fungus-contaminated male. This pathogenic impact exerted through sexual transmission makes the hv strain of M. anisopliae worthy of further research.
Most Aedes aegypti dispersal studies have focused on females because of their central role in dengue virus transmission. Only a few mark-release-recapture (MRR) studies provided insights into male Ae. aegypti dispersal. To fill this knowledge gap, we conducted five male Ae. aegypti MRR experiments in a coastal village in southern Mexico. Small and large male cohorts were marked with fluorescent dusts, released outside buildings, and recaptures were carried out by using backpack aspirators. Recapture rates ranged between 0.35% and 6.55% and median distance traveled was 12–166 meters. A statistically significant difference in median distance traveled with large males dispersing farther than small ones was detected only in one experiment (MRR5: U = 3.5, P < 0.01). Male dispersal data will be useful for constructing and estimating parameter values and validating models that will be used to plan the most effective release strategies for genetically modified male Ae. aegypti.
Valerio, Laura; Facchinelli, Luca; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main urban vector responsible for the transmission of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, is located at the southern end of the world distribution of the species. The population abundance of Ae. aegypti is mainly regulated by environmental factors. We calculated the potential number of times that a female could lay eggs during its mean life expectancy, based on potential egg production and daily meteorological records. The model considers those variables implying physical hazard to the survival of Ae. aegypti, mosquito flying activity and oviposition. The results, obtained after calibration and validation of the model with field observations, show significant correlation (P<0.001) for different lags depending on the life stage. From these results, more favorable atmospheric conditions for Ae. aegypti reproduction (linked to the urban climatic change) can be observed. The climatic variability in the last decade resembles conditions at the end of 19th century.
de Garín, A.; Bejarán, R. A.; Carbajo, A. E.; de Casas, S. C.; Schweigmann, N. J.
Background An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes.
Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection rates. It should be remembered that lowered susceptibility was only a temporary phenomenon and this may not necessarily occur when mosquitoes are infected with other fungal isolates. These results may have implications for field testing of entomopathogenic fungi by our group and further studies should be carried out to better understand the insect-fungus interaction.
Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. Conclusion/Significance The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence.
Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad
Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal
The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti adults of three places in Abidjan city selected for an entomological surveillance of potential arbovirus vectors to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and propoxur was determined using WHO standard procedures. The wild populations of A. aegypti were susceptible to permethrin, deltamethirn, and lambdacyhalothin. Resistance to propoxur was detected in strains collected at the Autonomous Port of Abidjan and at Koumassi (mortality rate: 77%) but possibly resistance to this insecticide at the national zoological park (mortality rate: 90.8%). Populations of the national zoological park were possibly resistant to propoxur whereas those of the Autonomous port of Abidjan and of Koumassi were resistant. PMID:22029425
Konan, Lucien Yao; Coulibaly, Ibrahima Zanakoungo; Kone, Blaise Atioumounan; Ziogba, Jean-Claude Tokou; Diallo, Adama; Ekra, Daniel Kouadio; Traoré, Karim Sory; Doannio, Marie Christian Julien; Paul, Odehouri-Koudou
Ultralow volume droplets of DUET, prallethrin, and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (nonbloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inert ingredients. Individual mosquitoes were videotaped before, during, and after spraying and various behaviors analyzed. During the spray periods of all three pesticide treatments, mosquitoes spent a greater percentage of time moving, and the distance moved was greater than for mosquitoes in the control treatments. In the postspray period, the percent of time moving increased for mosquitoes exposed to all pesticide treatments compared with the controls. After treatment, all females spent more time walking compared with controls, with unfed Ae. aegypti females walking more after exposure to DUET and sumithrin than after exposure to prallethrin and the control. Pesticide exposure increased flying in both species. Sumithrin exposure increased activity and velocity of unfed mosquitoes more than bloodfed mosquitoes. DUET and sumithrin treatments enhanced activity of Ae. aegypti females more than Ae. albopictus females. PMID:24180111
Clark, Gary G; Golden, Frances V; Allan, Sandra A; Cooperband, Miriam F; McNelly, James R
Both density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect biotic interactions may be important in structuring communities. Indirect interactions in many study systems remain unexplored; in part, because they are often difficult to detect, and in many instances, have been identified empirically only when unexpected results arise. Indirect effects induced by competition may be particularly important among organisms with complex life cycles, wherein competitive effects experienced in one life stage influence species interactions in one or more subsequent stages. We determined whether species-specific effects of larval competition in the mosquitoes Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti have indirect effects at the adult stage, specifically testing for effects on arboviral infection with Sindbis virus (SINV). For A. albopictus, but not for A. aegypti, competition resulted in greater infection, body titer, and dissemination rates compared to low-competition conditions. Whole body titers of virus increased with adult size irrespective of competition. However, between competitive treatments, mosquitoes from low-competition conditions had greater mean size, with lower infection rates and lower whole body titers than the smaller mosquitoes from high-competition conditions. These results suggest that larval competition, common in natural mosquito populations, has important indirect effects on adults by altering mosquito–virus interactions. Such indirect effects may change transmission parameters of pathogens.
Alto, Barry W.; Lounibos, L. Philip; Higgs, Stephen; Juliano, Steven A.
Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.
Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura
The effect of the introduction of the entomophagous copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Acuacultura F.C.B. strain) on the survival of Aedes aegypti immature stages in car tyres was evaluated under semi-natural conditions in the municipality of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Life tables were constructed for the immature stages of the mosquito in the presence and absence of M. longisetus, and the survival data
P A BLO; S ERGIO I BANEZ-BERNAL; HUGO D ELFIN-GONZALEZ; V ICTOR P A RRA; T A BLA
We report construction of a comparative linkage map for the mosquito (Culex pi- piens) based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) using cDNA clones from Aedes aegypti as probes to Southern blots of Cx. pipiens genomic DNA. Seventy-one cDNA clones were screened for hybridization and genetic di- versity among three Cx. pipiens strains. Fifty-two of 71 cDNA clones, isolated from
A. Mori; D. W. Severson; B. M. Christensen
Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent\\u000a mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search\\u000a for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against\\u000a Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted
Raquel M. Gleiser; Maria A. Bonino; Julio A. Zygadlo
Transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti have been engineered to help control transmission of dengue virus. Although resources have been invested in developing the strains, we lack data on the ecology of mosquitoes that could impact the success of this approach. Although studies of intra-specific competition have been conducted using Ae. aegypti larvae, none of these studies examine mixed age cohorts at densities that occur in the field, with natural nutrient levels. Experiments were conducted in Mexico to determine the impact of direct and delayed density dependence on Ae. aegypti populations. Natural water, food, and larval densities were used to estimate the impacts of density dependence on larval survival, development, and adult body size. Direct and delayed density-dependent factors had a significant impact on larval survival, larval development, and adult body size. These results indicate that control methods attempting to reduce mosquito populations may be counteracted by density-dependent population regulation.
Walsh, Rachael K.; Aguilar, Cristobal L.; Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Ramsey, Janine M.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
In recent times, bioprospecting for plants that show bioactive properties has yielded many chemicals that can be used in controlling mosquitoes. Crude extracts of 4 terrestrial and 3 mangrove plants were assayed against 2-3 larval instars of Aedes aegypti. Among the plants tested, Cordia curassavica showed the highest levels of activity for all the extracts tested. Azadirachta indica showed the least activity, whereas the 2 cultivars of Mangifera indica showed substantial activity for the aqueous extracts. The mangrove species proved to be relatively nontoxic to Ae. aegypti larvae when compared to the terrestrial plants. The results of this study suggest that some common plants in Trinidad may be highly effective in controlling the urban vector of yellow fever and dengue fever, Ae. aegypti. PMID:17847850
Mohammed, Azad; Chadee, Dave D
Aedes aegypti is a blood-feeding mosquito that transmits human pathogens such as Dengue virus, Yellow Fever virus and Chikungunya virus. Recently, dramatic changes in the transcriptome of Ae. aegypti following a blood meal have been reported; however, the molecular factors involved in regulating these changes are largely unknown. In this study, we found induction of a number of endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood fed (BF) mosquitoes. One of these miRNAs, aae-miR-375, was only detected in BF mosquitoes. Based on target analyses, we found six different genes involved in development and immunity being regulated by aae-miR-375 at the post-transcriptional level. We further confirmed the specific interaction of aae-miR-375 with the target sequences in the transcripts of two immune related genes, cactus and REL1, using a GFP-based reporter assay. Overall, results from this report indicate that miRNAs induced upon blood feeding can regulate the transcript levels of several genes that are important in development and immune responses in mosquitoes. In addition, we demonstrate that aae-miR-375 enhances Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) infection in an Ae. aegypti cell line. PMID:23202267
Hussain, Mazhar; Walker, Thomas; O'Neill, Scott L; Asgari, Sassan
Background & objectives: The district of Thiruvananthapuram reports the maximum number of cases of dengue in the state of Kerala. To determine the larval diversity, density and breeding site preferences of Aedes mosquitoes, during pre-monsoon and monsoon periods in urban and rural areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Methods: Based on the daily reports of dengue cases, 70 clusters were identified in Thiruvananthapuram district. A cross-sectional larval survey was done in the domestic and peri-domestic areas of 1750 houses, using the WHO standard techniques. The larval indices were calculated, and the larvae were identified by using taxonomic keys. Urban and rural differences and the variations during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons were also studied. Results: In the surveyed houses, 15% had mosquito breeding, with 88% having Aedes larvae. The house index, container index and the breteau index were 13.08, 13.28 and 16.57%, respectively. About 86% of the clusters were found positive for Aedes albopictus and 11% for Ae. aegypti. Aedes albopictus was distributed almost equally in rural and urban clusters, whereas the distribution of Ae. aegypti was significantly higher in urban areas (p = 0.03). The most common water holding containers found (outdoor) were of plastic, followed by coconut shells. The breeding preference ratio was highest for tyres. Significantly lesser positivity was found for containers during monsoon period when compared to pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: The geographical distribution of Ae. albopictus is significantly high in peri-domestic areas and, therefore, its epidemiological role in the widespread disease occurrence needs to be studied. The discarded tyres being the most preferred breeding sites, where IEC activities will help in source reduction. PMID:24717199
Vijayakumar, K; Sudheesh Kumar, T K; Nujum, Zinia T; Umarul, Farook; Kuriakose, Anu
The biological activity of the essential foliar oils from 2 Cuban endemic Myrtaceae: Eugenia melanadenia and Psidium rotundatum on A. aegypti larvae was evaluated for the first time at the laboratory level. The probit-log analysis of the results showed the larvicidal effect of both oils with values of CL50 = 0.0085% and CL95 = 0.0104% for E. melanadenia and CL50 = 0.0063% and CL95 = 0.0071% for O. rotundatum. Besides, the diagnostic concentration for both essential oils are given and the possible implications of these findings on field populations of A. aegypti are suggessted. PMID:15849965
Aguilera, Lucita; Navarro, Agustín; Tacoronte, Juan E; Leyva, Maureen; Marquetti, María C
Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?93?±?6 % (±95 % CI), glyphosate?=?82?±?5 %, control?=?78?±?5 %), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?84?±?5 %, glyphosate?=?76?±?4 %, control?=?78?±?4 %). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?0.90?±?0.17 (±SE), glyphosate?=?1.63?±?0.21, control?=?1.69?±?0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine?=?1.09?±?0.08, glyphosate?=?1.88?±?0.12, control?=?1.37?±?0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine?=?11.20?±?0.50 (days?±?95 % CI), glyphosate?=?9.71?±?0.23, control?=?9.87?±?0.21; males: atrazine?=?9.46?±?0.27, glyphosate?=?8.80?±?0.25, control?=?8.85?±?0.24; A. albopictus: females: atrazine?=?17.40?±?1.70, glyphosate?=?12.4?±?0.40, control?=?12.5?±?0.30; males: atrazine?=?12.96?±?0.41, glyphosate?=?10.48?±?0.24, control?=?10.64?±?0.37). For A. albopictus but not A. aegypti, adult females from atrazine treatment had significantly longer wing lengths compared to those from glyphosate or control treatments (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?3.06?±?0.07 (mm?±?95 % CI), glyphosate?=?2.80?±?0.07, control?=?2.83?±?0.06). These results demonstrate the potential for atrazine, a widely used herbicide, to influence epidemiologically relevant life history traits of mosquitoes. PMID:24853538
Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J
The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030
Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz
The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research.
Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz
The increasing population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on Madeira Island (Portugal) resulted in the first autochthonous dengue outbreak, which occurred in October 2012. Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance ( kdr ) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. We included mosquito populations from Brazil and Venezuela in the analysis as putative geographic sources. The Ae. aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We also detected the presence of two important kdr mutations and the quasi-fixation of one of these mutations (F1534C). These results are consistent with a unique recent founder event that occurred on the island of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes that carry kdr mutations associated with insecticide resistance. Finally, we also report the presence of the F1534C kdr mutation in the Brazil and Venezuela populations. To our knowledge, this is the first time this mutation has been found in South American Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Given the present risk of Ae. aegypti re-invading continental Europe from Madeira and the recent dengue outbreaks on the island, this information is important to plan surveillance and control measures.
Seixas, Goncalo; Salgueiro, Patricia; Silva, Ana Clara; Campos, Melina; Spenassatto, Carine; Reyes-Lugo, Matias; Novo, Maria Teresa; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Pinto, Joao Pedro Soares da Silva; Sousa, Carla Alexandra
Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250??g/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000??g/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves.
Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sonia Pereira
This project tested aerial photography as a surveillance tool in identifying residential premises at high risk of Aedes aegypti breeding by extending the use of a recently developed, ground-based, rapid assessment technique, the modified Premise Condition Index (PCI2). During 1995, we inspected 360 premises in Townsville, Australia for Ae. aegypti breeding, and PCI2 scores were recorded. The PCI2 values were also estimated from 1:3,000 color and infrared aerial photograph interpretation for the same premises. We found that shade levels can be accurately identified from both color and infrared images, and the PCI2 can be accurately identified from infrared photographs. Yard conditions, however, cannot be accurately identified from either aerial photograph type. The airborne PCI2 did not significantly correlate with breeding measures, and logistic regression further demonstrated that neither aerial photograph type allows the accurate prediction of Ae. aegypti breeding risk. Therefore, the ability of low-level aerial photography to enhance Ae. aegypti breeding site surveillance is at present limited, with ground surveillance remaining our most reliable tool for identifying the probability of Ae. aegypti breeding in the residential environment. PMID:9715943
Moloney, J M; Skelly, C; Weinstein, P; Maguire, M; Ritchie, S
We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar
Steven A. Juliano; L. Philip Lounibos; George F. O’Meara
There is increasing interest in rearing modified mosquitoes for mass release to control vector-borne diseases, particularly Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti for suppression of dengue. Successful introductions require release of high quality mosquitoes into natural populations. Potential indicators of quality are body size and shape. We tested to determine if size, wing/thorax ratio, and wing shape are associated with field fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Compared with field-collected mosquitoes, released mosquitoes were larger in size, with lower size variance and different wing shape but similar in wing-thorax ratio and its associated variance. These differences were largely attributed to nutrition and to a minor extent to wMel Wolbachia infection. Survival potential of released female mosquitoes was similar to those from the field. Females at oviposition sites tended to be larger than those randomly collected from BG-Sentinel traps. Rearing conditions should thus aim for large size without affecting wing/thorax ratios. PMID:23716403
Yeap, Heng Lin; Endersby, Nancy M; Johnson, Petrina H; Ritchie, Scott A; Hoffmann, Ary A
There is increasing interest in rearing modified mosquitoes for mass release to control vector-borne diseases, particularly Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti for suppression of dengue. Successful introductions require release of high quality mosquitoes into natural populations. Potential indicators of quality are body size and shape. We tested to determine if size, wing/thorax ratio, and wing shape are associated with field fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Compared with field-collected mosquitoes, released mosquitoes were larger in size, with lower size variance and different wing shape but similar in wing-thorax ratio and its associated variance. These differences were largely attributed to nutrition and to a minor extent to wMel Wolbachia infection. Survival potential of released female mosquitoes was similar to those from the field. Females at oviposition sites tended to be larger than those randomly collected from BG-Sentinel traps. Rearing conditions should thus aim for large size without affecting wing/thorax ratios.
Yeap, Heng Lin; Endersby, Nancy M.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.
Physiological processes mediate the impact of ecological conditions on the life histories of insect vectors. For the dengue/chikungunya mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three life history traits that are critical to urban population dynamics and control are: size, development rate and starvation mortality. In this paper we make use of prior laboratory experiments on each of these traits at 2°C intervals between 20 and 30°C, in conjunction with eco-evolutionary theory and studies on A.aegypti physiology, in order to develop a conceptual and mathematical framework that can predict their thermal sensitivity. Our model of reserve dependent growth (RDG), which considers a potential tradeoff between the accumulation of reserves and structural biomass, was able to robustly predict laboratory observations, providing a qualitative improvement over the approach most commonly used in other A.aegypti models. RDG predictions of reduced size at higher temperatures, but increased reserves relative to size, are supported by the available evidence in Aedes spp. We offer the potentially general hypothesis that temperature-size patterns in mosquitoes are driven by a net benefit of finishing the growing stage with proportionally greater reserves relative to structure at warmer temperatures. By relating basic energy flows to three fundamental life history traits, we provide a mechanistic framework for A.aegypti development to which ecological complexity can be added. Ultimately, this could provide a framework for developing and field testing hypotheses on how processes such as climate variation, density dependent regulation, human behavior or control strategies may influence A.aegypti population dynamics and disease risk. PMID:23068992
Padmanabha, Harish; Correa, Fabio; Legros, Mathieu; Nijhout, H Fredrick; Lord, Cynthia; Lounibos, L Philip
Background The mosquito A. aegypti is vector of dengue and other viruses. New methods of vector control are needed and can be achieved by a better understanding of the life cycle of this insect. Embryogenesis is a part of A. aegypty life cycle that is poorly understood. In insects in general and in mosquitoes in particular energetic metabolism is well studied during oogenesis, when the oocyte exhibits fast growth, accumulating carbohydrates, lipids and proteins that will meet the regulatory and metabolic needs of the developing embryo. On the other hand, events related with energetic metabolism during A. aegypti embryogenesis are unknown. Results Glucose metabolism was investigated throughout Aedes aegypti (Diptera) embryonic development. Both cellular blastoderm formation (CBf, 5 h after egg laying - HAE) and germ band retraction (GBr, 24 HAE) may be considered landmarks regarding glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) destination. We observed high levels of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity at the very beginning of embryogenesis, which nevertheless decreased up to 5 HAE. This activity is correlated with the need for nucleotide precursors generated by the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), of which G6PDH is the key enzyme. We suggest the synchronism of egg metabolism with carbohydrate distribution based on the decreasing levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) activity and on the elevation observed in protein content up to 24 HAE. Concomitantly, increasing levels of hexokinase (HK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity were observed, and PEPCK reached a peak around 48 HAE. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) activity was also monitored and shown to be inversely correlated with glycogen distribution during embryogenesis. Conclusions The results herein support the hypothesis that glucose metabolic fate changes according to developmental embryonic stages. Germ band retraction is a moment that was characterized as a landmark in glucose metabolism during Aedes aegypti embryogenesis. Furthermore, the results also suggest a role for GSK3 in glycogen balance/distribution during morphological modifications.
Entomological studies on relative prevalence and distribution of adults and immatures of Aedes aegypti were conducted in Rajahmundry town of Andhra Pradesh from December 1998 to November 1999. Adults and immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found in all the 22 localities viz; posh area (8), mixed area (8) and slum area (6) of the town. Larval indices were found to be higher in slum areas as compared to mixed or posh areas of the town. However, the larval habitats were observed to be similar in all localities. The larval indices were highest during monsoon and post-monsoon months. The breeding preference ratio (BPR) was highest for cement tubs followed by discarded tyres and barrels. The high larval indices of Aedes aegypti in these areas warrant intensification of vector surveillance activities along with source reduction and health education. PMID:12718342
Kumar, R Ravi; Kamal, S; Patnaik, S K; Sharma, R C
Background Based on spatiotemporal clustering of human dengue virus (DENV) infections, transmission is thought to occur at fine spatiotemporal scales by horizontal transfer of virus between humans and mosquito vectors. To define the dimensions of local transmission and quantify the factors that support it, we examined relationships between infected humans and Aedes aegypti in Thai villages. Methodology/Principal Findings Geographic cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were conducted around DENV-positive and DENV-negative febrile “index” cases (positive and negative clusters, respectively) from a longitudinal cohort study in rural Thailand. Child contacts and Ae. aegypti from cluster houses were assessed for DENV infection. Spatiotemporal, demographic, and entomological parameters were evaluated. In positive clusters, the DENV infection rate among child contacts was 35.3% in index houses, 29.9% in houses within 20 meters, and decreased with distance from the index house to 6.2% in houses 80–100 meters away (p<0.001). Significantly more Ae. aegypti were DENV-infectious (i.e., DENV-positive in head/thorax) in positive clusters (23/1755; 1.3%) than negative clusters (1/1548; 0.1%). In positive clusters, 8.2% of mosquitoes were DENV-infectious in index houses, 4.2% in other houses with DENV-infected children, and 0.4% in houses without infected children (p<0.001). The DENV infection rate in contacts was 47.4% in houses with infectious mosquitoes, 28.7% in other houses in the same cluster, and 10.8% in positive clusters without infectious mosquitoes (p<0.001). Ae. aegypti pupae and adult females were more numerous only in houses containing infectious mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Human and mosquito infections are positively associated at the level of individual houses and neighboring residences. Certain houses with high transmission risk contribute disproportionately to DENV spread to neighboring houses. Small groups of houses with elevated transmission risk are consistent with over-dispersion of transmission (i.e., at a given point in time, people/mosquitoes from a small portion of houses are responsible for the majority of transmission).
Yoon, In-Kyu; Getis, Arthur; Aldstadt, Jared; Rothman, Alan L.; Tannitisupawong, Darunee; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Jones, James W.; Morrison, Amy C.; Jarman, Richard G.; Nisalak, Ananda; Mammen, Mammen P.; Thammapalo, Suwich; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Endy, Timothy; Pimgate, Chusak; Scott, Thomas W.
Mosquito management within households remains central to the control of dengue virus transmission. An important factor in these management decisions is the spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti. We measured spatial clustering of Ae. aegypti in the town of Borbón, Ecuador and assessed what characteristics of breeding containers influenced the clustering. We used logistic regression to assess the spatial extent of that clustering. We found strong evidence for juvenile mosquito clustering within 20 m and for adult mosquito clustering within 10 m, and stronger clustering associations for containers ? 40 L than those < 40 L. Aedes aegypti clusters persisted after adjusting for various container characteristics, suggesting that patterns are likely attributable to short dispersal distances rather than shared characteristics of containers in cluster areas. These findings have implications for targeting Ae. aegypti control efforts. PMID:24002483
Schafrick, Nathaniel H; Milbrath, Meghan O; Berrocal, Veronica J; Wilson, Mark L; Eisenberg, Joseph N S
The fungus Beauveria bassiana reduces Aedes aegypti longevity in laboratory conditions, but effects on survival, blood-feeding behavior, and fecundity in realistic environmental conditions have not been tested. Adult, female Ae. aegypti infected with B. bassiana (FI-277) were monitored for blood-feeding success and fecundity in the laboratory. Fungal infection reduced mosquito-human contact by 30%. Fecundity was reduced by (mean ± SD) 29.3 ± 8.6 eggs per female per lifetime in the laboratory; egg batch size and viability were unaffected. Mosquito survival, blood-feeding behavior, and fecundity were also tested in 5 meter×7 meter×4 meter semi-field cages in northern Queensland, Australia. Fungal infection reduced mosquito survival in semi-field conditions by 59–95% in large cages compared with 61–69% in small cages. One semi-field cage trial demonstrated 80% reduction in blood-feeding; a second trial showed no significant effect. Infection did not affect fecundity in large cages. Beauveria bassiana can kill and may reduce biting of Ae. aegypti in semi-field conditions and in the laboratory. These results further support the use of B. bassiana as a potential biocontrol agent against Ae. aegypti.
Darbro, Jonathan M.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Kay, Brian H.; Ryan, Peter A.
BackgroundCurrent Aedes aegypti larval control methods are often insufficient for preventing dengue epidemics. To improve control efficiency and cost-effectiveness, some advocate eliminating or treating only highly productive containers. The population-level outcome of this strategy, however, will depend on details of Ae. aegypti oviposition behavior.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe simultaneously monitored female oviposition and juvenile development in 80 experimental containers located across 20 houses
Jacklyn Wong; Amy C. Morrison; Steven T. Stoddard; Helvio Astete; Yui Yin Chu; Imaan Baseer; Thomas W. Scott
Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain dengue transmission during the dry season. PMID:20374477
Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D
Abstract Dengue fever is currently one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases that affect humans. With neither vaccines nor treatment available, prevention of the disease relies heavily on surveillance and control of mosquito vectors. In the present study, we have evaluated and showed the potential use of the Dengue NS1 Ag Strip® for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti. Initial results showed that the sensitivity of the test kit in detecting DENV in wild-caught mosquitoes is comparable to that of real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. The detection of naturally infected Ae. aegypti with the NS1 rapid test kit in our dengue cluster investigation further illustrates its potential use for surveillance of DENV in wild mosquito populations. The kit can easily be used in a simple field station, and minimal training is required. The results can be obtained in less than an hour. Employment of the kit in the field could help guide mosquito control operations in the prioritization of resources in controlling the transmission of DENV. In this study the potential of the kit for field surveillance of infected dengue vectors, which are epidemiologically important, has been demonstrated.
Tan, Cheong-Huat; Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-Zhi Irene; Vythilingam, Indra
Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Methods Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Results Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. Conclusions This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus.
The bioefficacy of Piper aduncum L. essential oil formulated in aerosol cans was evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in a simulated room. The aerosol spray test was based on the Malaysian test standard for aerosol (MS 1221:1991UDC 632.982.2 modified from WHO 2009 methodology) and examined the knockdown effect within 20 minutes of exposure. Mortality rate after 24 hour of holding period was also determined. A commercial aerosol spray (0.09% prallethrin 0.05% d-phenothrin) was also tested as a comparison. Our results showed that the knockdown effect of the commercial aerosol spray and P. aduncum essential oil spray (8% and 10% concentrations) was significantly higher in Ae. albopictus adult females, when compared with that of Ae. aegypti adult females (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in knockdown between commercial aerosol spray and essential oil spray for both Aedes spp. (P<0.05). The essential oil induced significantly higher mortality in Ae. aegypti (80%) than in Ae. albopictus (71.6%) (P<0.05). The commercial aerosol spray caused 97.7% and 86.5% mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively (P<0.05). Based on these data, P. aduncum essential oil has the potential to be used as an aerosol spray against Aedes spp. PMID:22041743
Misni, Norashiqin; Othman, Hidayatulfathi; Sulaiman, Sallehudin
Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting.
Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.
Objective To investigate the toxicity of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis)isolates from Malang City for controlling Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. Methods Soil samples were taken from Purwantoro and Sawojajar sub-districts. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates were obtained with the simple matching method. The growth and prevalence of spores were determined by the Total Plate Count method, and toxicity tests were also performed on the third instar larval stage of Ae. aegypti. The percentage of larval mortality was analysed using probit regression. The LC50 was analysed by ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD interval was 95%. Results Among the 33 selected bacterial isolates, six were obtained (PWR4-31, PWR4-32, SWJ4-2b, SWJ4-4b, SWJ-4k and SWJ5-1) that had a similar phenotype to reference B. thuringiensis. Based on the dendrogram, all of the bacterial isolates were 71% similar. Three isolates that had a higher prevalence of reference B. thuringiensis were PWR4-32, SWJ4-4b and SW5-1, of which the spore prevalence was 52.44%, 23.59%, 34.46%, respectively. These three indigenous isolates from Malang City successfully killed Ae. aegypti larvae. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing the larvae. Conclusions Six indigenous B. thuringiensis isolates among the 33 bacterial isolates found in the Sawojajar and Purwantoro sub-districts were toxic to the third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. The PWR4-32 isolates were identical to the reference B. thuringiensis and had 88% phenotype similarity. The PWR4-32 isolates had the highest spore prevalence (52.44%), and the early stationary phase occurred at 36 h. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50-72 h=2.3×108 cells/mL).
Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Suharjono; Setyowati, Faridah
Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae rely on oxidases to reduce toxicity of water soluble toxins from some senescent tree leaf infusions. The mortality of third instar Ae. aegypti larvae in live oak and pin oak leaf infusions increased significantly in the presence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a broad inhibitor of cytochrome P450s (CYPs). In contrast, PBO treatment did not increase mortality in water controls or infusions of northern red oak or sugar maple leaf infusions for Ae. aegypti larvae. A similar pattern was observed for Ae. albopictus larvae, that is, an increase in mortality when CYPs were inhibited in live oak leaf infusions and no increase in sugar maple leaf infusions or water controls. However, the fresh live oak leaf infusion (5 d old) was the most toxic infusion to Ae. aegypti, but appeared less toxic to Ae. albopictus than the older infusions. A direct comparison of survival between the two Aedes species revealed Ae. aegypti exhibited a greater mortality than Ae. albopictus in PBO-treated live oak leaf infusions. These findings suggest that toxic components of some leaf litter in larval habitats may impose cryptic energy costs (detoxification). PMID:24605455
Lampman, Richard L; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J
Studies were carried out on the bioefficacy and residual activity of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14 (Bti) (water-dispersible granules of VectoBac ABG 6511 and liquid formulations of VectoBac 12AS) and pyriproxyfen (insect growth regulator, Sumilarv 0.5%) as direct applications for control of larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Two dosages of each Bti formulation (285 and 570 international toxic units [ITU]/liter) and the integration of both Bti formulations and pyriproxyfen were used for residual tests with 45-liter earthen jars for a period of 4 wk. In 1 test series, the treated water was replenished daily with 6 liters of seasoned untreated water. In the 2nd test series, the water in the jars was topped up to the 40-liter level during evaluation. Neither Bti formulation remained effective for a full week. Water-dispersible Bti granules provided effective initial control activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus for both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water). The higher dosage (570 ITU/liter) for both Bti formulations was only partially effective at the end of 1 wk after being diluted. After 1 wk, water-dispersible Bti granules provided greater larval mortality than did liquid Bti formulation against both mosquito species when integrated with pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen (79.5 and 159 mg/liter) on its own showed low larvicidal activity but provided very effective control of adult emergence. In this study, integration of Bti (285 and 570 ITU/liter) with pyriproxyfen (79.5 mg/liter) extended the duration of partial larval control somewhat, but live larvae persisted throughout the 4-wk test. The integration effect was more obvious when water-dispersible Bti granules were integrated with pyriproxyfen than when liquid Bti was used. Integration of Bti with pyriproxyfen had a negative effect on adult emergence, which was completely inhibited by pyriproxyfen after day 1. Daily replenishment of water increased Bti activity and provided slightly better larval control. Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti were both completely susceptible to the higher concentration of Bti and pyriproxyfen in both test designs (with replenishment and without replenishment of water). PMID:15825767
Lee, Y W; Zairi, J; Yap, H H; Adanan, C R
In addition to its role as the primary vector for dengue viruses, Aedes aegypti has a long history as a genetic model organism for other bloodfeeding mosquitoes, due to its ease of colonization, maintenance and reproductive productivity. Though its genome has been sequenced, functional characterization of many Ae. aegypti genes, pathways and behaviors has been slow. TALE nucleases (TALENs) have been used with great success in a number of organisms to generate site-specific DNA lesions. We evaluated the ability of a TALEN pair to target the Ae. aegypti kmo gene, whose protein product is essential in the production of eye pigmentation. Following injection into pre-blastoderm embryos, 20–40% of fertile survivors produced kmo alleles that failed to complement an existing khw mutation. Most of these individuals produced more than 20% white-eyed progeny, with some producing up to 75%. Mutant alleles were associated with lesions of 1–7 bp specifically at the selected target site. White-eyed individuals could also be recovered following a blind intercross of G1 progeny, yielding several new white-eyed strains in the genetic background of the sequenced Liverpool strain. We conclude that TALENs are highly active in the Ae. aegypti germline, and have the potential to transform how reverse genetic experiments are performed in this important disease vector.
Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.
Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50-100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867
Somers, Gerard; Brown, Julia E; Barrera, Roberto; Powell, Jeffrey R
Oviposition habitat choices of species with aquatic larvae are expected to be influenced by both offspring risk of mortality due to predation, and offspring growth potential. Aquatic predators may indirectly influence growth potential for prey by reducing prey density and, for filter-feeding prey, by increasing bacterial food for prey via added organic matter (feces, partially eaten victims), creating the potential for interactive effects on oviposition choices. We tested the hypothesis that the mosquito Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposits in habitats with predatory Toxorhynchites larvae because of indirect effects of predation on chemical cues indicating bacterial abundance. We predicted that A. aegypti would avoid oviposition in sites with Toxorhynchites, but prefer to oviposit where bacterial food for larvae is abundant, and that predation by Toxorhynchites would increase bacterial abundances. Gravid A. aegypti were offered paired oviposition sites representing choices among: predator presence; the act of predation; conspecific density; dead conspecific larvae; and bacterial activity. A. aegypti preferentially oviposited in sites with Toxorhynchites theobaldi predation, and with killed conspecific larvae, but failed to detect preferences for other treatments. The antibiotic tetracycline eliminated the strongest oviposition preference. Both predation by Toxorhynchites and killed larvae increased bacterial abundances, suggesting that oviposition attraction is cued by bacteria. Our results show the potential for indirect effects, like trophic cascades, to influence oviposition choices and community composition in aquatic systems. Our results suggest that predators like Toxorhynchites may be doubly beneficial as biocontrol agents because of the attraction of ovipositing mosquitoes to bacterial by-products of Toxorhynchites feeding. PMID:24590205
Albeny-Simões, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G; Elliot, Simon L; Andrade, Mateus R; Lima, Eraldo; Juliano, Steven A; Vilela, Evaldo F
Emergence of resistance among mosquitoes is a recent problem. Safe and eco-friendly agents from biological origins are the need of the hour. Nereistoxin, a naturally occurring substance, was first isolated from the marine annelid Lumbriconereis heteropoda and stored in the freezer. In the present study, the toxicity of nereistoxin was evaluated against vector mosquitoes. The larvicidal, ovicidal and adulticidal activities of nereistoxin were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The nereistoxin was inversely proportional to the concentration and directly proportional to the mosquitoes. The larvicidal activity after 24 h LC(50) value was observed at 0.467, 0.535 and 0.601 ppm for A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The ovicidal activity after 120 h zero percentage of egg hatchability was observed at a concentration of 0.8 ppm for A. stephensi and 1.0 ppm for A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The results of the adulticidal activity after 24 h LD(50) value were observed at 0.022, 0.028 and 0.034 ppm for A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The extracted nereistoxin was characterized and identified by ultraviolet, infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopic methods and high pressure liquid chromatography. These results clearly reveal that the nereistoxin served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and adulticidal activity against vector mosquitoes. PMID:21472401
Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Saravanakumar, Ayyappan
Aedes aegypti is the major vector of 1 of the most concerning arboviruses of the world, the dengue fever. The only effective way of reducing the incidence of dengue fever is to control the vector mosquito, mainly by application of insecticides to its breeding places. This study was aimed at assessing the insecticidal activity of sodium anacardate, isolated from Brazilian cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), against the eggs, 3rd instars or pupae of Ae. aegypti. In addition, the acute toxicity of sodium anacardate to mice was also investigated. Sodium anacardate showed toxicity against Ae. aegypti eggs (median effective concentration [EC50] = 162.93 +/- 29.93 microg/ml), larvae (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 55.47 +/- 3.0 microg/ml) and pupae (LC50 = 369.78 - 52.30 microg/ml). On the other hand, even at high dose (0.3 g/kg body weight), this compound did not cause any adverse effects on mice, suggesting that this compound is safe to mammals. Therefore, sodium anacardate may be a viable low-cost alternative to help combat Ae. aegypti. PMID:19852234
Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Sayonara M; De Lima, Glauber P G; da Rocha-Bezerra, Lady Clarissa B; Ricardo, Nágila M P S; Carvalho, Ana F U
ABSTRACT Phytochemicals have been considered as alternatives for conventional pesticides because of their low mammalian toxicity and environmental safety. They usually display less potent insecticidal effects than synthetic compounds, but may express as yet unknown modes of action. In the current study, we evaluated 14 plant essential oils for their toxicities and synergistic effects with carbaryl and permethrin against fourth instars of Aedes aegypti (L.) as well as 5-7-d-old adults. Six essential oils showed significant synergistic effects with carbaryl at 10-50 mg/liter, but paradoxically all of them decreased the toxicity of permethrin against Ae. aegypti larvae. None showed toxicity or synergistic effects on Ae. aegypti adults, at doses up to 2,000 ng/ insect. The six essential oils displaying synergistic effects in Ae. aegypti larvae inhibited the in vitro activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterases in the low milligram per liter range. The data indicated that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and carboxylesterase were probably targets for these natural synergists. Thus, the mechanism of synergism was most likely inhibition of metabolism and not interacting target site effects. PMID:23926781
Tong, Fan; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R
We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program.
Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Lorono-Pino, Maria Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.
Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50–100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future.
SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.
México has cities (e.g., México City and Puebla City) located at elevations > 2,000 m and above the elevation ceiling below which local climates allow the dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to proliferate. Climate warming could raise this ceiling and place high-elevation cities at risk for dengue virus transmission. To assess the elevation ceiling for Ae. aegypti and determine the potential for using weather/climate parameters to predict mosquito abundance, we surveyed 12 communities along an elevation/climate gradient from Veracruz City (sea level) to Puebla City (?2,100 m). Ae. aegypti was commonly encountered up to 1,700 m and present but rare from 1,700 to 2,130 m. This finding extends the known elevation range in México by > 300 m. Mosquito abundance was correlated with weather parameters, including temperature indices. Potential larval development sites were abundant in Puebla City and other high-elevation communities, suggesting that Ae. aegypti could proliferate should the climate become warmer.
Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Hayden, Mary H.; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Uejio, Christopher K.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Monache, Luca Delle; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Eisen, Lars
A hierarchical population genetic study was conducted among 19 Aedes aegypti populations in Thailand from Chiang Mai in the north to Songkhla province in the south. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis was used to examine variation in a 359-basepair region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial DNA gene (ND4). Seven haplotypes were detected in two lineages previously identified in ND4 haplotypes from North America. Gene flow estimates and highly significant variation among populations within 25 kilometers implicated genetic drift and vector control efforts as major factors in genetic structure. Mantel regression analysis demonstrated no isolation by distance. Urban areas were relatively panmictic, while suburban/rural sites exhibited more restricted gene flow. Significant genetic structure among groups of collections > 100 kilometers apart is consistent with recent (approximately 50 year) expansion of Ae. aegypti from highly populated areas accompanied by founder effects, but could also reflect the overall low genetic diversity in ND4 in Thailand. PMID:15827282
Bosio, Christopher F; Harrington, Laura C; Jones, James W; Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Norris, Douglas E; Scott, Thomas W
Seeking an alternative approach for producing a larvicidal product from Balanites aegyptiaca plants, callus was produced from in vitro cultures of root explants and its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae was evaluated. Concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 1500 ppm of saponins from the root-derived callus of B. aegyptiaca were used to determine larvicidal effects and consequent effect on adult emergence. A dose-dependent effect was observed. In a chronic mortality assessment (after 7 days of exposure), concentrations of 500 ppm or greater killed 100% of the test larvae population. Fifty parts per million showed no difference in larval mortality compared to the control (0 ppm); however, this concentration allowed one-fourth of the adult emergence of the control treatment. These results suggest that saponins from in vitro cultures of the root explant of B. aegyptiaca can be used as a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti larvae. PMID:17433667
Chapagain, Bishnu P; Saharan, Vinod; Wiesman, Zeev
Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO. PMID:20838809
Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A
Rio de Janeiro is considered as the most important entry point for dengue viruses in Brazil. Using isoenzyme markers, we investigated the genetic structure of the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti sampled at three-month intervals in 14 districts in Rio de Janeiro from December 2002 to December 2003. We detected high levels of genetic differentiation (i.e. high F(ST) values and significant P values), which tended to persist throughout the year. The species does not take advantage of routes and railways to disperse. Genetic structuring was higher in the rainy season, suggesting low dispersion of Ae. aegypti at this time of year when all dengue epidemics have been reported in the city. PMID:16903890
da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda C V; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
The yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of human diseases, such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and West Nile viruses. Chemoreceptor organs on the labella and tarsi are involved in human host evaluation and thus serve as potential foci for the disruption of blood feeding behavior. In addition to host detection, these contact chemoreceptors mediate feeding, oviposition and conspecific recognition; however, the molecular landscape of chemoreception in these tissues remains mostly uncharacterized. Here we report the expression profile of all putative chemoreception genes in the labella and tarsi of both sexes of adult Ae. aegypti and discuss their possible roles in the physiology and behavior of this important disease vector. PMID:24582661
Sparks, Jackson T; Bohbot, Jonathan D; Dickens, Joseph C
Suppression of dengue and malaria through releases of genetically engineered mosquitoes might soon become feasible. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes carrying a conditionally lethal transgene have recently been used to suppress local vector populations in small-scale field releases. Prior to releases of transgenic insects on a wider scale, however, most regulatory authorities will require additional evidence that suppression will be effective in natural heterogeneous habitats. We use a spatially explicit stochastic model of an Ae. aegypti population in Iquitos, Peru, along with an uncertainty analysis of its predictions, to quantitatively assess the outcome of varied operational approaches for releases of transgenic strains with conditional death of females. We show that population elimination might be an unrealistic objective in heterogeneous populations. We demonstrate that substantial suppression can nonetheless be achieved if releases are deployed in a uniform spatial pattern using strains combining multiple lethal elements, illustrating the importance of detailed spatial models for guiding genetic mosquito control strategies.
Legros, Mathieu; Xu, Chonggang; Okamoto, Kenichi; Scott, Thomas W.; Morrison, Amy C.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
We have cloned the replicative form of the Aedes albopictus parvovirus (AaPV) genome and determined the complete sequence of the viral strand. The sequence is 4176 nucleotides (nt) in length. The first 134 nt at the 3' end and the terminal 182 nt at the 5' end of the viral (minus) strand can both generate by folding and annealing of complementary sequences a typical terminal T-shaped structure although they differ in their sequence. Three large open reading frames (ORFs), each one in a different frame, are present between map units (mu) 8.0 and 87.6 on the complementary (plus) strand. The left, mid (located within the left ORF), and right ORFs have potential coding capacities of 95, 41, and 40 kDa, respectively. Two potential promoters were found upstream from the left and right ORFs, at mu 7.2 and mu 60.0, respectively. Computer search for sequence homologies suggests that the left ORF very likely encodes the nonstructural NS-1 protein since it contains the highly conserved NTP-binding amino acid (aa) domain (GKRN sequence) of all parvoviruses. Comparison with other invertebrate and vertebrate parvoviruses revealed that the AaPV genome shares 77.3% nt sequence homology and between 73 and 78% aa sequence homologies with the Aedes aegypti densonucleosis virus (Aedes DNV). Organization of both genomes was similar except that no potential ORF was found on the minus strand of AaPV. The difference of 167 nt in length between AaPV and Aedes DNV (4009 nt) genomes is due to additional noncoding sequences located between the internal coding region and the terminal palindromes in the AaPV genome. No significant homology was found between AaPV and the two other insect parvoviruses sequenced so far, the Bombyx mori DNV (BmDNV) and the Junonia coenia DNV (JcDNV). PMID:8178459
Boublik, Y; Jousset, F X; Bergoin, M
Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693
Oliferenko, Polina V; Oliferenko, Alexander A; Poda, Gennadiy I; Osolodkin, Dmitry I; Pillai, Girinath G; Bernier, Ulrich R; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Katritzky, Alan R
Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort.
Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.
Background Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Previous population genetic and vector competence studies have demonstrated substantial genetic structure and major differences in the ability to transmit dengue viruses in Ae. aegypti populations in Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Population genetic studies revealed that the intersection of the Neovolcanic axis (NVA) with the Gulf of Mexico coast in the state of Veracruz acts as a discrete barrier to gene flow among Ae. aegypti populations north and south of the NVA. The mosquito populations north and south of the NVA also differed in their vector competence (VC) for dengue serotype 2 virus (DENV2). The average VC rate for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from populations from north of the NVA was 0.55; in contrast the average VC rate for mosquitoes from populations from south of the NVA was 0.20. Most of this variation was attributable to a midgut infection and escape barriers. In Ae. aegypti north of the NVA 21.5% failed to develop midgut infections and 30.3% of those with an infected midgut failed to develop a disseminated infection. In contrast, south of the NVA 45.2% failed to develop midgut infections and 62.8% of those with an infected midgut failed to develop a disseminated infection. Conclusions Barriers to gene flow in vector populations may also impact the frequency of genes that condition continuous and epidemiologically relevant traits such as vector competence. Further studies are warranted to determine why the NVA is a barrier to gene flow and to determine whether the differences in vector competence seen north and south of the NVA are stable and epidemiologically significant.
Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Munoz, Maria; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Olson, Ken E.; Beaty, Barry J.; Black, William C.
We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires. PMID:23458958
Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W; Brey, Paul T
We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.
Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W.; Brey, Paul T.
To define microRNA (miRNA) involvement during arbovirus infection of Aedes aegypti, we mined deep sequencing libraries of Dengue type 2 (DENV2)-exposed mosquitoes. Three biological replicates for each timepoint [2, 4 and 9 days post-exposure (dpe)] and treatment group allowed us to remove the outliers associated with sample-to-sample variability. Using edgeR (R Bioconductor), designed for use with replicate deep sequencing data, we determined the log fold-change (logFC) of miRNA levels [18-23 nucleotides (nt)]. The number of significantly modulated miRNAs increased from ? 5 at 2 and 4 dpe to 23 unique miRNAs by 9 dpe. Putative miRNA targets were predicted by aligning miRNAs to the transcriptome, and the list was reduced to include the intersection of hits found using the Miranda, PITA, and TargetScan algorithms. To further reduce false-positives, putative targets were validated by cross-checking them with mRNAs reported in recent DENV2 host response transcriptome reports; 4076 targets were identified. Of these, 464 gene targets have predicted miRNA-binding sites in 3' untranslated regions. Context-specific target functional groups include proteins involved in transport, transcriptional regulation, mitochondrial function, chromatin modification and signal transduction processes known to be required for viral replication and dissemination. The miRNA response is placed in context with other vector host response studies by comparing the predicted targets with those of transcriptome studies. Together, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that profound and persistent changes to gene expression occur in DENV2-exposed mosquitoes. PMID:24237456
Campbell, C L; Harrison, T; Hess, A M; Ebel, G D
Two permethrin formulations, AquaReslin and AquaKontrol, were applied by ultra-low volume truck-mounted sprayers on test plots under appropriate meteorological condition at Jacksonville, FL. The method of application was followed from the product label. The application rate for each formulation was 0.79 g permethrin per acre. AquaReslin and AquaKontrol demonstrated similar results against Anopheles quadrimaculatus; the former was superior to the latter used against Aedes aegypti, and Ae. albopictus. Teflon-coated standard glass slides were used to collect the aerosol components. Volume median-diameter droplets per square centimeter varied with pesticides and distance from spray source, and the mortality of the 3 species at 18 h ranged from 61.3% to 91.7%. PMID:22017102
Brown, James R; Xue, Rui-De
Dengue, the most important human arboviral disease, is transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, by Aedes albopictus. The current distributions of these invasive species overlap and are affected by interspecific larval competition in their container habitats. Here we report that competition also enhances dengue infection and dissemination rates in one of these two vector species. We determined the effects of competition on adult A. aegypti and A. albopictus, comparing their susceptibility to infection with a Southeast Asian strain of dengue-2 virus. High levels of intra- or interspecific competition among larvae enhanced the susceptibility of A. albopictus to dengue virus infection and potential for transmission, as indicated by disseminated infections. Doubling the number of competing larvae (A. albopictus or A. aegypti), led to a significant (more than 60%) increase in the proportion of A. albopictus with disseminated dengue-2 infection. Competition-enhanced vector competence appears to result from a reduction in ‘barriers’ (morphological or physiological) to virus infection and dissemination and may contribute to the importance of A. albopictus in dengue transmission. Similar results for other unrelated arboviruses suggest that larval competition, common in mosquitoes, should be considered in estimates of vector competence for pathogens that infect humans.
Alto, Barry W; Lounibos, L. Philip; Mores, Christopher N; Reiskind, Michael H
Background Skeeter Buster is a stochastic, spatially explicit simulation model of Aedes aegypti populations, designed to predict the outcome of vector population control methods. In this study, we apply the model to two specific locations, the cities of Iquitos, Peru, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. These two sites differ in the amount of field data that is available for location-specific customization. By comparing output from Skeeter Buster to field observations in these two cases we evaluate population dynamics predictions by Skeeter Buster with varying degrees of customization. Methodology/Principal Findings Skeeter Buster was customized to the Iquitos location by simulating the layout of houses and the associated distribution of water-holding containers, based on extensive surveys of Ae. aegypti populations and larval habitats that have been conducted in Iquitos for over 10 years. The model is calibrated by adjusting the food input into various types of containers to match their observed pupal productivity in the field. We contrast the output of this customized model to the data collected from the natural population, comparing pupal numbers and spatial distribution of pupae in the population. Our results show that Skeeter Buster replicates specific population dynamics and spatial structure of Ae. aegypti in Iquitos. We then show how Skeeter Buster can be customized for Buenos Aires, where we only had Ae. aegypti abundance data that was averaged across all locations. In the Argentina case Skeeter Buster provides a satisfactory simulation of temporal population dynamics across seasons. Conclusions This model can provide a faithful description of Ae. aegypti populations, through a process of location-specific customization that is contingent on the amount of data available from field collections. We discuss limitations presented by some specific components of the model such as the description of food dynamics and challenges that these limitations bring to model evaluation.
Legros, Mathieu; Magori, Krisztian; Morrison, Amy C.; Xu, Chonggang; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
Background The mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the Dengue and yellow fever viruses. During feeding, an adult female can take up more than its own body weight in vertebrate blood. After a blood meal females excrete large amounts of urine through their excretion system, the Malpighian tubules (MT). Diuresis starts within seconds after the mosquito starts feeding. Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of membrane transporters that regulate the flow of water, glycerol and other small molecules across cellular membranes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Our aim was to identify aquaporins that function as water channels, mediating transcellular water transport in MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a bioinformatics approach we screened genome databases and identified six putative AQPs in the genome of Ae. aegypti. Phylogenetic analysis showed that five of the six Ae. aegypti AQPs have high similarity to classical water-transporting AQPs of vertebrates. Using microarray, reverse transcription and real time PCR analysis we found that all six AQPs are expressed in distinct patterns in mosquito tissues/body parts. AaAQP1, 4, and 5 are strongly expressed in the adult female MT. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the MT-expressed mosquito AQPs resulted in significantly reduced diuresis. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the notion that AQP1, 4, and 5 function as water transporters in the MTs of adult female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate the importance of these AQPs for mosquito diuresis after blood ingestion and highlight their potential as targets for the development of novel vector control strategies.
Drake, Lisa L.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Dawe, Angus L.; Hansen, Immo A.
An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563
Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC?=?0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health Ministry to focus resources more effectively.
Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Mas, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Luduena-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, Maria Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almiron, Walter Ricardo
Background Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is an efficient vector of arboviruses and a convenient model system for laboratory research. Extensive linkage mapping of morphological and molecular markers localized a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the mosquito's ability to transmit various pathogens. However, linking the QTLs to Ae. aegypti chromosomes and genomic sequences has been challenging because of the poor quality of polytene chromosomes and the highly fragmented genome assembly for this species. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on the approach developed in our previous study, we constructed idiograms for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti based on their banding patterns at early metaphase. These idiograms represent the first cytogenetic map developed for mitotic chromosomes of Ae. aegypti. One hundred bacterial artificial chromosome clones carrying major genetic markers were hybridized to the chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization. As a result, QTLs related to the transmission of the filarioid nematode Brugia malayi, the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum, and the dengue virus, as well as sex determination locus and 183 Mbp of genomic sequences were anchored to the exact positions on Ae. aegypti chromosomes. A linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation between positions of the markers on the physical and linkage maps. As a result of the recombination rate variation along the chromosomes, 12 QTLs on the linkage map were combined into five major clusters of QTLs on the chromosome map. Conclusion This study developed an integrated linkage, chromosome, and genome map—iMap—for the yellow fever mosquito. Our discovery of the localization of multiple QTLs in a few major chromosome clusters suggests a possibility that the transmission of various pathogens is controlled by the same genomic loci. Thus, the iMap will facilitate the identification of genomic determinants of traits responsible for susceptibility or refractoriness of the mosquito to diverse pathogens.
Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Severson, David W.; deBruyn, Becky S.; Black, William C.; Sharakhov, Igor V.; Sharakhova, Maria V.
We investigated the oviposition behavior of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. In particular we examined whether small-scale site characteristics and the presence of conspecifics or congeners altered oviposition by these mosquitoes. Various combinations of females of the two species were allowed to oviposit inside cages among either vegetation (potted plants) or structural components (wood and concrete blocks). Numbers of eggs deposited per female were compared between species, sides, and treatments. Most significant differences between treatments and species involved differences between single species and mixed species treatments. Ae. aegypti deposited more eggs/female in the vegetation side than in the structure side whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti females had higher frequency of skip oviposition than Ae. albopictus. An average of 63% of the containers in the two-species treatments contained eggs of both species, with more frequent joint occurrences observed in the treatment with three females of each species than in the treatments with one of each. Our results point to the existence of various interactions between gravid Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females at or near the oviposition sites but further experimental work is necessary to fully characterize the interactions and their specific mechanisms. PMID:24820572
Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila M
The present study indicates the efficacy of the saponins fraction of the fruit mesocarp extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllace) as a larvicidal agent against the common dengue vector - Aedes aegypti mosquito. A series of concentrations of fruit mesocarp extract of B. aegyptiaca fruit, its crude saponin extract and pure saponin fraction were tested against the laboratory-reared third instars
Bishnu P. Chapagain; Zeev Wiesman
A cDNA for a midgut trypsin induced by a blood meal has been cloned and sequenced from the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The 862 base sequence codes for a 257 amino acid protein, which is presumably a trypsin precursor, since the sequence of purified mosquito trypsin begins at residue 26, immediately following an arginine residue in the precursor. The amino terminal
CAROLINA BARILLAS-MURY; ROLF GRAF; HENRY H. HAGEDORN; MICHAEL A. WELLS
As a part of a programme on possible utilization of indigenous plant extracts in pest management practices, acetone extracts of eight plant species collected in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, were tested for their larvicidal activity against the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. The buds of Tail Pepper, Piper cubeba L, Capers Capparis spinosa L and Indian Black
Joish Madhasudhana Murthy; Pathipati Usha Rani
BackgroundDengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans. The only prevention measure currently available is the control of its vectors, primarily Aedes aegypti. Recent advances in genetic engineering have opened the possibility for a new range of control strategies based on genetically modified mosquitoes. Assessing the potential efficacy of genetic (and conventional) strategies requires the availability of modeling
Krisztian Magori; Mathieu Legros; Molly E. Puente; Dana A. Focks; Thomas W. Scott; Alun L. Lloyd; Fred Gould
Background: Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans. The only prevention measure currently available is the control of its vectors, primarily Aedes aegypti. Recent advances in genetic engineering have opened the possibility for a new range of control strategies based on genetically modified mosquitoes. Assessing the potential efficacy of genetic (and conventional) strategies requires the availability of
Krisztian Magori; Mathieu Legros; Molly E. Puente; Dana A. Focks; Thomas W. Scott; Alun L. Lloyd; Fred Gould
The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal potential of five different essential oils, peppermint oil (Mentha piperita), basil oil (Ocimum basilicum), rosemary oil (Rosemarinus officinalis), citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus), and celery seed oil (Apium graveolens), were assessed against female adults of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti L. Multiple concentration tests were carried out where cups containing 1 mL of different concentrations (100%, 10%,
Radhika Warikoo; Naim Wahab; Sarita Kumar
Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.
de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.
Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa), Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg). Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC50 value (0.055?6±0.010?3) µg/mL, (0.067?5±0.136?0) µg/mL and (0.066?1±0.007?6) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.
Ali, Mohamed Yacoob Syed; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Beula, Johanson Margaret
Insecticide resistance is an important factor in the effectiveness of Aedes aegypti control and the related spread of dengue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the status of the organochlorine dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroid (permethrin and deltamethrin) resistance in Trinidad and Tobago populations of Ae. aegypti and the underlying biochemical mechanisms. Nine populations of Ae. aegypti larvae from Trinidad and Tobago were assayed to DDT and PYs using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) time-mortality-based bioassay method. A diagnostic dosage (DD) was established for each insecticide using the CAREC reference susceptible Ae. aegypti strain and a resistance threshold (RT), time in which 98-100% mortality was observed in the CAREC strain, was calculated for each insecticide. Mosquitoes which survived the DD and RT were considered as resistant, and the resistance status of each population was categorised based on the WHO criteria with mortality <80% indicative of resistance. Biochemical assays were conducted to determine the activities of ? and ? esterases, mixed function oxidases (MFO) and glutathione-S-transferases (GST) enzymes which are involved in resistance of mosquitoes to DDT and PYs. Enzymatic activity levels in each population were compared with those obtained for the CAREC susceptible strain, and significant differences were determined by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey's non-parametric tests (P<0.05). The established DDs were 0.01 mg l(-1), 0.2 mg l(-1) and 1.0 mg l(-1) for deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT, respectively; and the RTs for deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT were 30, 75 and 120 min, respectively. All Ae. aegypti populations were resistant to DDT (<80% mortality); two strains were incipiently resistant to deltamethrin and three to permethrin (80-98% mortality). Biochemical assays revealed elevated levels of ?-esterase and MFO enzymes in all Ae. aegypti populations. All, except three populations, showed increased levels of ?-esterases; and all populations, except Curepe, demonstrated elevated GST levels.Metabolic detoxification of enzymes is correlated with the manifestation of DDT and PY resistance in Trinidad and Tobago populations of Ae. aegypti. The presence of this resistance also suggests that knock down (kdr)-type resistance may be involved, hence the need for further investigations. This information can contribute to the development of an insecticide resistance surveillance programme and improvement of resistance management strategies aimed at combatting the spread of dengue in Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:21272394
Polson, K A; Rawlins, S C; Brogdon, W G; Chadee, D D
In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.
Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.
In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.
Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.
This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84?±?4.08, 38.42?±?3.67, and 79.35?±?2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs. PMID:23835922
Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi
Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats.
Mocellin, Marcio Goulart; Simoes, Taynana Cesar; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia Franca; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenco
We conducted this study to assess how well a pupal survey of dengue mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, is able to target the most productive breeding sites. The study was carried out monthly during the rainy season (8 months) in 2008 in Cuba, Cebu City, Philippines. The hypotheses tested were: 1) most pupae of Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus were produced in a few types of breeding sites and 2) the most productive types of breeding sites for each species were the most abundant. Approximately 2,500 pupae were collected from 554 breeding sites in 279 houses. Thirty-eight point four percent of ten types of breeding sites were positive for Ae. aegypti, and 11.9% of nine types of sites were positive for Ae. albopictus. Plastic drums (40.2%), metal drums (29.6%), and plastic containers (10.5%) were the key sites for Ae. aegypti pupae, whereas bamboo stumps (28.5%), plastic drums (21.1%), and rubber tires (19.1%) were the key sites for Ae. albopictus. The most productive breeding sites for Ae. aegypti were common but not the most common for Ae. albopictus. These results are relevant for dengue vector control programs. PMID:23413699
Edillo, Frances E; Roble, Noel D; Otero, Nenito D
BACKGROUND: An integrated approach to reduce densities of adult Aedes aegypti inside homes is currently being evaluated under experimentally controlled field conditions. The strategy combines a spatial repellent (SR) treatment (applied indoors) with the Biogents SentinelTM (BGS) mosquito trap positioned in the outdoor environment. In essence, when combined, the goal is to create a push-pull mechanism that will reduce the probability of human-vector contact. The current study measured BGS recapture rates of Ae. aegypti test cohorts that were exposed to either SR or control (chemical-free) treatments within experimental huts. The objective was to define what, if any, negative impact SR may have on BGS trap efficacy (i.e., reduced BGS collection). METHODS: Aedes aegypti females were exposed to SR compounds within experimental huts in the form of either treated fabric (DDT and transfluthrin) or mosquito coil (metofluthrin). Test cohorts were released within individual screen house cubicles, each containing 4 BGS traps, following SR exposure according to treatment. Two separate test cohorts were evaluated: (i) immediate release (IR) exposed from 06:00--12:00 hours and released at 12:00 hours and (ii) delayed release (DR) exposed from12:00--18:00 hours and released at 05:30 hours the following day. BGS recapture was monitored at 09:30, 13:30 and 15:30 hours and the cumulative recapture by time point quantified. RESULTS: Exposure of Ae. aegypti females to either DDT or metofluthrin did not significantly impact BGS capture as compared to cohorts of non-exposed females. This was true for both IR and DR exposure populations. IR cohorts exposed to transfluthrin resulted in significantly lower BGS recapture compared to matched controls but this effect was primarily due to high mosquito mortality during transfluthrin trials. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate no more than minor and short-lived impacts (i.e., reduced attraction) on BGS trap catches following exposure to the pyrethroid compounds transfluthrin and metofluthrin and no change in recapture densities using DDT as compared to matched controls. These findings suggest a combined SR and BGS approach to vector control could function as a push-pull strategy to reduce Ae. aegypti adults in and around homes. PMID:23688176
Salazar, Ferdinand V; Achee, Nicole L; Grieco, John P; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Ojo, Tolulope A; Eisen, Lars; Dureza, Christine; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap
In recent years, high levels of Aedes aegypti infestation and several dengue outbreaks with fatal outcome cases have been reported in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. This situation made it important to understand the genetic structure and gene flow patterns among the populations of this vector in Manaus, vital pieces of information for their management and development of new control strategies. In this study, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the effect of seasonality on the genetic structure and gene flow patterns in Ae. aegypti populations from four urban neighborhoods of Manaus, collected during the two main rainy and dry seasons. All loci were polymorphic in the eight samples from the two seasons, with a total of 41 alleles. The genetic structure analyses of the samples from the rainy season revealed genetic homogeneity and extensive gene flow, a result consistent with the abundance of breeding sites for this vector. However, the samples from the dry season were significantly structured, due to a reduction of Ne in two (Praça 14 de Janeiro and Cidade Nova) of the four samples analyzed, and this was the primary factor influencing structure during the dry season. Genetic bottleneck analyses suggested that the Ae. aegypti populations from Manaus are being maintained continuously throughout the year, with seasonal reduction rather than severe bottleneck or extinction, corroborating previous reports. These findings are of extremely great importance for designing new dengue control strategies in Manaus. PMID:24631342
Mendonça, Barbara Alessandra Alves; de Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever flaviviruses. The organophosphate insecticide temephos is a larvicide that is used globally to control Ae. aegypti populations; many of which have in turn evolved resistance. Target site alteration in the acetylcholine esterase of this species has not being identified. Instead, we tracked changes in transcription of metabolic detoxification genes using the Ae. aegypti ‘Detox Chip’ microarray during five generations of temephos selection. We selected for temephos resistance in three replicates in each of six collections, five from México, and one from Perú. The response to selection was tracked in terms of lethal concentrations (LC50). Uniform upregulation was seen in the epsilon class glutathione-S-transferase genes (eGSTs) in strains from México prior to laboratory selection, while eGSTs in the Iquitos Perú strain became upregulated following five generations of temephos selection. While expression of many esterase genes (CCE) increased with selection, no single esterase was consistently upregulated and this same pattern was noted in the cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and in other genes involved in reduction or oxidation of xenobiotics. Bioassays using GST, CCE and CYP inhibitors suggest that various CCE instead of GSTs are the main metabolic mechanism conferring resistance to temephos. We show that temephos selected strains show no cross resistance to permethrin and that genes associated with temephos selection are largely independent of those selected with permethrin in a previous study.
Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Strode, Clare; Flores, Adriana E.; Garcia-Luna, Selene; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C.
A peptide from cadherin AgCad1 of Anopheles gambiae larvae was reported as a synergist of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba's toxicity to the Anopheles mosquito (G. Hua, R. Zhang, M. A. Abdullah, and M. J. Adang, Biochemistry 47:5101-5110, 2008). We report that CR11 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (MPED) (CR11-MPED) and a longer peptide, CR9 to CR11 (CR9-11), from AgCad1 act as synergists of Cry4Ba's toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae, but a Diabrotica virgifera virgifera cadherin-based synergist of Cry3 (Y. Park, M. A. F. Abdullah, M. D. Taylor, K. Rahman, and M. J. Adang, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:3086-3092, 2009) did not affect Cry4Ba's toxicity. Peptides CR9-11 and CR11-MPED bound Cry4Ba with high affinity (13 nM and 23 nM, respectively) and inhibited Cry4Ba binding to the larval A. aegypti brush border membrane. The longer CR9-11 fragment was more potent than CR11-MPED in enhancing Cry4Ba against A. aegypti.
Park, Youngjin; Hua, Gang; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Rahman, Khalidur; Adang, Michael J.
Villages under the escarpment of the Tanzanian plateau were surveyed for breeding of Aedes aegypti. In some places more than 27% of the water containers outside houses harboured A. aegypti larvae, while there was practically no breeding in containers inside houses. From 2% to 10% of tree holes contained A. aegypti larvae. In places, as many as 47 A. simpsoni larvae were collected from one pineapple plant, and the total mean number of larvae per pineapple was 6.6, while the percentage of plants with larvae was as high as 93.6. The total mean number of larvae per colocasia plant was 2.9, but the number per banana plant was only 0.3. The plant Crinum was discovered to be a breeding site of A. simpsoni. Eggs of A. simpsoni were found in 55-80% of ovitraps placed in four villages. Of 20 traps found to contain eggs of this species 30% were in the village, 60% in gardens, and 10% at the edge of forest. It was observed that A. simpsoni females lay their eggs at all levels up to 5 m, but prefer ground level. PMID:4538907
Successful SIT trials against mosquitoes in the 1960-70s were achieved by sterilizing male mosquitoes using chemosterilants. Their use was discontinued after concerns were raised about the effect of residues on non-target organisms, although scant evidence has been published. Irradiation is an expensive process; chemosterilization could be an affordable option for implementing SIT programs in developing countries. We compare life table parameters of three Aedes aegypti populations comprising different ratios of thiotepa-treated and non-treated males in order to identify the impact on reproductive potential of the presence of sterile males. No difference was observed in the survival of the treated and untreated males. The release of thiotepa sterilized males into caged Ae. aegypti populations had no effect on death or survival probability of the individuals in the cages but the fecundity of females was significantly reduced, as evaluated by hatch rate and stable age structure parameters. The significant decreases in net reproduction rate, finite rate of natural increase and intrinsic rate of natural increase in populations including sterile males are sufficient to indicate that such populations would not be able to proliferate in natural conditions. This suggests that release of Ae. aegypti thiotepa-treated males could be effective in reducing the reproductive capability of the target population and consequently contribute to vector control. PMID:24513037
Gato, René; Companioni, Ariamys; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Menéndez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use pharate 1st instar quiescence to cope with fluctuations in water availability hosting a fully developed 1st instar larvae within the chorion. The duration of this quiescence has been shown to affect larval fitness. This study s ought to determine if an extended egg quiescence can elicit a plastic response resulting in an adult phenotype distinct from adults reared from short quiescence eggs. Our findings indicate that extended pharate 1st quiescence affects the performance and reproductive fitness of the adult female mosquito as well as the nutritional status of its progeny via maternal effects in an adaptive manner. This study demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity results as a consequence of the duration of pharate 1st instar quiescence and alternative phenotypes may exist for this mosquito with quiescence serving as a cue possibly signaling the environmental conditions that follow a dry period. These findings have implications for A. aegypti’s success as a vector, geographic distribution, vector capacity and control.
Perez, Mario H.; Noriega, Fernando G.
We have detected seventy-six novel LTR retrotransposons in the genome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti by a genome wide analysis using the LTR_STRUC program. We have performed a phylogenetic classification of these novel elements and a distribution analysis in the genome of A. aegypti. These mobile elements belong either to the Ty3/gypsy or to the Bel family of retrotransposons and were not annotated in the mosquito LTR retrotransposon database (TEfam). We have found that approximately 1.8% of the genome is occupied by these newly detected retrotransposons that are distributed predominantly in intergenic genomic sequences and introns. The potential role of retrotransposon insertions linked to host genes is described and discussed. We show that a retrotransposon family belonging to the Osvaldo lineage has peculiar structural features, and its presence is likely to be restricted to the A. aegypti and to the Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus genomes. Furthermore we show that the ninja-like group of elements lacks the Primer Binding Site (PBS) sequence necessary for the replication of retrotransposons. These results integrate the knowledge on the complicate genomic structure of an important disease vector. PMID:19362135
Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Viggiano, Luigi; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, Renè Massimiliano
Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti.
Costa, Marilza S.; Cossolin, Jamile F. S.; Pereira, Monica J. B.; Sant'Ana, Antonio E. G.; Lima, Milena D.; Zanuncio, Jose C.; Serrao, Jose Eduardo
The presence of pathogens or predators in water may alter oviposition behaviour of gravid female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. We evaluated the oviposition behaviour of A. aegypti in recipients containing larvivorous fish (Betta splendens and Poecilia reticulata). In four breeders, fish specimens were placed in 15 l of dechlorined water. Four control breeders only contained dechlorined water. Breeders with eucatex ovitraps and approximately 100 male and female mosquitoes were placed in wire netting cages. During a period of 7 weeks, eggs on the ovitraps were counted weekly. The median number of eggs laid in recipients with B. splendens (32.5/week) was lower than in those with P. reticulata (200.5/week) and the control group (186.5/week; P < 0.0001). The oviposition activity index (OAI) for P. reticulata did not show any considerable difference between posture in deposits with and without fish (-0005). Deposits with B. splendens showed a lower position than those used as controls (-0627). We conclude that B. splendens can be used to effectively prevent gravid A. aegypti females from laying eggs in large water containers. PMID:19754521
Pamplona, Luciano de Góes Cavalcanti; Alencar, Carlos H; Lima, José Wellington O; Heukelbach, Jörg
Background Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald), to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid). Conclusions/Significance ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies.
Lumjuan, Nongkran; Wicheer, Jureeporn; Leelapat, Posri; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya
A simulated field study on the efficacy of commercial household aerosol insecticides was conducted. The bioefficacy of three pyrethroid aerosols, designated as PA1, PA2 and PA3, was tested in cabins furnished to simulate bedroom conditions. Each aerosol product was tested against lab-bred Aedes aegypti mosquitoes based on the insecticide manufacturers' recommended dosages. Ten cages with mosquitoes were placed in the following locations: one cage in the middle of the room; two each on and underneath the bed; three each placed inside, behind and on top of the wardrobe; and four placed on and in the desk. With the desk, each cage was placed inside each of three drawers (totally closed, partially closed and opened). Prior to the experiments, the discharge rate of each aerosol can was determined. Ten to 20 lab-bred 2-5 day-old sugar-fed Ae. aegypti adult mosquitoes were placed inside the test cages. The aerosol was then discharged into the cabin at the recommended dosage. After 30 minutes, the mosquitoes were transferred into clean paper cups and their mortality recorded after 24 hours. All the aerosols induced complete or very high mortality in the caged Ae. aegypti females, except in the cages hidden completely inside the drawers and wardrobes. Insecticide droplet analysis indicated variable uniformity of the droplets was produced. The aerosol insecticides were effective against mosquitoes provided they were used in accordance with the manufacturers' recommendations. PMID:20578457
Khadri, M S; Kwok, K L; Noor, M I; Lee, H L
Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, P<0.001) in bamboo leaf infusions when compared to distilled water. When the fresh infusion was filtered with a 0.45 ?m filter membrane, the female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs (64.1 ± 6.6 vs 4.9 ± 2.6 eggs, P<0.001) in unfiltered infusion. However when a 0.8 ?m filter membrane was used, the female laid significantly more eggs (62.0 ± 4.3 vs 10.1 ± 7.8 eggs, P<0.001) in filtrate compared to a solution containing the residue. We also found that a mixture of bacteria isolated from bamboo leaf infusion serve as potent oviposition stimulants for gravid Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes. PMID:24862053
Arbaoui, A A; Chua, T H
Abstract In an effort to derive an efficacious live attenuated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis, we generated a chimeric virus bearing the structural protein genes of a Far Eastern subtype of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) on the genetic background of recombinant dengue 4 (DEN4) virus. Introduction of attenuating mutations into the TBEV envelope protein gene, as well as the DEN4 NS5 protein gene and 3? noncoding region in the chimeric genome, results in decreased neurovirulence and neuroinvasiveness in mice, and restricted replication in mouse brain. Since TBEV and DEN4 viruses are transmitted in nature by ticks and mosquitoes, respectively, it was of interest to investigate the infectivity of the chimeric virus for both arthropod vectors. Therefore, parental and chimeric viruses were tested for growth in mosquito and tick cells and for oral infection in vivo. Although all chimeric viruses demonstrated moderate levels of replication in C6/36 mosquito cells, they were unable to replicate in ISE6 tick cells. Further, the chimeric viruses were unable to infect or replicate in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and Ixodes scapularis tick larvae. The poor infectivity for both potential vectors reinforces the safety of chimeric virus-based vaccine candidates for the environment and for use in humans.
Engel, Amber R.; Mitzel, Dana N.; Hanson, Christopher T.; Wolfinbarger, James B.; Bloom, Marshall E.
RNA interference (RNAi) is the major innate antiviral pathway in Aedes aegypti that responds to replicating arboviruses such as DENV and SINV. The mosquito’s RNAi machinery is capable of completely eliminating DENV2 from Ae. aegypti. On the other hand, transient silencing of key genes of the RNAi pathway increases replication of SINV and DENV2, allowing the viruses to temporally overcome dose-dependent midgut infection and –escape barriers at higher rates. Here we expressed FHV-B2 from the poly-ubiquitin (PUb) promoter in Ae. aegypti using the ?C31 site-directed recombination system to investigate the impact of transgene-mediated RNAi pathway suppression on infections with SINV-TR339eGFP and DENV2-QR94, the latter of which has been shown to be confronted with a strong midgut escape barrier (MEB) in Ae. aegypti. FHV-B2 was constitutively expressed in midguts of sugar- and bloodfed mosquitoes of transgenic line PUbB2 P61. B2 over-expression suppressed RNA silencing of carboxypeptidase A-1 (AeCPA-1) in midgut tissue of PUbB2 P61 mosquitoes. Following oral challenge with SINV-TR339eGFP or DENV2-QR94, mean titers in midguts of PUbB2 P61 females were significantly higher at 7 days post-bloodmeal (pbm) than in those of non-transgenic control mosquitoes. At 14 days pbm, infection rates of carcasses were significantly increased in PubB2 P61 mosquitoes infected with SINV-TR339eGFP. Following infection with DENV2-QR94, midgut infection rates were significantly increased in the B2-expressing mosquitoes at 14 days pbm. However, B2 expression in PUbB2 P61 did not increase the DENV2-QR94 dissemination rate, indicating that the infection phenotype was not primarily controlled by RNAi.
Khoo, CCH; Doty, JB; Heersink, MS; Olson, KE
Background Because no dengue vaccine or antiviral therapy is commercially available, controlling the primary mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, is currently the only means to prevent dengue outbreaks. Traditional models of Ae. aegypti assume that population dynamics are regulated by density-dependent larval competition for food and little affected by oviposition behavior. Due to direct impacts on offspring survival and development, however, mosquito choice in oviposition site can have important consequences for population regulation that should be taken into account when designing vector control programs. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined oviposition patterns by Ae. aegypti among 591 naturally occurring containers and a set of experimental containers in Iquitos, Peru. Using larval starvation bioassays as an indirect measure of container food content, we assessed whether females select containers with the most food for their offspring. Our data indicate that choice of egg-laying site is influenced by conspecific larvae and pupae, container fill method, container size, lid, and sun exposure. Although larval food positively influenced oviposition, our results did not support the hypothesis that females act primarily to maximize food for larvae. Females were most strongly attracted to sites containing immature conspecifics, even when potential competitors for their progeny were present in abundance. Conclusion/Significance Due to strong conspecific attraction, egg-laying behavior may contribute more to regulating Ae. aegypti populations than previously thought. If highly infested containers are targeted for removal or larvicide application, females that would have preferentially oviposited in those sites may instead distribute their eggs among other suitable, previously unoccupied containers. Strategies that kill mosquitoes late in their development (i.e., insect growth regulators that kill pupae rather than larvae) will enhance vector control by creating “egg sinks,” treated sites that exploit conspecific attraction of ovipositing females, but reduce emergence of adult mosquitoes via density-dependent larval competition and late acting insecticide.
Wong, Jacklyn; Stoddard, Steven T.; Astete, Helvio; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.
World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations.
Marcombe, Sebastien; Darriet, Frederic; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yebakima, Andre; Corbel, Vincent
Background The juvenile hormones (JHs) are sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. The late steps of JH III biosynthesis in the mosquito Aedes aegypti involve the hydrolysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to farnesol (FOL), which is then successively oxidized to farnesal and farnesoic acid, methylated to form methyl farnesoate and finally transformed to JH III by a P450 epoxidase. The only recognized FPP phosphatase (FPPase) expressed in the corpora allata (CA) of an insect was recently described in Drosophila melanogaster (DmFPPase). In the present study we sought to molecularly and biochemically characterize the FPP phosphatase responsible for the transformation of FPP into FOL in the CA of A. aegypti. Methods A search for orthologs of the DmFPPase in Aedes aegypti led to the identification of 3 putative FPPase paralogs expressed in the CA of the mosquito (AaFPPases-1, -2, and -3). The activities of recombinant AaFPPases were tested against general phosphatase substrates and isoprenoid pyrophosphates. Using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we analyzed AaFPPase activities in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was used to evaluate the effect of reduction of AaFPPase mRNAs on JH biosynthesis. Conclusions AaFPPase-1 and AaFPPase-2 are members of the NagD family of the Class IIA C2 cap-containing haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase (HAD) super family and efficiently hydrolyzed FPP into FOL. AaFPPase activities were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. Injection of dsRNAs resulted in a significant reduction of AaFPPase-1 and AaFPPase-2 mRNAs, but only reduction of AaFPPase-1 caused a significant decrease of JH biosynthesis. These results suggest that AaFPPase-1 is predominantly involved in the catalysis of FPP into FOL in the CA of A. aegypti.
Nyati, Pratik; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Clifton, Mark E.; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Noriega, Fernando G.
A rapid and reproducible method of inhibiting the expression of specific genes in mosquitoes should further our understanding of gene function and may lead to the identification of mosquito genes that determine vector competence or are involved in pathogen transmission. We hypothesized that the virus expression system based on the mosquito-borne Alphavirus, Sindbis (Togaviridae), may efficiently transcribe effector RNAs that inhibit expression of a targeted mosquito gene. To test this hypothesis, germ-line-transformed Aedes aegypti that express luciferase (LUC) from the mosquito Apyrase promoter were intrathoracically inoculated with a double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) virus TE/3?2J/anti-luc (Anti-luc) that transcribes RNA complementary to the 5? end of the LUC mRNA. LUC activity was monitored in mosquitoes infected with either Anti-luc or control dsSIN viruses expressing unrelated antisense RNAs. Mosquitoes infected with Anti-luc virus exhibited 90% reduction in LUC compared with uninfected and control dsSIN-infected mosquitoes at 5 and 9 days postinoculation. We demonstrate that a gene expressed from the mosquito genome can be inhibited by using an antisense strategy. The dsSIN antisense RNA expression system is an important tool for studying gene function in vivo.
Johnson, Barbara W.; Olson, Ken E.; Allen-Miura, Tanya; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo; Carlson, Jonathan O.; Coates, Craig J.; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Beaty, Barry J.; Higgs, Stephen
The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquitoes. This pyriproxyfen-treated device was evaluated for its impact on Ae. aegypti egg production and population dynamics in dengue-endemic areas in Thailand. The device consists of a "high rise" shaped ovitrap/ resting station covered with black cotton cloth. The device is easily collapsible and transportable. Ae. aegypti are generally drawn towards darker, shadier areas making this device physically attractive as a resting station to mosquitoes of all physiological stages. The results show this device suppressed Ae. aegypti populations after it was introduced into a village. The observed effect was primarily the result of the Ae. aegypti exposure to pyriproxyfen shortly after adult emergence or after taking a blood meal resulting in decreased egg production. We believe the device may be further improved physically and the formulation should be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito, populations. PMID:23691625
Ponlawat, Alongkot; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Pongsiri, Arissara; McCardle, Patrick W; Evans, Brian P; Evans, Brain P; Richardson, Jason H
We present a population genetic study of Aedes aegypti in Brazil using isoenzyme markers. Four polymorphic loci were used to examine 11 mosquito collections at four periods in 2003. Samples from a dengue-endemic area (southeastern region) and a dengue-free area (southern region) connected by an important network of roads and railways were analyzed. The degree of genetic differentiation observed between populations is consistent with limited gene flow between them. There was no evidence of passive dispersion of Ae. aegypti by vehicles among the different routes linking metropolitan areas. PMID:17690403
da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Two bacterial insecticides,Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 andB. sphaericus 1593 were evaluated for larvicidal potency against mosquito larvae ofAedes aegypti. LC50 values showed thatB.thuringiensis H-14 (4×105 spores\\/ml) had a higher pathogenicity against fourth larval instars ofA. aegypti thanB. sphaericus (3.1×106 spores\\/ml) by about 7.75 times.Larval selection with LC90 of both pathogens for 8 successive generations caused a decrease in the susceptibility levels
Moustafa S. Saleh
We analyzed brush border membrane vesicle proteins from isolated midguts of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, by two proteomic methods: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE) and a shotgun two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LS/LS) approach based on multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). We were interested in the most abundant proteins of the apical brush border midgut membrane. About 400 spots were detected on 2D gels and 39 spots were cored and identified by mass spectrometry. 86 proteins were identified by MudPIT. Three proteins, arginine kinase, putative allergen and actin are shown to be the most predominant proteins in the sample. The total number of 36 proteins detected by both methods represents the most abundant proteins in the BBMV.
Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Dean, Donald H.
This video protocol demonstrates an effective technique to knockdown a particular gene in an insect and conduct a novel bioassay to measure excretion rate. This method can be used to obtain a better understanding of the process of diuresis in insects and is especially useful in the study of diuresis in blood-feeding arthropods that are able to take up huge amounts of liquid in a single blood meal. This RNAi-mediated gene knockdown combined with an in vivo diuresis assay was developed by the Hansen lab to study the effects of RNAi-mediated knockdown of aquaporin genes on Aedes aegypti mosquito diuresis1. The protocol is setup in two parts: the first demonstration illustrates how to construct a simple mosquito injection device and how to prepare and inject dsRNA into the thorax of mosquitoes for RNAi-mediated gene knockdown. The second demonstration illustrates how to determine excretion rates in mosquitoes using an in vivo bioassay.
Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Aguirre, Sarah E.; Hansen, Immo A.
In Brazil, the entomological surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is performed by government-mandated larval surveys. In this study, the sensitivities of an adult sticky trap and traditional surveillance methodologies were compared. The study was performed over a 12-week period in a residential neighbourhood of the municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An ovitrap and a MosquiTRAP were placed at opposite ends of each neighbourhood block (60 traps in total) and inspections were performed weekly. The study revealed significant correlations of moderate strength between the larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP measurements. A positive relationship was observed between temperature, adult capture measurements and egg collections, whereas precipitation and frequency of rainy days exhibited a negative relationship.
de Resende, Marcelo Carvalho; Silva, Ivoneide Maria; Ellis, Brett R; Eiras, Alvaro Eduardo
The leaves of Lindera obtusiloba Blume var. obtusiloba were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of L. obtusiloba. The L. obtusiloba essential oil yield was 4.23%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were ?-copaene (31.42%), ?-caryophyllene (32.11%), ?-humulene (4.12%), ?-farnesene (4.15%), ?- cadinene (3.21%) and Nerolidol (6.84%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 24.32?ppm and an LC(90) value of 36.42?ppm. PMID:20477554
Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In
The repellent activity of materials derived from the methanol extract of fruits from Foeniculum vulgareagainst hungry Aedes aegypti females was examined using skin and patch tests and compared with that of the commercial N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (deet) and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as (+)-fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid by spectroscopic analyses. Responses varied according to compound, dose, and exposure time. In a skin test with female mosquitoes, at a dose of 0.4 mg/cm(2), (+)-fenchone and (Z)-9-octadecenoic acid exhibited moderate repellent activity at 30 min after treatment, whereas deet provided >1 h of protection against adult mosquitoes at 0.2 mg/cm(2). (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was a more potent repellent agent than (E)-9-octadecenoic acid. (+)-Fenchone and (E)-9-octadecenoic acid merit further study as potential mosquito repellent agents or as lead compounds. PMID:12428949
Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Soon-Il; Chang, Kyu-Sik; Ahn, Young-Joon
Bioassay test against malathion had been carried out with larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti. The mosquitoes were under selection pressure against malathion for forty-five consecutive generations. The rate of resistance development was measured by LC(50) and LT(50) values. The larvae and adult females, after subjection to malathion selection for 45 generations, developed high resistance level to malathion, with resistance ratio of 52.7 and 3.24 folds, respectively over control mosquitoes. Cross-resistance towards the same and different groups of insecticides was determined using the F44 and F45 malathion-selected adult females. Insecticides tested were DDT (4.0%), permethrin (0.75%), propoxur (0.1%), fenitrothion (1%), ?-cyhalothrin (0.05%) and cyfluthrin (0.15%). Results indicated that the mosquitoes were highly resistant to DDT and fenitrothion, moderately resistant to propoxur, tolerant to permethrin and ?-cyhalothrin, and very low resistant to cyfluthrin. PMID:22041765
Hidayati, H; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M
Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) mosquito is a world vector of important arboviral diseases like dengue and Rift Valley fever. Despite its wide distribution in the western and southern regions of Saudi Arabia, where dengue outbreaks have occurred, its ecology is largely unknown. In this study we report on the main life table developmental attributes of a laboratory colony of Ae. aegypti reared from field-collected larvae from Madinah Province, west of Saudi Arabia. Females were maintained on daily blood meal and sugar. The female fecundity was ~62 eggs/female at an overall rate of 72% hatchability. The mean time needed for eggs to hatch into larvae was 4.5 d. The mean pupation time (P50) was 11.53 days (d). The proportion of immature survivorships were 0.69 for 1(st) larva to pupa (P/I), 0.98 for pupa to adult (A/P) and an overall 0.67 for 1(st) larva to adult (A/I). Males emerged faster than females with mean emergence time (E50) of 12.83 and 15.31 d, respectively. The average developmental velocity (V) showed that males (V= 0.081) developed faster than females (V= 0.068). The male/female sex ratio at adult emergence was 0.48, and insignificantly different from the 1:1 ratio. The adult mean life expectancy at emergence (eo) was 17.14 d for females compared to 9.59 d for males. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was 101.04 and the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.15 with a mean generation time (G) of 30.7 d. The instantaneous mean of birth (B) and death rate (D) were 0.30 and 0.15, respectively, with rm/B of 0.529 and B/D of 2.281. Compared to other Ae. aegypti strains from different geographic and ecological settings, the Saudi strain had a relatively low colonization potential. This is the first report on life table characteristics for Ae. aegypti from the Arabian Peninsula, and provides base-line information for wider studies on its natural populations. This is particularly important for understanding its population dynamics in relation to dengue transmission and control under regional conditions. PMID:23959496
Sowilem, Mohamed M; Kamal, Hany A; Khater, Emad I
The present study evaluated the Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaf extract and the bacterial insecticide spinosad, testing the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of two important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi. The fresh leaves of O. thymiflorus were washed thoroughly in tap water and shade-dried at room temperature (28 ± 2 °C) for 5 to 8 days. The air-dried materials were powdered separately using a commercial electrical blender. From the plants, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L organic solvents of petroleum ether sequentially for a period of 72 h each and then filtered. The larval and pupal mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure; no mortality was observed in the control group. The first- to fourth-instar larvae and pupae of A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 309.16, 337.58, 390.42, 429.68, and 513.34 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 334.78, 366.45, 422.97, 467.94, and 54.02 ppm, respectively. Spinosad against the A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 384.19, 433.39, 479.17, 519.79, and 572.63 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 210.68, 241.20, 264.93, 283.27, and 305.85 ppm, respectively. Moreover, in combined treatment, the A. stephensi had values of LC(50) = 202.36, 224.76, 250.84, 288.05, and 324.05 ppm, and A. aegypti had values of LC(50) = 217.70, 246.04, 275.36, 315.29, and 353.80 ppm, respectively. Results showed that the leaf extract of O. thymiflorus and bacterial insecticide spinosad are promising as a good larvicidal and pupicidal against dengue vector, A. aegypti and malarial vector, A. stephensi. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of target species of vector control programs. PMID:23242266
Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai
Larvae obtained from Taman Samudera (Gombak, Selangor), Kampung Banjar (Gombak, Selangor), Taman Lembah Maju (Cheras, Kuala Lumpur) and Kampung Baru (City centre, Kuala Lumpur) were bioassayed with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos. All strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus showed percentage mortality in the range of 16.00 to 59.05 and 6.4 to 59.50 respectively, after 24 hours. LT50 values for the 6 strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were between 41.25 to 54.42 minutes and 52.67 to 141.76 minutes respectively, and the resistance ratio for both Aedes species were in the range of 0.68 to 1.82 when tested with operational dosage, 1 mg/L temephos. These results indicate that Aedes mosquitoes have developed some degree of resistance. However, complete mortality for all strains were achieved after 24 hours when tested against 1 mg/L temephos. PMID:16883289
Chen, C D; Nazni, W A; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M
To understand the transmission of a vector-borne disease, knowledge of the magnitude of dispersal among vector populations is essential because of its influence on pathogen transfer. The principal vector of dengue, the most common arboviral disease in the world, is the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.). This tropical and subtropical species is native to Africa but has dispersed worldwide since the XV century. In Argentina, the species was declared eradicated in 1963, but has reinfested the country in recent years. In the present work, we used RAPD-PCR markers to assess the levels of genetic variability and differentiation among populations of Ae. aegypti (the vector of dengue and yellow fever) in Córdoba, the second largest city in Argentina. We detected similar levels of genetic variability (He between 0.351-0.404) across samples and significant genetic differentiation between most population pairs within the city (F ST between 0.0013-0.0253). Genetic distances indicate that there are three distinct groups, formed predominantly by populations that are connected by, or near, main roads. This suggests that, in addition to other factors such as availability of oviposition sites or step-by-step migration, passive transport plays an important role in gene flow within the city. PMID:19722088
Julio, Norma B; Chiappero, Marina B; Rossi, Hernán J; Rondan Dueñas, Juan C; Gardenal, Cristina N
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera, Culicidae) is the main vector of dengue and yellow fever. In Argentina, the species was apparently eradicated approximately in 1964; by 1986, it was reintroduced. To identify different gene pools in geographical populations of the species and to ascertain the possible routes of colonization, we analyzed the diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes in 572 specimens from Argentina and neighboring countries. We found that the restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction screening of a large DNA fragment including the A+T-rich region was the best strategy to reconstruct the colonization pattern ofAe. aegypti in Argentina. Twenty haplotypes were recognized; levels of genetic similarity varied among populations from different geographical locations. The haplotype network constructed on the basis of genetic distances showed three well differentiated groups. Two of them exhibited a well defined spatial distribution and populations in these groups presented an isolation-by-distance pattern. The persistence of relictual populations after the last eradication campaigns would explain the high levels of haplotype diversity and the presence of exclusive haplotypes in urban centers from northwestern Argentina. Eastern Argentine populations showed one prevalent haplotype, also predominant in Brazil and Paraguay. Our results highlight the need for efficient surveys and control campaigns, given the strong effect of land trade on genetic exchange among mosquito populations from Argentina and neighboring countries where dengue is endemic. PMID:19960679
Dueñas, J C Rondan; Llinás, G Albrieu; Panzetia-Dutari, G M; Gardenal, C N
Potential insecticide-resistance mechanisms were studied with the use of biochemical assays in Aedes aegypti (L.) collected from 5 municipalities representing the north part of Quintana Roo: Benito Juarez, Cozumel, Isla Mujeres, Lazaro Cardenas, and Solidaridad. The activities of alpha and beta esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), acethylcholinesterase (AChE), and insensitive acethylcholinesterase (iAChE) were assayed in microplates. Three replicates were performed for each enzyme and 60 males and 60 females were analyzed in each population. The New Orleans (NO) susceptible strain of Ae. aegypti was used as a susceptible reference and the threshold criteria for each enzyme were the highest NO absorbance values. In none of the 6 tests were absorbance values correlated in males and females. alpha esterases were elevated in Benito Juarez, Cozumel females and in Lazaro Cardenas males and females. beta esterases were elevated in Benito Juarez, Cozumel females and in Cozumel and Lazaro Cardenas males. Elevated esterases suggest potential insecticide-resistance mechanisms against organophosphate, carbamate, and some pyrethroid insecticides. Slightly elevated levels of MFOs appeared in Lazaro Cardenas females and in Cozumel, Isla Mujeres, and Solidaridad males. Mechanisms involving iAChE or GST were not apparent. PMID:17304936
Flores, Adriana E; Grajales, Jaime Salomon; Salas, Ildefonso Fernandez; Garcia, Gustavo Ponce; Becerra, Ma Haydee Loaiza; Lozano, Saul; Brogdon, William G; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry
Resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) that expressed high levels of cross-resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. Relative to LC50 and LC90 at 24 h of a susceptible New Orleans (NO) strain, three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (Coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio [RRLC90 = 11.97; Pozarica, RRLC90 = 12.98; and Cosoleacaque, RRLC50 = 13.94 and RRLC90 = 17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (Veracruz, RRLC90 = 5.92), and two strains were susceptible (Tantoyuca and Martinez de la Torre, RRLC50 and RRLC90 < 5) in bottle bioassays according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Furthermore, high levels of alpha- or beta-esterase activity in the sample populations were correlated with resistance, suggesting that esterase activity may be a mechanism causing the development of organophosphate resistance in these populations. Overall, the populations in this study were less resistant to chlorpyrifos than to pyrethroids. Rotation of insecticides used in control activities is recommended to delay or minimize the occurrence of high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos among local populations of Ae. aegypti. The diagnostic dose and diagnostic time for chlorpyrifos resistance monitoring was determined to be 85 microg per bottle and 30 min, respectively, using the susceptible NO strain. PMID:24897857
Lopez, Beatriz; Ponce, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Jessica A; Gutierrez, Selene M; Villanueva, Olga K; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Bobadilla, Cristina; Rodriguez, Iram P; Black, William C; Flores, Adriana E
Funnel traps are often used to sample for the presence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in subterranean aquatic habitats. These traps are generally > or = 15 cm in diameter, making them impractical for use in subterranean sites that have narrow (10-cm) access ports, such as those in standard-sized septic tanks. Recent research indicates septic tanks may be important habitats for Ae. aegypti in Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. To sample mosquito larval populations in these sites, a miniaturized funnel trap was necessary. This project describes the use of a smaller funnel trap for sampling larval populations. The effects of larval instar (third and fourth) and population density on trap efficacy also are examined. The trap detected larval presence 83% of the time at a larval density of 0.011 larvae per cm(2) and 100% of the time at densities > or = 0.022 larvae per cm(2). There was a significant trend of increasing percentage of recaptured larvae with higher larval population densities. Although the miniaturized funnel trap is less sensitive at detecting larval presence in low population densities, it may be useful for sampling aquatic environments with restricted access or shallow water, particularly in domestic septic tanks. PMID:21175077
Burke, R L; Barrera, R; Kluchinsky, T; Lewis, M; Claborn, D M
Even though the blood-sucking mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying processes involved in the temporal pattern of its activity and host seeking behavior. In this study, we analyzed the expression of the cycle (cyc) gene, one of the core components of the circadian clock, in Ae. aegypti brains by in situ hybridization at two different time points in light-dark conditions and compared the results with those obtained using a quantitative PCR assay (qPCR). Within the brain, differential labeling was detected according to distinct areas empirically pre-defined. Six out of seven of these areas showed significantly higher staining at ZT3 (three hours after light-on) compared to ZT11 (one before light-off), which is consistent with the qPCR data. Predominant staining was observed in three of those areas which correspond to positions of the optical and antennal lobes, as well as the region where the neurons controlling activity rhythms are presumably localized.
Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Gentile, Carla; Lima, Jose Bento Pereira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira
An insoluble white substance was prepared from extracts of eggshells of Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito and dengue vector. Its infrared and proton NMR spectra were similar to that of standard commercial chitin. This putative chitin-like material, also obtained from ovaries, newly laid and dark eggs, was hydrolyzed in acid and a major product was identified by HPLC to be glucosamine. The eggshell acid hydrolysate was also analyzed by ESI-MS and an ion identical to a glucosamine monoprotonated species was detected. The presence of chitin was also analyzed during different developmental stages of the ovary using a fluorescent microscopy technique and probes specific for chitin. The results showed that a chitin-like material accumulates in oocytes during oogenesis. Streptomyces griseus chitinase pre-treatment of oocytes greatly reduced the chitin-derived fluorescence. Chitinase activity was detected in newborn larvae and eggs prior to hatching. Feeding experiments indicated that the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron inhibited chitin synthesis, either when mosquitoes were allowed to feed directly on lufenuron-treated chickens or when an artificial feeding system was used. Lufenuron inhibited egg hatch, larval development and reduced mosquito viability. These data demonstrate for the first time that (1) a chitin-like material is present in A. aegypti eggs, ovaries and eggshells; (2) a chitin synthesis inhibitor can be used to inhibit mosquito oogenesis; and (3) chitin synthesis inhibitors have potential for controlling mosquito populations. PMID:17967344
Moreira, Mônica F; Dos Santos, Amanda S; Marotta, Humberto R; Mansur, Juliana F; Ramos, Isabela B; Machado, Ednildo A; Souza, Gustavo H M F; Eberlin, Marcos N; Kaiser, Carlos R; Kramer, Karl J; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Vasconcellos, Ana Maria H
Recently, catnip, Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae), essential oil has been formulated and marketed as an alternative repellent for protection against biting arthropods by several vendors. We isolated the major active components of catnip oil, E,Z- and Z,E-nepetalactone, and quantitatively measured their antibiting efficacy compared with the repellents N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) and chiral (1S,2'S)-2-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220) against the yellowfever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), by using an in vitro assay and human volunteers at 24 nmol compound/cm2 (cloth or skin). Of all compounds tested in an in vitro assay, SS220 ranked as the most effective, whereas catnip oil and the nepetalactone compounds did not differ significantly from each other or from deet. However, in human volunteer bioassays, neither E,Z and Z,E-nepetalactone nor racemic nepetalactone deterred mosquito biting as effectively as SS220 or deet. All compounds differed significantly from the control. We conclude that catnip oil and nepetalactone isomers are significantly less effective than deet or SS220 in deterring the biting of Ae. aegypti. PMID:16119554
Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Klun, Jerome A; Debboun, Mustapha; Kramer, Matthew
Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50?=?17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50?=?20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50?=?40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50?=?42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50?=?52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50?=?53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50?=?65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50?=?66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50?=?71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50?=?123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial?+?neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity. PMID:24781026
Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E
Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. The two species express the rhodopsin orthologs Aaop8 and Agop8, respectively, in a large subset of these R7 photoreceptors that function as ultraviolet receptors. We show here that a divergent subfamily of mosquito rhodopsins, Aaop10 and Agop10, is coexpressed in these R7 photoreceptors. The properties of the A. aegypti Aaop8 and Aaop10 rhodopsins were analyzed by creating transgenic Drosophila expressing these rhodopsins. Electroretinogram recordings, and spectral analysis of head extracts, obtained from the Aaop8 strain confirmed that Aaop8 is an ultraviolet-sensitive rhodopsin. Aaop10 was poorly expressed and capable of eliciting only small and slow light responses in Drosophila photoreceptors, and electroretinogram analysis suggested that it is a long-wavelength rhodopsin with a maximal sensitivity near 500 nm. Thus, coexpression of Aaop10 rhodopsin with Aaop8 rhodopsin has the potential to modify the spectral properties of mosquito ultraviolet receptors. Retention of Op10 rhodopsin family members in the genomes of Drosophila species suggests that this rhodopsin family may play a conserved role in insect vision. PMID:24311804
Hu, Xiaobang; Leming, Matthew T; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E
Insecticides are one of the major tools for controlling vector populations and for reducing the transmission of human pathogens. However, there are few new insecticides being developed and marketed for vector control. Herein, we report on the toxicity of six novel insecticides to both adult and larval Aedes aegypti (L). and the toxicity of three novel insect growth regulators (IGRs) to larvae. Four insecticides were highly or moderately toxic to larvae with LC50 values of 16 (chlorfenapyr), 70 (hydramethylnon), 79 (indoxacarb), and 84 ng/ml (imidacloprid). Diafenthiuron and chlorfenapyr were moderately toxic to adult mosquitoes with LC50 values of 13 and 92 ng/cm2, respectively. Imidacloprid was strongly synergized by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) in Ae. aegypti adults, suggesting that neonicotinoids are intrinsically very toxic to adult mosquitoes (in the absence of detoxification). The effect of PBO on the toxicity in adults and larvae was considerably different, both in terms of the insecticides that were synergized (or antagonized for chlorfenapyr versus adults) and in terms of the degree of synergism. This result implies that the cytochrome P450s involved in metabolism of these insecticides are different between adults and larvae. Pyriproxyfen was confirmed as a potent IGR (EC50 of 0.0017 ng/ml) for mosquitoes, although tebufenozide lacked activity. The potential for use of these materials in mosquito control is discussed. PMID:16506447
Paul, Ayesa; Harrington, Laura C; Scott, Jeffrey G
The Culicinomyces clavisporus is a fungal pathogen of a wide range of mosquito larvae. The C. clavisporus was isolated from the larvae of Culiseta inornata. We have investigated into potential pathogenicity against the adults of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. The culture filtrates released from the strain of C. clavisporus 46258 were grown in the EmYPss broth, were filtered and used for the bioassays after a growth of 15 days. The results demonstrated these metabolites with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values of C. quinquefasciatus, 5.62, 8.71 and 12.59, A. aegypti, 3.0, 7.0 and 9.3, and A. stephensi 2.69, 6.0 and 7.24 ?l/cm(2), respectively after exposure for 24 h. These results compared favorably with the commercial adulticide Gokilaht(®)-S 5EC (d,d-trans-cyphenothrin) that showed 100% mortality at the same concentration. This study successfully identified that the metabolites of C. clavisporus can be used as mosquitoes adulticide as safer alternative to modern synthetic chemical insecticide against mosquito vector of diseases. Further purification can lead to biotechnological exploitation. PMID:21647670
Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam
Mosquitoes are the culprits of some of the most important vector borne diseases. A species’ potential as a vector is directly dependent on their pattern of behaviour, which is known to change according to the female’s physiological status such as whether the female is virgin/mated and unfed/blood-fed. However, the molecular mechanism triggered by and/or responsible for such modulations in behaviour is poorly understood. Clock genes are known to be responsible for the control of circadian behaviour in several species. Here we investigate the impact mating and blood-feeding have upon the expression of these genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti . We show that blood intake, but not insemination, is responsible for the down-regulation of clock genes. Using RNA interference, we observe a slight reduction in the evening activity peak in the fourth day after dstim injection. These data suggest that, as in Drosophila , clock gene expression, circadian behaviour and environmental light regimens are interconnected in Ae. aegypti .
Gentile, Carla; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno da S; Lima, Jose BP; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio
Aqueous suspension of ethanol extracts of Derris (Lonchocarpus) urucu (Leguminosae), collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae). The aim of this study was to observe the alterations of peritrophic matrix in Ae. aegypti larvae treated with an aqueous suspension of D. urucu extract. Different concentrations of D. urucu root extract were tested against fourth instar larvae. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 150 microg/ml (LC(50) 17.6 microg/ml) 24 h following treatment. In response to D. urucu feeding, larvae excreted a large amount of amorphous feces, while control larvae did not produce feces during the assay period. Ultrastructural studies showed tha larvae fed with 150 microg/ml of D. urucu extract for 4 h have an imperfect peritrophic matrix and extensive damage of the midgut epithelium. Data indicate a protective role for the peritrophic matrix. The structural modification of the peritrophic matrix is intrinsically associated with larval mortality. PMID:12051197
Gusmão, Desiely Silva; Páscoa, Valéria; Mathias, Leda; Curcino Vieira, Ivo José; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Alves Lemos, Francisco José
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Permethrin is an insecticide used to suppress Ae. aegypti adult populations but metabolic and target site resistance to pyrethroids has evolved in many locations worldwide. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling permethrin survival in Ae. aegypti were mapped in an F(3) advanced intercross line. Parents came from a collection of mosquitoes from Isla Mujeres, México, that had been selected for permethrin resistance for two generations and a reference permethrin-susceptible strain originally from New Orleans. Following a 1-hr permethrin exposure, 439 F(3) adult mosquitoes were phenotyped as knockdown resistant, knocked down/recovered, or dead. For QTL mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at 22 loci with potential antixenobiotic activity including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), esterases (EST), or glutathione transferases (GST) and at 12 previously mapped loci. Seven antixenobiotic genes mapped to chromosome I, six to chromosome II, and nine to chromosome III. Two QTL of major effect were detected on chromosome III. One corresponds with a SNP previously associated with permethrin resistance in the para sodium channel gene and the second with the CCEunk7o esterase marker. Additional QTL but of relatively minor effect were also found. These included two sex-linked QTL on chromosome I affecting knockdown and recovery and a QTL affecting survival and recovery. On chromosome II, one QTL affecting survival and a second affecting recovery were detected. The patterns confirm that mutations in the para gene cause target-site insensitivity and are the major source of permethrin resistance but that other genes dispersed throughout the genome contribute to recovery and survival of mosquitoes following permethrin exposure. PMID:18723882
Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Strode, Clare; Flores Suarez, Adriana; Fernandez Salas, Ildefonso; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C
Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.06–0.074), approximately 15× higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes.
Grisales, Nelson; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Gomez, Santiago; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey
This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50<100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058
Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control strategy that resulted in elimination of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam, and with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of only $0.28-$0.89 international dollars per person. This control strategy was extended to four provinces in southern Vietnam in Long An and Hau Giang (2004-2007) and to Long An, Ben Tre, and Vinh Long (2005-2010). In a total of 14 communes with 124,743 residents, the mean ± SD of adult female Ae. aegypti was reduced from 0.93 ± 0.62 to 0.06 ± 0.09, and the reduction of immature Ae. aegypti averaged 98.8%. By the final survey, no adults could be collected in 6 of 14 communes, and one commune, Binh Thanh, also had no immature forms. Although the community-based programs also involved community education and clean-up campaigns, the prevalence of Mesocyclops in large water storage containers > 50 liters increased from 12.77 ± 8.39 to 75.69 ± 9.17% over periods of 15-45 months. At the conclusion of the study, no confirmed dengue cases were detected in four of the five communes for which diagnostic serologic analysis was performed. The rate of progress was faster in communes that were added in stages to the program but the reason for this finding was unclear. At the completion of the formal project, sustainability funds were set up to provide each commune with the financial means to ensure that community-based dengue control activities continued. PMID:22556087
Sinh Nam, Vu; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Minh Duc, Hoang; Cong Tu, Tran; Trong Thang, Vu; Hoang Le, Nguyen; Hoang San, Le; Le Loan, Luu; Que Huong, Vu Thi; Kim Khanh, Ly Huynh; Thuy Trang, Huynh Thi; Lam, Leonie Z Y; Kutcher, Simon C; Aaskov, John G; Jeffery, Jason A L; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H
Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes.
Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, Jose M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.
Effective participatory strategies in dengue control have been developed and assessed as small-scale efforts. The challenge is to scale-up and institutionalize these strategies within dengue control programs. We describe and critically analyze the diffusion process of an effective empowerment strategy within the Cuban Aedes aegypti control program, focusing on decision-making at the national level, to identify ways forward to institutionalize such strategies in Cuba and elsewhere. From 2005 to 2009, we carried out a process-oriented case study. We used participant observation, in-depth interviews with key informants involved in the diffusion process and document analysis. In a first phase, the data analysis was inductive. In a second phase, to enhance robustness of the analysis, emerging categories were contrasted with Rogers' five-stage conceptual model of the innovation-decision process, which was eventually used as the analytical framework. The diffusion of the empowerment strategy was a continuous and dynamic process. Adoption was a result of the perceived potential match between the innovative empowerment strategy and the performance gap of the Ae. aegypti control program. During implementation, the strategy was partially modified by top level Ae. aegypti control program decision-makers to accommodate program characteristics. However, structure, practices and organizational culture of the control program did not change significantly. Thus rejection occurred. It was mainly due to insufficient dissemination of know-how and underlying principles of the strategy by innovation developers, but also to resistance to change. The innovation-diffusion process has produced mitigated results to date, and the control program is still struggling to find ways to move forward. Improving the innovation strategy by providing the necessary knowledge about the innovation and addressing control program organizational changes is crucial for successful diffusion of empowerment strategies. Issues highlighted in this particular experience might be relevant in the innovation-diffusion process of other complex innovations within health systems. PMID:23517703
Pérez, Dennis; Lefèvre, Pierre; Castro, Marta; Toledo, María Eugenia; Zamora, Gilberto; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth-instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no E. coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body. However, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at all stages examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes.
TOTTEN, Daniel C.; VUONG, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; JINWAL, Umesh K.; GULIA-NUSS, Monika; HARRELL, Robert A.; BENES, Helen
Insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) are promoted for controlling the Dengue vector Aedes aegypti. We assessed the cost of the routine Aedes control program (RACP) and the cost of ITC implementation through the RACP and health committees in Venezuela and through health volunteers in Thailand. The yearly cost of the RACP per household amounted to US$2.14 and $1.89, respectively. The ITC implementation cost over three times more, depending on the channel used. In Venezuela the RACP was the most efficient implementation-channel. It spent US$1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.83; 1.97) per curtain distributed, of which 76.9% for the curtain itself. Implementation by health committees cost significantly (P = 0.02) more: US$2.32 (95% CI: 1.93; 2.61) of which 63% for the curtain. For ITC implementation to be at least as cost-effective as the RACP, at equal effectiveness and actual ITC prices, the attained curtain coverage and the adulticiding effect should last for 3 years.
Baly, Alberto; Flessa, Steffen; Cote, Marilys; Thiramanus, Thirapong; Vanlerberghe, Veerle; Villegas, Elci; Jirarojwatana, Somchai; Van der Stuyft, Patrick
About 1 million people in the world die each year from diseases spread by mosquitoes, and understanding the mechanism of host identification by the mosquitoes through olfaction is at stake. The role of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the primary molecular events of olfaction in mosquitoes is becoming an important focus of biological research in this area. Here, we present a comprehensive comparative genomics study of OBPs in the three disease-transmitting mosquito species Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus starting with the identification of 110 new OBPs in these three genomes. We have characterized their genomic distribution and orthologous and phylogenetic relationships. The diversity and expansion observed with respect to the Aedes and Culex genomes suggests that the OBP gene family acquired functional diversity concurrently with functional constraints posed on these two species. Sequences with unique features have been characterized such as the “two-domain OBPs” (previously known as Atypical OBPs) and “MinusC OBPs” in mosquito genomes. The extensive comparative genomics featured in this work hence provides useful primary insights into the role of OBPs in the molecular adaptations of mosquito olfactory system and could provide more clues for the identification of potential targets for insect repellants and attractants.
Manoharan, Malini; Ng Fuk Chong, Matthieu; Vaitinadapoule, Aurore; Frumence, Etienne; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Offmann, Bernard
Objective To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. Results The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.
Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A
The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478
Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio
BackgroundPrevious studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated “safe sites” contribute to overall impact.MethodsUsing a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of
Hortance Manda; Luana M. Arce; Tarra Foggie; Pankhil Shah; John P. Grieco; Nicole L. Achee
Three full-length infectious cDNA clones based on the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) were developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The full-length clone retained the viral phenotypes of CHIKV in both cell culture and in mosquitoes and should be a valuable tool for the study of virus interactions in an epidemiologically significant natural vector, Aedes aegypti. Two additional infectious clones
Dana L. Vanlandingham; Konstantin Tsetsarkin; Chao Hong; Kimberly Klingler; Kate L. McElroy; Michael J. Lehane; Stephen Higgs
In order to establish the genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by the analysis of the MT-ND4 gene, in eleven endemic regions for dengue in Peru, 51 samples of Ae. Aegypti were tested. The genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 336 base-pairs of MT ND4, the analysis of intra-specific phylogeny was conducted with the Network Ver. 4.6.10 program; and the phylogenetic analysis, with the Neighbor Joining distance method. The presence of five haplotypes of Ae. Aegypti grouped in two lineages was identified: the first one includes haplotypes 1, 3 and 5, and the second one comprises haplotypes 2 and 4. The geographic distribution of each of the haplotypes found is also shown. It is concluded that this variability is caused by the active migration of this vector and the human activity-mediated passive migration. PMID:23949510
Yáñez, Pamela; Mamani, Enrique; Valle, Jorge; García, María Paquita; León, Walter; Villaseca, Pablo; Torres, Dina; Cabezas, César
Increased DEN-2 virus transmission in Puerto Rico during 2005 prompted the implementation of a rapid intervention programme to suppress Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) emergence, which in turn lead to the discovery of previously unknown breeding sites underground. Initially, the following control measures were applied in Playa/Playita (PP), a town of 1,400 households, to all areas where the number of pupae per person exceeded the expected threshold for dengue transmission; all containers likely to be aquatic habitats were turned over and containers too large to turn were treated with 1 p.p.m. methoprene. The impact of these interventions was evaluated by comparing the number of resting adult mosquitoes (by backpack aspiration and sweepnetting in bedrooms) pre-intervention, with numbers at 3 and 5 weeks post-intervention, and by evaluating pupal density at 4 weeks post-intervention in PP and in a nearby town, Coqui (CO; 1500 households), which was not treated. The pre-intervention and post-intervention densities of resting Ae. aegypti adults were significantly larger in the intervention town, although the density of pupae in surface containers was low and similar in both towns at 4 weeks post-intervention. At 3 weeks post-intervention, the density of resting adults decreased by only 18% of pre-intervention levels, but returned to pre-intervention levels 5 weeks after treatment. By contrast, the density of resting adults in CO steadily decreased to 48% and 61%, at 3 and 5 weeks after the initial surveys, respectively. Geographical Information Systems identified significant clustering of adult mosquitoes, which led to the discovery of underground aquatic habitats (septic tanks) that were producing large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in the treated town. We calculated that septic tanks could produce > 18 000 Ae. aegypti and approximately 170 000 Cx quinquefasciatus adults per day. Septic tanks are likely to be common and widespread in suburban and rural Puerto Rico, where, apparently, they can contribute significantly to the maintenance of island-wide dengue virus endemicity. PMID:18380655
Barrera, R; Amador, M; Diaz, A; Smith, J; Munoz-Jordan, J L; Rosario, Y
This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773
Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart
Mosquitoes that act as disease vectors rely upon olfactory cues for host-seeking, mating, blood feeding and oviposition. To reduce the risk of infection in humans, one of the approaches focuses on mosquitoes' semiochemical system in the effort to disrupt undesirable host-insect interaction. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play a key role in mosquitoes' semiochemical system. Here, we report the successful expression, purification of an odorant binding protein AaegOBP22 from Aedes aegypti in heterologous system. Protein purification methods were set up by Strep-Tactin affinity binding and size-exclusion chromatography. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrum revealed the protein's purity and molecular weight. Circular dichroism spectra showed the AaegOBP22 secondary structure had a pH dependent conformational change. The protein functions of AaegOBP22 were tested by fluorescent probe 1-NPN binding assays and ligands competitive binding assays. The results show AaegOBP22 proteins have characteristics of selective binding with various ligands. PMID:20828619
Yang, Gang; Winberg, Gösta; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Shuguang
Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. Results The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies). Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71%) of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr) mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion These results suggest that the high level of insecticide resistance found in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Martinique island is the consequence of both target-site and metabolic based resistance mechanisms. Insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms are discussed in relation with the environmental context of Martinique Island. These finding have important implications for dengue vector control in Martinique and emphasizes the need to develop new tools and strategies for maintaining an effective control of Aedes mosquito populations worldwide.
Marcombe, Sebastien; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Darriet, Frederic; Reynaud, Stephane; Bonnet, Julien; Strode, Clare; Brengues, Cecile; Yebakima, Andre; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe
Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an “Ae. aegypti-free” area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence.
Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Cardenas, Lucio D.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Wesson, Dawn M.; McCracken, Michael K.; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N.
Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C?O group. The band 1,383 developed for C?C and C?N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated, and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l) and (LC90 values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l), respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti. PMID:24553980
Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S
Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence.
Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.
Pyrethroids are the most used insecticide class worldwide. They target the voltage gated sodium channel (NaV), inducing the knockdown effect. In Aedes aegypti, the main dengue vector, the AaNaV substitutions Val1016Ile and Phe1534Cys are the most important knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations. We evaluated the fitness cost of these kdr mutations related to distinct aspects of development and reproduction, in the absence of any other major resistance mechanism. To accomplish this, we initially set up 68 crosses with mosquitoes from a natural population. Allele-specific PCR revealed that one couple, the one originating the CIT-32 strain, had both parents homozygous for both kdr mutations. However, this pyrethroid resistant strain also presented high levels of detoxifying enzymes, which synergistically account for resistance, as revealed by biological and biochemical assays. Therefore, we carried out backcrosses between CIT-32 and Rockefeller (an insecticide susceptible strain) for eight generations in order to bring the kdr mutation into a susceptible genetic background. This new strain, named Rock-kdr, was highly resistant to pyrethroid and presented reduced alteration of detoxifying activity. Fitness of the Rock-kdr was then evaluated in comparison with Rockefeller. In this strain, larval development took longer, adults had an increased locomotor activity, fewer females laid eggs, and produced a lower number of eggs. Under an inter-strain competition scenario, the Rock-kdr larvae developed even slower. Moreover, when Rockefeller and Rock-kdr were reared together in population cage experiments during 15 generations in absence of insecticide, the mutant allele decreased in frequency. These results strongly suggest that the Ae. aegypti kdr mutations have a high fitness cost. Therefore, enhanced surveillance for resistance should be priority in localities where the kdr mutation is found before new adaptive alleles can be selected for diminishing the kdr deleterious effects.
Brito, Luiz Paulo; Linss, Jutta G. B.; Lima-Camara, Tamara N.; Belinato, Thiago A.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.; Lima, Jose Bento P.; Valle, Denise; Martins, Ademir J.
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of insects. IPPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP); afterward IPP and DMAPP condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP), this head-to-tail condensation can be repeated, by the further reaction of GPP with IPP, yielding the JH precursor farnesyl diphosphate. An IPPI expressed sequence tag (EST) was obtained from an Aedes aegypti corpora-allata + corpora cardiaca library. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 244-aa protein that shows a high degree of similarity with type I IPPIs from other organisms, particularly for those residues that have important roles in catalysis, metal coordination and interaction with the diphosphate moiety of the IPP. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolized IPP into DMAPP; treatment of DMAPP with phosphoric acid produced isoprene, a volatile compound that was measured with an assay based on a solid-phase micro extraction protocol and direct analysis by gas chromatography. A. aegypti IPPI (AaIPPI) required Mg(2+) or Mn(2+) but not Zn(2+) for full activity and it was entirely inhibited by iodoacetamide. Real time PCR experiments showed that AaIPPI is highly expressed in the CA. Changes in AaIPPI mRNA levels in the CA in the pupal and adult female mosquito corresponded well with changes in JH synthesis (Li et al., 2003). This is the first molecular and functional characterization of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in the production of juvenile hormone in the CA of an insect. PMID:22782071
Diaz, Miguel E; Mayoral, Jaime G; Priestap, Horacio; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G
Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPPI) is an enzyme involved in the synthesis of juvenile hormone (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of insects. IPPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) to dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP); afterwards IPP and DMAPP condense in a head-to-tail manner to produce geranyl diphosphate (GPP), this head-to-tail condensation can be repeated, by the further reaction of GPP with IPP, yielding the JH precursor farnesyl diphosphate. An IPPI expressed sequence tag (EST) was obtained from an Aedes aegypti corpora-allata + corpora cardiaca library. Its full-length cDNA encodes a 244-aa protein that shows a high degree of similarity with type I IPPIs from other organisms, particularly for those residues that have important roles in catalysis, metal coordination and interaction with the diphosphate moiety of the IPP. Heterologous expression produced a recombinant protein that metabolized IPP into DMAPP; treatment of DMAPP with phosphoric acid produced isoprene, a volatile compound that was measured with an assay based on a solid-phase micro extraction protocol and direct analysis by gas chromatography. A. aegypti IPPI (AaIPPI) required Mg2+ or Mn2+ but not Zn2+ for full activity and it was entirely inhibited by iodoacetamide. Real time PCR experiments showed that AaIPPI is highly expressed in the CA. Changes in AaIPPI mRNA levels in the CA in the pupal and adult female mosquito corresponded well with changes in JH synthesis (Li et al., 2003). This is the first molecular and functional characterization of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in the production of juvenile hormone in the CA of an insect.
Diaz, Miguel; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Priestap, Horacio; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Noriega, Fernando G.
A spot-on formulation combining permethrin, dinotefuran and pyriproxyfen (Vectra 3D™ spot-on solution for dogs - one 10-25 kg pipette contains 196 mg dinotefuran, 1429 mg permethrin and 17 mg pyriproxyfen) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study designed to measure its efficacy to control Aedes aegypti (anti-feeding effect and mortality effect). The trial was performed according to Animal Welfare and Good Clinical Practice. Twelve dogs (five males and seven female, >3 years old, weighing 8.8-13.0 kg) were randomly allocated to treatment groups on pre-treatment mosquito counts: six dogs served as untreated controls, and six dogs were treated with the test formulation. Treatment consisted of applying a combination formulation to deliver at least 46.6 mg kg(-1) permethrin, 6.40 mg kg(-1) dinotefuran and 0.57 mg kg(-1) pyriproxyfen. The combination is designed to control fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. Each dog was infested with approximately 100 adult unfed A. aegypti once before treatment (day 6) then at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Counts and engorgement determination of dead and live mosquitoes were performed after 1h exposure period. In the treated group (group A), the repellency effect of the product based on engorgement status (anti-feeding effect), was 91.5%, 94%, 94.7%, 94% and 87% at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Mortality effect or insecticidal efficacy calculated at the end of the 1-h exposure was almost identical when calculated 24h after the 1-h exposure and remained above 93% until the end of the in-life phase. No adverse events were observed following treatment, including observations conducted 2, 4 and 24h after the last dog was treated. PMID:22709947
Franc, Michel; Genchi, Claudio; Bouhsira, Emilie; Warin, Stephan; Kaltsatos, Vassilios; Baduel, Laure; Genchi, Marc
Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0?604 ± 0.0?040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0?972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity.
Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret
In this study, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen and spinosad, alone and in combination, was evaluated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.). Larval bioassays were carried out on susceptible mosquito larvae to determine the concentration-mortality responses of mosquitoes exposed to each insecticide alone and in mixture. Synergism between pyriproxyfen and spinosad was determined by the calculation of a combination index (CI) by using the isobologram method. For pyriproxyfen, LC50 and LC95 were 1.1 x 10(-4) (1.0 x 10(-4)-1.1 x 10(-4)) and 3.2 x 10(-4) (2.9 x 10(-4)-3.6 x 10(-4)) mg/liter, respectively. Pyriproxyfen acted at very low concentrations by inhibiting the adult emergence of Ae. aegypti (97% inhibition rates at 3.3 x 10(-4) mg/liter). Spinosad activity was -500 times lower than that of pyriproxyfen against the Bora strain, with LC50 and LC95 values estimated at 0.055 (0.047-0.064) and 0.20 (0.15-0.27) mg/liter, respectively. A binary mixture of pyriproxyfen and spinosad was realized at the ratio 1:500 by considering the values of the LC50 obtained for each product. The LC50 and LC95 of the mixture were 0.019 (0.016 - 0.022) and 0.050 (0.040 - 0.065) mg/liter, respectively. The mixture combined both the larvicidal activity of spinosad and the juvenoid action of pyriproxyfen. From the LC70 to LC99 a significant synergism effect was observed between the two insecticides (CI ranged from 0.74 to 0.31). This strong synergism observed at high concentrations allows a reduction by five and nine-fold of pyriproxyfen and spinosad amounts to kill almost 100% mosquitoes. Combination of pyriproxyfen and spinosad may then represent a promising strategy to improve mosquito control in situations with insecticide-resistant Aedes dengue vectors. PMID:17162952
Darriet, Frederic; Corbel, Vincent
ReSUMen El temephos ha sido usado como la única estrategia de control para Aedes aegypti en Lima durante los últimos años. Objetivo: EvaluarlaeficaciaresidualdetemephosparaelcontroldeAe. aegypti en condiciones de campo y laborato- rio en Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se eligieron ocho tanques bajos de concreto (TBC) depósitos predominan- temente infestados con Ae. aegypti en el distrito de San Juan de Lurigancho,
Miriam Palomino S; Lely Solari; Walter León C; Rosario Vega H; Máximo Vergaray C; Luis Cubillas; Rosa Mosqueda C; Norma García A
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Murraya koenigii plant leaf extract against first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti was determined. Range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 ppm) and ethanol leaf extract (50, 200, 350, 500, and 650 ppm) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti. The synthesized AgNPs from M. koenigii leaf were highly toxic than crude leaf ethanol extract in both mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The maximum mortality was observed in synthesized AgNPs, and ethanol leaf extract of M. koenigii against A. stephensi had LC50 values of 10.82, 14.67, 19.13, 24.35, and 32.09 ppm and 279.33, 334.61, 406.95, 536.11, and 700.16 ppm and LC90 values of 32.38, 42.52, 53.65, 63.51, and 75.26 ppm and 737.37, 843.84, 907.67, 1,187.62, and 1,421.13 ppm. A. aegypti had LC50 values of 13.34, 17.19, 22.03, 27.57, and 34.84 ppm and 314.29, 374.95, 461.01, 606.50, and 774.01 ppm and LC90 values of 36.98, 47.67, 55.95, 67.36, and 77.72 ppm and 777.32, 891.16, 1,021.90, 1,273.06, and 1,509.18 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the use of M. koenigii synthesized silver nanoparticles can be a rapid, environmentally safer biopesticide which can form a novel approach to develop effective biocides for controlling the target vector mosquitoes. PMID:23322327
Suganya, Ayyappan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou
Structure?activity relationships of nine thiophenes, 2,2':?5',2?-terthiophene (1), 2-chloro-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-1-yl acetate (2), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)but-3-yne-1,2-diyl diacetate (3), 4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yne-1,2-diyl diacetate (4), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-yn-1-yl acetate (5), 2-hydroxy-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-1-yl acetate (6), 1-hydroxy-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-2-yl acetate (7), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)but-3-yne-1,2-diol (8), and 4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yne-1,2-diol (9), isolated from the roots of Echinops transiliensis, were studied as larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3?) and C(4?), and resulted in variations in efficacy. Terthiophene 1 showed the highest activity (LC50 , 0.16??g/ml) among compounds 1-9, followed by bithiophene compounds 3 (LC50 , 4.22??g/ml), 5 (LC50 , 7.45??g/ml), and 8 (LC50 , 9.89??g/ml), and monothiophene compounds 9 (LC50 , 12.45??g/ml), 2 (LC50 , 14.71??g/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95??g/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55??g/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97??g/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of thiophenes increase with increasing number of thiophene rings, and the most important active site in the structure of thiophenes could be the tetrahydro-thiophene moiety. In bithiophenes, 3, 5, and 8, A. aegypti larvicidal activity increased with increasing number of AcO groups attached to C(3?) or C(4?), indicating that AcO groups may play an important role in the larvicidal activity. PMID:25044586
Nakano, Hiroshi; Ali, Abbas; Ur Rehman, Junaid; Mamonov, Leonid K; Cantrell, Charles L; Khan, Ikhlas A
From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district level. Since we had similar success in northern Vietnam from 1998 to 2000, this study demonstrates that this control model is broadly acceptable and achievable at community level but vigilance is required post-project to prevent reinfestation. PMID:15728869
Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H
Background Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate the reproductive success of their insect hosts. Uninfected females that mate with Wolbachia infected males do not reproduce due to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI results in the increased frequency of Wolbachia-infected individuals in populations. Recently, two Wolbachia strains, the benign wMel and virulent wMelPop have been artificially transinfected into the primary vector of dengue virus, the mosquito Ae. aegypti where they have formed stable infections. These Wolbachia infections are being developed for a biological control strategy against dengue virus transmission. While the effects of Wolbachia on female Ae. aegypti have been examined the effects on males are less well characterised. Here we ascertain and compare the effects of the two strains on male fitness in resource-limited environments that may better approximate the natural environment. Methods A series of population mating trials were conducted to examine the effect of Wolbachia infection status (with strains wMel and wMelPop) and male larval nutrition on insemination frequency, remating rates, the fecundity of females, the hatch rates of eggs and the wing length and fertility of males. Results wMel and wMelPop infections reduce the fecundity of infected females and wMelPop reduces the viability of eggs. Low nutrition diets for males in the larval phase affects the fecundity of wMel-infected females. Neither strain of Wolbachia affected sperm quality or viability or the ability of males to successfully mate multiple females. Conclusions The benign strain of Wolbachia, wMel causes similar reductions in fecundity as the more virulent, wMelPop, and neither are too great that they should not still spread given the action of CI. The ability of Wolbachia-infected males to repeat mate as frequently as wildtype mosquitoes indicates that they will be very good agents of delivering CI in field release populations.
This study attempted to find organisms for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Costa Rica. Copepods of the genera Arctodiaptomus, Eucylops, Mesocyclops, Megacyclops, and Thermocyclops were collected in several parts of the country and cultured for laboratory evaluations. Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides was the most successful species in reducing the number of larval Ae. aegypti (7.3 larvae in 24 h at a density of 200 Aedes/liter). Arctodiaptomus dorsalis, Eucyclops cf. bondi, Eucyclops leptacanthus, Megacyclops sp., and Thermocyclops decipens were not effective predators. In cage simulation trials, M. thermocyclopoides showed 100% larval reduction after 4 wk and adult mosquitoes disappeared after 7 wk. The copepod was able to survive in Aechmea sp. bromeliads under laboratory conditions. In field trials under 3 different climatic conditions M. thermocyclopoides survived 2-5 months in bromeliad leaf axils and 3-6 months in used car tires. In tires, this species reduced the number of larval Ae. aegypti 79, 90, and 99% in tropical dry, moderate, and humid climates, respectively. An El Niño phenomenon affected the results by drought, which apparently also caused a decline in the population of the predatory mosquito Toxorhynchites haemorrhoidalis superbus. Considering these severe test conditions, M. thermocyclopoides might be a promising predator for mosquito control in Costa Rica. PMID:10612615
Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality) of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8) acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R)-(—)-enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs).
Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.
Nineteen Aedes aegypti larvae were collected in rural Antigua, West Indies, from an 18-liter plastic bucket. The location was in a rural area at the northern end of Antigua bordering the coast of Dickenson Bay and approximately 50 m south of Halcyon Cove Beach (17°09?42.54?N, 61°50?44.50?W; elevation 16 m). Atypical morphology was noted in larvae and 3 reared adult females. Fourth instars showed a reduction in length of the lateral hair on the saddle (seta 1–X) with measurements ranging from 0.36 to 0.57 the length of the saddle. Two atypical female specimens displayed an abundance of dull white to gold scales that blanketed the abdomen. A 3rd specimen bore fine, golden scales on the mesonotum and bronze scales on the vertices of the head. These adult specimens demonstrated morphological characteristics that closely parallel described mutations, although the genetic basis for these characters was not confirmed. The remaining adults in the collection were morphologically typical. Adults and larvae were compared to field populations from Florida, Bahamas, and Antigua, as well as to the Rockefeller strain maintained at Rutgers University.
VERNA, THOMAS N.; MUNSTERMANN, LEONARD E.
The hemolymph osmolarity of the freshwater mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) is greater than that of their habitat. To combat the influx of water, larvae cycle water entering through the gut and anal papillae to the Malpighian tubules for secretion. The presence of aquaporins (AQPs, water channels) may facilitate the movement of water across these tissues. Tissue distribution of mRNA transcripts of putative aquaporins from mosquito larvae, using quantitative PCR, revealed expression of transcripts in the Malpighian tubules and anal papillae. Four putative aquaporin transcripts are expressed in the Malpighian tubules and provide a basis for further work aimed at discovering the elusive water transporters functioning during diuresis. Transcripts of putative AQPs (AaAQP4 and AaAQP1b) are expressed in the anal papillae. Immunoreactivity to a human AQP1-antibody was found in the anal papillae and mercury inhibits tritiated water uptake in isolated anal papillae. Together, the results suggest that AQP(s) could be responsible for facilitating water transport at the papillae epithelium. PMID:22699998
Marusalin, Jesmilavathani; Matier, Brieanne J; Rheault, Mark R; Donini, Andrew
The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested. PMID:16493400
Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J
In all triplicate tests of six plant essential oils and of vanillin mixtures, we corroborated strong insecticidal and repellent activities against adult Aedes aegypti (L.). Essential oils with potent toxic fumigant activities also exhibited repellency. Compared with N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, 5% of the essential oil concentrations of cassia, lemongrass, lemon eucalyptus, and xanthoxylum oils did not show repellent effects. However, a composition oflemongrass oil, xanthoxylum oil, and vanillin (1:3:1, vol:vol:wt) provided 270 min of complete protection time (CPT) compared with 247.5 min CPT with 15% N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide. The CPT depended on concentration, presence ofvanillin, or on both factors. When we applied a mixture of lemongrass oil: xanthoxylum oil: vanillin (1:1:1, vol:vol:wt) to the Viscopearl formulation, or porous cellulose beads, it provided gradual release of volatile compounds, thus showing >90% of repellency for 2 h. The behavioral and electrophysiological approaches we drew upon in our current study demonstrated that plant essential oil mixtures combined with vanillin showed strong and durable repellency to the mosquito. We claim that such combinations of plant essential oils and vanillin found in current study propose a viable commercial product suitable for future application in protecting a person from mosquito bites. PMID:22897048
Kim, Soon-Il; Yoon, June-Sun; Baeck, Seung-Jae; Lee, Sung-Hwa; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kwon, Hyung Wook
Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) was injected intrathoracically into Aedes aegypti, Stomoxys calcitrans, and Tabanus fuscicostatus, and fed to Ae. aegypti in suspensions of either artificial blood of Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium. Insects were stored at -70 degrees C for up to 9 months before testing for the presence of EIAV. The viral tissue culture titers detected from stored insects were similar to those from insects tested at time 0. PMID:8827617
Green, B E; Foil, L D; Hagius, S D; Issel, C J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the repellent activities of essential oils from Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) against adults of mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus . Comparison of essential oils from four different plant parts of C. japonica revealed that essential oil from its leaf exhibited the best repellent activity against mosquitoes. To understand the relationship between volatile organic compounds and repellent activity, the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed to analyze volatile organic compounds of leaf essential oil. The SPME fiber was coated with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS). The major volatile organic compounds in the cage were 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, limonene, gamma-terpinene, and terpinolene at 0 min. Results demonstrated that (-)-terpinen-4-ol was the major volatile organic compound adsorbed by SPME fiber during repellent assays. Furthermore, the repellent activities of six compounds against adults of the mosquitoes were evaluated, and the results revealed that (-)-terpinen-4-ol exhibited the best repellent activity against A. aegypti and A. albopictus. PMID:19902948
Gu, Hui-Jing; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Lin, Chun-Ya; Huang, Chin-Gi; Chen, Wei-June; Chang, Shang-Tzen
While apoptosis regulation has been studied extensively in Drosophila melanogaster, similar studies in other insects, including disease vectors, lag far behind. In D. melanogaster, the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) protein DIAP1 is the major negative regulator of caspases, while IAP antagonists induce apoptosis, in part, by binding to DIAP1 and inhibiting its ability to regulate caspases. In this study, we characterized the roles of two IAP antagonists, Michelob_x (Mx) and IMP, in apoptosis in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. Overexpression of Mx or IMP caused apoptosis in A. aegypti Aag2 cells, while silencing expression of mx or imp attenuated apoptosis. Addition of recombinant Mx or IMP, but not cytochrome c, to Aag2 cytosolic extract caused caspase activation. Consistent with this finding, AeIAP1 bound and inhibited both initiator and effector caspases from A. aegypti, and Mx and IMP competed with caspases for binding to AeIAP1. However, a difference was observed in the BIR domains responsible for Dronc binding by AeIAP1 versus DIAP1. These findings demonstrate that the mechanisms by which IAP antagonists regulate apoptosis are largely conserved between A. aegypti and D. melanogaster, although subtle differences exist.
We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other non-residential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011 – June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and non-residential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets/sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures that residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. Additionally, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality and physical location in the environment.
BAAK-BAAK, CARLOS M.; ARANA-GUARDIA, ROGER; CIGARROA-TOLEDO, NOHEMI; LORONO-PINO, MARIA ALBA; REYES-SOLIS, GUADALUPE; MACHAIN-WILLIAMS, CARLOS; BEATY, BARRY J.; EISEN, LARS; GARCIA-REJON, JULIAN E.
Understanding the processes by which species colonize and adapt to human habitats is particularly important in the case of disease-vectoring arthropods. The mosquito species Aedes aegypti, a major vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, probably originated as a wild, zoophilic species in sub-Saharan Africa, where some populations still breed in tree holes in forested habitats. Many populations of the species, however, have evolved to thrive in human habitats and to bite humans. This includes some populations within Africa as well as almost all those outside Africa. It is not clear whether all domestic populations are genetically related and represent a single ‘domestication’ event, or whether association with human habitats has developed multiple times independently within the species. To test the hypotheses above, we screened 24 worldwide population samples of Ae. aegypti at 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci. We identified two distinct genetic clusters: one included all domestic populations outside of Africa and the other included both domestic and forest populations within Africa. This suggests that human association in Africa occurred independently from that in domestic populations across the rest of the world. Additionally, measures of genetic diversity support Ae. aegypti in Africa as the ancestral form of the species. Individuals from domestic populations outside Africa can reliably be assigned back to their population of origin, which will help determine the origins of new introductions of Ae. aegypti.
Brown, Julia E.; McBride, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Petrina; Ritchie, Scott; Paupy, Christophe; Bossin, Herve; Lutomiah, Joel; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Cornel, Anthony J.; Black, William C.; Gorrochotegui-Escalante, Norma; Urdaneta-Marquez, Ludmel; Sylla, Massamba; Slotman, Michel; Murray, Kristy O.; Walker, Christopher; Powell, Jeffrey R.
The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4?µg/?) followed by guineensine (1.9?µg/?), retrofractamide A (2.4?µg/?) and pipercide (3.2?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03?µg/?. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17?µg/?) than in retrofractamide A (1.5?µg/?), guineensine (1.7?µg/?), and pipercide (2.0?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014?µg/?. PMID:22010905
The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433
Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura
Development of new genetic approaches to either interfere with the ability of mosquitoes to transmit dengue virus or to reduce vector population density requires progressive evaluation from the laboratory to contained field trials, before open field release. Trials in contained outdoor facilities are an important part of this process because they can be used to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of modified strains in settings that include natural environmental variations without releasing mosquitoes into the open field. We describe a simple and cost-effective semi-field system designed to study Aedes aegypti carrying a dominant lethal gene (fsRIDL) in semi-field conditions. We provide a protocol for establishing, maintaining, and monitoring stable Ae. aegypti population densities inside field cages.
Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Bond, J. Guillermo; Wise de Valdez, Megan R.; Harrington, Laura C.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Casas-Martinez, M.; Scott, Thomas W.
N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) is one of the most effective and commonly used mosquito repellents. However, during laboratory trials a small proportion of mosquitoes are still attracted by human odors despite the presence of DEET. In this study behavioral assays identified Aedes aegypti females that were insensitive to DEET, and the selection of either sensitive or insensitive groups of females with males of unknown sensitivity over several generations resulted in two populations with different proportions of insensitive females. Crossing experiments showed the “insensitivity” trait to be dominant. Electroantennography showed a reduced response to DEET in the selected insensitive line compared with the selected sensitive line, and single sensillum recordings identified DEET-sensitive sensilla that were nonresponders in the insensitive line. This study suggests that behavioral insensitivity to DEET in A. aegypti is a genetically determined dominant trait and resides in changes in sensillum function.
Stanczyk, Nina M.; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Ignell, Rickard; Logan, James G.
The toxicity of several compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides root steam distillate to third-instar larvae of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett, Aedes aegypti (L.), and Ochlerotatus togoi Theobald was examined using a direct contact mortality bioassay. Safrole was the most toxic constituent to Cx. p. pallens and Ae. aegypti larvae, whereas terpinolene was most toxic to Oc. togoi. However, LC50 values of these three mosquito larvae to both essential oils as well as the remainder of the 26 compounds identified in A. heterotropoides were considerably greater than for fenthion or temephos. However, we suggest that constituents of A. heterotropoides root steam distillate merit further study as potential mosquito larvicides due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic pesticides in the aquatic environment. PMID:19960690
Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Kim, Nam-Jin; Ahn, Young-Joon
A new cell line from the neonate larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) mosquito was established and characterized. The cell line at the 50th passage (P) level consisted of three prominent cell types, i.e., epithelial-like cells (92%), fibroblast-like cells (7%), and giant cells ( approximately 1%). Karyological analysis showed diploid (2n = 6) number of chromosomes in >75% cells at P-50. The growth kinetics studied at 52nd passage level showed approximately tenfold increase in cell number over a 10-d study period. The species specificity studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting profile analysis using RAPD primers demonstrated 100% homology with the host profile showing the integrity of the cell line. Electron microscopy revealed the absence of mycoplasma or other adventitious agents. The cell line supported the multiplication of seven arboviruses, i.e., Chikungunya (CHIK), Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue 2 (DEN-2), Chandipura, vesicular stomatitis, and Chittoor viruses. The cell line did not replicate Ganjam and Kaisodi viruses. CHIK virus yield in the new cell line was approximately 3log and 0.5log 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL higher than Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, respectively. In the case of DEN-2 virus, it yielded 1log TCID(50)/mL higher than Vero E6, but lesser than C6/36 cell line. Due to its high susceptibility to a broad spectrum of viruses, the new cell line may find application in virus isolation during epidemics and in antigen production. PMID:19533252
Sudeep, A B; Parashar, Deepti; Jadi, Ramesh S; Basu, Atanu; Mokashi, Chetan; Arankalle, Vidya A; Mishra, Akhilesh C
Estimating a mosquito’s vector competence, or likelihood of transmitting disease, if it takes an infectious blood meal, is an important aspect of predicting when and where outbreaks of infectious diseases will occur. Vector competence can be affected by rearing temperature and inter- and intraspecific competition experienced by the individual mosquito during its larval development. This research investigates whether a new morphological indicator of larval rearing conditions, wing shape, can be used to distinguish reliably temperature and competitive conditions experienced during larval stages. Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in low intra-specific, high intra-specific, or high inter-specific competition treatments at either 22°C or 32°C. The right wing of each dried female was removed and photographed. Nineteen landmarks and twenty semilandmarks were digitized on each wing. Shape variables were calculated using geometric morphometric software. Canonical variate analysis, randomization multivariate analysis of variance, and visualization of landmark movement using deformation grids provided evidence that although semilandmark position was significantly affected by larval competition and temperature for both species, the differences in position did not translate into differences in wing shape, as shown in deformation grids. Two classification procedures yielded success rates of 26–49%. Accounting for wing size produced no increase in classification success. There appeared to be a significant relationship between shape and size. These results, particularly the low success rate of classification based on wing shape, show that shape is unlikely to be a reliable indicator of larval rearing competition and temperature conditions for Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti.
Stephens, C. R.; Juliano, S. A.
Transcriptomic Profiling of Diverse Aedes aegypti Strains Reveals Increased Basal-level Immune Activation in Dengue Virus-refractory Populations and Identifies Novel Virus-vector Molecular Interactions
Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.
Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M.; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.
Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. PMID:23861987
Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, José L; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George
Background New contained semi-field cages are being developed and used to test novel vector control strategies of dengue and malaria vectors. We herein describe a new Quarantine Insectary Level-2 (QIC-2) laboratory and field cages (James Cook University Mosquito Research Facility Semi-Field System; MRF SFS) that are being used to measure the impact of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis on populations of Aedes aegypti in Cairns Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The MRF consists of a single QIC-2 laboratory/insectary that connects through a central corridor to two identical QIC-2 semi-field cages. The semi-field cages are constructed of two layers of 0.25 mm stainless steel wire mesh to prevent escape of mosquitoes and ingress of other insects. The cages are covered by an aluminum security mesh to prevent penetration of the cages by branches and other missiles in the advent of a tropical cyclone. Parts of the cage are protected from UV light and rainfall by 90% shade cloth and a vinyl cover. A wooden structure simulating the understory of a Queenslander-style house is also situated at one end of each cage. The remainder of the internal aspect of the cage is covered with mulch and potted plants to emulate a typical yard. An air conditioning system comprised of two external ACs that feed cooled, moistened air into the cage units. The air is released from the central ceiling beam from a long cloth tube that disperses the airflow and also prevents mosquitoes from escaping the cage via the AC system. Sensors located inside and outside the cage monitor ambient temperature and relative humidity, with AC controlled to match ambient conditions. Data loggers set in the cages and outside found a <2°C temperature difference. Additional security features include air curtains over exit doors, sticky traps to monitor for escaping mosquitoes between layers of the mesh, a lockable vestibule leading from the connecting corridor to the cage and from inside to outside of the insectary, and screened (0.25 mm mesh) drains within the insectary and the cage. A set of standard operating procedures (SOP) has been developed to ensure that security is maintained and for enhanced surveillance for escaping mosquitoes on the JCU campus where the MRF is located. A cohort of male and female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were released in the cage and sampled every 3–4 days to determine daily survival within the cage; log linear regression from BG-sentinel trapping collections produced an estimated daily survival of 0.93 and 0.78 for females and males, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The MRF SFS allows us to test novel control strategies within a secure, contained environment. The air-conditioning system maintains conditions within the MRF cages comparable to outside ambient conditions. This cage provides a realistic transitional platform between the laboratory and the field in which to test novel control measures on quarantine level insects.
Ritchie, Scott A.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Freeman, Anthony J.; Odell, Robin G.; Graham, Neal; DeJong, Paul A.; Standfield, Graeme W.; Sale, Richard W.; O'Neill, Scott L.
A peroxidase is present in the chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs and catalyzes chorion protein cross-linking during chorion hardening, which is critical for egg survival in the environment. The unique chorion peroxidase (CPO) is a glycoprotein. This study deals with the N-glycosylation site, structures, and profile of CPO-associated oligosaccharides using mass spectrometric techniques and enzymatic digestion. CPO was isolated from chorion by solubilization and several chromatographic methods. Mono-saccharide composition was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent detection. Our data revealed that carbohydrate (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine, D-arabinose, N-acetyl D-galactosamine, and L-fucose) accounted for 2.24% of the CPO molecular weight. A single N-glycosylation site (Asn328-Cys- Thr) was identified by tryptic peptide mapping and de novo sequencing of native and PNGase A-deglycosylated CPO using matrix-assisted laser/desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The Asn328 was proven to be a major fully glycosylated site. Potential tryptic glycopeptides and profile were first assessed by MALDI/TOF/MS and then by precursor ion scanning during LC/MS/MS. The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides were elucidated from the MS/MS spectra of glycopeptides and exoglycosidase sequencing of PNGase A-released oligosaccharides. These CPO-associated oligosaccharides had dominant Man3GlcNAc2 and Man3 (Fuc) GlcNAc2 and high mannose-type structures (Man(4-8)GlcNAc2). The truncated structures, Man2GlcNAc2 and Man2 (Fuc) GlcNAc2, were also identified. Comparison of CPO activity and Stokes radius between native and deglycosylated CPO suggests that the N-linked oligosaccharides influence the enzyme activity by stabilizing its folded state. PMID:16131661
Li, Junsuo S; Li, Jianyong
Specific interactions between host genotypes and pathogen genotypes (G×G interactions) are commonly observed in invertebrate systems. Such specificity challenges our current understanding of invertebrate defenses against pathogens because it contrasts the limited discriminatory power of known invertebrate immune responses. Lack of a mechanistic explanation, however, has questioned the nature of host factors underlying G×G interactions. In this study, we aimed to determine whether G×G interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes aegypti vectors in nature can be mapped to discrete loci in the mosquito genome and to document their genetic architecture. We developed an innovative genetic mapping strategy to survey G×G interactions using outbred mosquito families that were experimentally exposed to genetically distinct isolates of two dengue virus serotypes derived from human patients. Genetic loci associated with vector competence indices were detected in multiple regions of the mosquito genome. Importantly, correlation between genotype and phenotype was virus isolate-specific at several of these loci, indicating G×G interactions. The relatively high percentage of phenotypic variation explained by the markers associated with G×G interactions (ranging from 7.8% to 16.5%) is consistent with large-effect host genetic factors. Our data demonstrate that G×G interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions of the mosquito genome, some of which have a large effect on the phenotype. This finding establishes the existence of tangible host genetic factors underlying specific interactions between invertebrates and their pathogens in a natural system. Fine mapping of the uncovered genetic loci will elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mosquito-virus specificity.
Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valerie; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Lambrechts, Louis
Effective vector control is currently challenged worldwide by the evolution of resistance to all classes of chemical insecticides in mosquitoes. In Martinique, populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have been intensively treated with temephos and deltamethrin insecticides over the last fifty years, resulting in heterogeneous levels of resistance across the island. Resistance spreading depends on standing genetic variation, selection intensity and gene flow among populations. To determine gene flow intensity, we first investigated neutral patterns of genetic variability in sixteen populations representative of the many environments found in Martinique and experiencing various levels of insecticide pressure, using 6 microsatellites. Allelic richness was lower in populations resistant to deltamethrin, and consanguinity was higher in populations resistant to temephos, consistent with a negative effect of insecticide pressure on neutral genetic diversity. The global genetic differentiation was low, suggesting high gene flow among populations, but significant structure was found, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance at the global scale. Then, we investigated adaptive patterns of divergence in six out of the 16 populations using 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNP outliers displaying levels of genetic differentiation out of neutral expectations were detected, including the kdr-V1016I mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Association tests revealed a total of seven SNPs associated with deltamethrin resistance. Six other SNPs were associated with temephos resistance, including two non-synonymous substitutions in an alkaline phosphatase and in a sulfotransferase respectively. Altogether, both neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic variation in mosquito populations appear to be largely driven by insecticide pressure in Martinique.
Paupy, Christophe; Bringuier, Charline; Yebakima, Andre; Chandre, Fabrice; David, Jean-Philippe; Corbel, Vincent; Despres, Laurence
Seven F1 strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, ?-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, ?-cypermethrin and z-cypermethrin. The New Orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. Mortality rates after a 1h exposure and following a 24h recovery period were determined. The resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (RRKC50) of the F1 and New Orleans strains indicated high levels of knockdown resistance (kdr). The RRKC50 with ?-cypermethrin varied from 10–100 among strains indicating high levels of kdr. Most of the strains had moderate resistance to d-phenothrin. Significant but much lower levels of resistance were detected for ?–cyalothrin, permethrin and cypermethrin. For z-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, only one strain exhibited resistance with RRKC50 values of 10- and 21-fold, respectively. None of the strains showed RRKC50 >10 with deltamethrin, and moderate resistance was seen in three strains, while the rest were susceptible. Mosquitoes from all strains exhibited some recovery from all pyrethroids except d-phenothrin. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between RRLC50 and RRKC50. Both were highly correlated (R2 = 0.84 – 0.97) so that the slope could be used to determine how much additional pyrethroid was needed to insure lethality. Slopes ranged from 0.875 for d-phenothrin (RRLC50 ? RRKC50) to 8.67 for ?–cyalothrin (~8.5 fold more insecticide needed to kill). Both RRLC50 and RRKC50 values were highly correlated for all pyrethroids except bifenthrin indicating strong cross resistance. Bifenthrin appears to be an alternative pyrethroid without strong cross resistance that could be used as an alternative to the current widespread use of permethrin in Mexico.
Flores, Adriana E.; Ponce, Gustavo; Silva, Brenda G.; Gutierrez, Selene M.; Bobadilla, Cristina; Lopez, Beatriz; Mercado, Roberto; Black, William C.
Biomarkers of the age of mosquitoes are required to determine the risk of transmission of various pathogens as each pathogen undergoes a period of extrinsic incubation in the mosquito host. Using the 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) procedure, we investigated the abundance of up to 898 proteins from the Yellow Fever and dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, during ageing. By applying a mixed-effects model of protein expression, we identified five common patterns of abundance change during ageing and demonstrated an age-related decrease in variance for four of these. This supported a search for specific proteins with abundance changes that remain tightly associated with ageing for use as ageing biomarkers. Using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry we identified ten candidate proteins that satisfied strict biomarker discovery criteria (identified in two out of three multivariate analysis procedures and in two cohorts of mosquitoes). We validated the abundances of the four most suitable candidates (Actin depolymerising factor; ADF, Eukaryotic initiation factor 5A; eIF5A, insect cuticle protein Q17LN8, and Anterior fat body protein; AFP) using semi-quantitative Western analysis of individual mosquitoes of six ages. The redox-response protein Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) and electron shuttling protein Electron transfer oxidoreductase (ETO) were subject to post-translational modifications affecting their charge states with potential effects on function. For the four candidates we show remarkably consistent decreases in abundance during ageing, validating initial selections. In particular, the abundance of AFP is an ideal biomarker candidate for whether a female mosquito has lived long enough to be capable of dengue virus transmission. We have demonstrated proteins to be a suitable class of ageing biomarkers in mosquitoes and have identified candidates for epidemiological studies of dengue and the evaluation of new disease reduction projects targeting mosquito longevity.
Hugo, Leon E.; Monkman, James; Dave, Keyur A.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Birrell, Geoff W.; Norris, Emma L.; Kienzle, Vivian J.; Sikulu, Maggy T.; Ryan, Peter A.; Gorman, Jeffery J.; Kay, Brian H.
We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5-43.9%, 48.8-75.6% and 17.1-53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9-12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500 L) increasing or decreasing by ?20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500 L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683
Jeffery, Jason A L; Clements, Archie C A; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H
Background Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is now the fastest spreading tropical disease globally. Previous studies indicate that climate and human behavior interact to influence dengue virus and vector (Aedes aegypti) population dynamics; however, the relative effects of these variables depends on local ecology and social context. We investigated the roles of climate and socio-ecological factors on Ae. aegypti population dynamics in Machala, a city in southern coastal Ecuador where dengue is hyper-endemic. Methods/Principal findings We studied two proximate urban localities where we monitored weekly Ae. aegypti oviposition activity (Nov. 2010-June 2011), conducted seasonal pupal surveys, and surveyed household to identify dengue risk factors. The results of this study provide evidence that Ae. aegypti population dynamics are influenced by social risk factors that vary by season and lagged climate variables that vary by locality. Best-fit models to predict the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae included parameters for household water storage practices, access to piped water, the number of households per property, condition of the house and patio, and knowledge and perceptions of dengue. Rainfall and minimum temperature were significant predictors of oviposition activity, although the effect of rainfall varied by locality due to differences in types of water storage containers. Conclusions These results indicate the potential to reduce the burden of dengue in this region by conducting focused vector control interventions that target high-risk households and containers in each season and by developing predictive models using climate and non-climate information. These findings provide the region's public health sector with key information for conducting time and location-specific vector control campaigns, and highlight the importance of local socio-ecological studies to understand dengue dynamics. See Text S1 for an executive summary in Spanish.
Stewart Ibarra, Anna M.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Beltran, Efrain; Mejia, Raul; Silva, Mercy; Munoz, Angel
The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti.
Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William
The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212
Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William
Background In 2006, severe outbreaks of Aedes aegypti-transmitted chikungunya occurred in villages in Karnataka, South India. We evaluated the effectiveness of combined information, education and communication (IEC) campaigns using two potential poeciliid larvivorous fish guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), in indoor cement tanks for Aedes larval control. Methods Trials were conducted in two villages (Domatmari and Srinivaspura) in Tumkur District from March to May 2006 for Poecilia and one village (Balmanda) in Kolar District from July to October 2006 for Gambusia. A survey on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on chikungunya was initially conducted and IEC campaigns were performed before and after fish release in Domatmari (IEC alone, followed by IEC + Poecilia) and Balmanda (IEC + Gambusia). In Srinivaspura, IEC was not conducted. Larval surveys were conducted at the baseline followed by one-week and one-month post-intervention periods. The impact of fish on Aedes larvae and disease was assessed based on baseline and post-intervention observations. Results Only 18% of respondents knew of the role of mosquitoes in fever outbreaks, while almost all (n = 50 each) gained new knowledge from the IEC campaigns. In Domatmari, IEC alone was not effective (OR 0.54; p = 0.067). Indoor cement tanks were the most preferred Ae. aegypti breeding habitat (86.9%), and had a significant impact on Aedes breeding (Breteau Index) in all villages in the one-week period (p < 0.001). In the one-month period, the impact was most sustained in Domatmari (OR 1.58, p < 0.001) then Srinivaspura (OR 0.45, p = 0.063) and Balmanda (OR 0.51, p = 0.067). After fish introductions, chikungunya cases were reduced by 99.87% in Domatmari, 65.48% in Srinivaspura and 68.51% in Balmanda. Conclusions Poecilia exhibited greater survival rates than Gambusia (86.04 vs.16.03%) in cement tanks. Neither IEC nor Poecilia alone was effective against Aedes (p > 0.05). We conclude that Poecilia + IEC is an effective intervention strategy. The operational cost was 0.50 (US$ 0.011, 1 US$= 47) per capita per application. Proper water storage practices, focused IEC with Poecilia introductions and vector sanitation involving the local administration and community, is suggested as the best strategy for Aedes control.
An electrochemically active compound was detected in the larvae of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and progressive accumulation of this compound was observed during larval development. The compound was purified from mosquito larvae using various chromatographic techniques and spectral analysis of the purified compound resulted in its identification as xanthurenic acid. Production of xanthurenic acid results from the transamination of 3-hydroxykynuorenine, and
Jianyong Li; Guoyu Li
It is known that insect kinins increase diuresis and fluid secretion in the Aedes aegypti Malpighian tubule, causing a rapid drop of the transepithelial resistance and increasing chloride conductance from the hemolymph towards the tubule lumen. The tubule is composed of both principal and stellate cells. The main route for increased chloride influx upon kinin treatment is proposed to be paracellular, with septate junctions acquiring increased chloride selectivity and conductance. Therefore, kinin treatment renders the Aedes aegypti tubule a “leaky epithelium”, and under this model the kinin receptor is postulated to be expressed in principal cells. However, in another dipteran, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the main route for chloride transport is transcellular through stellate cells. In both the fruit fly and the mosquito Anopheles stephensi the kinin receptor has been immunolocalized in stellate cells, where it regulates transepithelial chloride permeability. Here we show that in Aedes aegypti, similarly, the stellate cells express the kinin receptor. This was confirmed through immunohistochemistry with two specific anti-kinin receptor antibodies and confocal analysis. The receptor is detected as a 75kDa band in western blot. These results indicate that the currently accepted model for chloride transport must be re-evaluated in Aedes aegypti and suggest the kinin regulatory signals controlling intercellular junctions originate in the stellate cells.
Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Kersch, Cymon; Pietrantonio, Patricia V.
A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mosquitoes, and the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the ins...
A. Khrimian J. A. Klun M. Debboun
The present paper deals with the evaluation of the effectiveness of a sample of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate compared with the usual pool c hlorine, calcium hypochlorite, on the mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae, vector of dengue. Laboratory bioassays wer e carried out with the concentrations of 0.6 ppm of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 1ppm of swimming pool chlorine, as representing its common
Edmilson Ricardo Gonçalves
A series of behavioral tests with Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles stephensi Liston, mos- quitoes, and the sand ßy Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli in the presence of Deet, SS220, and Picaridin topically applied to the skin of human volunteers showed that the insects were deterred from feeding on and repelled from surfaces emanating the compounds. When offered a 12- or 24-cm2 area
Jerome A. Klun; Ashot Khrimian; Mustapha Debboun
The tremendous worldwide efforts to isolate novel mosquito larvicidal bacteria with improved efficacy present significant promise to control vector-borne diseases of public health importance. In the present study, two native bacterial isolates, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt SV2) and Serratia species (SV6) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal potential against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus with reference to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) H 14. The native Gram-positive, spore-forming Bt SV2 isolate showed 100% mortality against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, in parallel to Bti H14 strain. After 24 h, Bt SV2 showed 98%, 89%, and 80.67%, and Bti H14 showed 92%, 98.33%, and 60% mortality against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Serratia SV6 showed highest activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (100%) followed by Anopheles stephensi (95%) and Aedes aegypti (91%) after 48 h of exposure. The Gram-negative Serratia SV6 showed delayed toxicity compared to Bti H14 and Bt SV2 against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The relative mortality of all treatments after 12-h exposures showed the varied toxicity with respect to exposure time, bacterial treatment, and mosquito species. Genetic relatedness of the strains was confirmed on the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions based on alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences which indicated a strong clustering of the strain SV2 with B. thuringiensis and the strain SV6 with Serratia nematodiphila. In conclusion, the native isolate B. thuringiensis SV2 showed significant toxicity while Serratia SV6 showed less and delayed toxicity against several mosquito species compared with BtiH14. They may be used as novel bacterial insecticidal agents in mosquito vector-borne disease control. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mosquito larvicidal potential of Serratia species. PMID:22065062
Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B
Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85-87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78-300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (15-56 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency. PMID:24778255
Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, José Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A; Ribeiro, José M C; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a common pantropical urban mosquito, vector of dengue, Yellow Fever and chikungunya viruses. Studies have shown Ae. aegypti abundance to be associated with environmental fluctuations, revealing patterns such as the occurrence of delayed mosquito outbreaks, i.e., sudden extraordinary increases in mosquito abundance following transient extreme high temperatures. Here, we use a two-stage (larvae and adults) matrix model to propose a mechanism for environmental signal canalization into demographic parameters of Ae. aegypti that could explain delayed high temperature induced mosquito outbreaks. We performed model simulations using parameters estimated from a weekly time series from Thailand, assuming either independent or autocorrelated environments. For autocorrelated environments, we found that long delays in the association between the onset of "hot" environments and mosquito outbreaks (10 weeks, as observed in Thailand) can be generated when "hot" environments sequentially trigger a larval survival decrease and over-compensatory fecundity increase, which lasts for the whole "hot" period, in conjunction with a larval survival increase followed by a fecundity decrease when the environment returns to "normal". This result was not observed for independent environments. Finally, we discuss our results implications for prospective entomological research and vector management under changing environments. PMID:23537497
Chaves, Luis Fernando; Scott, Thomas W; Morrison, Amy C; Takada, Takenori
The insect growth regulator, Lufenuron, at concentrations of even multiples of LC(90) (determined under laboratory conditions) was tested against the III instar larvae of Aedes aegypti under simulated field conditions. For all concentrations tested, 100 % mortality of the larvae was observed within 24 h of exposure to Lufenuron-treated water. In experiments with LC(90) × 4 Lufenuron concentration and where 15 % of water volume was replaced daily, percent mortality of the larvae was reduced to 40 % after the 54th day of treatment. Percentage mortality of the III instar larvae on the 54th day was higher in water with LC(90) × 6 concentration than that observed for water with LC(90) × 4 of Lufenuron. In the experiments with LC(90) × 4 and LC(90) × 6 concentrations of Lufenuron where 15 % of water volume was replaced weekly, larval mortality obtained after the eighth week was 68.75 and 88.33 %, respectively. In LC(90) × 4 and LC(90) × 6 of Lufenuron-treated stagnant water (without replacement of water), the percent mortality of the larvae on the 55th day was 65 and 90 %, respectively. Introducing a fresh batch of III instar A. aegypti larvae in the Lufenuron-treated waters revealed that residual activity of Lufenuron was sustained for 45 days after the treatment. All these experiments revealed that Lufenuron not only affects the prevalence of the A. aegypti larvae but also induces the development of abnormal adults. PMID:22638920
Salokhe, S G; Deshpande, S G; Mukherjee, S N
The extracts of liver (LE), ovary (OE), skin (SE) and muscle (ME) tissues of four species of puffer fishes viz., Arothron hispidus, Lagocephalus inermis, Lagocephalus scleratus and Chelonodon patoca were evaluated against larvae and eggs of three mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The LC50 values were 1194.26, 1382.73 (LE); 1421.42, 1982.73 (OE); 7116.86, 15038.98 (ME) and 10817.8 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for A. hispidus. In the case of L. inermis, the LC50 values were 1163.83, 1556.1 and 2426.38 (LE); 1653.53, 2734.74 (OE); 6067.47 (ME) and 10283.04 ppm (SE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. The LC50 values were 1509.98, 1608.69 (LE) and 1414.9, 2278.69 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus respectively for the extracts of L. scleratus. In the case C. patoca extracts the LC50 values were 1182.29, 1543.00, 2441.03 (LE) and 1076.13, 2582.11 ppm (OE) for An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti respectively. OE and LE of all puffer fishes exhibited zero percent egg hatchability from 600 to 1000 ppm against eggs of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This study shows that puffer toxins are effective in killing the larvae and eggs of mosquitoes. PMID:23665705
Samidurai, Kaliyaperumal; Mathew, Nisha
The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC?? and LC?? values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent. PMID:21881945
Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan
Although anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These "domestication" processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers developed with restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. In addition, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes. PMID:24111703
Brown, Julia E; Evans, Benjamin R; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play a central role in the detoxification of xenobiotics such as insecticides and elevated GST expression is an important mechanism of insecticide resistance. In the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, increased expression of an Epsilon class GST, GSTE2, confers resistance to DDT. We have identified eight GST genes in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Four of these belong to the insect specific GST classes Delta and Epsilon and three are from the more ubiquitously distributed Theta and Sigma classes. The expression levels of the two Epsilon genes, a Theta GST and a previously identified Ae. aegypti GST [Grant and Hammock, 1992. Molecular and General Genetics 234, 169-176] were established for an insecticide susceptible and a resistant strain. We show that the putative ortholog of GSTe2 in Ae. aegypti (AaGSTe2) is over expressed in mosquitoes that are resistant to the insecticides DDT and permethrin. Characterisation of recombinant AaGSTE2-2 confirmed the role of this enzyme in DDT metabolism. In addition, unlike its Anopheles ortholog, AaGSTE2-2 also exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity. PMID:15944082
Lumjuan, Nongkran; McCarroll, Lynn; Prapanthadara, La-aied; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary
The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of arboviral diseases, particularly of Dengue fever, of which there are more than 100 million cases annually. Mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti, serve as vectors for disease pathogens because they require vertebrate blood for their egg production. Pathogen transmission is tightly linked to repeated cycles of obligatory blood feeding and egg maturation. Thus, the understanding of mechanisms governing egg production is necessary to develop approaches that limit the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Previous studies have identified critical roles of hormonal- and nutrition-based target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways in controlling blood-meal-mediated egg maturation in mosquitoes. In this work, we uncovered another essential regulator of blood-meal-activated processes, the microRNA miR-275. The depletion of this microRNA in A. aegypti females after injection of its specific antagomir resulted in severe defects in blood digestion, fluid excretion, and egg development, clearly demonstrating that miR-275 is indispensable for these physiological processes. miR-275 exhibits an expression profile that suggests its regulation by a steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In vitro organ culture experiments demonstrated that miR-275 is induced by this hormone in the presence of amino acids, indicative of a dual regulation by 20E and TOR. This report has uncovered the critical importance of microRNAs in controlling blood-meal-activated physiological events required for completion of egg development in mosquito disease vectors. PMID:21115818
Bryant, Bart; Macdonald, Warren; Raikhel, Alexander S
Species of the Allium genus, used in functional foods for the treatment of improving gastritis and heart failures, were collected and petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained by sonication. The Allium thumbergii chloroform extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 2.4 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 6.3 ?g/mL. The Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum petroleum ether extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of A. aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 1.2 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 2.1 ?g/mL. Also, the Allium sacculiferum chloroform extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of A. aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 1.8 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 4.7 ?g/mL. The above data indicate that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum petroleum ether extracts. PMID:21158696
Lim, Jung-Dae; Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In
Insect growth regulator (IGR), pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone analogue used in stored product insect pest and vector control programmes. It can be considered as an alternative source to conventional insecticides because of its specific activity against immature insects, low persistence in the environment and virtually nontoxic to mammals. So, in our laboratory the effect of Pyriproxyfen was evaluated against the late 3rd instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti to study the Concentration-mortality response and inhibition of adult emergence. The results showed that LC50 was 0.00084 ppm and 0.00166 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti respectively. Toxicity of this insect compound extended till the adult emergence by inhibiting pupae formation up to 61.0% and 95.6% of adult emergence against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Likewise it affected 65.0% of pupal formation and 98.9% of adult emergence against A. aegypti. These results represent a promising strategy to use insect growth regulator, Pyriproxyfen for the instant, safe and successful improvement in the integrated vector control programme. PMID:22010483
Madhu, S K; Vijayan, V A
Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity ofAe. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population. PMID:24724294
Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana
To access the relative potency of pesticides to control adult mosquitoes, 19 pesticides with various modes of action were evaluated against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values after topical application, the only pesticide that had higher activity than permethrin was fipronil, with LD50 values lower than permethrin for 107-, 4,849-, and 2-fold against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus Say, and An. quadrimaculatus Say, respectively. Abamectin, imidacloprid, spinosad, diazinon, and carbaryl showed slightly lower activity than permethrin (<20-fold). However, bifenazate showed very low activity against the three mosquito species tested, with LD50 values higher than permthrin for >1000-fold. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the least susceptible species to nine pesticides tested (DNOC, azocyclotin, chlorfenapyr, carbaryl, spinosad, imidaclorid, diazinon, abamectin, and permethrin) , whereas Ae. aegypti was the least susceptible species to six pesticides tested (dicofol, amitraz, propargite, hydramethylnon, cyhexatin, and diafenthiuron), and An. quadrimaculatus was the least susceptible species to four pesticides tested (bifenazate, pyridaben, indoxacarb, and fipronil). Our results revealed that different species of mosquitoes had different susceptibility to pesticides, showing the need to select the most efficacious compounds for the least susceptible mosquito species to achieve successful mosquito control. PMID:18283946
Pridgeon, Julia W; Pereira, Roberto M; Becnel, James J; Allan, Sandra A; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J
The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of temperature on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic range margins where future rising temperatures could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how temperature impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the temperature ranges for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool range margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic range now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating temperatures impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water temperature. The general shape of the relationship between water temperature and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower developmental zero temperature (10-14 degrees C) is exceeded, there is a near-linear relationship up to 30 degrees C. Above this temperature, the development rate is relatively stable or even decreases slightly before falling dramatically near the upper developmental zero temperature, which occurs at -38-42 degrees C. Based on life stage-specific linear relationships between water temperature and development rate in the 15-28 degrees C range, the lower developmental zero temperature is estimated to be 14.0 degrees C for eggs, 11.8 degrees C for larvae, and 10.3 degrees C for pupae. We further conclude that available population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti, such as CIMSiM and Skeeter Buster, likely produce robust predictions based on water temperatures in the 16-35 degrees C range, which includes the geographic areas where Ae. aegypti and its associated pathogens present the greatest threat to human health, but that they may be less reliable in cool range margins where water temperatures regularly fall below 15 degrees C. Finally, we identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its range, now and in the future, based on impacts on mosquito population dynamics of temperature and other important factors, such as water nutrient content, larval density, presence of biological competitors, and human behavior. PMID:24897844
Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hayden, Mary H; Bieringer, Paul E
The orphan nuclear receptor HR3 is essential for developmental switches during insect development and metamorphosis regulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Reproduction of female mosquitoes of the major vector of Dengue fever, Aedes aegypti, is cyclic because of its dependence on blood feeding. 20E is an important hormone regulating vitellogenic events in this mosquito; however, any role for HR3 in 20E-driven reproductive events has not been known. Using RNA interference (RNAi) approach, we demonstrated that Aedes HR3 plays a critical role in a timely termination of expression of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene encoding the major yolk protein precursor. It is also important for downregulation of the Target-of-Rapamycin pathway and activation of programmed autophagy in the Aedes fat body at the end of vitellogenesis. HR3 is critical in activating betaFTZ-F1, EcRB and USPA, the expressions of which are highly elevated at the end of vitellogenesis. RNAi depletion of HR3 (iHR3) prior to the first gonadotrophic cycle affects a normal progression of the second gonadotrophic cycle. Most of ovaries 24 h post second blood meal from iHR3 females in the second cycle were small with follicles that were only slightly different in length from of those of resting stage. In addition, these iHR3 females laid a significantly reduced number of eggs per mosquito as compared to those of iMal and the wild type. Our results indicate an important role of HR3 in regulation of 20E-regulated developmental switches during reproductive cycles of A. aegypti females.
Mane-Padros, Daniel; Cruz, Josefa; Cheng, Andrew; Raikhel, Alexander S.
Background Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease affecting humans. The only prevention measure currently available is the control of its vectors, primarily Aedes aegypti. Recent advances in genetic engineering have opened the possibility for a new range of control strategies based on genetically modified mosquitoes. Assessing the potential efficacy of genetic (and conventional) strategies requires the availability of modeling tools that accurately describe the dynamics and genetics of Ae. aegypti populations. Methodology/Principal findings We describe in this paper a new modeling tool of Ae. aegypti population dynamics and genetics named Skeeter Buster. This model operates at the scale of individual water-filled containers for immature stages and individual properties (houses) for adults. The biology of cohorts of mosquitoes is modeled based on the algorithms used in the non-spatial Container Inhabiting Mosquitoes Simulation Model (CIMSiM). Additional features incorporated into Skeeter Buster include stochasticity, spatial structure and detailed population genetics. We observe that the stochastic modeling of individual containers in Skeeter Buster is associated with a strongly reduced temporal variation in stage-specific population densities. We show that heterogeneity in container composition of individual properties has a major impact on spatial heterogeneity in population density between properties. We detail how adult dispersal reduces this spatial heterogeneity. Finally, we present the predicted genetic structure of the population by calculating FST values and isolation by distance patterns, and examine the effects of adult dispersal and container movement between properties. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrate that the incorporated stochasticity and level of spatial detail have major impacts on the simulated population dynamics, which could potentially impact predictions in terms of control measures. The capacity to describe population genetics confers the ability to model the outcome of genetic control methods. Skeeter Buster is therefore an important tool to model Ae. aegypti populations and the outcome of vector control measures.
Puente, Molly E.; Focks, Dana A.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred
We conducted laboratory tests to assess the sensitivity to the insect repellent 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, 1-methylpropylester (known as KBR 3023 or Picaridin, trade name Bayrepel) of West African strains of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and of malaria vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, in comparison with the standard repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methyl-benzamide (DEET). Test mosquitoes were exposed according to a 'separate arms' protocol to logarithmic dose increments applied on one arm of human subjects to evaluate the relative potency, and the median effective dosages (ED50 and ED90). According to a logistic regression model fitted to the experimental data, the dose-response relationship for the two repellents was the same within each species, thus pooled ED values were assessed for each mosquito separately. The median ED of KBR 3023 and DEET was estimated at 0.78 (95% confidence limits (CI): 0.57-1.04) and at 0.018 microg/cm2 (0.004-0.052) for mosquitoes of the An. gambiae complex and Ae. aegypti, respectively. ED90 values were 125.6 (81.4-201.3) and 24.0 microg/cm2 (5.7-208.5) for An. gambiae s.l. and Ae. aegypti, respectively. The relative potency of KBR 3023 was not significantly different from that of DEET for An. gambiae s.l. (95% confidence limits 0.7-1.0), whereas in the case of Ae. aegypti it was with 95% probability 1.1-2.0 times more potent than DEET. On the basis of available evidence, KBR 3023 represents a promising alternative to DEET for personal protection against bites of these important vectors of disease in the Afrotropical region. PMID:14996361
Badolo, Athanase; Ilboudo-Sanogo, Edith; Ouédraogo, Albert Patoin; Costantini, Carlo
Background Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the main vectors of dengue viruses. Despite global efforts to reduce the prevalence of dengue using integrated vector management strategies, innovative alternatives are necessary to help prevent virus transmission. Detailed characterizations of Ae. aegypti genes and their products provide information about the biology of mosquitoes and may serve as foundations for the design of new vector control methods. Findings We studied the Ae. aegypti gene, AAEL010714, that encodes a two-domain odorant-binding protein, AaegOBP45. The predicted gene structure and sequence were validated, although single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed. Transcriptional and translational products accumulate in the ovaries of blood fed females and are not detected or are at low abundance in other tissues. Conclusions We validated the Ae. aegypti AAEL010714 gene sequence and characterized the expression profile of a two-domain OBP expressed in ovaries. We propose that AaegOBP45 function as a component of the mosquito eggshell.
The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.
Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakoune, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad
Previous studies have shown that permethrin resistance in our selected PMD-R strain of Aedes aegypti from Chiang Mai, Thailand, was associated with a homozygous mutation in the knockdown resistance (kdr) gene and other mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the metabolic mechanism of resistance of this strain compared to the PMD strain which is susceptible to permethrin. The permethrin susceptibility of larvae was determined by a dose-response bioassay. Two synergists, namely piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and bis(4-nitrophenyl)-phosphate (BNPP), were also added to determine if the resistance is conferred by oxidase or esterase enzymes, respectively. The LC(50) value for PMD-R (25.42 ppb) was ?25-fold higher than for PMD (1.02 ppb). The LC(50) was reduced 3.03-fold in PMD-R and 2.27-fold in PMD when the oxidase inhibitor (PBO) was added, but little or no reduction was observed in the presence of BNPP, indicating that oxidative enzymes play an important role in resistance. However, the LC(50) previously observed in the heterozygous mutation form was reduced ?eightfold, indicating that metabolic resistance is inferior to kdr. The levels of cytochrome P450 (P450) extracted from fourth instar larvae were similar in both strains and were about 2.3-fold greater in microsomal fractions than in crude supernatant and cytosol fractions. Microsome oxidase activities were determined by incubation with each of three substrates, i.e., permethrin, phenoxybenzyl alcohol (PBOH), and phenoxybenzaldehyde (PBCHO), in the presence or absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), PBO, and BNPP. It is known that hydrolysis of permethrin produces PBOH which is further oxidized to PBCHO by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and then to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH) by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). When incubated with permethrin, a small amount of PBCOOH was detected in both strains (about 1.1-1.2 nmol/min/mg protein), regardless of the addition of NADPH. The addition of PBO resulted in about 70% and 50% reduction of PBCOOH in PMD and PMD-R, respectively. The addition of BNPP reduced PBCOOH about 50% and 35% in PMD and PMD-R, respectively. Using PBOH as substrate increased PBCOOH ?16-fold and ?40-fold in PMD and PMD-R, respectively. Using PBCHO as substrate increased PBCOOH ?26-fold and ?50-fold in PMD and PMD-R, respectively. The addition of NADPH, and particularly NAD(+), increased the level of PBCOOH. Together, the results have indicated the presence of a metabolic metabolism involving P450, ADHs, and ALDHs in both PMD and PMD-R strains, with greater enzyme activity in the latter. PMID:21336645
Somwang, Puckavadee; Yanola, Jintana; Suwan, Warissara; Walton, Catherine; Lumjuan, Nongkran; Prapanthadara, La-Aied; Somboon, Pradya
Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito.
Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen
Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the reported E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants. PMID:21318385
Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A
Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379
Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de
Xanthurenic acid (XA) has been implicated as an inducer in vivo of exflagellation in Plasmodium spp. Consequently, the development of Plasmodium gallinaceum was assessed in a white-eye mosquito strain, kh(w), of Aedes aegypti (L.), which is deficient in XA because of a mutation of the gene encoding the enzyme kynurenine hydroxylase, and in a transformed line of kh(w) mosquitoes that carry the wild-type cn+ gene of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and express a functional enzyme necessary for XA production. Although XA was not detectable in kh(w) mosquitoes by using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, parasites were able to develop. Transformed kh(w) mosquitoes failed to consistently support parasite development at higher prevalences and mean intensities than did the nontransformed kh(w) lines, even though XA was detectable. These data suggest that factors other than XA may play a role in initiating Plasmodium development in vivo. PMID:16619617
Beerntsen, Brenda T; Li, Jianyong
Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents. PMID:22420541
Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J
Entomological surveys were undertaken at some of the international airports/seaports (Bangalore, Calicut, Chennai, Cochin, Thiruvanathapuram and Vishakapatnam) to find out the breeding prevalence of dengue vector mosquito in diverse breeding containers from 1998 to 2004. Three vector indices (House index, Container index and Breateu index) were used to assess the breeding potential at each airport/seaport. International Health Regulations urged national governments to keep all the international airports/seaports and peripheral areas up to 400 meters free from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. However, surveys revealed high vector indices at all the airports and seaports. Health authorities of airports/seaports need to take cognizance of these facts and develop action plan for appropriate control measures with emphasis on vector surveillance. PMID:17080700
Sharma, S N; Kumar, S; Das, B P; Thomas, T G; Kumar, K; Katyal, R; Gill, K S; Bora, D; Lal, S; Saxena, V K
The relation between the number of mosquito specimens of the most abundant species Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say and the construction of houses which they inhabited was studied. The effect of the building materials and of the height at which the floor was situated above the ground were assessed in five and four localities, respectively. It was found that in the localities having the character of a town the mosquitoes were most abundant in houses constructed from corrugated plate and in those the floor of which was situated 2-3.5 m above the ground. In the locality of a village character, the mosquitoes were most numerous in brick houses with the floors at the ground level. PMID:1916534
The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.
JACKSON, BRYAN T.; BREWSTER, CARLYLE C.; PAULSON, SALLY L.
Background Current Aedes aegypti larval control methods are often insufficient for preventing dengue epidemics. To improve control efficiency and cost-effectiveness, some advocate eliminating or treating only highly productive containers. The population-level outcome of this strategy, however, will depend on details of Ae. aegypti oviposition behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We simultaneously monitored female oviposition and juvenile development in 80 experimental containers located across 20 houses in Iquitos, Peru, to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposit preferentially in sites with the greatest potential for maximizing offspring fitness. Females consistently laid more eggs in large vs. small containers (??=?9.18, p<0.001), and in unmanaged vs. manually filled containers (??=?5.33, p<0.001). Using microsatellites to track the development of immature Ae. aegypti, we found a negative correlation between oviposition preference and pupation probability (??=??3.37, p<0.001). Body size of emerging adults was also negatively associated with the preferred oviposition site characteristics of large size (females: ??=??0.19, p<0.001; males: ??=??0.11, p?=?0.002) and non-management (females: ??=??0.17, p<0.001; males: ??=??0.11, p<0.001). Inside a semi-field enclosure, we simulated a container elimination campaign targeting the most productive oviposition sites. Compared to the two post-intervention trials, egg batches were more clumped during the first pre-intervention trial (??=??0.17, P<0.001), but not the second (??=?0.01, p?=?0.900). Overall, when preferred containers were unavailable, the probability that any given container received eggs increased (??=?1.36, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Ae. aegypti oviposition site choice can contribute to population regulation by limiting the production and size of adults. Targeted larval control strategies may unintentionally lead to dispersion of eggs among suitable, but previously unoccupied or under-utilized containers. We recommend integrating targeted larval control measures with other strategies that leverage selective oviposition behavior, such as luring ovipositing females to gravid traps or egg sinks.
Wong, Jacklyn; Morrison, Amy C.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Astete, Helvio; Chu, Yui Yin; Baseer, Imaan; Scott, Thomas W.
This article focuses on the epidemiological methods and results of a global Ecohealth study that explored the complexity of the relationship between ecological, biological, economical, social and political factors and vector presence. The study was carried out in two dengue endemic areas of Colombia. A transdisciplinary team gathered quantitative and qualitative data. A survey in randomly sampled households was applied and, simultaneously, direct observation of potential breeding sites was carried out. Logistic regressions and qualitative techniques were used. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared using triangulation. The presence of low water containers increases seven-fold the risk of finding immature forms of Aedes aegypti in the household (OR = 7.5; 95%CI: 1.7-32.2). An inverse association between socioeconomic stratum and presence of the vector was identified (Low stratum OR = 0.9; 95%CI: 0.6-1.4; High stratum OR =0.4; 95%CI: 0.07-1.7). Water management is a complex social dynamic associated with the presence of Ae. aegypti. Dengue control is a challenge for public health authorities and researchers as they should address promotion and prevention strategies that take into account cultural, behavioral, socioeconomic and health factors. PMID:19287871
Quintero, Juliana; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Suárez, Roberto; González, Catalina; Olano, Victor A
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. The identification of the rate-limiting binding steps of Cry toxins that are used for insect control in the field, such as those of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, should provide targets for improving insecticides against important insect pests. Previous studies showed that Cry11Aa binds to cadherin receptor fragment CR7–11 (cadherin repeats 7–11) with high affinity. Binding to cadherin has been proposed to facilitate Cry toxin oligomer formation. In the present study, we show that Cry4Ba binds to CR7–11 with 9-fold lower binding affinity compared with Cry11Aa. Oligomerization assays showed that Cry4Ba is capable of forming oligomers when proteolytically activated in vitro in the absence of the CR7–11 fragment in contrast with Cry11Aa that formed oligomers only in the presence of CR7–11. Pore-formation assays in planar lipid bilayers showed that Cry4Ba oligomers were proficient in opening ion channels. Finally, silencing the cadherin gene by dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) showed that silenced larvae were more tolerant to Cry11Aa in contrast with Cry4Ba, which showed similar toxic levels to those of control larvae. These findings show that cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Cry4Ba toxicity to A. aegypti larvae.
Rodriguez-Almazan, Claudia; Reyes, Esmeralda Z.; Zuniga-Navarrete, Fernando; Munoz-Garay, Carlos; Gomez, Isabel; Evans, Amy M.; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberon, Mario
The residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti (L.) was examined by treating 2-liter buckets with a range of rates of Sumilarv 0.5G (100, 10, 1, and 0.1 mg product/liter or nominal dose of 500, 50, 5, and 0.5 ppb active ingredient) under semifield conditions. Approximately every 2 wk, pupal emergence inhibition (EI) was measured by using Cairns colony Ae. aegypti. Pooled water samples from the five replicate buckets were analyzed for active pyriproxyfen by using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. A strong dose-response in EI was exhibited, with the 0.1 mg/liter giving approximately 50% EI for only the initial week, whereas the 10 and 100 mg/liter doses produced EI > 90% for 8 and 40 wk, respectively. Measurable levels of active ingredient were detected in the 100, 10, and 1 mg/liter treatments, with measured starting concentrations of just 1-2-1.4% of the delivered (active ingredient) dose. Pyriproxyfen was detected in the 100 mg/liter treatment through the entire course of the trial (60 wk). PMID:24180124
Ritchie, Scott A; Paton, Chris; Buhagiar, Tamara; Webb, Garry A; Jovic, Vladan
The control of mosquitoes transmitting infectious diseases relies mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. However, resistance to most chemical insecticides threatens mosquito control programs. In this context, the spraying of toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) in larval habitats represents an alternative to chemical insecticides and is now widely used for mosquito control. Recent studies suggest that resistance of mosquitoes to Bti toxin may occur locally but mechanisms have not been characterized so far. In the present study, we investigated gene transcription level variations associated with Bti toxin resistance in the mosquito Aedes aegypti using a next-generation sequencing approach. More than 6 million short cDNA tags were sequenced from larvae of two strains sharing the same genetic background: a Bti toxins-resistant strain and a susceptible strain. These cDNA tags were mapped with a high coverage (308 reads per position in average) to more than 6000 genes of Ae. aegypti genome and used to quantify and compare the transcription level of these genes between the two mosquito strains. Among them, 86 genes were significantly differentially transcribed more than 4-fold in the Bti toxins resistant strain comparatively to the susceptible strain. These included gene families previously associated with Bti toxins resistance such as serine proteases, alkaline phosphatase and alpha-amylase. These results are discussed in regards of potential Bti toxins resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes. PMID:22115744
Paris, Margot; Melodelima, Christelle; Coissac, Eric; Tetreau, Guillaume; Reynaud, Stephane; David, Jean-Philippe; Despres, Laurence
Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. The identification of the rate-limiting binding steps of Cry toxins that are used for insect control in the field, such as those of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, should provide targets for improving insecticides against important insect pests. Previous studies showed that Cry11Aa binds to cadherin receptor fragment CR7-11 (cadherin repeats 7-11) with high affinity. Binding to cadherin has been proposed to facilitate Cry toxin oligomer formation. In the present study, we show that Cry4Ba binds to CR7-11 with 9-fold lower binding affinity compared with Cry11Aa. Oligomerization assays showed that Cry4Ba is capable of forming oligomers when proteolytically activated in vitro in the absence of the CR7-11 fragment in contrast with Cry11Aa that formed oligomers only in the presence of CR7-11. Pore-formation assays in planar lipid bilayers showed that Cry4Ba oligomers were proficient in opening ion channels. Finally, silencing the cadherin gene by dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) showed that silenced larvae were more tolerant to Cry11Aa in contrast with Cry4Ba, which showed similar toxic levels to those of control larvae. These findings show that cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Cry4Ba toxicity to A. aegypti larvae. PMID:22329749
Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Reyes, Esmeralda Z; Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Gómez, Isabel; Evans, Amy M; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario
The flower parts of Paulownia coreana were extracted and the major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of P. coreana. The P. coreana essential oil (PCEO) yield was 0.175%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were benzyl alcohol (13.72%), phenol, 3,4-dimethoxy-methyl ester (3.64%), phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-popenyl)-methyl ester (6.24%), 1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene (8.32%), tricosane (3.28%), and pentacosane (3.26%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 31.64?ppm and an LC(90) value of 56.43?ppm. 1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene was the most toxic among the major components with an LC(50) value near 23.1?ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20476845
Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba. PMID:24863972
Gato, René; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Bruzon, Rosa Y; Companioni, Ariamys; Menendez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys
Male reproductive success is dependent on insemination success and reproductive output. During mating, male mosquitoes transfer not just sperm, but also seminal fluid proteins that may have profound effects on mated female biology and behavior. In this study, we investigated the role of male body size and mating history on semen depletion, female longevity, and reproductive success in Aedes aegypti L. Small and large males were mated in rapid succession with up to five females. Our results indicate that large males had greater mating capacity than small males. A reduction in fecundity by >50% was observed in females that were fourth to mate with small males in comparison with females that mated earlier in sequence. For females mated to large males, this reduction became evident for females that mated fifth in sequence. No loss of fertility (measured as hatch rate) was observed in females that were third-fifth in mating sequence compared with females mated to virgin males. When females were maintained on a low-quality (5% sucrose) diet, those mated to virgin males had a greater longevity compared with females mated third in sequence. We conclude that small males experience more rapid seminal depletion than large males, and discuss the role of semen depletion in the mated female. Our results contribute toward a better understanding of the complexity of Ae. aegypti mating biology and provide refined estimates of mating capacity for genetic control efforts. PMID:21485355
Helinski, Michelle E H; Harrington, Laura C
Formamidines are unique insecticides and acaricides that elicit multiple effects in controlling insects. Here, we tested two formamidines, amitraz, and chlordimeform, for their synergistic actions on type II pyrethroids and neonicotinoids to increase their larvicidal actions on the fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L. An organophosphate insecticide was used as a negative control. After 24 h, the synergism of formamidines was highest on imidacloprid, followed by two type II pyrethroids, deltamethrin and fenvalerate. After 48 h, the synergism of formamidines on imidacloprid decreased, remained unchanged on type II pyrethroids, and increased noticeably on two of the newer type neonicotinoids, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam. By 72 h, synergism of formamidines on dinotefuran reached the maximum, while that on imidaclopri