Sample records for aedes aegypti infected

  1. Dengue Infection Increases the Locomotor Activity of Aedes aegypti Females

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Castro, Márcia G.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the virus causing Dengue fever, a disease that has increased dramatically in importance in recent decades, affecting many tropical and sub-tropical areas of the globe. It is known that viruses and other parasites can potentially alter vector behavior. We investigated whether infection with Dengue virus modifies the behavior of Aedes aegypti females with respect to their activity level. Methods/Principal Findings We carried out intrathoracic Dengue 2 virus (DENV-2) infections in Aedes aegypti females and recorded their locomotor activity behavior. We observed an increase of up to ?50% in the activity of infected mosquitoes compared to the uninfected controls. Conclusions Dengue infection alters mosquito locomotor activity behavior. We speculate that the higher levels of activity observed in infected Aedes aegypti females might involve the circadian clock. Further studies are needed to assess whether this behavioral change could have implications for the dynamics of Dengue virus transmission. PMID:21408119

  2. The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia CH Khoo; Joseph Piper; Irma Sanchez-Vargas; Ken E Olson; Alexander WE Franz

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway acts as an innate antiviral immune response in Aedes aegypti, modulating arbovirus infection of mosquitoes. Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. SINV strain TR339 encounters a midgut escape barrier (MEB) during infection of Ae. aegypti. The nature of this barrier is not well

  3. Resource depletion in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected by the microsporidia Vavraia culicis

    E-print Network

    we investigate the energetic budget of Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae infected by Vavraia culicisResource depletion in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected by the microsporidia Vavraia culicis A, a microsporidian parasite that transmits horizontally between larvae, and which has been previously shown to reduce

  4. Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

  5. The Aedes aegypti Toll Pathway Controls Dengue Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Zhiyong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George

    2008-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference–based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway–associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway. PMID:18604274

  6. Proteome of Aedes aegypti larvae in response to infection by the intracellular parasite Vavraia culicis

    E-print Network

    . Mosquito larvae were sampled at 5 and 15 days of age to compare the effects of infection when the parasiteProteome of Aedes aegypti larvae in response to infection by the intracellular parasite Vavraia that the major reaction to stress was the suppression of particular protein spots. Older (15 days) larvae reacted

  7. Adverse ffects of covert iridovirus infection on life history and demographic parameters of Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos F. Marina; Jorge E. Ibarra; Juan I. Arredondo-Jimenez; Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas; Pablo Liedo; Trevor Williams

    2003-01-01

    Sublethal viral infections can cause changes in the body size and demography of insect vectors, with important consequences for population dynamics and the probability that individual mosquitoes will transmit disease. This study examined the effects of covert (sublethal) infection by Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) on the demography of female Aedes aegypti and the relationship between key life history parameters

  8. Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023

  9. Reduced competitiveness of Wolbachia infected Aedes aegypti larvae in intra- and inter-specific immature interactions

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that frequently infect a diverse range of arthropod species. Empirical and theoretical studies examining Wolbachia invasiveness have emphasized Wolbachia effects on adult hosts, but recent studies show that Wolbachia impacts on immature hosts can be important also. Here, we have examined for effects of Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti. Specifically, differential survivorship is observed when young larvae (1st instar) are exposed to older Aedes albopictus larvae (4th instar) or con-specific larvae. In an additional experiment, we have examined for differential behavior and observed that Wolbachia-infected larvae differ from uninfected larvae in their reaction to light stimulation. Our results support a hypothesized effect of Wolbachia on A. aegypti larval behavior. The results are discussed in relation to the ability of Wolbachia to invade natural populations and recently applied public health strategies that target the replacement or suppression of this important disease vector. PMID:23933013

  10. REFRACTORINESS OF AEDES AEGYPTI (LINNAEUS) TO DUAL INFECTION WITH DENGUE AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Rohani; R Potiwat; I Zamree

    In this study, artificial membrane feeding technique was used to orally feed Aedes aegypti with dengue and chikungunya viruses. Virus detection was carried out by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The study did not detect dual in- fection of Ae. aegypti with dengue and chikungunya virus from the same pool or from individual mosquitoes. Oral receptivity of Ae. aegypti to

  11. Proteome of Aedes aegypti in response to infection and coinfection with microsporidian parasites.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alison B; Agnew, Philip; Noel, Valérie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Michalakis, Yannis

    2012-04-01

    Hosts are frequently infected with more than one parasite or pathogen at any one time, but little is known as to how they respond to multiple immune challenges compared to those involving single infections. We investigated the proteome of Aedes aegypti larvae following infection with either Edhazardia aedis or Vavraia culicis, and coinfections involving both. They are both obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum microsporidia and infect natural populations of Ae. aegypti. The results found some proteins only showing modified abundance in response to infections involving E. aedis, while others were only differentially abundant when infections involved V. culicis. Some proteins only responded with modified abundance to the coinfection condition, while others were differentially abundant in response to all three types of infection. As time since infection increased, the response to each of the single parasite infections diverged, while the response to the E. aedis and coinfection treatments converged. Some of the proteins differentially abundant in response to infection were identified. They included two vacuolar ATPases, proteins known to have a role in determining the infection success of intracellular parasites. This result suggests microsporidia could influence the infection success of other intracellular pathogens infecting vector species of mosquito, including viruses, Plasmodium and Wolbachia. PMID:22837817

  12. Proteome of Aedes aegypti in response to infection and coinfection with microsporidian parasites

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alison B; Agnew, Philip; Noel, Valérie; Demettre, Edith; Seveno, Martial; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Michalakis, Yannis

    2012-01-01

    Hosts are frequently infected with more than one parasite or pathogen at any one time, but little is known as to how they respond to multiple immune challenges compared to those involving single infections. We investigated the proteome of Aedes aegypti larvae following infection with either Edhazardia aedis or Vavraia culicis, and coinfections involving both. They are both obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum microsporidia and infect natural populations of Ae. aegypti. The results found some proteins only showing modified abundance in response to infections involving E. aedis, while others were only differentially abundant when infections involved V. culicis. Some proteins only responded with modified abundance to the coinfection condition, while others were differentially abundant in response to all three types of infection. As time since infection increased, the response to each of the single parasite infections diverged, while the response to the E. aedis and coinfection treatments converged. Some of the proteins differentially abundant in response to infection were identified. They included two vacuolar ATPases, proteins known to have a role in determining the infection success of intracellular parasites. This result suggests microsporidia could influence the infection success of other intracellular pathogens infecting vector species of mosquito, including viruses, Plasmodium and Wolbachia. PMID:22837817

  13. Dynamics of the “Popcorn” Wolbachia Infection in Outbred Aedes aegypti Informs Prospects for Mosquito Vector Control

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, H. L.; Mee, P.; Walker, T.; Weeks, A. R.; O'Neill, S. L.; Johnson, P.; Ritchie, S. A.; Richardson, K. M.; Doig, C.; Endersby, N. M.; Hoffmann, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects. PMID:21135075

  14. Further characterization of refractoriness in Aedes aegypti (L.) to infection by Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy).

    PubMed

    Nayar, J K; Knight, J W; Bradley, T J

    1988-06-01

    Factors which control the expression of the refractory or susceptible condition to infection with Dirofilaria immitis in the mosquito. Aedes aegypti, were investigated using three protocols. (1) Microfilariae and prelarvae were injected into the hemocoel of susceptible A. aegypti. Some microfilariae and prelarvae developed to the L1 larval stage but they failed to complete development to the infective stage. (2) Enema of microfilariae and prelarvae from infected susceptible and refractory donor females were given into the midgut of uninfected susceptible and refractory recipient females. The results indicate that the conditions which inhibit the initiation of development are present in the Malpighian tubules and not in the midgut of the refractory mosquitoes. (3) Transplants of infected Malpighian tubules from susceptible and refractory donor females were made into the abdominal hemocoel of uninfected susceptible and refractory recipient females. The results showed that the refractory condition depends on the genetic makeup of the donor, not the recipient, mosquito. The above results taken as a whole indicate that the factors which control refractoriness are not present in the midgut but are present in the Malpighian tubule cells of refractory A. aegypti. PMID:3366210

  15. Oviposition by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to conspecific larvae infected with internal symbiotes.

    PubMed

    Reeves, W K

    2004-06-01

    Female mosquitoes use abiotic and biotic factors, such as the presence of heavy metals or parasites, to determine the acceptability of oviposition sites. Some biotic factors can originate from mosquito larvae. When mosquito larvae are starved or infected with trematode metacercaria, they render associated water unacceptable to ovipositioning females. Internal symbiotes are common in wild mosquito populations, and I tested whether or not larvae of Aedes aegypti infected with a gregarine (Ascogregarina taiwanensis), a yeast (Candida near pseudoglaebosa), or a trichomycete (Smittium morbosum) rendered their rearing water unacceptable to oviposting mosquitoes. Infections with S. morbosum had no effect on the acceptability of the associated rearing water when compared to rearing water from uninfected larvae. However, the rearing water from larvae infected with A. taiwanensis or C. near pseudoglaebosa was more acceptable to ovipositing females than was distilled water or rearing water from uninfected larvae. Ovipositing female mosquitoes either preferred or were neutral to rearing water from larvae with gut symbiotes. PMID:15266753

  16. Human Probing Behavior of Aedes aegypti when Infected with a Life-Shortening Strain of Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Luciano A.; Saig, Emad; Turley, Andrew P.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are vectors of many serious pathogens in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Current control strategies almost entirely rely upon insecticides, which increasingly face the problems of high cost, increasing mosquito resistance and negative effects on non-target organisms. Alternative strategies include the proposed use of inherited life-shortening agents, such as the Wolbachia bacterium. By shortening mosquito vector lifespan, Wolbachia could potentially reduce the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. We have recently been able to stably transinfect Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with the life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop, and are assessing various aspects of its interaction with the mosquito host to determine its likely impact on pathogen transmission as well as its potential ability to invade A. aegypti populations. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we have examined the probing behavior of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes in an attempt to understand both the broader impact of Wolbachia infection on mosquito biology and, in particular, vectorial capacity. The probing behavior of wMelPop-infected mosquitoes at four adult ages was examined and compared to uninfected controls during video-recorded feeding trials on a human hand. Wolbachia-positive insects, from 15 days of age, showed a drastic increase in the time spent pre-probing and probing relative to uninfected controls. Two other important features for blood feeding, saliva volume and apyrase content of saliva, were also studied. Conclusions/Significance As A. aegypti infected with wMelPop age, they show increasing difficulty in completing the process of blood feeding effectively and efficiently. Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes on average produced smaller volumes of saliva that still contained the same amount of apyrase activity as uninfected mosquitoes. These effects on blood feeding behavior may reduce vectorial capacity and point to underlying physiological changes in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. PMID:20016848

  17. Comparison of blood feeding response and infection of Aedes aegypti to Wuchereria bancrofti using animal membranes and direct host contact.

    PubMed

    Pothikasikorn, Jinrapa; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Roongruangchai, Kosol; Roongruangchai, Jantima

    2007-09-01

    Comparison of an artificial, whole-blood membrane feeding procedure was performed by feeding Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain) on the blood of patients infected with Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae with the use of 3 types of membranes produced from chicken and mouse skin and swine intestine. Direct feeding of Ae. aegypti on the skin of infected human patients served as control. For all 3 types of membranes, mosquito survival, infection, and number of infective-stage larvae per mosquito did not differ significantly from the control. However, the blood feeding response between swine intestine layer (32%) compared to chicken skin (75.3%), mouse skin (70%), and direct feeding (84%) differed significantly. The response in direct feeding method was significantly higher than those in all membranes tested (F = 18.89; df = 3; P < 0.05) Chicken skin preparation was shown to be the preferred membrane for blood feeding Ae. aegypti and experimental infection with W. bancrofti. PMID:17939509

  18. Effect of larval density and Sindbis virus infection on immune responses in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2013-06-01

    Stressful environmental conditions during mosquito larval development may enhance susceptibility of adult mosquitoes to viral pathogens. Although anti-viral defense system in mosquitoes remains uncertain, stress-related enhancement of mosquito susceptibility to viral pathogens may be due to alteration of signaling pathways such as the Toll and immune deficiency (IMD) pathways. To test the influence of larval density and Sindbis virus (SINV) infection on mosquito Toll/Imd pathways, 100 or 200 Aedes aegypti larvae were reared in 2L of live oak (Quercus virginiana) leaf infusion and the adults were fed on SINV-infected (treatments) or non-infected (controls) bovine blood. SINV infection status and expression of genes encoding three antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin, diptericin), an iron-binding protein (transferrin), and four regulators of Toll/Imd pathways (caspar, cactus, Rel1A, Rel2) were quantified by RT-qPCR at 7 and 14days post blood meals. Irrespective of larval density, females incubated for 14days after an infectious blood meal had significantly higher SINV titers compared to females from low density treatments that were incubated for 7days. For both larval densities and time intervals, there was significant down-regulation of the Toll/Imd regulator genes in SINV-infected mosquitoes compared to controls. At day 7 post-infection, there was significant down-regulation of cecropin, defensin, diptericin and transferrin in SINV-infected mosquitoes at low larval density but this effect was only observed for diptericin at high larval density. These genes remained suppressed on day 14, except cecropin which was significantly up-regulated at both larval densities, and transferrin which was similar to controls at low larval density. We conclude that SINV infection suppresses Toll/Imd pathways, but high larval density enables SINV to attain maximum titers in Ae. aegypti much earlier compared to low density treatments despite the up-regulation of cecropin. PMID:23562781

  19. Stability of the wMel Wolbachia Infection following Invasion into Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Ary A.; Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Inaki; Callahan, Ashley G.; Phillips, Ben L.; Billington, Katrina; Axford, Jason K.; Montgomery, Brian; Turley, Andrew P.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    The wMel infection of Drosophila melanogaster was successfully transferred into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes where it has the potential to suppress dengue and other arboviruses. The infection was subsequently spread into two natural populations at Yorkeys Knob and Gordonvale near Cairns, Queensland in 2011. Here we report on the stability of the infection following introduction and we characterize factors influencing the ongoing dynamics of the infection in these two populations. While the Wolbachia infection always remained high and near fixation in both locations, there was a persistent low frequency of uninfected mosquitoes. These uninfected mosquitoes showed weak spatial structure at both release sites although there was some clustering around two areas in Gordonvale. Infected females from both locations showed perfect maternal transmission consistent with patterns previously established pre-release in laboratory tests. After >2 years under field conditions, the infection continued to show complete cytoplasmic incompatibility across multiple gonotrophic cycles but persistent deleterious fitness effects, suggesting that host effects were stable over time. These results point to the stability of Wolbachia infections and their impact on hosts following local invasion, and also highlight the continued persistence of uninfected individuals at a low frequency most likely due to immigration. PMID:25211492

  20. A simple method for the detection of Leptolegnia chapmanii from infected Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Leles, Renan N; López Lastra, Cláudia C; García, Juan J; Fernandes, Everton K K; Luz, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Significant progress in developing Leptolegnia chapmanii as a biological control agent against mosquitoes will be accelerated by improved and simpler methods to detect and to isolate this virulent and rapidly lethal watermold from field-collected mosquito larvae. To date, however, this oomycete has remained understudied and little used. This study presents a simplified method to detect Leptolegnia in infected Aedes aegypti larvae. The development of L. chapmanii inside mosquitoes is easily monitored when pathogen-treated larvae are quasi-immobilized for an initial 48 h in the water film on plates of water agar amended with antibiotic (chloramphenicol, 0.5-1 g/L) and fungicide (thiabendazole, 4-8 g/L) and then transferred to a larger volume of water for an additional 48 h. Surprisingly, chloramphenicol stimulated oosporogenesis by L. chapmanii. The method permits processing of large numbers of A. aegypti and other culicid larvae and is useful for both obtaining new strains and also monitoring the efficacy of L. chapmanii during field tests. PMID:23750958

  1. Investigations of Koutango Virus Infectivity and Dissemination Dynamics in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti has already been implicated in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the southern US. Vector competence is the ability of a mosquito species to support transmission of an arbovirus, which is bounded by its ability to support replication and dissemination of the virus through the mosquito body to the salivary glands to be expectorated in the saliva at the time of feeding on a vertebrate host. Here, we investigate the vector competence of A. aegypti for the arbovirus koutango by orally challenging mosquitoes with two titers of virus. We calculated the effective vector competence, a cumulative measure of transmission capability weighted by mosquito survival, and determined that A. aegypti was competent at the higher dose only. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine the infectiousness of vertebrate hosts to fully assess the emergence potential of this virus in areas rich in A. aegypti. PMID:25574140

  2. The consequences of co-infections for parasite transmission in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alison B; Agnew, Philip; Noel, Valérie; Michalakis, Yannis

    2014-10-13

    Co-infections may modify parasite transmission opportunities directly as a consequence of interactions in the within-host environment, but also indirectly through changes in host life history. Furthermore, host and parasite traits are sensitive to the abiotic environment with variable consequences for parasite transmission in co-infections. We investigate how co-infection of the mosquito Aedes aegypti with two microsporidian parasites (Vavraia culicis and Edhazardia aedis) at two levels of larval food availability affects parasite transmission directly, and indirectly through effects on host traits. In a laboratory infection experiment, we compared how co-infection, at low and high larval food availability, affected the probability of infection, within-host growth and the transmission potential of each parasite, compared to single infections. Horizontal transmission was deemed possible for both parasites when infected hosts died harbouring horizontally transmitting spores. Vertical transmission was judged possible for E. aedis when infected females emerged as adults. We also compared the total input number of spores used to seed infections with output number, in single and co-infections for each parasite. The effects of co-infection on parasite fitness were complex, especially for V. culicis. In low larval food conditions, co-infection increased the chances of mosquitoes dying as larvae or pupae, thus increasing opportunities for V. culicis' horizontal transmission. However, co-infection reduced larval longevity and hence time available for V. culicis spore production. Overall, there was a negative net effect of co-infection on V. culicis, whereby the number of spores produced was less than the number used to seed infection. Co-infections also negatively affected horizontal transmission of the more virulent parasite, E. aedis, through reduced longevity of pre-adult hosts. However, its potential transmission suffered less relative to V. culicis. Our results show that co-infection can negatively affect parasite transmission opportunities, both directly as well as indirectly via effects on host life history. We also find that transmission is contingent on the combined effect of the abiotic environment. PMID:25311642

  3. Reduction in the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to Brugia malayi infection after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P H; Lazaro, C; Castillon, R

    1992-12-01

    The susceptibility to Brugia malayi infections of F2 and F4 progenies of Aedes aegypti (Black Eye strain) treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) was tested. Both 3-day-old males and females were treated with 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.10% EMS. Control and treated females were then mated with normal or treated males to recover F1 progeny. F2 offspring were derived from sibling intercrosses, and 3 lines were established by further intercross matings to generate the F4. Susceptibility in the 0.025, 0.050, 0.075 and 0.10% EMS F2s was reduced by 13, 12, 4 and 25%, respectively. The 0.025% and 0.050% EMS F2 females showed a 29 to 39% decrease in mean L3 numbers. At 0.075 and 0.10% EMS, mean L3 numbers decreased by 0.8 and 71%, respectively. The F4 populations gave overall infections of 65, 56 and 22% for the control, 0.25 and 0.10% EMS lines, respectively. Mean L3s were reduced by 24 and 77%, respectively, in the 0.025 and 0.10% F4 EMS-selected populations. PMID:1474390

  4. Vectorial Capacity of Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus Type 2 Is Reduced with Co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J.; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, is the major dengue vector and a worldwide public health threat combated basically by chemical insecticides. In this study, the vectorial competence of Ae. aegypti co-infected with a mildly virulent Metarhizium anisopliae and fed with blood infected with the DENV-2 virus, was examined. Methodology/Principal Findings The study encompassed three bioassays (B). In B1 the median lethal time (LT50) of Ae. aegypti exposed to M. anisopliae was determined in four treatments: co-infected (CI), single-fungus infection (SF), single-virus infection (SV) and control (C). In B2, the mortality and viral infection rate in midgut and in head were registered in fifty females of CI and in SV. In B3, the same treatments as in B1 but with females separated individually were tested to evaluate the effect on fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length. Survival in CI and SF females was 70% shorter than the one of those in SV and control. Overall viral infection rate in CI and SV were 76 and 84% but the mortality at day six post-infection was 78% (54% infected) and 6% respectively. Survivors with virus in head at day seven post-infection were 12 and 64% in both CI and SV mosquitoes. Fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length were reduced in 52 and 40% in CI compared to the ones in control. Conclusion/Significance Fungus-induced mortality for the CI group was 78%. Of the survivors, 12% (6/50) could potentially transmit DENV-2, as opposed to 64% (32/50) of the SV group, meaning a 5-fold reduction in the number of infective mosquitoes. This is the first report on a fungus that reduces the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti infected with the DENV-2 virus. PMID:23505581

  5. Larval competition extends developmental time and decreases adult size of wMelPop Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ross, Perran A; Endersby, Nancy M; Yeap, Heng Lin; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2014-07-01

    The intracellular endosymbiont Wolbachia has been artificially transinfected into the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, where it is being investigated as a potential dengue biological control agent. Invasion of Wolbachia in natural populations depends upon the fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti relative to uninfected competitors. Although Wolbachia infections impose fitness costs on the adult host, effects at the immature stages are less clear, particularly in competitive situations. We look for effects of two Wolbachia infections, wMel and wMelPop, on intra-strain and inter-strain larval competition in Ae. aegypti. Development of Wolbachia-infected larvae is delayed in mixed cohorts with uninfected larvae under crowded-rearing conditions. Slow developing wMelPop-infected larvae have reduced adult size compared with uninfected larvae, and larvae with the wMel infection are somewhat larger and have greater viability relative to uninfected larvae when in mixed cohorts. Implications for successful invasion by these Wolbachia infections under field conditions are considered. PMID:24732463

  6. Differential Gene Expression from Midguts of Refractory and Susceptible Lines of the Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Infected with Dengue-2 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Barón, Olga L.; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul J.; Lowenberger, Carl A.; Ocampo, Clara B.

    2010-01-01

    Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to evaluate the differential expression of midgut genes of feral populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia that are naturally refractory or susceptible to Dengue-2 virus infection. A total of 165 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in the subtracted libraries. The analysis showed a higher number of differentially expressed genes in the susceptible Ae. aegypti individuals than the refractory mosquitoes. The functional annotation of ESTs revealed a broad response in the susceptible library that included immune molecules, metabolic molecules and transcription factors. In the refractory strain, there was the presence of a trypsin inhibitor gene, which could play a role in the infection. These results serve as a template for more detailed studies aiming to characterize the genetic components of refractoriness, which in turn can be used to devise new approaches to combat transmission of dengue fever. PMID:20572793

  7. Insecticide Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alongkot Ponlawat; Jeffrey G. Scott; Laura C. Harrington

    2005-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) andAedes albopictus (Skuse), two important vectors of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, were collected from Mae Sot, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surat Thani, and Phatthalung, Thailand, from July 2003 to April 2004. The patterns of insecticide susceptibility to temephos, malathion, and permethrin of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. Ae. aegypti from all

  8. Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Neil M.; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Clapham, Hannah; Aguas, Ricardo; Trung, Vu Tuan; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Popovici, Jean; Ryan, Peter A.; O’Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Long, Vo Thi; Dui, Le Thi; Nguyen, Hoa L; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and a public health burden in over 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. wMel conferred less resistance to infection of mosquito abdomen tissue, but importantly did reduce the prevalence of mosquitoes with infectious saliva. A mathematical model of DENV transmission incorporating the dynamics of viral infection within humans and mosquitoes was fitted to the data collected. Model predictions suggested that wMel would reduce the basic reproduction number, R0, of DENV transmission by 66–75%. Our results suggest that establishment of wMelPop-infected A. aegypti at high frequency in a dengue endemic setting would result in complete abatement of DENV transmission. Establishment of wMel-infected A. aegypti is also predicted to have a substantial effect on transmission that would be sufficient to eliminate dengue in low or moderate transmission settings, but may be insufficient to achieve complete control in settings where R0 is high. These findings develop a framework for selecting Wolbachia strains for field releases and for calculating their likely impact. PMID:25787763

  9. Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Neil M; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Clapham, Hannah; Aguas, Ricardo; Trung, Vu Tuan; Chau, Tran Nguyen Bich; Popovici, Jean; Ryan, Peter A; O'Neill, Scott L; McGraw, Elizabeth A; Long, Vo Thi; Dui, Le Thi; Nguyen, Hoa L; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron P

    2015-03-18

    Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. wMel conferred less resistance to infection of mosquito abdomen tissue, but it did reduce the prevalence of mosquitoes with infectious saliva. A mathematical model of DENV transmission incorporating the dynamics of viral infection in humans and mosquitoes was fitted to the data collected. Model predictions suggested that wMel would reduce the basic reproduction number, R0, of DENV transmission by 66 to 75%. Our results suggest that establishment of wMelPop-infected A. aegypti at a high frequency in a dengue-endemic setting would result in the complete abatement of DENV transmission. Establishment of wMel-infected A. aegypti is also predicted to have a substantial effect on transmission that would be sufficient to eliminate dengue in low or moderate transmission settings but may be insufficient to achieve complete control in settings where R0 is high. These findings develop a framework for selecting Wolbachia strains for field releases and for calculating their likely impact. PMID:25787763

  10. Wolbachia Reduces the Transmission Potential of Dengue-Infected Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yixin H.; Carrasco, Alison M.; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Chenoweth, Stephen F.; Beebe, Nigel W.; van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Simmons, Cameron P.; O’Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue viruses (DENV) are the causative agents of dengue, the world’s most prevalent arthropod-borne disease with around 40% of the world’s population at risk of infection annually. Wolbachia pipientis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is being developed as a biocontrol strategy against dengue because it limits replication of the virus in the mosquito. The Wolbachia strain wMel, which has been introduced into the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, has been shown to invade and spread to near fixation in field releases. Standard measures of Wolbachia’s efficacy for blocking virus replication focus on the detection and quantification of virus in mosquito tissues. Examining the saliva provides a more accurate measure of transmission potential and can reveal the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), that is, the time it takes virus to arrive in the saliva following the consumption of DENV viremic blood. EIP is a key determinant of a mosquito’s ability to transmit DENVs, as the earlier the virus appears in the saliva the more opportunities the mosquito will have to infect humans on subsequent bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a non-destructive assay to repeatedly quantify DENV in saliva from wMel-infected and Wolbachia-free wild-type control mosquitoes following the consumption of a DENV-infected blood meal. We show that wMel lengthens the EIP, reduces the frequency at which the virus is expectorated and decreases the dengue copy number in mosquito saliva as compared to wild-type mosquitoes. These observations can at least be partially explained by an overall reduction in saliva produced by wMel mosquitoes. More generally, we found that the concentration of DENV in a blood meal is a determinant of the length of EIP, saliva virus titer and mosquito survival. Conclusions/Significance The saliva-based traits reported here offer more disease-relevant measures of Wolbachia’s effects on the vector and the virus. The lengthening of EIP highlights another means, in addition to the reduction of infection frequencies and DENV titers in mosquitoes, by which Wolbachia should operate to reduce DENV transmission in the field. PMID:26115104

  11. Rhamnolipids: solution against Aedes aegypti?

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinicius L; Lovaglio, Roberta B; Von Zuben, Claudio J; Contiero, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the primary transmitters of dengue fever, urban yellow fever, and chikungunya viruses. This mosquito has developed resistance to the insecticides currently used to control their populations. These chemical insecticides are harmful to the environment and can have negative effects on human health. Rhamnolipids are environmentally compatible biological surfactants, but their insecticidal activity has not been extensively studied. The present study evaluated the potential larvicidal, insecticidal, and repellent activities of rhamnolipids against A. aegypti. At concentrations of 800, 900, and 1000 mg/L, rhamnolipids eliminated all mosquito larvae in 18 h and killed 100% of adults at 1000 mg/L. According to the results it may be conclude that rhamnolipids should be applied to control larvae and mosquitos besides present the repellency activity against A. aegypti. PMID:25762986

  12. Increased locomotor activity and metabolism of Aedes aegypti infected with a life-shortening strain of Wolbachia pipientis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Oliver; Caragata, Eric P.; McMeniman, Conor J.; Woolfit, Megan; Green, David C.; Williams, Craig R.; Franklin, Craig E.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary A virulent strain of the obligate intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis that shortens insect lifespan has recently been transinfected into the primary mosquito vector of dengue virus, Aedes aegypti L. The microbe's ability to shorten lifespan and spread through host populations under the action of cytoplasmic incompatibility means it has the potential to be used as a biocontrol agent to reduce dengue virus transmission. Wolbachia is present in many host tissues and may have local effects on diverse biological processes. In other insects, Wolbachia infections have been shown to alter locomotor activity and response time to food cues. In mosquitoes, locomotor performance relates to the location of mates, human hosts, resting sites and oviposition sites. We have therefore examined the effect of the virulent, life-shortening Wolbachia strain wMelPop on the locomotion of Ae. aegypti as they age and as the pathogenicity of the infection increases. In parallel experiments we also examined CO2 production as a proxy for metabolic rate, to investigate a potential mechanistic explanation for any changes in locomotion. Contrary to expectation, we found that the infection increased activity and metabolic rate and that these effects were relatively consistent over the insect's lifespan. The results do not fit a standard model of bacterial pathogenesis in insects, and instead may reveal additional physiological changes induced by infection, such as either increased hunger or defects in the nervous system. PMID:19411536

  13. The ability of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to survive and transmit infective larvae of Brugia pahangi over successive blood meals.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, S W; Denham, D A

    1986-09-01

    The mortality of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes increased; immediately following a blood meal containing microfilariae of Brugia pahangi, when infective larvae began to migrate out of the flight muscles and when infective larvae were lost from the mosquitoes during a blood meal. When infective mosquitoes took a second blood meal 86.2% of the infective larvae escaped from their bodies. However, only 50.3% escaped when mosquitoes fed through a thin layer of cotton. Infective larvae in the abdomen of the mosquitoes stood the least chance of escaping from the insects. When infective mosquitoes were offered a third blood meal four days later, the proportion of infective larvae in the head and labium had risen from 56.6% in the control group to 66.0% and 69.4% in the two test groups. At this third feed 54.7% and 75.7% of the infective larvae were lost from mosquitoes with a low and medium pre-feeding worm burden respectively. This suggests that the escape of infective larvae from mosquitoes with only a few worms is less efficient than from mosquitoes with a medium worm burden. PMID:3745870

  14. Ultrastructural changes in the muscles, midgut, hemopoietic organ, imaginal discs and Malpighian tubules of the mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae infected by the fungus Coelomomyces stegomyiae.

    PubMed

    Shoulkamy, M A; Abdelzaher, H M; Shahin, A A

    2001-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Coelomomyces can infect mosquito larvae and develop within the larval hemocoel. To examine fungal development, Aedes aegypti larvae infected with Coelomomyces stegomyiae Keilin were fixed, embedded and sectioned for both light and electron microscopy. While fungal hyphae of C. stegomyiae did not invade cells other than the cuticular epithelial cells, they did penetrate a number of tissues including muscles, midgut, hemopoietic organ, imaginal discs, and Malpighian tubules. PMID:11265168

  15. Virus-expressed, recombinant single-chain antibody blocks sporozoite infection of salivary glands in Plasmodium gallinaceum-infected Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    de Lara Capurro, M; Coleman, J; Beerntsen, B T; Myles, K M; Olson, K E; Rocha, E; Krettli, A U; James, A A

    2000-04-01

    Transgenic mosquitoes resistant to malaria parasites are being developed to test the hypothesis that they may be used to control disease transmission. We have developed an effector portion of an antiparasite gene that can be used to test malaria resistance in transgenic mosquitoes. Mouse monoclonal antibodies that recognize the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium gallinaceum can block sporozoite invasion of Aedes aegypti salivary glands. An anti-circumsporozoite monoclonal antibody, N2H6D5, whose corresponding heavy- and light-chain gene variable regions were engineered as a single-chain antibody construct, binds to P. gallinaceum sporozoites and prevents infection of Ae. aegypti salivary glands when expressed from a Sindbis virus. Mean intensities of sporozoite infections of salivary glands in mosquitoes expressing N2scFv were reduced as much as 99.9% when compared to controls. PMID:11220756

  16. Suppressing Dengue-2 Infection by Chemical Inhibition of Aedes aegypti Host Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5?-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 µM) and MPA (25 µM) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. PMID:25101828

  17. Suppressing dengue-2 infection by chemical inhibition of Aedes aegypti host factors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-08-01

    Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 µM) and MPA (25 µM) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. PMID:25101828

  18. On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

    2014-03-01

    It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

  19. Wolbachia infection does not alter attraction of the mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti to human odours.

    PubMed

    Turley, A P; Smallegange, R C; Takken, W; Zalucki, M P; O'Neill, S L; McGraw, E A

    2014-12-01

    The insect endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is undergoing field trials around the world to determine if it can reduce transmission of dengue virus from the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti to humans. Two different Wolbachia strains have been released to date. The primary effect of the wMel strain is pathogen protection whereby infection with the symbiont limits replication of dengue virus inside the mosquito. A second strain, wMelPop, induces pathogen protection, reduces the adult mosquito lifespan and decreases blood feeding success in mosquitoes after 15 days of age. Here we test whether Wolbachia infection affects mosquito attraction to host odours in adults aged 5 and 15 days. We found no evidence of reduced odour attraction of mosquitoes, even for those infected with the more virulent wMelPop. This bodes well for fitness and competitiveness in the field given that the mosquitoes must find hosts to reproduce for the biocontrol method to succeed. PMID:24797695

  20. Expression of defensin, cecropin, and transferrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infected with Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), and the abnormal development of nematodes in the mosquito.

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Tereza; Oliveira, Ieda F; Melo-Santos, Maria A V; Oliveira, Claudia M F; Lima, Catarina A; Ayres, Constancia F J

    2008-12-01

    The temporal expression of defensin, cecropin and transferrin was assessed in Aedes aegypti naturally refractory to Wuchereria bancrofti upon infection with this worm, in parallel to analysis of filarial development in the insect. Compared to controls, transcription of defensin and cecropin was higher in infected mosquitoes as soon as 2h post infection and peaked before 48h. Transferrin transcription was higher in infected mosquitoes at 24h, and at 48h was almost leveled to controls. At 72h and 7 days post infection, levels of all transcripts in infected insects decreased gradually and were similar to controls in most cases. Worm development in A. aegypti was visually abnormal from the beginning of infection. Here, we report, for the first time, the up-regulation of endogenous immune molecules in A. aegypti infected with W. bancrofti and provide a description of the worm development inside the insect. The specificities of A. aegypti-W. bancrofti model compared to other mosquito-filaria systems are discussed. PMID:18809401

  1. Persistency of transovarial dengue virus in Aedes aegypti (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rohani, A; Zamree, I; Joseph, R T; Lee, H L

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to examine the persistency of transovarial dengue virus type 2 (DEN-2) in a Selangor strain of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Two hundred 4-5 day old female mosquitoes were fed with blood containing dengue virus. The infected mosquitoes were reared to the 7th generation; each generation was screened for the virus using immunological staining methods. The virus was detectable until the 5th generation but absent in the 6th and the 7th generations. Therefore, dengue virus type 2 can be transmitted transovarially in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes until the fifth generation under laboratory conditions. PMID:19058573

  2. Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

    This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

  3. The Aedes aegypti glutathione transferase family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nongkran Lumjuana; Bradley J. Stevensona; Peter M. Brophyd; Brendan J. Loftuse; David W. Seversonf; Pembroke Palace

    In this report, we describe the glutathione transferase (GST) gene family in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and suggest a novel role for a new class of mosquito GSTs. Twenty-six GST genes are present in Ae. aegypti, two of which are alternatively spliced to give a total of 29 transcripts for cytosolic GSTs. The six classes identified in other insect

  4. Towards a Casa Segura: a consumer product study of the effect of insecticide-treated curtains on Aedes aegypti and dengue virus infections in the home.

    PubMed

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Nájera-Vázquez, Maria del Rosario; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K; Black, William C; Keefe, Thomas J; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J

    2013-08-01

    The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission. PMID:23732254

  5. Towards a Casa Segura: A Consumer Product Study of the Effect of Insecticide-Treated Curtains on Aedes aegypti and Dengue Virus Infections in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; del Rosario Nájera-Vázquez, Maria; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K.; Black, William C.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus–infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission. PMID:23732254

  6. Age-Dependent Effects of Oral Infection with Dengue Virus on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Feeding Behavior, Survival, Oviposition Success and Fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, a disease that is increasing its geographical range as well as incidence rates. Despite its public health importance, the effect of dengue virus (DENV) on some mosquito traits remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of DENV-2 infection on the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity of Ae. aegypti females. Methods/Principal Findings After orally-challenging Ae. aegypti females with a DENV-2 strain using a membrane feeder, we monitored the feeding behavior, survival, oviposition success and fecundity throughout the mosquito lifespan. We observed an age-dependent cost of DENV infection on mosquito feeding behavior and fecundity. Infected individuals took more time to ingest blood from anesthetized mice in the 2nd and 3rd weeks post-infection, and also longer overall blood-feeding times in the 3rd week post-infection, when females were around 20 days old. Often, infected Ae. aegypti females did not lay eggs and when they were laid, smaller number of eggs were laid compared to uninfected controls. A reduction in the number of eggs laid per female was evident starting on the 3rd week post-infection. DENV-2 negatively affected mosquito lifespan, since overall the longevity of infected females was halved compared to that of the uninfected control group. Conclusions The DENV-2 strain tested significantly affected Ae. aegypti traits directly correlated with vectorial capacity or mosquito population density, such as feeding behavior, survival, fecundity and oviposition success. Infected mosquitoes spent more time ingesting blood, had reduced lifespan, laid eggs less frequently, and when they did lay eggs, the clutches were smaller than uninfected mosquitoes. PMID:23555838

  7. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) in Moorea, French Polynesia: a study of adult population structures and pathogen (Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis) infection rates to indicate regional and seasonal epidemiological risk for dengue and filariasis.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard C; Webb, Cameron E; Davies, Neil

    2005-11-01

    Populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes polynesiensis (Marks) on Moorea Island, French Polynesia, the local vectors of dengue and filariasis, respectively, were sampled by landing/biting collection at nine localities on the east, north, and west coasts, during the late dry season, early and late wet season (September-May) 2003 and 2004, to investigate epidemiologically important features of the populations and compare them between regions and months. Biting rates of both species tended to increase (but not always significantly) for each species in each region each month from the late dry season to the late wet season, and the north coast region had significantly higher biting rates of Ae. aegypti. Insemination rates of Ae. polynesiensis females (94.5-98.8%) were consistently greater than those of Ae. aegypti (87.5-93.5%) throughout the study, but there was no significant difference in the insemination rates of either species between months and regions. Parity rates were generally highest in north coast samples and lowest in west coast samples for both species and generally increased (albeit not always significantly) by month for each species, with a range of 52.9-88.8% for Ae. polynesiensis and 28.6-53.6% for Ae. aegypti, although the high gravid rate (15.8-45.9%) of Ae. aegypti samples (reflecting its feeding more than once in a gonotrophic cycle) confounded both intraspecific and interspecific comparisons. Filarial infection was rare in Ae. aegypti, although both W. bancrofti and D. immitis were recorded, and infection rates in Ae. polynesiensis increased through the study period in each region for both filarias, with up to 4.6% infected and 1.4% infective for W. bancrofti and up to 6.3% infected and 2.5% infective for D. immitis. For W. bancrofti, infection rates were significantly lower on the west coast and also in the dry season, whereas rates for infective stages were significantly greater in the late wet season. For D. immitis there was no significant difference in infection rates between regions, but rates were significantly greater in the late wet season. Rainfall in all months sustains populations of both vectors and explains the relatively few significant differences between seasons; however, the wet season may provide for increased vector abundance and longevity, and present a potentially increased risk for transmission. Although the differences shown between regions also were limited in a statistical sense, there were increased risks for the northern and eastern regions, where both locals and tourists are concentrated and where the seaports and airport are located, and these areas should be priority targets for disease surveillance and vector control. PMID:16465747

  8. Abundant Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti aegypti mosquitoes in the 2014 dengue outbreak area of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Yukiko; Abílio, Ana Paula; Futami, Kyoko; Lázaro, Manuel Alberto Félix; Minakawa, Noboru; Gudo, Eduardo Samo

    2015-01-01

    In early 2014, dengue cases were reported from northern Mozambique, 30 years after the last outbreak. We identified potential dengue vector species in three northern towns, Pemba, Nampula and Nacala, and one southern town, Maputo, during the outbreak in April 2014. A major dengue vector species, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, was found in all these towns. The dominant vector subspecies in the northern towns was Aedes aegypti aegypti, while Ae. aegypti formosus was dominant in Maputo. Considering the high proportion of Ae. aegypti aegypti and its high vector competence, the findings from this study suggest that Ae. aegypti aegypti was responsible for the outbreak in northern Mozambique.

  9. Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

  10. The susceptibility of cell lines of Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes pseudoscutellaris (Theobald) to infection with Bluetongue virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jennings; J. Boorman

    1979-01-01

    Summary Bluetongue virus multiplied in cell lines derived fromAedes albopictus andAedes pseudoscutellaris cells. Virus reached a maximum titre in theAe. pseudoscutellaris cells three days post inoculation, and inAe. albopictus cells six days p. i. Virus growth was demonstrated in both cell lines at 27° C and 37° C. Significant titres of virus were still present in theAe. albopictus cells after

  11. SAMPLING, DISTRIBUTION, DISPERSAL Convergent Habitat Segregation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus was examined in different habitats of two cities (Rio de JaneiroSAMPLING, DISTRIBUTION, DISPERSAL Convergent Habitat Segregation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southeastern Brazil and Florida MARIETA A.H. BRAKS,1 NILDIMAR A. HONO´ RIO

  12. Spatial Stability of Adult Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of Aedes aegypti. This study explored if the number of female adults of Ae. aegypti in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of Ae. aegypti. There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs. PMID:22144449

  13. GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF CHIMERIVAX™DEN2 VACCINE VIRUS IN AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS MOSQUITOES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA W. JOHNSON; TRUDY V. CHAMBERS; MARY B. CRABTREE; TEJAL R. BHATT; FARSHAD GUIRAKHOO; THOMAS P. MONATH; BARRY R. MILLER

    2002-01-01

    The chimeric yellow fever (YF) 17D-dengue type 2 (ChimeriVax™-DEN2) vaccine virus developed by Acambis, Inc. (Cambridge, MA) contains the prM and E genes of wild-type (wt) dengue 2 (DEN-2) (strain PUO-218) virus in theYF vaccinevirus (strain 17D) backbone . Thepote ntial of Chime riVax™-DEN2 virus to infect and be transmitted by Aedes aegypti, theprincipal DEN and YF virus mosquito ve

  14. Aedes aegypti (L.) survival after exposure to ivermectin

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, James; Thi, Long Vo; Dui, Le Thi; Simmons, Cameron P

    2014-01-01

    Ivermectin has been shown in in vitro studies to have insecticidal properties against Aedes aegypti adults. This study aimed to assess these properties in vivo. Aedes aegypti survival was not affected by acquiring a blood meal from humans both 5 hours and 24 hours after ingestion of a typical dose of ivermectin. PMID:23691626

  15. Aedes aegypti (L.) survival after exposure to ivermectin.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, James; Thi, Long Vo; Dui, Le Thi; Simmons, Cameron P

    2013-03-01

    Ivermectin has been shown in in vitro studies to have insecticidal properties against Aedes aegypti adults. This study aimed to assess these properties in vivo. Aedes aegypti survival was not affected by acquiring a blood meal from humans both 5 hours and 24 hours after ingestion of a typical dose of ivermectin. PMID:23691626

  16. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to Insecticides in Viet Nam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vu Duc Huong; Nguyen Thi; Bach Ngoc; Do Thi Hien; Bich Lien

    During 2000-2002, studies on the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to insecticides were conducted at 22 places in 11 provinces and cities in four different regions of Viet Nam. Aedes aegypti was found susceptible to malathion, but resistant to DDT in almost all the study sites. It continues to be susceptible to the pyrethroid group of insecticides (permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin and

  17. Morbidity Rate Prediction of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Using the Support Vector Machine and the Aedes aegypti Infection Rate in Similar Climates and Geographical Areas

    PubMed Central

    Kesorn, Kraisak; Ongruk, Phatsavee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phumee, Atchara; Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2015-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, several researchers have proposed highly accurate prediction models that have typically relied on climate parameters. However, climate factors can be unreliable and can lower the effectiveness of prediction when they are applied in locations where climate factors do not differ significantly. The purpose of this study was to improve a dengue surveillance system in areas with similar climate by exploiting the infection rate in the Aedes aegypti mosquito and using the support vector machine (SVM) technique for forecasting the dengue morbidity rate. Methods and Findings Areas with high incidence of dengue outbreaks in central Thailand were studied. The proposed framework consisted of the following three major parts: 1) data integration, 2) model construction, and 3) model evaluation. We discovered that the Ae. aegypti female and larvae mosquito infection rates were significantly positively associated with the morbidity rate. Thus, the increasing infection rate of female mosquitoes and larvae led to a higher number of dengue cases, and the prediction performance increased when those predictors were integrated into a predictive model. In this research, we applied the SVM with the radial basis function (RBF) kernel to forecast the high morbidity rate and take precautions to prevent the development of pervasive dengue epidemics. The experimental results showed that the introduced parameters significantly increased the prediction accuracy to 88.37% when used on the test set data, and these parameters led to the highest performance compared to state-of-the-art forecasting models. Conclusions The infection rates of the Ae. aegypti female mosquitoes and larvae improved the morbidity rate forecasting efficiency better than the climate parameters used in classical frameworks. We demonstrated that the SVM-R-based model has high generalization performance and obtained the highest prediction performance compared to classical models as measured by the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and mean absolute error (MAE). PMID:25961289

  18. Tissue-enriched expression profiles in Aedes aegypti identify hemocyte-specific transcriptome responses to infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Jun; Fuchs, Jeremy F.; Mayhew, George F.; Yu, Helen E.; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Hemocytes are integral components of mosquito immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis, melanization, and production of antimicrobial peptides. However, our understanding of hemocyte-specific molecular processes and their contribution to shaping the host immune response remains limited. To better understand the immunophysiological features distinctive of hemocytes, we conducted genome-wide analysis of hemocyte-enriched transcripts, and examined how tissue-enriched expression patterns change with the immune status of the host. Our microarray data indicate that the hemocyte-enriched trascriptome is dynamic and context-dependent. Analysis of transcripts enriched after bacterial challenge in circulating hemocytes with respect to carcass added a dimension to evaluating infection-responsive genes and immune-related gene families. We resolved patterns of transcriptional change unique to hemocytes from those that are likely shared by other immune responsive tissues, and identified clusters of genes preferentially induced in hemocytes, likely reflecting their involvement in cell type specific functions. In addition, the study revealed conserved hemocyte-enriched molecular repertoires which might be implicated in core hemocyte function by cross-species meta-analysis of microarray expression data from Anopheles gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. PMID:22796331

  19. Aedes aegypti midgut remodeling during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Serrão, José Eduardo; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    The Aedes aegypti midgut is restructured during metamorphosis; its epithelium is renewed by replacing the digestive and endocrine cells through stem or regenerative cell differentiation. Shortly after pupation (white pupae) begins, the larval digestive cells are histolized and show signs of degeneration, such as autophagic vacuoles and disintegrating microvilli. Simultaneously, differentiating cells derived from larval stem cells form an electron-dense layer that is visible 24h after pupation begins. Forty-eight hours after pupation onset, the differentiating cells yield an electron-lucent cytoplasm rich in microvilli and organelles. Dividing stem cells were observed in the fourth instar larvae and during the first 24h of pupation, which suggests that stem cells proliferate at the end of the larval period and during pupation. This study discusses various aspects of the changes during midgut remodeling for pupating A. aegypti. PMID:24472855

  20. The ultrastructure of the Aedes aegypti heart.

    PubMed

    Leódido, Ana Carolina M; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo; Martins, Gustavo F

    2013-11-01

    Comparative structural analyses of the heart and associated tissues in 4th instar larvae (L4), pupae and adults of Aedes aegypti were undertaken using a combination of microscopy techniques. The Ae. aegypti heart consists of cardiomyocytes arranged in a helical fashion, and it is physically associated with intersegmental groups of pericardial cells (PCs) and the alary muscles (AMs). Ramifications commonly present in AMs are more developed in adults than in the immature stages. Pericardial cells absorb and store extracellular components as shown by the uptake of carmine dye fed in larval diet. We also observed that carmine stained inclusions corresponding to electron-dense structures resembling lysosomes that were more abundant and prominent in pupae, suggestive of increase of waste accumulation during pupation. The results presented here expand on previously known aspects of the mosquito heart and describe for the first time comparative aspects of the morphology of the heart in different developmental stages. PMID:24095854

  1. Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

  2. Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Thi Hue Kien, Duong; Tuan, Trung Vu; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Chau N. B.; Vo Thi, Long; Thi, Dui Le; Nguyen, Hoa Lan; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Nguyen, Huong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hong; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Hung The; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. The host and virus variables associated with dengue virus (DENV) transmission from symptomatic dengue cases (n = 208) to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during 407 independent exposure events was defined. The 50% mosquito infectious dose for each of DENV-1–4 ranged from 6.29 to 7.52 log10 RNA copies/mL of plasma. Increasing day of illness, declining viremia, and rising antibody titers were independently associated with reduced risk of DENV transmission. High early DENV plasma viremia levels in patients were a marker of the duration of human infectiousness, and blood meals containing high concentrations of DENV were positively associated with the prevalence of infectious mosquitoes 14 d after blood feeding. Ambulatory dengue cases had lower viremia levels compared with hospitalized dengue cases but nonetheless at levels predicted to be infectious to mosquitoes. These data define serotype-specific viremia levels that vaccines or drugs must inhibit to prevent DENV transmission. PMID:23674683

  3. Experimental Transmission of Mayaro Virus by Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Long, Kanya C.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Hausser, Nicole L.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Higgs, Stephen; Tesh, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreaks of Mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of Mayaro virus (MAYV) transmission in South America. To evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit MAYV, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with Aedes aegypti from Iquitos, Peru. Oral infection in Ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log10 and 7.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. Transmission of MAYV by 70% (21/30) of infected mosquitoes was shown by saliva collection and exposure to suckling mice. Amount of viral RNA in febrile humans, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ranged from 2.7 to 5.3 log10 PFU equivalents/mL. Oral susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to MAYV at titers encountered in viremic humans may limit opportunities to initiate an urban cycle; however, transmission of MAYV by Ae. aegypti shows the vector competence of this species and suggests potential for urban transmission. PMID:21976583

  4. Does temperature affect the outcome of larval competition between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. P. Lounibos; S. Suárez; Z. Menéndez; N. Nishimura; R. L. Escher; S. M. O'Connell; J. R. Rey

    2002-01-01

    The superior larval competitive ability of Aedes albopictus has been proposed to explain the recent displacement of Aedes aegypti by the former species in parts of the southeastern U.S. Ae. aegypti persists, however, in sympatry with Ae. albopictus in urban areas of southern Louisiana, Florida, and Texas, and the impact of larval competition between these species has not been investigated

  5. Assessing quality of life-shortening Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in the field based on capture rates and morphometric assessments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent releases have been carried out with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes infected with the wMelPop mosquito cell-line adapted (wMelPop-CLA) strain of Wolbachia. This infection introduced from Drosophila provides strong blockage of dengue and other arboviruses but also has large fitness costs in laboratory tests. The releases were used to evaluate the fitness of released infected mosquitoes, and (following termination of releases) to test for any effects of wMelPop-CLA on wing size and shape when mosquitoes were reared under field conditions. Methods We monitored gravid females via double sticky traps to assess the reproductive success of wMelPop-CLA-infected females and also sampled the overall mosquito population post-release using Biogent Sentinel traps. Morphometric analyses were used to evaluate infection effects on wing shape as well as size. Results Oviposition success as assessed through double sticky traps was unrelated to size of released mosquitoes. However, released mosquitoes with lower wing loading were more successful. Furthermore, wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes had 38.3% of the oviposition success of uninfected mosquitoes based on the predicted infection frequency after release. Environmental conditions affected wing shape and particularly size across time in uninfected mosquitoes, but not in naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected mosquitoes. Although the overall size and shape do not differ between naturally-reared wMelPop-CLA-infected and uninfected mosquitoes, the infected mosquitoes tended to have smaller wings than uninfected mosquitoes during the cooler November in comparison to December. Conclusion These results confirm the lower fitness of wMelPop-CLA infection under field conditions, helping to explain challenges associated with a successful invasion by this strain. In the long run, invasion may depend on releasing strains carrying insecticide resistance or egg desiccation resistance, combined with an active pre-release population suppression program. PMID:24495395

  6. Reduced survival and reproductive success generates selection pressure for the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti to evolve resistance against infection by the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis.

    PubMed

    Sy, Victoria E; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis

    2014-04-01

    The success and sustainability of control measures aimed at reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases will depend on how they influence the fitness of mosquitoes in targeted populations. We investigated the effects of the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis on the survival, blood-feeding behaviour and reproductive success of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the main vector of dengue. Infection reduced survival to adulthood and increased adult female mosquito age-dependent mortality relative to uninfected individuals; this additional mortality was closely correlated with the number of parasite spores they harboured when they died. In the first gonotrophic cycle, infected females were less likely to blood-feed, took smaller meals when they did so, and developed fewer eggs than uninfected females. Even though the conditions of this laboratory study favoured minimal developmental times, the costs of infection were already being experienced by the time females reached an age at which they could first reproduce. These results suggest there will be selection pressure for mosquitoes to evolve resistance against this pathogen if it is used as an agent in a control program to reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne human diseases. PMID:24822081

  7. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae to Ascogregarina culicis and Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) from Florida.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Becnel, James J; Butler, Jerry F

    2003-09-01

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti to Ascogregarina culicis and Aedes albopictus to Ascogregarina taiwanensis was examined with mosquito and parasite strains from Tampa, FL. When each host was bioassayed with its natural gregarine, the infection intensity indicated that Ae. aegypti was 59% more susceptible to A. culicis (87 gamonts/larva) than Ae. albopictus to A. taiwanensis (47 gamonts/larva). Infections in single and mixed host populations exposed to 100 oocysts/larva of one and both parasites demonstrated that Ae. aegypti harbors higher A. culicis gamont loads than Ae. albopictus of A. taiwanensis. In dual gregarine exposures of single host populations, the A. culicis infection intensity in Ae. aegypti was reduced by approximately 50%. A. taiwanensis exhibited the same capability of infecting Ae. albopictus in single and dual exposures. In mixed host populations there were no cross infections, but A. taiwanensis in Ae. albopictus produced an infection intensity of approximately 70% lower than that of A. culicis in Ae. aegypti. PMID:13678712

  8. Aedes aegypti in Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam): susceptibility to dengue 2 virus and genetic differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tran Khanh Tien; Marie Vazeille-Falcoz; Laurence Mousson; Tran Huu Hoang; François Rodhain; Nguyen Thi Huong; Anna-Bella Failloux

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue viruses, responsible for a viral infection that has become a major public health concern in Asia. In VietNam, dengue haemorrhagic fever was first detected in the 1960s and is now a leading cause of death in childhood. We studied the variability in competence of Ae. aegypti as a vector for dengue 2

  9. Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

  10. Comparison of Vector Competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus: Implications for Dengue Control in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes. Methods To compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1–4 per os at viral titers of 5–6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution. Results Ae. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus. Conclusions This study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs. PMID:25658951

  11. Gustatory receptor expression in the labella and legs of aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a dangerous disease vector, infecting a growing number of people every year with dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. Contact chemoreception in mosquitoes influences a number of behaviors including host-selection, oviposition and feeding. While...

  12. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Bermuda: extinction, invasion, invasion and extinction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laran Kaplan; David Kendell; Deborah Robertson; Todd Livdahl; Camilo Khatchikian

    2010-01-01

    We provide an analysis of the invasion and spread of the container inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the Bermuda Islands. Considered eradicated in the mid-1960s, A. aegypti was redetected in 1997, and A. albopictus was first detected in 2000. Based on weekly ovitrap data collected during the early stages of the invasion, we mapped the\\u000a spread of

  13. Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and dengue in Argentina: current knowledge and future directions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darío Vezzani; Aníbal E Carbajo

    2008-01-01

    Since the reinfestation of South American countries by Ae. aegypti, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) have become a major public health concern. The aim of this paper was to review the information related with Aedes vectors and dengue in Argentina since the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti in 1986. The geographic distribu- tion of Ae. albopictus is restricted

  14. Stage-specific transcription during development of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the most important global vector of dengue virus infection in humans. Availability of the draft genome sequence of this mosquito provides unique opportunities to study different aspects of its biology, including identification of genes and pathways relevant to the developmental processes associated with transition across individual life stages. However, detailed knowledge of gene expression patterns pertaining to developmental stages of A. aegypti is largely lacking. Results We performed custom cDNA microarray analyses to examine the expression patterns among six developmental stages: early larvae, late larvae, early pupae, late pupae, and adult male and female mosquitoes. Results revealed 1,551 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) showing significant differences in levels of expression between these life stages. The data suggests that most of the differential expression occurs in a stage specific manner in A. aegypti. Based on hierarchical clustering of expression levels, correlated expression patterns of DETs were also observed among developmental stages. Weighted gene correlation network analysis revealed modular patterns of expression among the DETs. We observed that hydrolase activity, membrane, integral to membrane, DNA binding, translation, ribosome, nucleoside-triphosphatase activity, structural constituent of ribosome, ribonucleoprotein complex and receptor activity were among the top ten ranked GO (Gene Ontology) terms associated with DETs. Significant associations of DETs were also observed with specific KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway modules. Finally, comparisons with the previously reported developmental transcriptome of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, indicated that gene expression patterns during developmental processes reflect both species-specific as well as common components of the two mosquito species. Conclusions Our study shows that genes involved in the developmental life cycle of A. aegypti are expressed in a highly stage-specific manner. This suggests that transcriptional events associated with transition through larval, pupal and adult stages are largely discrete. PMID:23875547

  15. Invertebrate Carcasses as a Resource for Competing Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew P. Daugherty; Barry W. Alto; Steven A. Juliano

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial invertebrate carcasses are an important resource for insects developing in pitcher plants. However, little is known of the role of these carcasses in other containers, which also receive leaf fall and stemflow inputs. This experiment investigated effects of accumulated inverte- brate carcasses as a resource for two competing mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.), whether either species

  16. Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

  17. Stage-Structured Population Dynamics of AEDES AEGYPTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusoff, Nuraini; Budin, Harun; Ismail, Salemah

    Aedes aegypti is the main vector in the transmission of dengue fever, a vector-borne disease affecting world population living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Better understanding of the dynamics of its population growth will help in the efforts of controlling the spread of this disease. In looking at the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, this paper explored the stage-structured modeling of the population growth of the mosquito using the matrix population model. The life cycle of the mosquito was divided into five stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, adult1 and adult2. Developmental rates were obtained for the average Malaysian temperature and these were used in constructing the transition matrix for the matrix model. The model, which was based only on temperature, projected that the population of Aedes aegypti will blow up with time, which is not realistic. For further work, other factors need to be taken into account to obtain a more realistic result.

  18. Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

  19. Efficacy of Australian quarantine procedures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A

    2001-06-01

    Methods employed by Australian quarantine officers to control Aedes mosquitoes in containers were tested against all stages of Aedes aegypti. Saltwater emersion killed all larvae but not pupae or eggs that were briefly exposed. Swimming pool chlorine, methyl bromide fumigation, and permethrin (2% active ingredient) spray provided 100% mortality of eggs, larvae, and pupae. Aerosol sprays incorporating synthetic pyrethrins are practical and also provide effective control of adults. PMID:11480817

  20. Microsporidiosis (Microspora: Culicosporidae) in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) affects host attraction, blood feeding responses, and the repellency of deet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53% and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduc...

  1. A review on symmetries for certain Aedes aegypti models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    We summarize our results related with mathematical modeling of Aedes aegypti and its Lie symmetries. Moreover, some explicit, group-invariant solutions are also shown. Weak equivalence transformations of more general reaction diffusion systems are also considered. New classes of solutions are obtained.

  2. USDA Research on New Strategies for Controlling Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA researchers are currently studying new methods to control Aedes aegypti. One involves molecular pesticides which target critical genes/proteins (such as inhibitors of apoptosis proteins, IAPs) in mosquitoes using RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi constructs are evaluated in vivo in adult mosquito...

  3. Pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Florida populations of Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti is an efficient vector of a number of diseases that affect man and is of increasing concern because of the reemergence of dengue and recent identification of locally acquired chikungunya in Florida. Pesticide resistance in this species has been demonstrated in several neighboring coun...

  4. The incrimination of Aedes (stegomyia) aegypti as the vector of Dirofilaria repens in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, I N; Agbede, R I; Ajanusi, O J; Umoh, J U; Ibrahim, N D

    2000-10-20

    Six local species of culicides were identified as the common mosquitoes in Zaria, out of 15 species captured using various adult and larval collection methods. These common culicides are Culex pipiens fatigans, Anopheles gambiae grp., Mansonia africana, Culex pipiens pipiens, Aedes (stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes vittatus. They were each fed directly on a local dog naturally infected with Dirofilaria repens to evaluate their refractoriness/susceptibility to dirofilarial infection. In a number of donor-feeding trials, 39. 4% Culex pipiens fatigans; 58.9% An gambiae grp.; 60.5% Mansonia africana; 1.8% of Culex pipiens pipiens; 23.4% Ae aegypti and 3.3% of Ae vittatus successfully fed on the microfilaraemic host. Only Aedes aegypti was susceptible to the infection as all 40 (100%) Ae aegypti reaching 10-14 day post-blood meal had infective (L(3)) larvae of D. repens. The remaining five species were refractory. The microfilariae in the five non-susceptible mosquitoes were always found trapped in the blood meal in the insects midgut (stomach). These trapped microfilaria were dead by the 2nd day in the insect's midgut. However, in the susceptible Ae aegypti, the microfilariae were set free from the blood meal in the midgut and within 24h migrated to the malpighian tubules (MT) of the mosquitoes. All Ae aegypti dissected 5-7 day post-infective blood meal showed the typical quiescent sausage stage (L(2)) larvae in the malpighian tubules. At day-10 post-blood meal, relatively active infective (L(3)) larvae of D. repens were found in the MT; and by day 12-14, highly motile infective larvae had reached the insect's head and proboscis, with infective larvae occasionally oozing out during dissection through the tip of the proboscis. The rate of development of D. repens to infective larvae was faster in mosquitoes infected in July when the environmental temperature was 24.5 degrees C than those infected in November when the temperature was 22.5 degrees C. The latter were delayed for 4 days. The breeding sources of Ae aegypti, the local vector implicated were also identified. As no particular vector of this zoonotic filaria has been identified previously in Nigeria, these findings could make any control programme more focussed and easier. PMID:10996744

  5. LOW ORAL RECEPTIVITY FOR DENGUE TYPE 2 VIRUSES OF AEDES ALBOPICTUS FROM SOUTHEAST ASIA COMPARED WITH THAT OF AEDES AEGYPTI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIE VAZEILLE; LEON ROSEN; LAURENCE MOUSSON; ANNA-BELLA FAILLOUX

    2003-01-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever has been a major health problem in Asia since the 1950s. During this period, the former principal vector of dengue viruses in Asia, Aedes albopictus, was replaced by Aedes aegypti in most major cities of the area. Ae. aegypti is now considered the main vector of dengue viruses in Asia. Surprisingly, however, this mosquito has been described

  6. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Habitat Preferences in South Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Samantha R; Vitek, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    The South Texas region has a historical record of occasional dengue outbreaks. The recent introduction of chikungunya virus to the Caribbean suggests that this disease may be a concern as well. Six different cities and three field habitat types (residential, tire shops, and cemeteries) were examined for evidence of habitat and longitudinal preference of two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti was more prevalent in tire shop sites, while A. albopictus was more prevalent in cemetery sites. In residential sites, the relative abundance of the two species varied with longitude, with A. albopictus being more abundant near the coast, and A. aegypti being more abundant inland. There was also a temporal variation, with A. aegypti declining in frequency over time in residential sites. These results have implications for control strategies and disease risk and suggest a greater need for increased surveillance and research in the region. PMID:25520559

  7. Pollution by conspecifics as a component of intraspecific competition among Aedes aegypti larvae

    E-print Network

    . aegypti mosquitoes reared in clean water and water in which another larva had previously grownPollution by conspecifics as a component of intraspecific competition among Aedes aegypti larvae competition, mosquito, pollution by conspecifics. Introduction When population density increases, resulting

  8. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basile Kamgang; Sébastien Marcombe; Fabrice Chandre; Elysée Nchoutpouen; Philippe Nwane; Josiane Etang; Vincent Corbel; Christophe Paupy

    2011-01-01

    Background  \\u000a Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) are the main vectors of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses worldwide. As there is still no vaccine\\u000a or specific treatment for DENV and CHIKV, vector control remains the cornerstone of prevention and outbreak control. Unfortunately,\\u000a vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used

  9. Proteomic Identification of Dengue Virus Binding Proteins in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Aedes albopictus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Maria de Lourdes; Limón-Camacho, Gustavo; Tovar, Rosalinda; Diaz-Badillo, Alvaro; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Black, William C.

    2013-01-01

    The main vector of dengue in America is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, which is infected by dengue virus (DENV) through receptors of midgut epithelial cells. The envelope protein (E) of dengue virus binds to receptors present on the host cells through its domain III that has been primarily recognized to bind cell receptors. In order to identify potential receptors, proteins from mosquito midgut tissue and C6/36 cells were purified by affinity using columns with the recombinant E protein domain III (rE-DIII) or DENV particles bound covalently to Sepharose 4B to compare and evaluate their performance to bind proteins including putative receptors from female mosquitoes of Ae. aegypti. To determine their identity mass spectrometric analysis of purified proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed. Our results indicate that both viral particles and rE-DIII bound proteins with the same apparent molecular weights of 57 and 67?kDa. In addition, viral particles bound high molecular weight proteins. Purified proteins identified were enolase, beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta-ARK), translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha/Tu, and cadherin. PMID:24324976

  10. Effect of Wolbachia on insecticide susceptibility in lines of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A

    2013-06-01

    Two stable infections of Wolbachia pipientis, wMelPop and wMel, now established in Aedes aegypti, are being used in a biocontrol program to suppress the transmission of dengue. Any effects of Wolbachia infection on insecticide resistance of mosquitoes may undermine the success of this program. Bioassays of Ae. aegypti were conducted to test for differences in response to insecticides between Wolbachia infected (wMelPop, wMel) and uninfected lines. Insecticides screened were bifenthrin, the pyrethroid commonly used for adult knockdown, as well as larvicides: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, the organophosphate, temephos and the insect growth regulator, s-methoprene. While differences in response between lines were detected for some insecticides, no obvious or consistent effects related to presence of Wolbachia infection were observed. Spreading Wolbachia infections are, therefore, unlikely to affect the efficacy of traditional chemical control of mosquito outbreaks. PMID:23149015

  11. Edhazardia aedis, a microsporidian pathogen of Aedes aegypti: Possibilities and challenges for classical biocontrol in South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edhazardia aedis, a pathogen of Aedes aegypti, has a complex life cycle involving both horizontal and vertical transmission affecting two successive generations of the host. Usually, one sporulation sequence occurs in the adult female (infected orally as a larva) and results in the formation of bin...

  12. The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

  13. DIFFERENTIAL INFECTIVITIES OF O'NYONG-NYONG AND CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS ISOLATES IN ANOPHELES GAMBIAE AND AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITOES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANA L. VANLANDINGHAM; CHAO HONG; KIMBERLY KLINGLER; KONSTANTIN TSETSARKIN; KATE L. MCELROY; ANN M. POWERS; MICHAEL J. LEHANE; STEPHEN HIGGS

    O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are closely related alphaviruses that cause human disease in Africa and Asia. Like most alphaviruses, CHIKV is vectored by culicine mosquitoes. ONNV is considered unusual as it primarily infects anopheline mosquitoes; however, there are relatively few experimental data to support this. In this study, three strains of ONNV and one strain of CHIKV

  14. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference. PMID:24492376

  15. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

    2014-02-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

  16. Aedes aegypti Saliva Alters Leukocyte Recruitment and Cytokine Signaling by Antigen-Presenting Cells during West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bradley S.; Soong, Lynn; Coffey, Lark L.; Stevenson, Heather L.; McGee, Charles E.; Higgs, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. Consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact WNV are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node. Macrophages and dendritic cells are critical early responders in host defense against WNV infection, not just because of their role in orchestrating the immune response, but also because of their importance as sites of early peripheral viral replication. Antigen-presenting cell (APC) signals have a profound effect on host antiviral responses and disease severity. During transmission, WNV is intimately associated with mosquito saliva. Due to the ability of mosquito saliva to affect inflammation and immune responses, and the importance of understanding early events in WNV infection, we investigated whether mosquito saliva alters APC signaling during arbovirus infection, and if alterations in cell recruitment occur when WNV infection is initiated with mosquito saliva. Accordingly, experiments were performed with cultured dendritic cells and macrophages, flow cytometry was used to characterize infiltrating cell types in the skin and lymph nodes during early infection, and real-time RT-PCR was employed to evaluate virus and cytokine levels. Our in vitro results suggest that mosquito saliva significantly decreases the expression of interferon-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophages (by as much as 50 and 70%, respectively), whilst transiently enhancing interleukin-10 (IL-10) expression. In vivo results indicate that the predominate effect of mosquito feeding is to significantly reduce the recruitment of T cells, leading the inoculation site of mice exposed to WNV alone to have up to 2.8 fold more t cells as mice infected in the presence of mosquito saliva. These shifts in cell population are associated with significantly elevated IL-10 and WNV (up to 4.0 and 10 fold, respectively) in the skin and draining lymph nodes. These results suggest that mosquito saliva dysregulates APC antiviral signaling, and reveal a possible mechanism for the observed enhancement of WNV disease mediated by mosquito saliva via a reduction of T lymphocyte and antiviral activity at the inoculation site, an elevated abundance of susceptible cell types, and a concomitant increase in immunoregulatory activity of IL-10. PMID:20661470

  17. Intraspecific Competition and Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paixão, C. A.; Charret, I. C.; Lima, R. R.

    2012-04-01

    We report computational simulations for the evolution of the population of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results suggest that controlling the mosquito population, on the basis of intraspecific competition at the larval stage, can be an efficient mechanism for controlling the spread of the epidemic. The results also show the presence of a kind of genetic evolution in vector population, which results mainly in increasing the average lifespan of individuals in adulthood.

  18. Sialic Acid Expression in the Mosquito Aedes aegypti and Its Possible Role in Dengue Virus-Vector Interactions.

    PubMed

    Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Monroy-Martínez, Verónica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutiérrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to ?-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-?-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission. PMID:25874215

  19. Effects of Bacillus subtilis metabolites on larval Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Kirubakaran, Suyambulingam Arunachalam; Sathish-Narayanan, Subbiah; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan

    2013-11-01

    The culture supernatant of a strain of Bacillus subtilis isolated from soil samples killed larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The metabolites produced by B. subtilis were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mortality rate was dose-dependent for all larval instars of A. aegypti. Log probit analysis (95% confidence level) revealed an LC50 of 1.73 and an LC90 3.71?g/ml. Molecular weights/masses of B. subtilis metabolites were confirmed using SDS-PAGE analysis. B. subtilis metabolites were confirmed using HPLC analysis. We demonstrate that secondary metabolites from B. subtilis have larvicidal activity against A. aegypti and may be suitable for the control of this and other mosquito vectors of human disease. The larvae to the metabolites, significant reduction in the activities of acetylcholinesterse, ?-carboxylesterase, and acid phosphatases were recorded. PMID:24267699

  20. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz U G; Sinka, Marianne E; Duda, Kirsten A; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M; Brady, Oliver J; Messina, Jane P; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Carvalho, Roberta G; Coelho, Giovanini E; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G R William; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit. PMID:26175912

  1. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

  2. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes erecta against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Marques, Márcia M M; Morais, Selene M; Vieira, Icaro G P; Vieira, Mariano G S; Raquel, Ana; Silva, A; De Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Guedes, Maria Izabel F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of essential oil from Tagetes erecta against 3rd instars of Aedes aegypti and to determine the amounts of larvicidal thiophenes in all plant tissues. The oil obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed 14 compounds. The main compounds were piperitone (45.72%), D-limonene (9.67%), and piperitenone (5.89%). The essential oil was active against larvae of Ae. aegypti, with LC50 of 79.78 microg/ml and LC90 of 100.84 microg/ml. The larvicidal thiophene contents were higher in the roots and flowers as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, T. erecta constitutes a good source of varied compounds showing larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. PMID:21805850

  3. Cytotoxicity of piperamides towards Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Maleck, Marise; Ferreira, Bruna; Mallet, Jacenir; Guimarães, Anthony; Kato, Massuo

    2014-03-01

    The effectiveness of the amides piplartine and piperlonguminine isolated from Piper species for controlling L3 and L4 of Aedes aegypti (L.) was assessed through bioassays at concentrations ranging from 1 to 300 g/l ml. Piplartine reduced the mosquito development period and caused larval mortality only at concentrations > 100 microg/ml, whereas piperlonguminine resulted in an extended period of mosquito development (10 microg/ml) and caused 100% larval mortality (30 microg/ml) within 24 h. The toxicity and cytotoxic effects of piperlonguminine on epithelial cells of the digestive system of Ae. aegypti were viewed using transmission electron microscopy, which indicated vacuolization of cytoplasm, mitochondrial swelling and leaking of nuclear material. Piperlonguminine was the more effective amide, showing toxic activity with LD50 of approximately 12 microg/ml against the larvae of Ae. aegypti. PMID:24724297

  4. Natural skip oviposition of the mosquito Aedes aegypti indicated by codominant genetic markers

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    larvae, oviposition behaviour, relatedness, RFLP, skip-oviposition, vector biology, yellow fever mosquitoNatural skip oviposition of the mosquito Aedes aegypti indicated by codominant genetic markers Y. M within and among oviposition sites used by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae). Estimates

  5. Association of Human Immune Response to Aedes aegypti Salivary Proteins with Dengue Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Machain-Williams, Carlos; Mammen, Mammen P; Zeidner, Nordin S; Beaty, Barry J; Prenni, Jessica E.; Nisalak, Ananda

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dengue viruses (DENV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and can cause dengue fever (DF), a relatively benign disease, or more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Arthropod saliva contains proteins delivered into the bite wound that can modulate the host haemostatic and immune responses to facilitate the intake of a blood meal. The potential effects on DENV infection of previous exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary proteins have not been investigated. We collected Ae. aegypti saliva, concentrated the proteins, and fractionated them by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By use of immunoblots we analysed reactivity with the mosquito salivary proteins (MSP) of sera from 96 Thai children diagnosed with secondary DENV infections leading either to DF or DHF, or with no DENV infection, and found that different proportions of each patient group had serum antibodies reactive to specific Ae. aegypti salivary proteins. Our results suggest that prior exposure to MSP might play a role in the outcome of DENV infection in humans. PMID:21995849

  6. [Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi city].

    PubMed

    Riabova, T E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Markovich, N Ia; Ganushkina, L A; Orabe?, V G; Sergiev, V P

    2005-01-01

    Few Aedes aegypti females were found when collecting the mosquitoes attacking human beings in the Central District of Sochi in August to September 2001-2004. Ae. aegypti, a vector of dangerous causative agents of diseases, such as yellow and Aden fevers, appeared on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is recorded after its long absence. By taking into account the potential epidemic value of Ae. aegypti, it is necessary to make a monitoring in the cities, towns, and settlements to establish the spread, number, and the breading sites of mosquitoes in the given area and to prevent their mass reproduction. The effectiveness of Ae. albopictus as a vector of Aden fever has been established in different regions of the world. Entomological surveys for Ae. albopictus should be made in the areas of Russia where Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were distributed early in the past century, particularly in the southern port towns and settlements of Russia. Ae. albopictus is potentially able to spread to the north further than is Ae. aegypti. PMID:16212085

  7. Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

  8. Investigation of the Cry4B-prohibitin interaction in Aedes aegypti cells.

    PubMed

    Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Smith, Duncan R; Berry, Colin

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces insecticidal toxins active against insects. Cry4B, one of the major insecticidal toxins produced by Bt subsp. israelensis, is highly toxic to mosquitoes in the genus Aedes: the major vectors of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Previous work has shown that Cry4B binds to several mid-gut membrane proteins in Aedes aegypti larvae including prohibitin, a protein recently identified as a receptor that also mediates entry of dengue virus into Aedes cells. This study confirms the interaction between Cry4B and prohibitin by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and demonstrates colocalization of prohibitin and Cry4B by confocal microscopy. While activated Cry4B toxin showed high larvicidal activity, it was not cytotoxic to two Aedes cell lines, allowing determination of its effect on dengue virus infectivity in the absence of Cry4B-induced cell lysis. Pre-exposure of Aedes cells to Cry4B resulted in a significant reduction in the number of infected cells compared to untreated cells. PMID:22767320

  9. Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Andrea; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2011-12-01

    A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated in both mosquito strains. The median lethal concentration/median emergency inhibition values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, were: temephos, 3.058 and 6.632 ppb, permethrin, 3.143 and 4.933 ppb, cis-permethrin, 4.457 and 10.068 ppb, trans-permethrin, 1.510 and 3.883 ppb, Bti, 0.655 and 0.880 ppb and pyriproxyfen, 0.00774 and 0.01642 ppb. Ae. albopictus was more tolerant than Ae. aegypti to all six larvicides evaluated. The order of susceptibility for Ae. aegypti was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > temephos > permethrin > cis-permethrin and for Ae. albopictus was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > permethrin > temephos > cis-permethrin. Because both species can be found together in common urban, suburban and rural breeding sites, the results of this work provide baseline data on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to insecticides commonly used for controlling Ae. aegypti in the field. PMID:22241122

  10. Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Lowenberger, Carl

    in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 and the arboviruses that cause Dengue fever, Yellow fever and West Nile fever. Much of the current research efforts

  11. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) for dengue virus in the Florida Keys.

    PubMed

    Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Sheri L; Alto, Barry W

    2012-07-01

    In 2009-2011, Monroe County in southern Florida experienced locally acquired and traveler-imported focal dengue outbreaks. Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) worldwide, is prevalent in Monroe County, and is the suspected vector in Florida. Ae. albopictus (Skuse) is also known to be an important vector of DENV and this species is ubiquitous in Florida; however, it is not yet established in Monroe County. Florida Ae. aegypti (Key West and Stock Island geographic colonies) and Ae. albopictus (Vero Beach geographic colony) were fed blood containing 3.7 Log10 plaque-forming unit equivalents of DENV serotype 1 isolated from a patient involved in the Key West, FL, outbreak in 2010. Mosquitoes were maintained at extrinsic incubation temperatures of 28 or 30 degrees C for an incubation period of 14 d. Vector competence was assessed using rates of infection (percent with virus-positive bodies), dissemination (percent infected with virus-positive legs), and transmission (percent infected with virus-positive saliva). No significant differences were observed in rates of infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus at either extrinsic incubation temperature. Transmission was observed only at 28 degrees C in both Ae. aegypti (Key West) and Ae. albopictus. The assessment of local mosquito populations for their DENV vector competence is essential and will aid mosquito control operators interested in pinpointing specific vector populations for control. The extent to which vector competence is affected by seasonal changes in temperature is discussed and provides baseline risk assessment data to mosquito control agencies. PMID:22897056

  12. Ecological Modeling of Aedes aegypti (L.) Pupal Production in Rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Aldstadt, Jared; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kijchalao, Udom; Richardson, Jason; Jones, James W.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue, the most important arboviral infection globally. Until an effective vaccine is licensed and rigorously administered, Ae. aegypti control remains the principal tool in preventing and curtailing dengue transmission. Accurate predictions of vector populations are required to assess control methods and develop effective population reduction strategies. Ae. aegypti develops primarily in artificial water holding containers. Release recapture studies indicate that most adult Ae. aegypti do not disperse over long distances. We expect, therefore, that containers in an area of high development site density are more likely to be oviposition sites and to be more frequently used as oviposition sites than containers that are relatively isolated from other development sites. After accounting for individual container characteristics, containers more frequently used as oviposition sites are likely to produce adult mosquitoes consistently and at a higher rate. To this point, most studies of Ae. aegypti populations ignore the spatial density of larval development sites. Methodology Pupal surveys were carried out from 2004 to 2007 in rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. In total, 84,840 samples of water holding containers were used to estimate model parameters. Regression modeling was used to assess the effect of larval development site density, access to piped water, and seasonal variation on container productivity. A varying-coefficients model was employed to account for the large differences in productivity between container types. A two-part modeling structure, called a hurdle model, accounts for the large number of zeroes and overdispersion present in pupal population counts. Findings The number of suitable larval development sites and their density in the environment were the primary determinants of the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae. The productivity of most container types increased significantly as habitat density increased. An ecological approach, accounting for development site density, is appropriate for predicting Ae. aegypti population levels and developing efficient vector control programs. PMID:21267055

  13. Evidence of Polyandry for Aedes aegypti in Semifield Enclosures

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle E. H.; Valerio, Laura; Facchinelli, Luca; Scott, Thomas W.; Ramsey, Janine; Harrington, Laura C.

    2012-01-01

    Female Aedes aegypti are assumed to be primarily monandrous (i.e., mate only once in their lifetime), but true estimates of mating frequency have not been determined outside the laboratory. To assess polyandry in Ae. aegypti with first-generation progeny from wild mosquitoes, stable isotope semen-labeled males (15N or 13C) were allowed to mate with unlabeled females in semifield enclosures (22.5 m3) in a dengue-endemic area in southern Mexico. On average, 14% of females were positive for both labels, indicating that they received semen from more than one male. Our results provide evidence of a small but potentially significant rate of multiple mating within a 48-hour period and provide an approach for future open-field studies of polyandry in this species. Polyandry has implications for understanding mosquito ecology, evolution, and reproductive behavior as well as genetic strategies for mosquito control. PMID:22492148

  14. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

  15. Behavioral responses of two dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), to DUET TM and its components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultralow volume (ULV) droplets of DUET TM, prallethrin and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (non bloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti Linn. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inactive ingredients. Individual mosquitoes wer...

  16. Detection of insemination status in live Aedes aegypti females.

    PubMed

    Carrasquilla, María C; Lounibos, L Philip

    2015-04-01

    Using the technique described in this report, the presence or absence of sperm in spermathecae of female Aedes aegypti is detectable without dissection. Spermathecae of a lightly anesthetized female can be visualized by phase contrast microscopy through the distended abdomen, after the intersegmental membranes are stretched by ventral placement of a glass cover slip. Most females recovered after the procedure were capable of subsequent reproductive activities. Albeit tedious, this technique preserves the female alive for subsequent experiments or observations. Its extension to other mosquito species, or other Diptera and insects, will depend on spermathecal and sperm visibility through the distended abdomen. PMID:25721054

  17. Comparison of BG-Sentinel® Trap and Oviposition Cups for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Surveillance in Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer A; Larson, Ryan T; Richardson, Alec G; Cote, Noel M; Stoops, Craig A; Clark, Marah; Obenauer, Peter J

    2015-03-01

    The BG-Sentinel® (BGS) trap and oviposition cups (OCs) have both proven effective in the surveillance of Aedes species. This study aimed to determine which of the 2 traps could best characterize the relative population sizes of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in an urban section of Jacksonville, FL. Until 1986, Ae. aegypti was considered the dominant container-breeding species in urban northeastern Florida. Since the introduction of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti has become almost completely extirpated. In 2011, a resurgence of Ae. aegypti was detected in the urban areas of Jacksonville; thus this study initially set out to determine the extent of Ae. aegypti reintroduction to the area. We determined that the BGS captured a greater number of adult Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, while OCs did not monitor significantly different numbers of either species, even in areas where the BGS traps suggested a predominance of one species over the other. Both traps were effective at detecting Aedes spp.; however, the BGS proved more diverse by detecting over 20 other species as well. Our results show that in order to accurately determine vectorborne disease threats and the impact of control operations on these 2 species, multiple trapping techniques should be utilized when studying Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics. PMID:25843173

  18. The Sublethal Effects of the Entomopathic Fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii on Some Biological Parameters of the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Pelizza, S.A.; Scorsetti, A.C.; Tranchida, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue in the Americas. The use of chemical insecticides is recommended during outbreaks of dengue in order to reduce the number of adult mosquitoes; however, because Ae. aegypti is highly synanthropic, the use of insecticides in densely populated areas is a dangerous practice. Leptolegnia chapmanii Seymour (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes) is an entomopathogenic microorganism that has demonstrated marked pathogenicity toward the larvae of a number of mosquito species, with little or no effect on non-target insects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sublethal effects of L. chapmanii on fecundity, number of gonotrophic cycles, fertility, and relationship between wing length and fecundity in Ae. aegypti females. Ae. aegypti females that survived infection with L. chapmanii laid fewer eggs, had a smaller number of gonotrophic cycles, had shorter wings, and were less fertile than controls. This is the first study on the sublethal effects experienced by specimens of Ae. aegypti that survived infection with zoospores of L. chapmanii. Although field studies should be carried out, the results obtained in this study are encouraging because the high and rapid larval mortality caused by L. chapmanii coupled with the reduction of reproductive capacity in Ae. aegypti females seem to cause a significant reduction in the number of adults in the mid and long term, thereby reducing the health risks associated with Ae. aegypti. PMID:23901823

  19. Evaluation of Sumithion L-40 against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse.

    PubMed

    Loke, S R; Sing, K W; Teoh, G N; Lee, H L

    2015-03-01

    Space spraying of chemical insecticides is still an important mean of controlling Aedes mosquitoes and dengue transmission. For this purpose, the bioefficacy of space-sprayed chemical insecticide should be evaluated from time to time. A simulation field trial was conducted outdoor in an open field and indoor in unoccupied flat units in Kuala Lumpur, to evaluate the adulticidal and larvicidal effects of Sumithion L-40, a ULV formulation of fenitrothion. A thermal fogger with a discharge rate of 240 ml/min was used to disperse Sumithion L-40 at 3 different dosages (350 ml/ha, 500 ml/ha, 750 ml/ha) against lab-bred larvae and adult female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. An average of more than 80% adult mortality was achieved for outdoor space spray, and 100% adult mortality for indoor space spray, in all tested dosages. Outdoor larvicidal effect was noted up to 14 days and 7 days at a dosage of 500 and 750 ml/ha for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively. Indoor larvicidal effect was up to 21 days (500 ml/ha) and 14 days (750 ml/ha), respectively, after spraying with larval mortality > 50% against Ae. aegypti. This study concluded that the effective dosage of Sumithion L-40 thermally applied against adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus indoor and outdoor is 500 and 750 ml/ha. Based on these dosages, effective indoor spray volume is 0.4 - 0.6 ml/m³. Additional indoor and outdoor larvicidal effect will be observed at these application dosages, in addition to adult mortality. PMID:25801256

  20. Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cecílio, Samyra Giarola; Júnior, Willer Ferreira Silva; Tótola, Antônio Helvécio; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhães, José Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools. PMID:26047186

  1. Efficacy of topical permethrin as repellent against Aedes aegypti's bites.

    PubMed

    Miot, Hélio Amante; Ferreira, Daniela Pinho; Mendes, Fabiana Guandalini; Carrenho, Flávia Roberta Hernandes; de Oliveira Amui, Isabela; Carneiro, Carlos Augusto Sá; Madeira, Newton Goulart

    2008-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the most important vectors of infectious diseases and their bites are related to several adverse skin reactions. Permethrin impregnated clothes are an efficient strategy against arthropods' bites; however, its topical efficacy as a repellent has not been well established. We studied the response to permethrin lotion 5 percent and N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) spray 50 percent applied to the unprotected forearms of 10 volunteers. Each arm was exposed to 20 female mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti. We performed 71 bilateral comparative measurements evaluating the timing for the first bites. The average times for the arm without the product, with permethrin 5 percent, and with DEET 50 percent were: 7.9 seconds, 336.2 seconds and 7512.1 seconds. The results showed a significant difference between repellency times between either product and unprotected controls. In addition, there was a significant difference in time to first bite between permethrin and DEET treated arms (p<0.01). Permethrin affords some repellent activity against Aedes aegypti bites in this experimental setting. However, permethrin's profile of repellency was significantly inferior to that of DEET. PMID:18718185

  2. Characterising the spatial dynamics of sympatric Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus populations in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Espino, Fe; Marollano, Kristian; Velazco, Aldwin; Ritchie, Scott A; Hu, Wen-Biao; Weinstein, Philip; Clements, Archie C A

    2013-11-01

    Entomological surveillance and control are essential to the management of dengue fever (DF). Hence, understanding the spatial and temporal patterns of DF vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), is paramount. In the Philippines, resources are limited and entomological surveillance and control are generally commenced during epidemics, when transmission is difficult to control. Recent improvements in spatial epidemiological tools and methods offer opportunities to explore more efficient DF surveillance and control solutions: however, there are few examples in the literature from resource-poor settings. The objectives of this study were to: (i) explore spatial patterns of Aedes populations and (ii) predict areas of high and low vector density to inform DF control in San Jose village, Muntinlupa city, Philippines. Fortnightly, adult female Aedes mosquitoes were collected from 50 double-sticky ovitraps (SOs) located in San Jose village for the period June-November 2011. Spatial clustering analysis was performed to identify high and low density clusters of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Spatial autocorrelation was assessed by examination of semivariograms, and ordinary kriging was undertaken to create a smoothed surface of predicted vector density in the study area. Our results show that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were present in San Jose village during the study period. However, one Aedes species was dominant in a given geographic area at a time, suggesting differing habitat preferences and interspecies competition between vectors. Density maps provide information to direct entomological control activities and advocate the development of geographically enhanced surveillance and control systems to improve DF management in the Philippines. PMID:24258900

  3. Mass trapping with MosquiTRAPs does not reduce Aedes aegypti abundance

    PubMed Central

    Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Rösner, Susanne; Rocha, Eliseu Soares Oliveira; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Aedes aegypti mass trapping using the sticky trap MosquiTRAP (MQT) by performing a cluster randomised controlled trial in Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil. After an initial questionnaire and baseline monitoring of adult Ae. aegypti abundance with BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps in six clusters, three clusters were randomly assigned to the intervention arm where each participating household received three MQTs for mass trapping during 17 months. The remaining three clusters (control arm) did not receive traps. The effect of mass trapping on adult Ae. aegypti abundance was monitored fortnightly with BGS traps. During the last two months of the study, a serological survey was conducted. After the study, a second questionnaire was applied in the intervention arm. Entomological monitoring indicated that MQT mass trapping did not reduce adult Ae. aegypti abundance. The serological survey indicated that recent dengue infections were equally frequent in the intervention and the control arm. Most participants responded positively to questions concerning user satisfaction. According to the results, there is no evidence that mass trapping with MQTs can be used as a part of dengue control programs. The use of this sticky trap is only recommendable for dengue vector monitoring. PMID:25946154

  4. Genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Kathryn E; Vosshall, Leslie B; Matthews, Benjamin J

    2015-04-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is a potent vector of the chikungunya, yellow fever, and dengue viruses, responsible for hundreds of millions of infections and over 50,000 human deaths per year. Mutagenesis in Ae. aegypti has been established with TALENs, ZFNs, and homing endonucleases, which require the engineering of DNA-binding protein domains to provide genomic target sequence specificity. Here, we describe the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to generate site-specific mutations in Ae. aegypti. This system relies on RNA-DNA base-pairing to generate targeting specificity, resulting in efficient and flexible genome-editing reagents. We investigate the efficiency of injection mix compositions, demonstrate the ability of CRISPR-Cas9 to generate different types of mutations via disparate repair mechanisms, and report stable germline mutations in several genomic loci. This work offers a detailed exploration into the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in Ae. aegypti that should be applicable to non-model organisms previously out of reach of genetic modification. PMID:25818303

  5. Resistance of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti to permethrin, etofenprox, and propoxur

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insecticide resistance impacts vector control. Characterizing resistance of mosquitoes allows for optimization of control strategies. Resistance to three insecticides was determined for susceptible and resistant (Puerto Rico) strains of Aedes aegypti. Groups of 10 females were topically dosed in tri...

  6. No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    No maternal effects after stimulation of the melanization response in the yellow fever mosquito the maternal melanization response of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti by inoculating female mosquitoes

  7. Functional Development of the Octenol Response in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Durand, Nicolas F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Attraction of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), CO2, lactic acid, or ammonia emitted by vertebrate hosts is not only contingent on the presence of odorants in the environment, but is also influenced by the insect’s physiological state. For anautogenous mosquito species, like A. aegypti, newly emerged adult females neither respond to host odors nor engage in blood-feeding; the bases for these behaviors are poorly understood. Here we investigated detection of two components of an attractant blend emitted by vertebrate hosts, octenol, and CO2, by female A. aegypti mosquitoes using electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular approaches. An increase in sensitivity of octenol olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) was correlated with an increase in odorant receptor gene (Or) expression and octenol-mediated attractive behavior from day 1 to day 6 post-emergence. While the sensitivity of octenol ORNs was maintained through day 10, behavioral responses to octenol decreased as did the ability of females to discriminate between octenol and octenol?+?CO2. Our results show differing age-related roles for the peripheral receptors for octenol and higher order neural processing in the behavior of female mosquitoes. PMID:23471139

  8. Formulas of components of citronella oil against mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wey-Shin; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Yei-Shung

    2013-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an epidemic vector of several diseases such as dengue fever and yellow fever. Several pesticides are used to control the mosquito population. Because of their frequent use, some mosquitoes have developed resistance. In this study, we used the Y-tube olfactometer to test essential oils of Cymbopogon species and screened specific formulas of components as repellents against Ae. aegypti. At 400 ?L, the extracted oil of citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) and myrcene produced a low-active response by inhibiting mosquito host-seeking activity. Citronella grass, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), citral and myrcene also produced a low-treatment response to repellents, for more potential to affect host-seeking behavior. Furthermore, the mixture of citral, myrcene, and citronellal oil (C:M:Ci = 6:4:1) greatly affected and inhibited host-seeking behavior (76% active response; 26% treatment response with 40 ?L; 42.5%, 18% with 400 ?L; and 19%, 23% with 1000 ?L). As compared with the result for N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET; 44%, 22% with 400 ?L), adjusting the composition formulas of citronella oil had a synergistic effect, for more effective repellent against Ae. aegypti. PMID:23998314

  9. Modelling adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus survival at different temperatures in laboratory and field settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field. Methods Here we apply generalised additive models to data from 351 published adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus survival experiments in the laboratory to create survival models for each species across their range of viable temperatures. These models are then adjusted to estimate survival at different temperatures in the field using data from 59 Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus field survivorship experiments. The uncertainty at each stage of the modelling process is propagated through to provide confidence intervals around our predictions. Results Our results indicate that adult Ae. albopictus has higher survival than Ae. aegypti in the laboratory and field, however, Ae. aegypti can tolerate a wider range of temperatures. A full breakdown of survival by age and temperature is given for both species. The differences between laboratory and field models also give insight into the relative contributions to mortality from temperature, other environmental factors, and senescence and over what ranges these factors can be important. Conclusions Our results support the importance of producing site-specific mosquito survival estimates. By including fluctuating temperature regimes, our models provide insight into seasonal patterns of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics that may be relevant to seasonal changes in dengue virus transmission. Our models can be integrated with Aedes and dengue modelling efforts to guide and evaluate vector control, better map the distribution of disease and produce early warning systems for dengue epidemics. PMID:24330720

  10. Recent Rapid Rise of a Permethrin Knock Down Resistance Allele in Aedes aegypti in México

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gustavo Ponce García; Adriana E. Flores; Ildefonso Fernández-Salas; Karla Saavedra-Rodríguez; Guadalupe Reyes-Solis; Saul Lozano-Fuentes; J. Guillermo Bond; Mauricio Casas-Martínez; Janine M. Ramsey; Julián García-Rejón; Marco Domínguez-Galera; Hilary Ranson; Janet Hemingway; Lars Eisen; William C. Black

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAedes aegypti, the ‘yellow fever mosquito’, is the primary vector to humans of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses (DENV, YFV), and is a known vector of the chikungunya alphavirus (CV). Because vaccines are not yet available for DENV or CV or are inadequately distributed in developing countries (YFV), management of Ae. aegypti remains the primary option to prevent and control

  11. Population genetic structure of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti in Venezuela

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flor Herrera; Ludmel Urdaneta; José Rivero; Normig Zoghbi; Johanny Ruiz; Gabriela Carrasquel; José Antonio Martínez; Martha Pernalete; Patricia Villegas; Ana Montoya; Yasmin Rubio-Palis; Elina Rojas

    2006-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Venezuela. The genetic structure of this vector was investigated in 24 samples collected from eight geographic regions separated by up to 1160 km. We examined the distribution of a 359-basepair region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene among 1144 Ae. aegypti from eight collections. This gene was

  12. Stable Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes Element from the Housefly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nijole Jasinskiene; Craig J. Coates; Mark Q. Benedict; Anthony J. Cornel; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Anthony A. James; Frank H. Collins

    1998-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germline transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A

  13. Gene Flow, Subspecies Composition, and Dengue Virus2 Susceptibility among Aedes aegypti Collections in Senegal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massamba Sylla; Christopher Bosio; Ludmel Urdaneta-Marquez; Mady Ndiaye; William C. Black

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundAedes aegypti, the “yellow fever mosquito”, is the primary vector to humans of the four serotypes of dengue viruses (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV) and is a known vector of Chikungunya virus. There are two recognized subspecies of Ae. aegypti sensu latu (s.l.): the presumed ancestral form, Ae. aegypti formosus (Aaf), a primarily sylvan mosquito in sub-Saharan Africa, and

  14. Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of an acetylcholinesterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Anthony; Thomas Rocheleau; Giovani Mocelin; Hwa-Jung Lee; Richard ffrench-Constant

    1995-01-01

    A degenerate PCR strategy was used to isolate a fragment of the acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace) homolog from Aedes aegypti and screen for a cDNA clone containing the complete open reading frame of the gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Aedes gene shares 64% identify with Ace from Drosophila and 87% identity with the acetylcholinesterase gene from another mosquito

  15. Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sébastien Marcombe; Rodolphe Poupardin; Frederic Darriet; Stéphane Reynaud; Julien Bonnet; Clare Strode; Cecile Brengues; André Yébakima; Hilary Ranson; Vincent Corbel; Jean-Philippe David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with

  16. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti mosquito strains varying in vector competence to dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Charan, Shakti S; Pawar, Kiran D; Severson, David W; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2013-07-01

    Differences in midgut bacterial communities of Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector of dengue viruses (DENV), might influence the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to infection by DENV. As a first step toward addressing this hypothesis, comparative analysis of bacterial communities from midguts of mosquito strains with differential genetic susceptibility to DENV was performed. 16S rRNA gene libraries and real-time PCR approaches were used to characterize midgut bacterial community composition and abundance in three Aedes aegypti strains: MOYO, MOYO-R, and MOYO-S. Although Pseudomonas spp.-related clones were predominant across all libraries, some interesting and potentially significant differences were found in midgut bacterial communities among the three strains. Pedobacter sp.- and Janthinobacterium sp.-related phylotypes were identified only in the MOYO-R strain libraries, while Bacillus sp. was detected only in the MOYO-S strain. Rahnella sp. was found in MOYO-R and MOYO strains libraries but was absent in MOYO-S libraries. Both 16S rRNA gene library and real-time PCR approaches confirmed the presence of Pedobacter sp. only in the MOYO-R strain. Further, real-time PCR-based quantification of 16S rRNA gene copies showed bacterial abundance in midguts of the MOYO-R strain mosquitoes to be at least 10-100-folds higher than in the MOYO-S and MOYO strain mosquitoes. Our study identified some putative bacteria with characteristic physiological properties that could affect the infectivity of dengue virus. This analysis represents the first report of comparisons of midgut bacterial communities with respect to refractoriness and susceptibility of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to DENV and will guide future efforts to address the potential interactive role of midgut bacteria of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in determining vectorial capacity for DENV. PMID:23636307

  17. Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

  18. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  19. Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

  20. Evaluation of organic infusions and synthetic compounds mediating oviposition in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra A. Allan; Daniel L. Kline

    1995-01-01

    Oviposition responses of gravidAedes albopictus andAe. aegypti were evaluated to natural organic infusions (hay infusion, larval rearing water, and field-collected larval water) as well as compounds isolated from hay infusion (3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol, indole, and phenol) known to elicit oviposition inCulex mosquitoes. In laboratory bioassays, significant oviposition responses were obtained fromAe. albopictus, but not fromAe. aegypti, to dilutions of hay

  1. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  2. Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California

    PubMed Central

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25077804

  3. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of pacharin from Bauhinia acuruana.

    PubMed

    da Silva Góis, Roberto Wagner; de Sousa, Leôncio Mesquita; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Romero, Nirla Rodrigues; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Arriaga, Angela Martha Campos; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity of pacharin isolated from the ethanol extract from roots of Bauhinia acuruana on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae). The crude ethanol extract showed larvicidal activity at the concentration of 500 ?g/mL. Given this larvicidal activity, this extract was submitted to chromatographic fractionation on a silica gel column eluted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order to isolate the active compound(s). Pacharin, obtained in pure form from fraction eluted with ethyl ether, was evaluated for their larvicidal effects against A. aegypti. In these bioassays, the larvae were exposed at concentrations of 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 ?g/mL of the crude ethanol extract or pacharin. After 24 h, the number of dead larvae was counted and the LC?? values for larval mortality were calculated. Pacharin showed LC50 value of 78.9 ± 1.8 ?g/mL. The structure of isolated compound was identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. The results indicate pacharin as a potential natural larvicide. PMID:23604564

  4. Chemometric studies on potential larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Silva, Viviane Barros; Santos, Sandra Regina Lima; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H; Mendonça, Francisco J B

    2014-03-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) is the vector of yellow and dengue fever. In this study, chemometric tools, such as, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Consensus PCA (CPCA), and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), were applied to a set of fifty five active compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae, which includes terpenes, cyclic alcohols, phenolic compounds, and their synthetic derivatives. The calculations were performed using the VolSurf+ program. CPCA analysis suggests that the higher weight blocks of descriptors were SIZE/SHAPE, DRY, and H2O. The PCA was generated with 48 descriptors selected from the previous blocks. The scores plot showed good separation between more and less potent compounds. The first two PCs accounted for over 60% of the data variance. The best model obtained in PLS, after validation leave-one-out, exhibited q(2) = 0.679 and r(2) = 0.714. External prediction model was R(2) = 0.623. The independent variables having a hydrophobic profile were strongly correlated to the biological data. The interaction maps generated with the GRID force field showed that the most active compounds exhibit more interaction with the DRY probe. PMID:23676010

  5. Blood-feeding and immunogenic Aedes aegypti saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Patramool, Sirilaksana; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Séveno, Martial; Remoue, Franck; Demettre, Edith; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Jouin, Patrick; Biron, David G; Thomas, Frédéric; Missé, Dorothée

    2010-05-01

    Mosquito-transmitted pathogens pass through the insect's midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG). What occurs in these organs in response to a blood meal is poorly understood, but identifying the physiological differences between sugar-fed and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes could shed light on factors important in pathogens transmission. We compared differential protein expression in the MGs and SGs of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes after a sugar- or blood-based diet. No difference was observed in the MG protein expression levels but certain SG proteins were highly expressed only in BF mosquitoes. In sugar-fed mosquitoes, housekeeping proteins were highly expressed (especially those related to energy metabolism) and actin was up-regulated. The immunofluorescence assay shows that there is no disruption of the SG cytoskeletal after the blood meal. We have generated for the first time the 2-DE profiles of immunogenic Ae. aegypti SG BF-related proteins. These new data could contribute to the understanding of the physiological processes that appear during the blood meal. PMID:19882664

  6. Differential regulation of transferrin 1 and 2 in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Velasquez, Lissette S; Geiser, Dawn L; Mayo, Jonathan J; Winzerling, Joy J

    2009-03-01

    Available evidence has shown that transferrins are involved in iron metabolism, immunity and development in eukaryotic organisms including insects. Here we characterize the gene and message expression profile of Aedes aegypti transferrin 2 (AaTf2) in response to iron, bacterial challenge and life stage. We show that AaTf2 shares a low similarity with A. aegypti transferrin 1 (AaTf1), but higher similarity with mammalian transferrins and avian ovotransferrin. Iron-binding pocket analysis indicates that AaTf2 has residue substitutions of Y188F, T120S, and R124S in the N lobe, and Y517N, H585N, T452S, and R456T in the C lobe, which could alter or reduce iron-binding activity. In vivo studies of message expression reveal that AaTf2 message is expressed at higher levels in larva and pupa, as well as adult female ovaries 72h post blood meal (PBM) and support that AaTf2 could play a role in larval and pupal development and in late physiological events of the gonotrophic cycle. Bacterial challenge significantly increases AaTf1 expression in ovaries at 0 and 24h PBM, but decreases AaTf2 expression in ovaries at 72h PBM, suggesting that AaTf1 and AaTf2 play different roles in immunity of female adults during a gonotrophic cycle. PMID:19166934

  7. Mosquito Protein Kinase G Phosphorylates Flavivirus NS5 and Alters Flight Behavior in Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Julie A.; Bhattacharya, Dipankar; Rund, Samuel S.C.; Hoover, Spencer; Dasgupta, Ranjit; Lee, Samuel J.; Duffield, Giles E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Many arboviral proteins are phosphorylated in infected mammalian cells, but it is unknown if the same phosphorylation events occur when insects are similarly infected. One of the mammalian kinases responsible for phosphorylation, protein kinase G (PKG), has been implicated in the behavior of multiple nonvector insects, but is unstudied in mosquitoes. PKG from Aedes aegypti was cloned, and phosphorylation of specific viral sites was monitored by mass spectrometry from biochemical and cell culture experiments. PKG from Aedes mosquitoes is able to phosphorylate dengue nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) at specific sites in cell culture and cell-free systems and autophosphorylates its own regulatory domain in a cell-free system. Injecting Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes with a pharmacological PKG activator resulted in increased Aedes wing activity during periods of their natural diurnal/crepuscular activity and increased Anopheles nocturnal locomotor/flight activity. Thus, perturbation of the PKG signaling pathway in mosquitoes alters flight behavior. The demonstrated effect of PKG alterations is consistent with a viral PKG substrate triggering increased PKG activity. This increased PKG activity could be the mechanism by which dengue virus increases flight behavior and possibly facilitates transmission. Whether or not PKG is part of the mechanism by which dengue increases flight behavior, this report is the first to show PKG can modulate behavior in hematophagous disease vectors. PMID:23930976

  8. Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units. PMID:24551965

  9. Implications of saline concentrations for the performance and competitive interactions of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) and Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus).

    PubMed

    Yee, D A; Himel, E; Reiskind, M H; Vamosi, S M

    2014-03-01

    Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopictus) (Diptera: Culicidae) has probably supplanted Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) throughout most of its historical range in the U.S.A., although Ae.?aegypti still exists in large coastal cities in southern Florida. We measured salt concentrations in field containers along an axis perpendicular to the coast and examined intraspecific outcomes in these species under different salt concentrations in a factorial study using varying intra- and interspecific densities in different conditions of salinity to order to determine if salt could mitigate the documented competitive superiority of Ae.?albopictus. Salt in field containers declined away from the coast, with maximal values similar to our lower salt concentrations. Egg hatching and short-term survival of pupae and late instars were not affected by salt concentrations; survival of early instars of both species decreased at higher concentrations. In high salt conditions, Ae.?aegypti achieved higher survival. In the longterm experiment, both species displayed longer development times. Salt did not affect interactions for either species; Ae.?aegypti survived in the highest salt conditions, regardless of density. The tolerance of Ae.?aegypti to high salt concentrations may allow it to use coastal containers, although because salt did not mediate interspecific interactions between Ae.?aegypti and Ae.?albopictus, the ultimate effects of salt on the coexistence of these species or exclusion of either species remain unknown. PMID:23607885

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) movement influenced by availability of oviposition sites.

    PubMed

    Edman, J D; Scott, T W; Costero, A; Morrison, A C; Harrington, L C; Clark, G G

    1998-07-01

    Marked Aedes aegypti (L.) (5-6 d old) were released inside 2 groups of 5 houses (100 females per house) in a residential community in Florida, PR, to compare behavior of gravid females at sites where oviposition containers were absent to sites where containers were abundant (i.e., 2 tires and 10 ovipots were added to each yard). Two sequential releases were made so that both groups of houses were evaluated with oviposition containers removed and added. Mosquitoes resting inside the 10 release houses plus 20 additional neighboring houses were collected with backpack aspirators for 4 consecutive days, beginning 2 d after release. Because 172 of the 185 recaptured females (93%) were collected in the same houses in which they had been released, dispersal patterns were not directly comparable. However, the recapture rate in houses with containers added (13%) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in houses with containers removed (6%). No difference was observed in the mean number of potential oviposition containers among the nonrelease houses at the 2 sites (3.9 versus 3.8 aquatic containers per house in the prerelease survey). Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that availability of oviposition sites is inversely correlated with the potential for female Ae. aegypti to disperse. These results have important implications because campaigns to reduce Ae. aegypti larval sites during dengue epidemics could have the undesirable effect of inducing the dispersal of infected adult female mosquitoes. PMID:9701948

  11. Effects of Metarhizium anisopliae conidia mixed with soil against the eggs of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Leles, Renan Nunes; D'Alessandro, Walmirton Bezerra; Luz, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 conidia mixed with soil was tested against Aedes aegypti eggs. Mycelium and new conidia developed first on eggs between 4.8 and 15 days respectively after incubation of fungus-treated soils at 3.3?×?10(3) up to 3.3?×?10(5) conidia/g soil at 25°C and relative humidities close to saturation. After 15-day incubation, 53.3% of the eggs exposed to soil with 3.3?×?10(5) conidia/g showed external development of mycelium and conidia. Fungus-inoculated soils (but not untreated controls) showed some mycelial growth and sporulation apart from the eggs. Some eggs on treated soils hatched; those larvae died and eventually showed fungal development on their bodies. The cumulative relative eclosion of larvae after submersion of treated eggs in water decreased from 52.2% at 3.3?×?10(3) conidia/g to 25.3% at 3.3?×?10(5) conidia/g. These findings clearly showed that A. aegypti eggs can be infected by M. anisopliae when deposited on fungus-contaminated soil. The effectiveness of M. anisopliae against gravid females, larvae, and also eggs of A. aegypti underscored the possible usefulness of this fungus as a mycoinsecticide, whether naturally occurring or artificially applied, in the breeding sites of this mosquito. PMID:21984368

  12. New insights on the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae formulation and application against Aedes aegypti eggs.

    PubMed

    Sousa, N A; Lobo, L S; Rodrigues, J; Luz, C

    2013-09-01

    Increasing needs for innovative control tools against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have prompted investigations into the development of specific mycoinsecticides. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae attacks both larval and adult stages, but its ovicidal activity against A. aegypti is still little explored. This study reports important findings about the effectiveness of conidia formulated in water and oil-in-water emulsions and of direct and indirect application techniques against A. aegypti eggs. The ovicidal activity of M. anisopliae increased with higher conidial concentrations regardless of the application technique, and larvae elimination concentrations were lowest with oil-in-water-formulated conidia (LEC50 ? 4·8 × 10(3) conidia cm(-2) and LEC90 ? 1·9 × 10(5) conidia cm(-2), respectively). Conidia eventually stimulated larval eclosion. Consequently, the indirect application of oil-based fungal formulations onto substrates where oviposition will later occur appears to be a more efficient means to infect those eggs than the direct fungal application to previously deposited eggs. PMID:23638865

  13. Climate change and the potential global distribution of Aedes aegypti: spatial modelling using GIS and CLIMEX.

    PubMed

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2014-05-01

    We examined the potential added risk posed by global climate change on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti abundance using CLIMEX, a powerful tool for exploring the relationship between the fundamental and realised niche of any species. After calibrating the model using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records, we estimated potential distributions of the mosquito under current and future potential scenarios. The impact of climate change on its potential distribution was assessed with two global climate models, the CSIRO-Mk3.0 and the MIROC-H, run with two potential, future emission scenarios (A1B and A2) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compared today's climate situation with two arbitrarily chosen future time points (2030 and 2070) to see the impact on the worldwide distribution of A. aegypti . The model for the current global climate indicated favourable areas for the mosquito within its known distribution in tropical and subtropical areas. However, even if much of the tropics and subtropics will continue to be suitable, the climatically favourable areas for A. aegypti globally are projected to contract under the future scenarios produced by these models, while currently unfavourable areas, such as inland Australia, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Iran and some parts of North America may become climatically favourable for this mosquito species. The climate models for the Aedes dengue vector presented here should be useful for management purposes as they can be adapted for decision/making regarding allocation of resources for dengue risk toward areas where risk infection remains and away from areas where climatic suitability is likely to decrease in the future. PMID:24893017

  14. Chikungunya virus and the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in New Caledonia (South Pacific Region).

    PubMed

    Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Caro, Valérie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Vazeille, Marie; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Baroux, Noémie; Gourinat, Ann-Claire; Grandadam, Marc; Failloux, Anna-Bella

    2012-12-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. During the 2005-2006 epidemic that occurred in the Indian Ocean Islands, a viral strain harboring a substitution of an alanine to valine at position 226 (E1-A226V) of the E1 glycoprotein enhanced the transmissibility of CHIKV by Aedes albopictus. In March 2011, autochthonous transmission of CHIKV was reported in New Caledonia (NC), an island located in the southwest Pacific Ocean. This was the first report of local chikungunya (CHIK) transmission in this region of the world. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome demonstrated that the CHIKV-NC strain isolated from the first autochthonous human case belongs to the Asian lineage. This is consistent with the Indonesian origin of CHIK cases previously imported and detected. Thus the CHIKV-NC does not present a valine substitution at position E1-226. In New Caledonia, the putative vector of CHIKV is Aedes aegypti, since no other potential vector has ever been described. For example, A. albopictus is not found in NC. Vector competence experiments showed that A. aegypti from New Caledonia was able to transmit, as early as 3 days post-infection, two CHIKV strains: CHIKV-NC belonging to the Asian lineage, and CHIKV-RE from Reunion Island harboring the E1-A226V mutation. Thus the extrinsic incubation period of both CHIKV strains in this vector species could be considered to be quite short. These results illustrate the threat of the spread of CHIKV in the South Pacific region. From February to June 2011 (the end of the alert), only 33 cases were detected. Implementation of drastic vector control measures and the occurrence of the cold season probably helped to limit the extent of the outbreak, but other factors may have also been involved and are discussed. PMID:23167500

  15. Truck-mounted area-wide application of pyriproxyfen targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in northeast Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of truck-mounted ULV applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus populations in an urban setting. The study was conducted over a 3 ½ month period (Jun – Oct 2012), during wh...

  16. The effect of photoperiod on life history and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Costanzo, K S; Schelble, S; Jerz, K; Keenan, M

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have examined how climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation may affect life history traits in mosquitoes that are important to disease transmission. Despite its importance as a seasonal cue in nature, studies investigating the influence of photoperiod on such traits are relatively few. This study aims to investigate how photoperiod alters life history traits, survival, and blood-feeding activity in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus). We performed three experiments that tested the effects of day length on female survival, development time, adult size, fecundity, adult life span, and propensity to blood feed in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. Each experiment had three photoperiod treatments: 1) short-day (10L:14D), 2) control (12L:12D), and 3) long-day (14L:10D). Aedes albopictus adult females were consistently larger in size when reared in short-day conditions. Aedes aegypti adult females from short-day treatments lived longer and were more likely to take a blood meal compared to other treatments. We discuss how species-specific responses may reflect alternative strategies evolved to increase survival during unfavorable conditions. We review the potential impacts of these responses on seasonal transmission patterns, such as potentially increasing vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti during periods of shorter day lengths. PMID:26047197

  17. Differential identification of Ascogregarina species (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Morales, Maria E; Ocampo, Clara B; Cadena, Horacio; Copeland, Claudia S; Termini, Michael; Wesson, Dawn M

    2005-12-01

    We report 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for distinguishing morphologically similar gregarine species based on amplification of variable regions of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. The gregarines we investigated were Ascogregarina barretti (Vavra), A. culicis (Ross), and A. taiwanensis (Lien and Levine), parasites of the mosquitoes Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), and Ae. albopictus (Skuse), respectively. These 3 important vector mosquitoes often utilize the same container habitats, where larval development and infection by the parasite occurs, leaving ample opportunity for cross-species gregarine infection. Because previous studies have shown that the parasites A. culicis and A. taiwanensis variably affect fitness in both normal and abnormal mosquito hosts, distinguishing parasite infection and species is important. The task is complicated by the fact that these 2 parasite species are virtually identical in morphology, whereas A. barretti is morphologically distinct. Of the 2 PCR-based assays reported here, the first provides a rapid, sensitive, and straight-forward means of general ascogregarine detection based on a single PCR amplification. The second method provides a means of differentiation between A. culicis and A. taiwanensis based on a species-specific PCR assay. Together, these assays allow whole mosquitoes to be tested for the presence of Ascogregarina species as well as identification of both A. culicis and A. taiwanensis singly or in dual infections. PMID:16539016

  18. Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

  19. Effect of housing factors on infestation by Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse in urban Hanoi City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Ataru; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Duoc, Vu Trong; Le Nguyen, Hoang; Higa, Yukiko; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2013-11-01

    To determine the effect of housing factors on infestation with Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse we conducted an entomological survey and inspection of 267 urban houses in Hanoi City, Vietnam. Two hundred ten pupae and 194 adult Ae. aegypti were collected from 19 and 88 houses, respectively. One hundred eighty-one pupae and 24 adult Ae. albopictus were collected from 21 and 14 houses, respectively. The presence of a private well was associated with increasing infestation with Ae. aegypti adults (p = 0.01) and increased the risk of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.04 for Ae. aegypti, p = 0.03 for Ae. albopictus). The presence of an outdoor space in the household premises was associated with a higher risk of Ae. albopictus pupal presence (p = 0.004) and a higher risk of high levels of Ae. albopictus adults (p = 0.01); however, it had no association with infestation with Ae. aegypti. The presence of an air-conditioning unit (p = 0.03) and four or more rooms in the residence (p = 0.02) were negatively and positively associated with the risk for Ae. albopictus presence, respectively. PMID:24450235

  20. Bioefficacy of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) leaf extract against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M

    2009-01-01

    The leaf extract of Cassia fistula with different solvens viz, methanol, benzene and acetone were studied for the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activity against Aedes aegypti. The extract exhibited dose dependent activity and produced significant mortality. The 24 h LC50 concentration of the extract against Aedes aegypti were observed at 10.69, 18.27 and 23.95 mg/l respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 120.00 h after treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The crude extract of Cassia fistula shows significant repellency against Aedes aegypti. These results clearly reveal that the crude extract of Cassia fistula served as a potential larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent agent against chikungunya vector mosquito, PMID:19499844

  1. Cheng LL, et al. 2001. Characterization of an endogenous gene expressed in Aedes aegypti using an orally infec-tious recombinant Sindbis virus. 7 pp. Journal of Insect Science, 1:10. Available online: insectscience.org/1.10

    E-print Network

    Lowenberger, Carl

    to infect mosquito larvae per os using C6/36 Ae. albopictus cells infected with the recombinant virus) did not induce defensin expression. Mosquito larvae infected by ingestion of recombinant Sindbis virus mosquito species, including Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Ae. triseriatus, Culex pipiens, Armigeres

  2. Does native bromeliads represent important breeding sites for Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in urbanized areas?

    PubMed

    Santos, C B; Leite, G R; Falqueto, A

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the importance of native bromeliads growing on rocky outcrops interspersed with urbanized areas as breeding sites for the Aedes aegypti (L.) in Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Oviposition traps were installed in backyards of houses in two separate zones. In the first zone houses were up to 50 m away from the rocky outcrops, while in the second zone they were at least at 200 m from the rocky outcrops. Aedes aegypti was significantly more abundant in the latter zone. The finding was that rocky outcrops with native bromeliads, even with the greater availability of potential breeding sites, do not play an important role as breeding sites for A. aegypti. This conclusion supports the hypothesis that the macrobiota of native bromeliads plays an important role in the natural control of A. aegypti. Besides, the interspecific competition between species of mosquitoes and the attractiveness of bromeliads could also be important factors. PMID:21584412

  3. Understanding Uncertainties in Model-Based Predictions of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chonggang Xu; Mathieu Legros; Fred Gould; Alun L. Lloyd

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAedes aegypti is one of the most important mosquito vectors of human disease. The development of spatial models for Ae. aegypti provides a promising start toward model-guided vector control and risk assessment, but this will only be possible if models make reliable predictions. The reliability of model predictions is affected by specific sources of uncertainty in the model.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis study

  4. Insecticidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of some medicinal South American plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Ciccia; J Coussio; E Mongelli

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of 11 extracts from nine South American medicinal plants has been studied using the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. Eight of the 11 plant extracts studied showed toxicity against the A. aegypti larvae (LC50<500 ?g\\/ml). The dichloromethane extracts of Abuta grandifolia and Minthostachys setosa demonstrated high larvicidal activity, the most active being the dichloromethane extract of A. grandifolia,

  5. Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen-Sung Cheng; Hui-Ting Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang; Kun-Hsien Tsai; Wei-June Chen

    2003-01-01

    The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 ?g\\/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24

  6. Identification of Three Allatostatins and Their cDNA From the Mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAN A. VEENSTRA; FERNANDO G. NORIEGA; Rolf Graf; René Feyereisen

    1997-01-01

    VEENSTRA, J. A., F. G. NORIEGA, R. GRAF AND R. FEYEREISEN.Identification of three allatostatins and their cDNA from the mosquito Aedes aegypti.PEPTIDES 18(7), 937–942, 1997.—Three allatostatins have been isolated from the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These peptides have the following structures: Ser-Pro-Lys-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-amide, Leu-Pro-His-Tyr-Asn-Phe-Gly-Leu-amide, and Arg-Val-Tyr-Asp-Phe-Gly-Leu-amide. A cDNA encoding these peptides was isolated from an abdominal ganglia cDNA library and sequenced. It

  7. Aedes aegypti glutamine synthetase: expression and gene structure.

    PubMed

    Smartt, C T; Kiley, L M; Hillyer, J F; Dasgupta, R; Christensen, B M

    2001-08-22

    The peritrophic matrix (PM) is the first natural barrier a mosquito-borne parasite faces when ingested with a blood meal; consequently, understanding the biology of PM formation could provide novel transmission control strategies. Because the PM is composed of chitin (a molecule of repeating units of N-acetyl glucosamine), glycoproteins and glucose, characterizing the regulation of enzymes involved in chitin production should provide information concerning factors that influence PM formation. We previously have shown that glutamine synthetase (GS) provides the glutamine needed in the initial steps of chitin biosynthesis in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. In the present study we show that GS is encoded by a single 4.5 kb gene, designated mGS, containing three exons and two introns. Multiple transcripts are generated from mGS presumably by differential splicing of the introns. Sequences of two cDNAs encoding GS are identical at the protein level, but differ in their 5'-untranslated regions. GS message is constitutively expressed in all developmental stages and in most tissues, with an increase in GS transcription observed in midgut and fat body tissues of female mosquitoes following a blood meal. Transcripts are localized to the apical side of the mosquito midgut epithelium and data suggest that mGS transcription is regulated by an Oct-1 transcription factor. PMID:11674996

  8. Aedes aegypti transferrin. Gene structure, expression pattern, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Harizanova, N; Georgieva, T; Dunkov, B C; Yoshiga, T; Law, J H

    2005-01-01

    Mosquitoes and all other insects so far examined have an abundant haemolymph transferrin (Tsf). The exact function of these proteins has not been determined, but they may be involved in iron transport, in oogenesis and in innate immune defence against parasites and pathogens. The Tsf gene of Aedes aegypti has been cloned and sequenced. It contains a single small intron, which contrasts it to vertebrate Tsf genes that contain up to sixteen introns. The promoter region of the gene is rich in putative NF-kappaB binding sites, which is consistent with the postulated role of Tsf in insect innate immunity. Tsf message levels are very low in embryos and early larvae, but high in late larvae, pupae and adults. Western blotting experiments revealed high levels of Tsf protein in pupae and adults. Late larvae and ovaries of blood-fed mosquitoes have little intact protein, but two prominent proteolytic degradation products. These may represent biologically active peptides, as has been shown for other organisms. Tsf message is down-regulated by inorganic iron in the diet or environment, but up-regulated by a blood meal in the adult female. The up-regulation following a blood meal may, in part, be due to the decrease in juvenile hormone (JH) that is known to follow blood feeding. Treatment of blood-fed females with methoprene, an analogue of JH, resulted in decrease of the Tsf message. PMID:15663777

  9. Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

    2004-09-01

    Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted ?2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal ?-helix at low pH.

  10. Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Janet C; Godsey, Marvin S; Scott, Mariah L

    2012-12-01

    In Port-au-Prince, Haiti, the status of insecticide resistance has not recently been evaluated for Aedes aegypti (L) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) populations. No prophylactics exist for dengue, so prevention is only through vector control methods. An earthquake occurred in Haiti on January 12, 2010, with a magnitude of 7.0 Mw that devastated the area. Dengue became a major concern for the humanitarian relief workers that entered the country. Bottle bioassays were conducted in the field on adult mosquitoes reared from larvae collected from the grounds of the U.S. Embassy and from an adjacent neighborhood in eastern Port-au-Prince, Haiti. At the CDC, Fort Collins, CO, bioassays, molecular, and biochemical assays were performed on mosquitoes reared from field-collected eggs. A small percentage of the population was able to survive the diagnostic dose in bioassays run in Haiti. Mosquitoes tested at the CDC demonstrated no phenotypic resistance. A variety of factors could be responsible for the discrepancies between the field and lab data, but temperature and larval nutrition are probably most important. Knowledge of localized resistance and underlying mechanisms helps in making rational decisions in selection of appropriate and effective insecticides in the event of a dengue outbreak. PMID:23181855

  11. Reduction of Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus under large temperature fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Lauren B; Seifert, Stephanie N; Armijos, M Veronica; Lambrechts, Louis; Scott, Thomas W

    2013-04-01

    Diurnal temperature fluctuations can fundamentally alter mosquito biology and mosquito-virus interactions in ways that impact pathogen transmission. We investigated the effect of two daily fluctuating temperature profiles on Aedes aegypti vector competence for dengue virus (DENV) serotype-1. A large diurnal temperature range of 18.6°C around a 26°C mean, corresponding with the low DENV transmission season in northwestern Thailand, reduced midgut infection rates and tended to extend the virus extrinsic incubation period. Dissemination was first observed at day 7 under small fluctuations (7.6°C; corresponding with high DENV transmission) and constant control temperature, but not until Day 11 for the large diurnal temperature range. Results indicate that female Ae. aegypti in northwest Thailand are less likely to transmit DENV during the low than high transmission season because of reduced DENV susceptibility and extended virus extrinsic incubation period. Better understanding of DENV transmission dynamics will come with improved knowledge of temperature effects on mosquito-virus interactions. PMID:23438766

  12. Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family: Cyperaceae ) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Jaal, Zairi; Keng, Chan Lai

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex ratio of the adult population either parental or F1 generation of the Aedes mosquito species was not significantly affected by the EI50 dosage of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells. A significant decrease in the wing length of the treated adult (female and male) of Aedes aegypti as well as the treated female of Ae. albopictus were observed. Longevity of the adult female of the parental generation of both Aedes mosquitoes as well as females of F1 generation of Ae. albopictus were significantly decreased. Conclusions The present study revealed the potential of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells in controlling vector mosquito populations in the effort to reduce the transmission of vector borne diseases. PMID:24075340

  13. Diversity of containers and buildings infested with Aedes aegypti in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Fattore, Gladys; Abril, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Aedes aegypti is the main domestic vector of the dengue virus. Control measures to prevent dengue transmission focus on the treatment and elimination of this vector's oviposition sites. There is limited biological information on Ae. aegypti in Argentina. The aim of this study was to characterize Ae. aegypti oviposition sites in the city of Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We surveyed an area covering nine neighborhoods in 2005. We identified 191 premises as positive for Ae. aegypti, giving a general house index of 9.6%. Premises classified as residential and vacant lots presented the highest number of infested premises, with 9% and 22% respectively. The total number of surveyed containers was 29,600. The overall container index (CI) was 1.1. The most frequently infested containers were water tanks (CI = 37). These preliminary results suggest that vacant lots and water tanks provide suitable breeding areas and environmental conditions, improving the chances of Ae. aegypti survival in Puerto Iguazú. PMID:23033195

  14. Insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations from Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and pyrethroids are used widely in Brazil to control Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue viruses, under the auspices of the National Programme for Dengue Control. Resistance to these insecticides is widespread throughout Brazil. In Ceará the vector is present in 98% of districts and resistance to temephos has been reported previously. Here we measure resistance to temephos and the pyrethroid cypermethrin in three populations from Ceará and use biochemical and molecular assays to characterise resistance mechanisms. Results Resistance to temephos varied widely across the three studied populations, with resistance ratios (RR95) of 7.2, 30 and 192.7 in Juazeiro do Norte, Barbalha and Crato respectively. The high levels of resistance detected in Barbalha and Crato (RR95 ? 30) imply a reduction of temephos efficacy, and indeed in simulated field tests reduced effectiveness was observed for the Barbalha population. Two populations (Crato and Barbalha) were also resistant to cypermethrin, whilst Juazeiro do Norte showed only an altered susceptibility. The Ile1011Met kdr mutation was detected in all three populations and Val1016Ile in Crato and Juazeiro do Norte. 1011Met was significantly associated with resistance to cypermethrin in the Crato population. Biochemical tests showed that only the activity of esterases and GSTs, among the tested detoxification enzymes, was altered in these populations when compared with the Rockefeller strain. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that two A. aegypti populations from Ceará are under strong selection pressure by temephos, compromising the field effectiveness of this organophosphate. Our results also provide evidence that the process of reducing resistance to this larvicide in the field is difficult and slow and may require more than seven years for reversal. In addition, we show resistance to cypermethrin in two of the three populations studied, and for the first time the presence of the allele 1016Ile in mosquito populations from northeastern Brazil. A significant association between 1011Met and resistance was observed in one of the populations. Target-site mechanisms seem not to be implicated in temephos resistance, reinforcing the idea that for the studied populations, detoxification enzymes most likely play a major role in the resistance to this insecticide. PMID:21226942

  15. Experience- and age-mediated oviposition behaviour in the yellow fever mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti).

    PubMed

    Ruktanonchai, N W; Lounibos, L P; Smith, D L; Allan, S A

    2015-09-01

    In repeated behaviours such as those of feeding and reproduction, past experiences can inform future behaviour. By altering their behaviour in response to environmental stimuli, insects in highly variable landscapes can tailor their behaviour to their particular environment. In particular, female mosquitoes may benefit from plasticity in their choice of egg-laying site as these sites are often temporally variable and clustered. The opportunity to adapt egg-laying behaviour to past experience also exists for mosquito populations as females typically lay eggs multiple times throughout their lives. Whether experience and age affect egg-laying (or oviposition) behaviour in the mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (=Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed using a wind tunnel. Initially, gravid mosquitoes were provided with a cup containing either repellent or well water. After ovipositing in these cups, the mosquitoes were blood-fed and introduced into a wind tunnel. In this wind tunnel, an oviposition cup containing repellent was placed in the immediate vicinity of the gravid mosquitoes. A cup containing well water was placed at the opposite end of the tunnel so that if the females flew across the chamber, they encountered the well water cup, in which they readily laid eggs. Mosquitoes previously exposed to repellent cups became significantly more likely to later lay eggs in repellent cups, suggesting that previous experience with suboptimal oviposition sites informs mosquitoes of the characteristics of nearby oviposition sites. These results provide further evidence that mosquitoes modify behaviour in response to environmental information and are demonstrated in a vector species in which behavioural plasticity may be ecologically and epidemiologically meaningful. PMID:25982411

  16. Synthesis and larvicidal and adult topical activity of some hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of novel hydrazide-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their larvicidal and adult topical activity against Aedes aegypti. The proposed structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed using elemental analysis, UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectroscopy. Com...

  17. LABORATORY AND FIELD ASSESSMENT OF SOME KAIROMONE BLENDS FOR HOST-SEEKING AEDES AEGYPTI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using laboratory y-tube olfactometers we examined whether lactic acid, a key Aedes aegypti (L.) attractant, and two proprietary kairomone blends (the USDA blend and the BG blend) incorporating this compound, were attractive to a range of geographically disparate populations from North Queensland Aus...

  18. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the

  19. Different Repellents for Aedes aegypti against Blood-Feeding and Oviposition

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Ali; Horlacher, Bérénice; Roller, Johannes; Galizia, C. Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Methyl N,N-dimethyl anthranilate (MDA), ethyl anthranilate (EA) and butyl anthranilate (BA) were previously shown to repel Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from landing on human skin. However, the effect of these compounds on the orientation of flying mosquitoes in a choice situation and their effect on mosquito oviposition are not yet known. Here, we used a modified Y-tube olfactometer to test the effect of these compounds on the orientation of Aedes aegypti flying towards skin odor (human fingers), and we tested their effect on Aedes aegypti oviposition choice in a cage assay. In both behavioral situations we compared the effect to the well-documented repellent N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET). MDA, EA, and DEET inhibited Aedes aegypti from flying towards skin odor while BA had no such effect. Conversely, MDA had no effect on oviposition while EA, BA, and DEET deterred oviposition, with the strongest effect observed for BA. Thus, we confirm that EA and DEET are generally repellent, while MDA is repellent only in a host-seeking context, and BA is deterrent only in an oviposition context. These compounds appear of potential use in mosquito control programs. PMID:25079819

  20. Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

  1. Developmental and environmental regulation of AaeIAP1 transcript in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a tightly regulated physiological process. The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key regulators for apoptosis. An inhibitor of apoptosis protein gene IAP1 was recently cloned from Aedes aegypti (AaeIAP1, Genbank accession no. DQ993355), however, it is n...

  2. Changes in host-seeking behavior of Puerto Rican Aedes aegypti (L.) following colonization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of colonization on host-seeking behavior of mosquitoes was examined by comparing attraction responses of newly colonized Aedes aegypti (L.) from field-collected eggs in Puerto Rico to that of the Gainesville (Florida) strain, originally from Orlando (Florida) and in colony since 1952. Fe...

  3. Mitochondrial gene cytochrome b developmental and environmental expression in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome b, coded by mitochondrial DNA, is one of the cytochromes involved in electron transport in the respiratory chain of mitochondria. Cytochrome b is a critical intermediate in a mitochondrial death pathway. To reveal whether cytochrome b of the mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (AeaCytB) is developm...

  4. Sex-specific reaction norms to intraspecific larval competition in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bedhomme; P. Agnew; C. Sidobre; Y. Michalakis

    2003-01-01

    As the relationship between a given life-history trait and fitness is not necessarily the same for the two sexes, an 'intersexual ontogenetic conflict' may arise. We analysed the phenotypic reaction to intraspecific larval competition of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, asking: (i) Do both sexes pay the cost of competition with the same life-history traits and are they equal competitors? (ii)

  5. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  6. Comparative study of four membranes for evaluation of new insect/arthropod repellents using Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four different membranes: Baudruche; Hemotek, sausage, and silicone-based membrane were evaluated as human skin substitute for an in vitro repellent study using Aedes aegypti. No significant difference was observed in repellent activity (ED50) of DEET among the membranes. Sausage membrane was selec...

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Piperidines as Adulticides against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticides is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a beginning of our collaborative effort to...

  8. Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Carboxamides as Toxicants Against Female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Use of insecticides is one of the primary ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a part of our effort to search for new ...

  9. Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

    2004-01-01

    Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

  10. AN INSULIN-LIKE PEPTIDE REGULATES EGG MATURATION AND METABOLISM IN THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ingestion of vertebrate blood is essential for egg maturation and transmission of disease-causing parasites by female mosquitoes. Prior studies with the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, indicated blood feeding stimulates egg production by triggering the release of hormones from MNCs in the mosq...

  11. Promising Aedes aegypti repellent chemotypes identified through integrated QSAE, virtual screening, synthesis, and bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, West Nile fever, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual scree...

  12. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  13. The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

  14. Toxicity of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) and Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) leaf extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...

  15. INSECTICIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTS OF ANOPHELES MINIMUS S.L., AEDES AEGYPTI, AEDES ALBOPICTUS, AND CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS IN NORTHERN THAILAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pradya Somboon; La-aied Prapanthadara; Wannapa Suwonkerd

    The susceptibility of Anopheles minimus s.l., Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus to insecticide in northern Thailand was monitored by using the WHO standard susceptibility test. One- to two-day old female mosquitos, which were reared from wild caught females or immature stages, were exposed to discriminating dosages of insecticides for recom- mended exposure periods, and the 24-hour mortality recorded.

  16. Larval Development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Peri-Urban Brackish Water and Its Implications for Transmission of Arboviral Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranjan Ramasamy; Sinnathamby N. Surendran; Pavilupillai J. Jude; Sangaralingam Dharshini; Muthuladchumy Vinobaba

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever,

  17. The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) 

    E-print Network

    Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

    2011-02-22

    In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular ...

  18. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Natural Eremophilanes from Inula helenium as Toxicants Against Aedes aegypti Larvae and Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Aedes aegypti larval toxicity bioassay was performed on compounds representing many classes of natural compounds including polyacetylenes, phytosterols, flavonoids, sesquiterpenoids, and triterpenoids. Among these compounds studies, two eudesmanolides, alantolactone and isoalantolactone, showed l...

  19. The Molecular Characterization of a Diuretic Hormone Receptor (GPRdih1) From Females of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.)

    E-print Network

    Jagge, Christopher Lloyd

    2011-02-22

    In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), hemolymph-circulating diuretic hormones act upon the renal organs (Malpighian tubules) to regulate primary urine composition and secretion rate; however, the molecular endocrine mechanisms underlying...

  20. The Effect of Virus-Blocking Wolbachia on Male Competitiveness of the Dengue Vector Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Segoli, Michal; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Lloyd, Jane; Omodei, Gavin J.; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia blocks the transmission of dengue virus by its vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is currently being evaluated for control of dengue outbreaks. Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that results in the developmental failure of offspring in the cross between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. This increases the relative success of infected females in the population, thereby enhancing the spread of the beneficial bacterium. However, Wolbachia spread via CI will only be feasible if infected males are sufficiently competitive in obtaining a mate under field conditions. We tested the effect of Wolbachia on the competitiveness of A. aegypti males under semi-field conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a series of experiments we exposed uninfected females to Wolbachia-infected and uninfected males simultaneously. We scored the competitiveness of infected males according to the proportion of females producing non-viable eggs due to incompatibility. We found that infected males were equally successful to uninfected males in securing a mate within experimental tents and semi-field cages. This was true for males infected by the benign wMel Wolbachia strain, but also for males infected by the virulent wMelPop (popcorn) strain. By manipulating male size we found that larger males had a higher success than smaller underfed males in the semi-field cages, regardless of their infection status. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that Wolbachia infection does not reduce the competitiveness of A. aegypti males. Moreover, the body size effect suggests a potential advantage for lab-reared Wolbachia-males during a field release episode, due to their better nutrition and larger size. This may promote Wolbachia spread via CI in wild mosquito populations and underscores its potential use for disease control. PMID:25502564

  1. Environmental and genetic factors determine whether the mosquito Aedes aegypti lays eggs without a blood meal.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Cristina V; Smith, Sophia C L; Osei-Poku, Jewelna; Short, Katherine; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-04-01

    Some mosquito strains or species are able to lay eggs without taking a blood meal, a trait named autogeny. This may allow populations to persist through times or places where vertebrate hosts are scarce. Autogenous egg production is highly dependent on the environment in some species, but the ideal conditions for its expression in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are unknown. We found that 3.2% of females in a population of Ae. aegypti from Kenya were autogenous. Autogeny was strongly influenced by temperature, with many more eggs laid at 28°C compared with 22°C. Good nutrition in larval stages and feeding on higher concentrations of sugar solution during the adult stage both result in more autogenous eggs being produced. The trait also has a genetic basis, as not all Ae. aegypti genotypes can lay autogenously. We conclude that Ae. aegypti requires a favorable environment and a suitable genotype to be able to lay eggs without a blood meal. PMID:25646251

  2. H+ V-ATPase-Energized Transporters in Brush Border Membrane Vesicles from Whole Larvae of Aedes Aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brush Border Membrane vesicles (BBMVs) from Whole larvae of Aedes aegypti (AeBBMVWs ) contain an H+ V-ATPase (V), a Na+/H+ antiporter, NHA1 (A) and a Na+-coupled, nutrient amino acid transporter, NAT8 (N), VAN for short. All V-ATPase subunits are present in the Ae. aegypti genome and in the vesicles...

  3. GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN ATTRACTION TO HUMAN ODOR COMPOUNDS BY AEDES AEGYPTI MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE): A LABORATORY STUDY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous investigations of Aedes aegypti response to human odor components have revealed a number of compounds that attract host-seeking females. However, such studies have utilized only a small number of long-term laboratory Ae. aegypti colonies. Using laboratory y-olfactometers, we studied the a...

  4. Observations on possible competitive displacement between populations of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Calcutta*

    PubMed Central

    Gilotra, Sushil K.; Rozeboom, Lloyd E.; Bhattacharya, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    The possibility of competitive displacement in Calcutta between Aedes aegypti, a known vector of arboviruses, and A. albopictus, a suspected vector, was explored by general collections of immature stages from all types of breeding-places and by exposing oviposition traps in tenement houses, and gardens in urban, suburban, and rural environments. A. aegypti was predominant in houses and tenements in urban areas, but A. albopictus was not excluded. Both species occurred in about equal densities in small urban gardens. In suburban and rural areas, A. albopictus was predominant, or the only one of the two species present. It readily entered houses for the purpose of oviposition, especially in the absence of A. aegypti. It is suggested that the two species are exhibiting the effect of competitive displacement, with A. aegypti being favoured in urban premises and A. albopictus in the outdoor environment of suburban and rural areas, while in small urban gardens there is a state of equilibrium in which the densities of the two populations are about equal. The possibility cannot be excluded that eradication of A. aegypti in the city might lead to an increase in the A. albopictus population in houses and tenement dwellings. PMID:5301385

  5. Fine-scale temperature fluctuation and modulation of Dirofilaria immitis larval development in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Nicholas; Harrington, Laura

    2015-04-15

    We evaluated degree-day predictions of Dirofilaria immitis development (HDU) under constant and fluctuating temperature treatments of equal average daily temperature. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were infected with D. immitis microfilariae and parasite development was recorded at set time points in dissected mosquitoes. Time to L3 development in Malpighian tubules and detection in mosquito heads was shorter for larvae experiencing a daily regime of 19±9°C than larvae at constant 19°C; larval development rate in Malpighian tubules was slower in fluctuating regimes maintained above the 14°C developmental threshold than larvae under constant temperatures. We showed that hourly temperature modeling more accurately predicted D. immitis development to infective L3 stage. Development time differed between fluctuating and constant temperature treatments spanning the 14°C development threshold, implicating a physiological basis for these discrepancies. We conclude that average daily temperature models underestimate L3 development-and consequently dog heartworm transmission risk-at colder temperatures, and spatiotemporal models of D. immitis transmission risk should use hourly temperature data when analyzing high daily temperature ranges spanning 14°C. PMID:25747489

  6. Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for filarial nematodes is affected by age and nutrient limitation.

    PubMed

    Ariani, Cristina V; Juneja, Punita; Smith, Sophia; Tinsley, Matthew C; Jiggins, Francis M

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors of human disease. The ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease is dependent on the age structure of the population, as mosquitoes must survive long enough for the parasites to complete their development and infect another human. Age could have additional effects due to mortality rates and vector competence changing as mosquitoes senesce, but these are comparatively poorly understood. We have investigated these factors using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. Rather than observing any effects of immune senescence, we found that older mosquitoes were more resistant, but this only occurred if they had previously been maintained on a nutrient-poor diet of fructose. Constant blood feeding reversed this decline in vector competence, meaning that the number of parasites remained relatively unchanged as mosquitoes aged. Old females that had been maintained on fructose also experienced a sharp spike in mortality after an infected blood meal ("refeeding syndrome") and few survived long enough for the parasite to develop. Again, this effect was prevented by frequent blood meals. Our results indicate that old mosquitoes may be inefficient vectors due to low vector competence and high mortality, but that frequent blood meals can prevent these effects of age. PMID:25446985

  7. Temperature and density-dependent effects of larval environment on Aedes aegypti competence for an alphavirus.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Blackshear, Millon; Montgomery, Allison

    2012-06-01

    Mosquito larvae experience multiple environmental stressors that may modify how subsequent adults interact with pathogens. We evaluated the effect of larval rearing temperature and intraspecific larval competition on adult mosquito immunity and vector competence for Sindbis virus (SINV). Aedes aegypti larvae were reared at two intraspecific densities (150 and 300 larvae) at 20° C and 30° C and the adults were fed artificially on citrated bovine blood containing 10(5) plaque forming units of SINV. Expression of cecropin, defensin, and transferrin was also evaluated in one- and five-day-old female adults. There was a direct relationship between larval density and SINV infection and dissemination rates at low temperature (20° C) and an inverse relationship between larval density and SINV infection rate at high temperature (30° C). Cecropin was only expressed in five-day-old adults that were raised at high temperature as larvae and was 20-fold over-expressed at low compared to high density treatments. Defensin and transferrin were under-expressed in one-day-old adults and over-expressed in five-day-old adults in all competition-temperature combinations relative to low density treatments at 20° C. These findings suggest that interaction between biotic and abiotic conditions of the larval environment may alter adult mosquito immunity resulting in enhanced vector competence for arboviruses. PMID:22548549

  8. Changing Domesticity of Aedes aegypti in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: Reproductive Consequences and Potential Epidemiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. Conclusion/Significance The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence. PMID:22363516

  9. Reciprocal Tripartite Interactions between the Aedes aegypti Midgut Microbiota, Innate Immune System and Dengue Virus Influences Vector Competence

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Torres Cosme, Rolando; Rovira, Jose; Ortiz, Alma; Pascale, Juan M.; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus is one of the most important arboviral pathogens and the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is transmitted between humans by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and at least 2.5 billion people are at daily risk of infection. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, some of which are needed for their successful development into adulthood. However, recent studies have suggested that the adult mosquito's midgut microflora is critical in influencing the transmission of human pathogens. In this study we assessed the reciprocal interactions between the mosquito's midgut microbiota and dengue virus infection that are, to a large extent, mediated by the mosquito's innate immune system. We observed a marked decrease in susceptibility to dengue virus infection when mosquitoes harbored certain field-derived bacterial isolates in their midgut. Transcript abundance analysis of selected antimicrobial peptide genes suggested that the mosquito's microbiota elicits a basal immune activity that appears to act against dengue virus infection. Conversely, the elicitation of the mosquito immune response by dengue virus infection itself influences the microbial load of the mosquito midgut. In sum, we show that the mosquito's microbiota influences dengue virus infection of the mosquito, which in turn activates its antibacterial responses. PMID:22413032

  10. Vectorial Capacity of Aedes aegypti: Effects of Temperature and Implications for Global Dengue Epidemic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3°C when DTR was 0°C and at 20°C when DTR was 20°C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29°C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29°C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29°C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29°C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901–2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC. PMID:24603439

  11. Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti: effects of temperature and implications for global dengue epidemic potential.

    PubMed

    Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3°C when DTR was 0°C and at 20°C when DTR was 20°C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29°C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29°C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29°C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29°C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901-2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC. PMID:24603439

  12. A Multipurpose, High-Throughput Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Chip for the Dengue and Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Evans, Benjamin R; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Hou, Lin; McBride, Carolyn; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Zhao, Hongyu; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, contributes significantly to global disease burden. Genetic study of Aedes aegypti is essential to understanding its evolutionary history, competence as a disease vector, and the effects and efficacy of vector control methods. The prevalence of repeats and transposable elements in the Aedes aegypti genome complicates marker development and makes genome-wide genetic study challenging. To overcome these challenges, we developed a high-throughput genotyping chip, Axiom_aegypti1. This chip screens for 50,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in Aedes aegypti populations from around the world. The array currently used genotypes 96 samples simultaneously. To ensure that these markers satisfy assumptions commonly made in many genetic analyses, we tested for Mendelian inheritance and linkage disequilibrium in laboratory crosses and a wild population, respectively. We have validated more than 25,000 of these markers to date, and expect this number to increase with more sampling. We also present evidence of the chip's efficacy in distinguishing populations throughout the world. The markers on this chip are ideal for applications ranging from population genetics to genome-wide association studies. This tool makes rapid, cost-effective, and comparable genotype data attainable to diverse sets of Aedes aegypti researchers, from those interested in potential range shifts due to climate change to those characterizing the genetic underpinnings of its competence to transmit disease. PMID:25721127

  13. Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 ?g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

  14. PCR detection of Dirofilaria immitis in Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens from urban temperate Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darío Vezzani; María Mesplet; Diego F. Eiras; María F. Fontanarrosa; Leonhard Schnittger

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilariasis, a mosquito-borne disease of dogs caused by the nematode Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy; Spirurida: Onchocercidae), has now become a growing zoonotic concern. Based on direct microscopical observation,\\u000a Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) have been previously incriminated as potential vectors of D. immitis in urban temperate Argentina. In this study, an effort was made to provide evidence

  15. Larvicidal activity of saponin from Achyranthes aspera against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bagavan; A. A. Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; Kannappan Geetha

    2008-01-01

    The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Acalypha indica, Achyranthes aspera, Leucas aspera, Morinda tinctoria and Ocimum sanctum were studied against the early fourth-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the\\u000a highest larval mortality was found in the

  16. Engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Kokoza; Abduelaziz Ahmed; Wen-Long Cho; Nijole Jasinskiene; Anthony A. James; Alexander Raikhel

    2000-01-01

    Progress in molecular genetics makes possible the development of alternative disease control strategies that target the competence of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. We tested the regulatory region of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene of Aedes aegypti for its ability to express potential antipathogen factors in transgenic mosquitoes. Hermes-mediated transformation was used to integrate a 2.1-kb Vg-promoter fragment driving the expression of

  17. Effects of essential oils on Aedes aegypti larvae: Alternatives to environmentally safe insecticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Silva; G. A. A. Dória; R. T. Maia; R. S. Nunes; G. A. Carvalho; A. F. Blank; P. B. Alves; R. M. Marçal; S. C. H. Cavalcanti

    2008-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves of Hyptis fruticosa (Lamiaceae) Salzm., H. pectinata (Lamiaceae) Poit., and Lippia gracilis (Verbenaceae) HBK were investigated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and analyzed by GC\\/MS. Fifty-nine compounds, representing 91.28–98.39% of the essential oils, have been identified. A standard solution was used to make 20mL solutions ranging from 30 to 2000ppm. Twenty larvae between

  18. Gametogenesis and sporogony of Hepatozoon mocassini (Apicomplexa: Adeleina: Hepatozoidae) in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lowichik, A; Lanners, H N; Lowrie, R C; Meiners, N E

    1993-01-01

    The sexual life cycle of the hemogregarine Hepatozoon mocassini was studied in Aedes aegypti, an experimental mosquito host, using transmission electron microscopy. Gamonts were observed leaving the host snake erythrocyte as early as 30 min after mosquitoes ingested infected blood, and some gamonts had penetrated the gut epithelial cells by this time. Six hours post-feeding, gamonts were identified within cells of the abdominal fat body. Twenty-four hours post-feeding, gamonts were often entrapped within the peritrophic membrane, but were no longer observed within the gut wall. Parasites pairing up in syzygy and undergoing sexual differentiation were observed within fat cells at this time, and by 48 hours post-feeding, well-developed macro- and microgametocytes as well as microgametes were discernible. Developing zygotes observed 3 days post-feeding were enclosed within a parasitophorous vacuole. By day 6, multinucleate oocysts with crystalloid bodies in the cytoplasm were seen. Sporozoites developing within sporocysts appeared by day 12. Seventeen days post-feeding, mature oocysts with sporocysts containing approximately 16 sporozoites were observed upon dissection of mosquitoes. Large crystalloid bodies no longer bound by rough endoplasmic reticulum were located anterior and posterior to the sporozoite nucleus. Free sporozoites were not observed. PMID:8508167

  19. Follow up estimation of Aedes aegypti entomological parameters and mathematical modellings.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun Mo; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Galvani, Karen Cristina; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa Macoris

    2011-03-01

    The dengue virus is a vector-borne disease transmitted by mosquito Aedes aegypti and the incidence is strongly influenced by temperature and humidity which vary seasonally. To assess the effects of temperature on dengue transmission, mathematical models are developed based on the population dynamics theory. However, depending on the hypotheses of the modelling, different outcomes regarding to the risk of epidemics are obtained. We address this question comparing two simple models supplied with model's parameters estimated from temperature-controlled experiments, especially the entomological parameters regarded to the mosquito's life cycle in different temperatures. Once obtained the mortality and transition rates of different stages comprising the life cycle of mosquito and the oviposition rate, we compare the capacity of vector reproduction (the basic offspring number) and the risk of infection (basic reproduction number) provided by two models. The extended model, which is more realistic, showed that both mosquito population and dengue risk are situated at higher values than the simplified model, even that the basic offspring number is lower. PMID:21093536

  20. In silico models for predicting vector control chemicals targeting Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Lagneau, C; Lattes, A; Garrigues, J C; Clémenté, M M; Yébakima, A

    2014-01-01

    Human arboviral diseases have emerged or re-emerged in numerous countries worldwide due to a number of factors including the lack of progress in vaccine development, lack of drugs, insecticide resistance in mosquitoes, climate changes, societal behaviours, and economical constraints. Thus, Aedes aegypti is the main vector of the yellow fever and dengue fever flaviviruses and is also responsible for several recent outbreaks of the chikungunya alphavirus. As for the other mosquito species, the A. aegypti control relies heavily on the use of insecticides. However, because of increasing resistance to the different families of insecticides, reduction of Aedes populations is becoming increasingly difficult. Despite the unquestionable utility of insecticides in fighting mosquito populations, there are very few new insecticides developed and commercialized for vector control. This is because the high cost of the discovery of an insecticide is not counterbalanced by the 'low profitability' of the vector control market. Fortunately, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling allows the reduction of time and cost in the discovery of new chemical structures potentially active against mosquitoes. In this context, the goal of the present study was to review all the existing QSAR models on A. aegypti. The homology and pharmacophore models were also reviewed. Specific attention was paid to show the variety of targets investigated in Aedes in relation to the physiology and ecology of the mosquito as well as the diversity of the chemical structures which have been proposed, encompassing man-made and natural substances. PMID:25275884

  1. Attracted to the enemy: Aedes aegypti prefers oviposition sites with predator-killed conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Albeny-Simoes, Daniel; Murrell, Ebony G.; Elliot, Simon L.; Andrade, Mateus R.; Lima, Eraldo; Juliano, Steven A.; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2014-01-01

    Oviposition habitat choices of species with aquatic larvae is expected to be influenced by both offspring risk of mortality due to predation, and offspring growth potential. Aquatic predators may indirectly influence growth potential for prey by reducing prey density and, for filter feeding prey, by increasing bacterial food for prey via added organic matter (feces, partially eaten victims), creating the potential for interactive effects on oviposition choices. We tested the hypothesis that the mosquito Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposit in habitats with predatory Toxorhynchites larvae because of indirect effects of predation on chemical cues indicating bacterial abundance. We predicted that A. aegypti would avoid oviposition in sites with Toxorhynchites, but prefer to oviposit where bacterial food for larvae is abundant, and that predation by Toxorhynchites would increase bacterial abundances. Gravid A. aegypti were offered paired oviposition sites representing choices among: predator presence; the act of predation; conspecific density; dead conspecific larvae; and bacterial activity. Aedes aegypti preferentially oviposited in sites with T. theobaldi predation, and with killed conspecific larvae, but failed to detect preferences for other treatments. The antibiotic Tetracycline eliminated the strongest oviposition preference. Both predation by Toxorhynchites and killed larvae increased bacterial abundances, suggesting that oviposition attraction is cued by bacteria. Our results show the potential for indirect effects, like trophic cascades, to influence oviposition choices and community composition in aquatic systems. Our results suggest that predators like Toxorhynchites may be doubly beneficial as biocontrol agents because of the attraction of ovipositing mosquitoes to bacterial by-products of Toxorhynchites feeding. PMID:24590205

  2. Serratia odorifera a Midgut Inhabitant of Aedes aegypti Mosquito Enhances Its Susceptibility to Dengue-2 Virus

    PubMed Central

    Apte-Deshpande, Anjali; Paingankar, Mandar; Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Deobagkar, Dileep N.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito midgut plays a crucial role in its vector susceptibility and pathogen interaction. Identification of the sustainable microflora of the midgut environment can therefore help in evaluating its contribution in mosquito-pathogen interaction and in turn vector competence. To understand the bacterial diversity in the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, we conducted a screening study of the gut microbes of these mosquitoes which were either collected from fields or reared in the laboratory “culture-dependent” approach. This work demonstrated that the microbial flora of larvae and adult Ae. aegypti midgut is complex and is dominated by Gram negative proteobacteria. Serratia odorifera was found to be stably associated in the midguts of field collected and laboratory reared larvae and adult females. The potential influence of this sustainable gut microbe on DENV-2 susceptibility of this vector was evaluated by co-feeding S. odorifera with DENV-2 to adult Ae. aegypti females (free of gut flora). The observations revealed that the viral susceptibility of these Aedes females enhanced significantly as compared to solely dengue-2 fed and another gut inhabitant, Microbacterium oxydans co-fed females. Based on the results of this study we proposed that the enhancement in the DENV-2 susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to blocking of prohibitin molecule present on the midgut surface of these females by the polypeptide of gut inhabitant S. odorifera. PMID:22848375

  3. Genetic Diversity of Brazilian Aedes aegypti: Patterns following an Eradication Program

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fernando A.; Shama, Renata; Martins, Ademir J.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the most important vector of dengue fever in Brazil, where severe epidemics have recently taken place. Ae. aegypti in Brazil was the subject of an intense eradication program in the 1940s and 50s to control yellow fever. Brazil was the largest country declared free of this mosquito by the Pan-American Health Organization in 1958. Soon after relaxation of this program, Ae. aegypti reappeared in this country, and by the early 1980s dengue fever had been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the present-day genetic patterns of Ae. aegypti populations in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetic variation in samples of 11 widely spread populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil based on 12 well-established microsatellite loci. Our principal finding is that present-day Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations form two distinct groups, one in the northwest and one in the southeast of the country. These two groups have genetic affinities to northern South American countries and the Caribbean, respectively. This is consistent with what has been reported for other genetic markers such as mitochondrial DNA and allele frequencies at the insecticide resistance gene, kdr. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the genetic patterns in present day populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil are more consistent with a complete eradication of the species in the recent past followed by re-colonization, rather than the alternative possibility of expansion from residual pockets of refugia. At least two colonizations are likely to have taken place, one from northern South American countries (e.g., Venezuela) that founded the northwestern group, and one from the Caribbean that founded the southeastern group. The proposed source areas were never declared free of Ae. aegypti. PMID:25233218

  4. The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Moritz Ug; Sinka, Marianne E; Duda, Kirsten A; Mylne, Adrian Qn; Shearer, Freya M; Barker, Christopher M; Moore, Chester G; Carvalho, Roberta G; Coelho, Giovanini E; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Elyazar, Iqbal Rf; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Brady, Oliver J; Messina, Jane P; Pigott, David M; Scott, Thomas W; Smith, David L; Wint, Gr William; Golding, Nick; Hay, Simon I

    2015-01-01

    Dengue and chikungunya are increasing global public health concerns due to their rapid geographical spread and increasing disease burden. Knowledge of the contemporary distribution of their shared vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus remains incomplete and is complicated by an ongoing range expansion fuelled by increased global trade and travel. Mapping the global distribution of these vectors and the geographical determinants of their ranges is essential for public health planning. Here we compile the largest contemporary database for both species and pair it with relevant environmental variables predicting their global distribution. We show Aedes distributions to be the widest ever recorded; now extensive in all continents, including North America and Europe. These maps will help define the spatial limits of current autochthonous transmission of dengue and chikungunya viruses. It is only with this kind of rigorous entomological baseline that we can hope to project future health impacts of these viruses. PMID:26126267

  5. Sublethal effects of atrazine and glyphosate on life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-08-01

    Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?93?±?6% (±95% CI), glyphosate?=?82?±?5%, control?=?78?±?5%), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?84?±?5 %, glyphosate?=?76?±?4%, control?=?78?±?4%). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?0.90?±?0.17 (±SE), glyphosate?=?1.63?±?0.21, control?=?1.69?±?0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine?=?1.09?±?0.08, glyphosate?=?1.88?±?0.12, control?=?1.37?±?0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine?=?11.20?±?0.50 (days?±?95 % CI), glyphosate?=?9.71?±?0.23, control?=?9.87?±?0.21; males: atrazine?=?9.46?±?0.27, glyphosate?=?8.80?±?0.25, control?=?8.85?±?0.24; A. albopictus: females: atrazine?=?17.40?±?1.70, glyphosate?=?12.4?±?0.40, control?=?12.5?±?0.30; males: atrazine?=?12.96?±?0.41, glyphosate?=?10.48?±?0.24, control?=?10.64?±?0.37). For A. albopictus but not A. aegypti, adult females from atrazine treatment had significantly longer wing lengths compared to those from glyphosate or control treatments (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?3.06?±?0.07 (mm?±?95% CI), glyphosate?=?2.80?±?0.07, control?=?2.83?±?0.06). These results demonstrate the potential for atrazine, a widely used herbicide, to influence epidemiologically relevant life history traits of mosquitoes. PMID:24853538

  6. Body Size and Wing Shape Measurements as Quality Indicators of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Destined for Field Release

    PubMed Central

    Yeap, Heng Lin; Endersby, Nancy M.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Hoffmann, Ary A.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in rearing modified mosquitoes for mass release to control vector-borne diseases, particularly Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti for suppression of dengue. Successful introductions require release of high quality mosquitoes into natural populations. Potential indicators of quality are body size and shape. We tested to determine if size, wing/thorax ratio, and wing shape are associated with field fitness of Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. Compared with field-collected mosquitoes, released mosquitoes were larger in size, with lower size variance and different wing shape but similar in wing-thorax ratio and its associated variance. These differences were largely attributed to nutrition and to a minor extent to wMel Wolbachia infection. Survival potential of released female mosquitoes was similar to those from the field. Females at oviposition sites tended to be larger than those randomly collected from BG-Sentinel traps. Rearing conditions should thus aim for large size without affecting wing/thorax ratios. PMID:23716403

  7. Truck-Mounted Area-Wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Doud, Carl W; Hanley, Anthony M; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Richardson, Alec G; Britch, Seth C; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of truck-mounted ultra-low volume applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus populations in an urban setting. The study was conducted over a 3.5-month period (June-October 2012), during which 3 pyriproxyfen applications were conducted. Beginning 6 wk prior to the 1st pyriproxyfen spray, 10 Biogents-Sentinel® traps were used each week to survey the adult Ae. albopictus population at each experimental plot through the end of the study. The treatment and control plots contained specimen cups, each containing 10 laboratory-reared Ae. aegypti larvae, placed at 8, 15, and 23 m from the spray line. Emergence inhibition (EI) of 82% or greater was observed among Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to the 3 pyriproxyfen sprays. The EI of these same Ae. aegypti larvae at the 3 distances from the spray ranged from 84% to 92% and were not significantly different. Laboratory analysis of water samples taken from the larval cups independently confirmed the presence of pyriproxyfen. Similar levels of EI were achieved in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae when the measured field concentrations of pyriproxyfen were recreated in laboratory assays. Trap captures of wild adult Ae. albopictus were not markedly reduced following the 1st pyriproxyfen spray, perhaps due to heavy rainfall at the time and the lower rate of pyriproxyfen applied. Within 2 wk following Spray 2, however, Ae. albopictus collections from the treatment plot averaged approximately 50% of those from the control plot, and the reduction trend continued following Spray 3. PMID:25843135

  8. Fine Scale Spatiotemporal Clustering of Dengue Virus Transmission in Children and Aedes aegypti in Rural Thai Villages

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, In-Kyu; Getis, Arthur; Aldstadt, Jared; Rothman, Alan L.; Tannitisupawong, Darunee; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Jones, James W.; Morrison, Amy C.; Jarman, Richard G.; Nisalak, Ananda; Mammen, Mammen P.; Thammapalo, Suwich; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Libraty, Daniel H.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Endy, Timothy; Pimgate, Chusak; Scott, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Based on spatiotemporal clustering of human dengue virus (DENV) infections, transmission is thought to occur at fine spatiotemporal scales by horizontal transfer of virus between humans and mosquito vectors. To define the dimensions of local transmission and quantify the factors that support it, we examined relationships between infected humans and Aedes aegypti in Thai villages. Methodology/Principal Findings Geographic cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were conducted around DENV-positive and DENV-negative febrile “index” cases (positive and negative clusters, respectively) from a longitudinal cohort study in rural Thailand. Child contacts and Ae. aegypti from cluster houses were assessed for DENV infection. Spatiotemporal, demographic, and entomological parameters were evaluated. In positive clusters, the DENV infection rate among child contacts was 35.3% in index houses, 29.9% in houses within 20 meters, and decreased with distance from the index house to 6.2% in houses 80–100 meters away (p<0.001). Significantly more Ae. aegypti were DENV-infectious (i.e., DENV-positive in head/thorax) in positive clusters (23/1755; 1.3%) than negative clusters (1/1548; 0.1%). In positive clusters, 8.2% of mosquitoes were DENV-infectious in index houses, 4.2% in other houses with DENV-infected children, and 0.4% in houses without infected children (p<0.001). The DENV infection rate in contacts was 47.4% in houses with infectious mosquitoes, 28.7% in other houses in the same cluster, and 10.8% in positive clusters without infectious mosquitoes (p<0.001). Ae. aegypti pupae and adult females were more numerous only in houses containing infectious mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Human and mosquito infections are positively associated at the level of individual houses and neighboring residences. Certain houses with high transmission risk contribute disproportionately to DENV spread to neighboring houses. Small groups of houses with elevated transmission risk are consistent with over-dispersion of transmission (i.e., at a given point in time, people/mosquitoes from a small portion of houses are responsible for the majority of transmission). PMID:22816001

  9. Insecticide Susceptible\\/Resistance Status in Aedes ( Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand During 2003–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuananong Jirakanjanakit; Pornpimol Rongnoparut; Seeviga Saengtharatip; Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap; Stephane Duchon; Christian Bellec; Sutee Yoksan

    2007-01-01

    J. Econ. Entomol. 100(2): 545Ð550 (2007) ABSTRACT Susceptibility baselines and diagnostic doses of the technical grade insecticides del- tamethrin, permethrin, fenitrothion, and propoxur were established based onAedes aegypti (L.), Bora (French Polynesia), a reference susceptible strain. Field-collected Aedes mosquitoes from each part of Thailand were subjected to bioassay for their susceptibility to the diagnostic doses of each insecticide. Almost all

  10. A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Juliano; L. Philip Lounibos; George F. O’Meara

    2004-01-01

    We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar

  11. MicroRNAs of two medically important mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Hu, W; Criscione, F; Liang, S; Tu, Z

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, single-stranded small RNAs that have important regulatory functions at the post-transcriptional level. In the present study, we characterize miRNAs in two divergent mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi, through deep sequencing of small RNAs spanning all developmental stages. We discovered eight novel miRNAs in Ae. aegypti and 20 novel miRNAs in An. stephensi, which enabled the first systematic analysis of miRNA evolution in mosquitos. We traced the phylogenetic history of all miRNAs in both species and report a rate of 0.055-0.13 miRNA net gain per million years. Most novel miRNAs originate de novo. Duplications that produced miRNA clusters and families are more common in Ae. aegypti than in An. stephensi. We also identified arm-switch as a source of new miRNAs. Expression profile analysis identified mosquito-specific miRNAs that showed strong stage-specific expression in one or both lineages. For example, the aae-miR-2941/2946 family represents the most abundant maternally deposited and zygotically transcribed miRNAs in Ae. aegypti. miR-2943 is a highly expressed zygotic miRNA in both Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. Such information provides the basis from which to study the function of these miRNAs in biology common to all mosquitos or unique to one particular lineage. PMID:25420875

  12. Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

  13. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250??g/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000??g/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves. PMID:21822443

  14. Myco-synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Beauveria bassiana against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of silver synthesized biolarvicide with the help of entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was assessed against the different larval instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. The silver nanoparticles were observed and characterized by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). A surface plasmon resonance band was observed at 420 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The characterization was confirmed by shape (spherical), size 36.88-60.93 nm, and EDX spectral peak at 3 keV of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles have been tested against the different larval instars of Ae. aegypti at different concentrations for a period of 24 h. Ae. aegypti larvae were found more susceptible to the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The LC50 and LC90 values are 0.79 and 1.09 ppm with respect to the Ae. aegypti treated with B. bassiana (Bb) silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). First and second instar larvae of Ae. aegypti have shown cent percent mortality while third and fourth instars found 50.0, 56.6, 70.0, 80.0, and 86.6 and 52.4, 60.0, 68.5, 76.0, and 83.3% mortality at 24 h of exposure in 0.06 and 1.00 ppm, respectively. It is suggested that the entomopathogenic fungus synthesized silver nanoparticles would be appropriate for environmentally safer and greener approach for new leeway in vector control strategy through a biological process. PMID:24861012

  15. Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185-406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13-210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250??g/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000??g/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves. PMID:21822443

  16. Development and laboratory evaluation of chemically-based baited ovitrap for the monitoring of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Américo D; García-Rejón, Julián E; Ríos-Delgado, Silvany; Torres-Estrada, José L

    2013-06-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is considered to be the most important dengue vector worldwide. Studies were conducted to design and evaluate a chemically-based baited ovitrap for monitoring Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. Several known chemical attractants and three types of ovitraps (ovitraps A, B, and C) were evaluated throughout the oviposition bioassays. Oviposition responses of gravid female Ae. aegypti were evaluated to n-heneicosane, 3-methylindole (skatole), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and phenol. Female Ae. aegypti were attracted to all the evaluated compounds. Among them, n-heneicosane at a concentration of 10 ppm (mg/l), skatole from 50 to 1000 ppm, p-cresol at 100 ppm, and phenol at 50 ppm showed a significant positive oviposition response. A blend of the four chemical attractants increased the oviposition response; 67% of the eggs were deposited in the treatment compared to the control. Female Ae. aegypti were signi?cantly more attracted to ovitrap A loaded with the four-component synthetic blend compared to the standard ovitrap in the oviposition bioassays. The compound used in ovitrap A retained its attractant property for up to three days. The chemically-based baited ovitrap may be considered as an option to be integrated during the monitoring of dengue virus vectors in México. PMID:23701623

  17. Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we explicitly outlined here, point to clear targets for entomological investigation. PMID:25052008

  18. Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti

    E-print Network

    Hay, Bruce A.

    vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of these efforts4 . Vaccines are available for yellow fever, but there are still ,200,000 cases each year and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference. A edes aegypti is the major vector for yellow

  19. The basic rules and methods of mosquito rearing (Aedes aegypti)

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Hashmat; Zarnigar; Sofi, Ghulamuddin; Seikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The rearing of Aedes mosquitoes is complex and demanding for several reasons. Aedes larvae are affected by temperature, density and available nutrition, mating is not necessarily accomplished naturally and females need a blood meal to develop eggs. The climate chambers where the mosquitoes are kept are warm and sweaty. Due to these tropical conditions the larvae develop fast and need to be cared for daily. The Laboratory of Entomology in National Institute of Malaria Research Bangalore has cultured different colonies of different vectors successfully. In this paper, we discuss different aspects off the rearing process which affect mosquito fitness and are of importance for the quality of fundamental and applied research. PMID:24754030

  20. A MOSQUITO DENSOVIRUS INFECTINGAEDES AEGYPTIAND AEDES ALBOPICTUS FROM THAILAND

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PATTAMAPORN KITTAYAPONG; KATHY J. BAISLEY

    1999-01-01

    A previously undescribed mosquito densovirus was detected in colonies of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Thailand, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus showed it to be most closely related to ADNV isolated from Russian Ae. aegypti. Both Aedes species were susceptible to oral infection with the Thai-strain virus. Larval mortality for Ae. albopictus

  1. Why do female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) feed preferentially and frequently on human blood?

    PubMed

    Harrington, L C; Edman, J D; Scott, T W

    2001-05-01

    Adult female Aedes aegypti (L.), the vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, have an affinity for feeding on human blood and a tendency to forego feeding on sugar. This observation challenges two tenets of mosquito biology: (1) mosquitoes imbibe plant carbohydrates for synthesis of energy reserves and blood for reproduction and (2) egg production is reduced when mosquitoes feed on human blood compared with blood from other species. Sub-optimal amounts of the amino acid isoleucine in human blood (particularly free isoleucine in plasma) are thought to be responsible for lowered egg production when human blood is ingested. We tested the hypothesis that feeding on human blood is associated with a selective advantage for Ae. aegypti and is an underlying reason for this mosquito's intimate and epidemiologically important relationship with human beings. Our five experiments examined the effects of different isoleucine concentrations on accumulated energy reserves, frequency of host contact, survival, and egg production. When mosquitoes imbibed blood meals over a 7- to 10-d period and were not fed sugar, increased isoleucine concentration decreased energy reserves and did not increase egg production. Aedes aegypti took smaller but more frequent blood meals when feeding on a low-isoleucine human host daily compared with a high-isoleucine mouse host. Previous reports that isoleucine enhances egg production were confirmed only when females were fed sugar, an unusual behavior for most domestic Ae. aegypti populations. Females fed human blood and water had greater age-specific survival (l(x)), reproductive output (m(x)), and cumulative net replacement (R0) than cohorts fed human blood plus sugar or isoleucine-rich mouse blood with or without access to sugar. The unique isoleucine concentration of human blood is associated with Ae. aegypti's unusual propensity to feed preferentially and frequently on humans--a behavior that increases this mosquito's fitness, synthesis of energy reserves, and contact with human hosts, making it an especially effective disseminator of human pathogens. PMID:11372967

  2. Blood Meal-Derived Heme Decreases ROS Levels in the Midgut of Aedes aegypti and Allows Proliferation of Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jose Henrique M.; Gonçalves, Renata L. S.; Lara, Flavio A.; Dias, Felipe A.; Gandara, Ana Caroline P.; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. S.; Edwards, Meredith C.; Laurindo, Francisco R. M.; Silva-Neto, Mário A. C.; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of bacteria in the midgut of mosquitoes antagonizes infectious agents, such as Dengue and Plasmodium, acting as a negative factor in the vectorial competence of the mosquito. Therefore, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of midgut microbiota could help in the development of new tools to reduce transmission. We hypothesized that toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by epithelial cells control bacterial growth in the midgut of Aedes aegypti, the vector of Yellow fever and Dengue viruses. We show that ROS are continuously present in the midgut of sugar-fed (SF) mosquitoes and a blood-meal immediately decreased ROS through a mechanism involving heme-mediated activation of PKC. This event occurred in parallel with an expansion of gut bacteria. Treatment of sugar-fed mosquitoes with increased concentrations of heme led to a dose dependent decrease in ROS levels and a consequent increase in midgut endogenous bacteria. In addition, gene silencing of dual oxidase (Duox) reduced ROS levels and also increased gut flora. Using a model of bacterial oral infection in the gut, we show that the absence of ROS resulted in decreased mosquito resistance to infection, increased midgut epithelial damage, transcriptional modulation of immune-related genes and mortality. As heme is a pro-oxidant molecule released in large amounts upon hemoglobin degradation, oxidative killing of bacteria in the gut would represent a burden to the insect, thereby creating an extra oxidative challenge to the mosquito. We propose that a controlled decrease in ROS levels in the midgut of Aedes aegypti is an adaptation to compensate for the ingestion of heme. PMID:21445237

  3. Immunolocalization and in vivo Functional Analysis by RNAi of the Aedes Kinin Receptor in Female Mosquitoes of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera, Culicidae) 

    E-print Network

    Kersch, Cymon

    2012-02-14

    membrane (Figure 3) (O?Donnell et al., 1998; O?Connor and Beyenbach, 2001). 14 Figure 3. Pathway for kinin activity in Aedes aegypti. Aedes kinins signaling results in release of intracellular calcium stores (Pietrantonio et al., 2005). Aedes.../32") (Figures 5,6). Feeders were connected to a variable flow rate pump (VWR, Radnor, PA, USA) and to a glass beaker filled with water kept at approximately 50oC by a hot plate. At this temperature water cooled to the appropriate temperature (~37o...

  4. Spatial Models for Prediction and Early Warning of Aedes aegypti Proliferation from Data on Climate Change and Variability in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Paulo L; Rivero, Alina; Linares, Yzenia; Pérez, Alina; Vázquez, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Climate variability, the primary expression of climate change, is one of the most important environmental problems affecting human health, particularly vector-borne diseases. Despite research efforts worldwide, there are few studies addressing the use of information on climate variability for prevention and early warning of vector-borne infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE Show the utility of climate information for vector surveillance by developing spatial models using an entomological indicator and information on predicted climate variability in Cuba to provide early warning of danger of increased risk of dengue transmission. METHOD An ecological study was carried out using retrospective and prospective analyses of time series combined with spatial statistics. Several entomological and climatic indicators were considered using complex Bultó indices -1 and -2. Moran's I spatial autocorrelation coefficient specified for a matrix of neighbors with a radius of 20 km, was used to identify the spatial structure. Spatial structure simulation was based on simultaneous autoregressive and conditional autoregressive models; agreement between predicted and observed values for number of Aedes aegypti foci was determined by the concordance index Di and skill factor Bi. RESULTS Spatial and temporal distributions of populations of Aedes aegypti were obtained. Models for describing, simulating and predicting spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti populations associated with climate variability patterns were put forward. The ranges of climate variability affecting Aedes aegypti populations were identified. Forecast maps were generated for the municipal level. CONCLUSIONS Using the Bultó indices of climate variability, it is possible to construct spatial models for predicting increased Aedes aegypti populations in Cuba. At 20 x 20 km resolution, the models are able to provide warning of potential changes in vector populations in rainy and dry seasons and by month, thus demonstrating the usefulness of climate information for epidemiological surveillance. KEYWORDS Climate variability, spatial analysis, prediction, autoregressive models, Aedes aegypti, vector-borne disease, surveillance, Cuba. PMID:26027583

  5. Larvicidal efficacy screening of Anacardaciae crude extracts on the dengue hemorrhagic vector, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, W F; Fadzly, N; Ali, Y; Zakaria, R; Juperi, S; Asyraf, M; Dieng, H

    2014-06-01

    Vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of Mangifera indica, Gluta renghas, and Melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti. These plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in Malaysian forests. Leaves of Ma. indica, G. renghas and M. fascculiflora were collected from Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang Malaysia. Fractions of leaves were segregated, air-dried, powdered and extracted using Soxhlet with methanol. The solvent was removed by using rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. Using WHO standard larval bioassay test method, third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to concentration ranging from 200- 4500 ppm of methanol extract for all plant species. Larval mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. The highest susceptibility and toxicity was recorded by Mangifera indica with the lowest concentration at 800 ppm followed by M. fasciculiflora and G. renghas. This indicates that crude plant extract is very effective in killing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This finding may lead to new low cost alternative, environmentally friendly method for mosquito control programs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal bioefficacy from endemic Malaysian plants. PMID:25134898

  6. Ecological Links Between Water Storage Behaviors and Aedes aegypti Production: Implications for Dengue Vector Control in Variable Climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Padmanabha; E. Soto; M. Mosquera; C. C. Lord; L. P. Lounibos

    2010-01-01

    Understanding linkages between household behavior and Aedes aegypti (L.) larval ecology is essential for community-based dengue mitigation. Here we associate water storage behaviors with the\\u000a rate of A. aegypti pupal production in three dengue-endemic Colombian cities with different mean temperatures. Qualitative, semi-structured\\u000a interviews and pupal counts were conducted over a 7–15-day period in 235 households containing a water storage vessel

  7. Linking Oviposition Site Choice to Offspring Fitness in Aedes aegypti: Consequences for Targeted Larval Control of Dengue Vectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacklyn Wong; Amy C. Morrison; Steven T. Stoddard; Helvio Astete; Yui Yin Chu; Imaan Baseer; Thomas W. Scott

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent Aedes aegypti larval control methods are often insufficient for preventing dengue epidemics. To improve control efficiency and cost-effectiveness, some advocate eliminating or treating only highly productive containers. The population-level outcome of this strategy, however, will depend on details of Ae. aegypti oviposition behavior.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe simultaneously monitored female oviposition and juvenile development in 80 experimental containers located across 20 houses

  8. Septic tanks as larval habitats for the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Playa-Playita, Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Burke, R; Barrera, R; Lewis, M; Kluchinsky, T; Claborn, D

    2010-06-01

    Adult Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) were previously recovered from emergence traps on septic tanks in southeastern Puerto Rico. In this study we quantified immature mosquito abundance and its relationship with structural variables of the septic tanks and chemical properties of the water containing raw sewage. A miniaturized floating funnel trap was used to sample 89 septic tanks for larvae in the Puerto Rican community of Playa-Playita. Aedes aegypti larvae were recovered from 18% of the sampled tanks (10.3 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and uncovered access ports. Larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls and larger tank surface areas, and inversely associated with the total dissolved solids (TDS). Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) larvae were also recovered from 74% of the septic tanks (129.6 larvae per septic tank per day). Larval presence was negatively associated with TDS in the water and larval abundance was positively associated with cracking of the septic tank walls. A screened, plastic emergence trap was used to sample 93 septic tanks within the community for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults. Aedes aegypti adults were recovered from 49% of the sampled tanks (8.7 adults per septic tank per day) and Cx. quinquefasciatus adults were recovered from 97% of the sampled tanks (155.5 adults per septic tank per day). Aedes aegypti adult presence was positively associated with cracking, uncapped openings and septic water pH. The Ae. aegypti adult counts were positively associated with cracking and inversely associated with TDS and conductivity. This study marks the first published record of the recovery of Ae. aegypti larvae from holding tanks containing raw sewage in the Caribbean region. Our study indicates that Ae. aegypti larvae are present in sewage water and that septic tanks have at least the potential to maintain dengue transmission during the dry season. PMID:20374477

  9. Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Methods Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Results Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. Conclusions This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus. PMID:24990394

  10. Microclimate and Human Factors in the Divergent Ecology of Aedes aegypti along the Arizona, U.S.\\/Sonora, MX Border

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary H. Hayden; Christopher K. Uejio; Kathleen Walker; Frank Ramberg; Rafael Moreno; Cecilia Rosales; Mercedes Gameros; Linda O. Mearns; Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez; Craig R. Janes

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association of human and environmental factors with the presence of Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, in a desert region in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico.\\u000a Sixty-eight sites were longitudinally surveyed along the United States–Mexico border in Tucson, AZ, Nogales, AZ, and Nogales,\\u000a Sonora during a 3-year period. Aedes

  11. Identification and characterization of two arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferases in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Mehere, Prajwalini; Han, Qian; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    In this study we provide a molecular and biochemical identification of two arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases (aaNAT) from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. N-acetyldopamine, the enzyme product of aaNAT, was detected in Ae. aegypti, indicating the presence of an aaNAT in this mosquito. A BLAST search of the Ae. aegypti genome, using sequence information from an activity-verified Drosophila aaNAT, identified thirteen putative aaNAT sequences sharing 13-48% sequence identity with the Drosophila enzyme. Eight of the thirteen putative aaNAT proteins were expressed using a bacterial expression system. Screening of purified recombinant proteins against 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, methoxytryptamine, norepinephrine, octopamine, tryptamine, and tyramine substrates, established that two of the putative aaNATs are active to the tested arylalkylamines. We therefore named them aaNAT1 and 2, respectively. Analysis of the transcriptional profiles of the two aaNAT genes from Ae. aegypti revealed that aaNAT1 is more abundant in the whole body of larvae and pupae, and aaNAT2 is more abundant in the head of adult mosquitoes. Based on their substrate and transcriptional profiles, together with previous reports from other insects, we suggest that the two aaNATs play diverse roles in Ae. aegypti, with aaNAT1 primarily involved in sclerotization and aaNAT2 mainly in neurotransmitter inactivation. Our data provide a beginning to a more comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry and physiology of aaNATs from the Ae. aegypti and serve as a reference for studying the aaNAT family of proteins from other insect species. PMID:21645618

  12. Serratia odorifera mediated enhancement in susceptibility of Aedes aegypti for chikungunya virus

    PubMed Central

    Apte-Deshpande, Anjali D.; Paingankar, Mandar S.; Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Deobagkar, Dileep N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: The susceptibility of the mosquito to the invading pathogen is predominantly dictated by the complex interactions between the mosquito midgut and the surface proteins of the invading pathogen. It is well documented that the midgut microbiota plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Serratia odorifera, an endogenous cultivable midgut inhabitant of Aedes aegypti on the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) susceptibility to this mosquito. Methods: Ae. aegypti females free of gutflora were co-fed with CHIKV and either of the two midgut inhabitants namely, S. odorifeara and Microbacterium oxydans. CHIKV dissemination was checked on 10th day post feeding (DPF) using indirect immunoflurescence assay and plaque assay. CHIKV interacting proteins of the mosquito midgut were identified using virus overlay protein binding assay and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. Results: The observations revealed that co-feeding of S. odorifera with CHIKV significantly enhanced the CHIKV susceptibility in adult Ae. aegypti, as compared to the mosquitoes fed with CHIKV alone and CHIKV co-fed with another midgut inhabitant, M. oxydans. Virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) results revealed that porin and heat shock protein (HSP60) of Ae. aegypti midgut brush border membrane fraction interacted with CHIKV. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the enhancement in the CHIKV susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to the suppression of immune response of Ae. aegypti as a result of the interaction between S. odorifera P40 protein and porin on the gut membrane. PMID:25027087

  13. Embryonic desiccation resistance in Aedes aegypti: presumptive role of the chitinized Serosal Cuticle

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Gentile, Carla; Farnesi, Luana Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Peixoto, Alexandre Afrânio; Valle, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Background One of the major problems concerning dengue transmission is that embryos of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, resist desiccation, surviving several months under dry conditions. The serosal cuticle (SC) contributes to mosquito egg desiccation resistance, but the kinetics of SC secretion during embryogenesis is unknown. It has been argued that mosquito SC contains chitin as one of its components, however conclusive evidence is still missing. Results We observed an abrupt acquisition of desiccation resistance during Ae. aegypti embryogenesis associated with serosal cuticle secretion, occurring at complete germ band extension, between 11 and 13 hours after egglaying. After SC formation embryos are viable on dry for at least several days. The presence of chitin as one of the SC constituents was confirmed through Calcofluor and WGA labeling and chitin quantitation. The Ae. aegypti Chitin Synthase A gene (AaCHS1) possesses two alternatively spliced variants, AaCHS1a and AaCHS1b, differentially expressed during Ae. aegypti embryonic development. It was verified that at the moment of serosal cuticle formation, AaCHS1a is the sole variant specifically expressed. Conclusion In addition to the peritrophic matrix and exoskeleton, these findings confirm chitin is also present in the mosquito serosal cuticle. They also point to the role of the chitinized SC in the desiccation resistance of Ae. aegypti eggs. AaCHS1a expression would be responsible for SC chitin synthesis. With this embryological approach we expect to shed new light regarding this important physiological process related to the Ae. aegypti life cycle. PMID:18789161

  14. Human-Mediated Marine Dispersal Influences the Population Structure of Aedes aegypti in the Philippine Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Fonzi, Eugenio; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G.; Futami, Kyoko; Minakawa, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is an extraordinary health burden on global scale, but still lacks effective vaccine. The Philippines is endemic for dengue fever, but massive employment of insecticides favored the development of resistance mutations in its major vector, Aedes aegypti. Alternative vector control strategies consist in releasing artificially modified mosquitos in the wild, but knowledge on their dispersal ability is necessary for a successful implementation. Despite being documented that Ae. aegypti can be passively transported for long distances, no study to date has been aimed at understanding whether human marine transportation can substantially shape the migration patterns of this mosquito. With thousands of islands connected by a dense network of ships, the Philippines is an ideal environment to fill this knowledge gap. Methodology/principal findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti from 15 seaports in seven major islands of central-western Philippines were collected and genotyped at seven microsatellite loci. Low genetic structure and considerable gene flow was found in the area. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses suggested that anthropic factors (specifically the amount of processed cargo and human population density) can explain the observed population structure, while geographical distance was not correlated. Interestingly, cargo shipments seem to be more efficient than passenger ships in transporting Ae. aegypti. Bayesian clustering confirmed that Ae. aegypti from busy ports are more genetically similar, while populations from idle ports are relatively structured, regardless of the geographical distance that separates them. Conclusions/significance The results confirmed the pivotal role of marine human-mediated long-range dispersal in determining the population structure of Ae. aegypti. Hopefully corroborated by further research, the present findings could assist the design of more effective vector control strategies. PMID:26039311

  15. Risk Factors for the Presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Domestic Water-Holding Containers in Areas Impacted by the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W.; Brey, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires. PMID:23458958

  16. Territorial analysis of Aedes aegypti distribution in two Colombian cities: a chorematic and ecosystem approach.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Vallejo, Mauricio; Higuera-Mendieta, Diana Rocío; García-Betancourt, Tatiana; Alcalá-Espinosa, Lucas Andrés; García-Sánchez, Diana; Munévar-Cagigas, David Alejandro; Brochero, Helena Luisa; González-Uribe, Catalina; Quintero, Juliana

    2015-03-01

    A territorial analysis of Aedes aegypti density was conducted in two Colombian cities using an ecosystem and chorematic approach. Entomological and behavioral data (by cluster) and information on the urban context were used to analyze the relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density. The results were represented in graphic (chorematic) models. Arauca showed higher vector density than Armenia. Higher density was related to unplanned urbanization, flood-prone areas, low socioeconomic strata, household water tanks, higher temperature, and recall of control measures for adult mosquitos. Zones with low density indices coincided with diverse socioeconomic, ecological, and behavioral conditions. The study found a relationship between territorial structures and dynamics and vector density in both Arauca and Armenia, where the interaction between ecological and social systems shape areas with high and low A. aegypti density. PMID:25859719

  17. Assessing the effects of temperature on the population of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue.

    PubMed

    Yang, H M; Macoris, M L G; Galvani, K C; Andrighetti, M T M; Wanderley, D M V

    2009-08-01

    Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The incidence of dengue disease shows a clear dependence on seasonal variation. How does the temperature affect the incidence? We addressed this question indirectly by estimating the size of the A. aegypti population for different temperatures applying population dynamics theory. In order to achieve this objective we designed temperature-controlled experiments to assess the entomological parameters regarding the mosquito's life-cycle at different temperatures. By obtaining the mortality, transition and oviposition rates for different stages of the life-cycle of the mosquito we were able to calculate the basic offspring number Q(0), which is the capacity of vector reproduction and ultimately gives the size of the vector population. PMID:19192322

  18. Mathematical models for the Aedes aegypti dispersal dynamics: travelling waves by wing and wind.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Lucy Tiemi; Maidana, Norberto Anibal; Ferreira, Wilson Castro; Pulino, Petronio; Yang, Hyun Mo

    2005-05-01

    Biological invasion is an important area of research in mathematical biology and more so if it concerns species which are vectors for diseases threatening the public health of large populations. That is certainly the case for Aedes aegypti and the dengue epidemics in South America. Without the prospect of an effective and cheap vaccine in the near future, any feasible public policy for controlling the dengue epidemics in tropical climates must necessarily include appropriate strategies for minimizing the mosquito population factor. The present paper discusses some mathematical models designed to describe A. aegypti's vital and dispersal dynamics, aiming to highlight practical procedures for the minimization of its impact as a dengue vector. A continuous model including diffusion and advection shows the existence of a stable travelling wave in many situations and a numerical study relates the wavefront speed to a few crucial parameters. Strategies for invasion containment and its prediction based on measurable parameters are analysed. PMID:15820740

  19. SEX DETERMINATION. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Biedler, James K; Sharakhova, Maria V; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A E; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian

    2015-06-12

    Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males. PMID:25999371

  20. Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Long, Sharron A; Jacups, Susan P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93(rd) percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval. PMID:26047194

  1. Stormwater Drains and Catch Basins as Sources for Production of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Arana-Guardia, Roger; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E.

    2014-01-01

    We present data showing that structures serving as drains and catch basins for stormwater are important sources for production of the mosquito arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in Mérida City, México. We examined 1,761 stormwater drains – located in 45 different neighborhoods spread across the city – over dry and wet seasons from March 2012–March 2013. Of the examined stormwater drains, 262 (14.9%) held water at the time they were examined and 123 yielded mosquito immatures. In total, we collected 64,560 immatures representing nine species. The most commonly encountered species were Cx. quinquefasciatus (n=39,269) and Ae. aegypti (n=23,313). Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were collected during all 11 months when we found water-filled stormwater drains, and both were found in stormwater drains located throughout Mérida City. We also present data for associations between structural characteristics of stormwater drains or water-related characteristics and the abundance of mosquito immatures. In conclusion, stormwater drains produce massive numbers of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus across Mérida City, both in the wet and dry seasons, and represent non-residential development sites that should be strongly considered for inclusion in the local mosquito surveillance and control program. PMID:24582840

  2. Vacant Lots: Productive Sites for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México

    PubMed Central

    BAAK-BAAK, CARLOS M.; ARANA-GUARDIA, ROGER; CIGARROA-TOLEDO, NOHEMI; LOROÑO-PINO, MARÍA ALBA; REYES-SOLIS, GUADALUPE; MACHAIN-WILLIAMS, CARLOS; BEATY, BARRY J.; EISEN, LARS; GARCÍA-REJÓN, JULIÁN E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other non-residential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011 – June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and non-residential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets/sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures that residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. Additionally, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality and physical location in the environment. PMID:24724299

  3. Microsatellite-Based Parentage Analysis of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Nonlethal DNA Sampling

    PubMed Central

    WONG, JACKLYN; CHU, YUI YIN; STODDARD, STEVEN T.; LEE, YOOSOOK; MORRISON, AMY C.; SCOTT, THOMAS W.

    2012-01-01

    To track Aedes aegypti (L.) egg-laying behavior in the field in Iquitos, Peru, we developed methods for 1) sampling DNA from live mosquitoes and 2) high through-put parentage analysis using microsatellite markers. We were able to amplify DNA extracted from a single hind leg, but not from the pupal exuvia. Removal of a leg from teneral females caused no significant changes in female behavioral or life history traits (e.g., longevity, blood feeding frequency, fecundity, egg hatch rate, gonotrophic cycle length, or oviposition behavior). Using a panel of nine microsatellite markers and an exclusion-based software program, we matched offspring to parental pairs in 10 Ae. aegypti test families in which parents originated from natural development sites in Iquitos. By mating known individuals in the laboratory, retaining the male, sampling the female’s DNA before release, and collecting offspring in the field, the technique we developed can be used to genotype large numbers of Ae. aegypti, reconstruct family relationships, and track the egg-laying behavior of individual Ae. aegypti in nature. PMID:22308775

  4. A novel trypsin Kazal-type inhibitor from Aedes aegypti with thrombin coagulant inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Renata M O; Soares, Tatiane S; Morais-Zani, Karen; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita M; Maciel, Ceres; Capurro, Margareth L; Torquato, Ricardo J S; Tanaka, Aparecida S

    2010-08-01

    Kazal-type inhibitors play several important roles in invertebrates, such as anticoagulant, vasodilator and antimicrobial activities. Putative Kazal-type inhibitors were described in several insect transcriptomes. In this paper we characterized for the first time a Kazal unique domain trypsin inhibitor from the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Previously, analyses of sialotranscriptome of A. aegypti showed the potential presence of a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor, in female salivary glands, carcass and also in whole male, which we named AaTI (A. aegypti trypsin inhibitor). AaTI sequence showed amino acid sequence similarity with insect thrombin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitor from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes and tryptase inhibitor from leech Hirudo medicinalis (LDTI). In this work we expressed, purified and characterized the recombinant AaTI (rAaTI). Molecular weight of purified rAaTI was 7 kDa rAaTI presented dissociation constant (K(i)) of 0.15 and 3.8 nM toward trypsin and plasmin, respectively, and it weakly inhibited thrombin amidolytic activity. The rAaTI was also able to prolong prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. AaTI transcription was confirmed in A. aegypti female salivary gland and gut 3 h and 24 h after blood feeding, suggesting that this molecule can act as anticoagulant during the feeding and digestive processes. Its transcription in larvae and pupae suggested that AaTI may also play other functions during the mosquito's development. PMID:20363282

  5. [Toxic activity of Bacillus Thuringiensis isolates to Aedes Aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Juliana R V; Rossi, Juliana R; Marucci, Suzana C; da C Alves, Eliane C; Volpe, Haroldo X L; Ferraudo, Antonio S; Lemos, Manoel V F; Desidério, Janete A

    2010-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.), the main vector of dengue fever in Brazil, has been controlled with the use of massive chemical products, contributing to the development of resistance and decreasing the insect control efficiency. The control of dipterans with bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis has been satisfactory, due to the production of insecticidal proteins denominated Cry (crystal), Cyt (cytolytic) toxins and Chi (chitinase), and to the synergistic effects among them. The present work aimed to select B. thuringiensis isolates efficient against A. aegypti larvae. A bacterial collection containing 1,073 isolates of B. thuringiensis, obtained from different locations of Brazilian territory, had the DNA isolated and submitted to PCR amplifications using specific primers for cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cry11Ba, cyt1Aa, cyt1Ab, cyt2Aa and chi genes. For the LC50 and LC90 determination, the entomopathogenic isolates were evaluated by selective and quantitative bioassays. Only 45 isolates (4.2%) presented amplicons for the cry and cyt genes. The chi gene sequence was detected in 25 (54.3%) of those isolates. From the 45 isolates submitted to the selective bioassays, 13 caused 100% mortality of A. aegypti larvae. The identification of cry, cyt and chi genes of B. thuringiensis and the toxicity analysis on A. aegypti led to the selection of a set of isolates that have the potential to be used in the formulation of new bioinsecticides. PMID:21120386

  6. Vacant lots: productive sites for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México.

    PubMed

    Baak-Baak, Carlos M; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Beaty, Barry J; Eisen, Lars; García-Rejón, Julián E

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the potential for vacant lots and other nonresidential settings to serve as source environments for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mérida City, México. Mosquito immatures were collected, during November 2011-June 2013, from residential premises (n = 156 site visits) and nonresidential settings represented by vacant lots (50), parking lots (18), and streets or sidewalks (28). Collections totaled 46,025 mosquito immatures of 13 species. Ae. aegypti was the most commonly encountered species accounting for 81.0% of total immatures, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus Say (12.1%). Site visits to vacant lots (74.0%) were more likely to result in collection of Ae. aegypti immatures than residential premises (35.9%). Tires accounted for 75.5% of Ae. aegypti immatures collected from vacant lots. Our data suggest that vacant lots should be considered for inclusion in mosquito surveillance and control efforts in Mérida City, as they often are located near homes, commonly have abundant vegetation, and frequently harbor accumulations of small and large discarded water-holding containers that we now have demonstrated to serve as development sites for immature mosquitoes. In addition, we present data for associations of immature production with various container characteristics, such as storage capacity, water quality, and physical location in the environment. PMID:24724299

  7. Post-integration silencing of piggyBac transposable elements in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Esnault, Caroline; O'Brochta, David A

    2013-01-01

    The piggyBac transposon, originating in the genome of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni, has a broad host range, making it useful for the development of a number of transposon-based functional genomic technologies including gene vectors, enhancer-, gene- and protein-traps. While capable of being used as a vector for the creation of transgenic insects and insect cell lines, piggyBac has very limited mobility once integrated into the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. A transgenic Aedes aegypti cell line (AagPB8) was created containing three integrated piggyBac elements and the remobilization potential of the elements was tested. The integrated piggyBac elements in AagPB8 were transpositionally silent in the presence of functional transposase, which was shown to be capable of catalyzing the movement of plasmid-borne piggyBac elements in the same cells. The structural integrity of one of the integrated elements along with the quality of element-flanking DNA, which is known to influence transposition rates, were tested in D. melanogaster. The element was found to be structurally intact, capable of transposition and excision in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster, and in a DNA sequence context highly conducive to element movement in Drosophila melanogaster. These data show that transpositional silencing of integrated piggyBac elements in the genome of Aedes aegypti appears to be a function of higher scale genome organization or perhaps epigenetic factors, and not due to structural defects or suboptimal integration sites. PMID:23861905

  8. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to parasitism by Romanomermis culicivorax in laboratory and field conditions in Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Santamarina Mijares, A; Pérez Pacheco, R; Honorio Martínez, S

    2000-11-01

    In June 1996 in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico, larvae of the mosquito species Aedes aegypti were exposed to infective preparasites of the nematode Romanomermis culicivorax, Ross and Smith, in the laboratory and in the field. For the laboratory experiments larvae in instars I-IV were used; they had been collected in natural reservoirs. The laboratory experiments were carried out in triplicate, with 100 larvae of each larval stage per experiment. Three preparasite application dosage ratios were tested: 5, 10, or 15 preparasites per mosquito larva. For the field studies 13 A. aegypti outdoor breeding sites were used, with larvae in instars I-IV and a 15:1 preparasite dosage ratio. With the laboratory experiments, an increase was observed in the average infestation of the larvae as the preparasite application ratio was increased from 5:1 to 15:1. With a 10:1 ratio, the rates of parasitism were 100%, 100%, 85%, and 74% in the larvae in instars I, II, III, and IV, respectively; for the 15:1 preparasite ratio, parasitism rates were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 79%, respectively. The field tests with the 15:1 preparasite dosage ratio in the 13 outdoor reservoirs produced parasitism rates of 80% to 98%, thus demonstrating the susceptibility of this species of mosquito to parasitism by R. culicivorax in Oaxaca, Mexico. PMID:11190968

  9. Susceptibility of field-collected Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and temephos.

    PubMed

    Loke, S R; Andy-Tan, W A; Benjamin, S; Lee, H L; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2010-12-01

    The susceptibility status of field-collected Aedes aegypti (L.) from a dengue endemic area to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) and temephos was determined. Since August 2007, biweekly ovitrap surveillance (OS) was conducted for 12 mo in 2 sites, A & B, in Shah Alam, Selangor. Site A was treated with a Bti formulation, VectoBac® WG at 500 g/ha, from December 2007 - June 2008 while Site B was subjected to routine dengue vector control activities conducted by the local municipality. Aedes aegypti larvae collected from OS in both sites were bred until F3 and evaluated for their susceptibility. The larvae were pooled according to 3 time periods, which corresponded to Bti treatment phases in site A: August - November 2007 (Bti pre-treatment phase); December 2007 - June 2008 (Bti treatment phase); and July - September 2008 (Bti post-treatment phase). Larvae were bioassayed against Bti or temephos in accordance with WHO standard methods. Larvae collected from Site A was resistant to temephos, while incipient temephos resistant was detected in Site B throughout the study using WHO diagnostic dosage of 0.02 mg/L. The LC50 of temephos ranged between 0.007040 - 0.03799 mg/L throughout the year in both sites. Resistance ratios (LC50) indicated that temephos resistance increased with time, from 1.2 - 6.7 folds. The LC50 of Ae. aegypti larvae to Bti ranged between 0.08890 - 0.1814 mg/L throughout the year in both sites, showing uniform susceptibility of field larvae to Bti, in spite of Site A receiving 18 Bti treatments over a period of 7 mo. No cross-resistance of Ae. aegypti larvae from temephos to Bti was detected. PMID:21399591

  10. Weather Variability Associated with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Dengue Vector) Oviposition Dynamics in Northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Estallo, Elizabet L; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco F; Introini, María V; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a forecasting model by assessing the weather variability associated with seasonal fluctuation of Aedes aegypti oviposition dynamic at a city level in Orán, in northwestern Argentina. Oviposition dynamics were assessed by weekly monitoring of 90 ovitraps in the urban area during 2005-2007. Correlations were performed between the number of eggs collected weekly and weather variables (rainfall, photoperiod, vapor pressure of water, temperature, and relative humidity) with and without time lags (1 to 6 weeks). A stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with the set of meteorological variables from the first year of study with the variables in the time lags that best correlated with the oviposition. Model validation was conducted using the data from the second year of study (October 2006- 2007). Minimum temperature and rainfall were the most important variables. No eggs were found at temperatures below 10°C. The most significant time lags were 3 weeks for minimum temperature and rains, 3 weeks for water vapor pressure, and 6 weeks for maximum temperature. Aedes aegypti could be expected in Orán three weeks after rains with adequate min temperatures. The best-fit forecasting model for the combined meteorological variables explained 70 % of the variance (adj. R2). The correlation between Ae. aegypti oviposition observed and estimated by the forecasting model resulted in rs = 0.80 (P < 0.05). The forecasting model developed would allow prediction of increases and decreases in the Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on meteorological data for Orán city and, according to the meteorological variables, vector activity can be predicted three or four weeks in advance. PMID:25993415

  11. Dual African Origins of Global Aedes aegypti s.l. Populations Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michelle; Sylla, Massamba; Goss, Laura; Burugu, Marion Warigia; Sang, Rosemary; Kamau, Luna W.; Kenya, Eucharia Unoma; Bosio, Chris; Munoz, Maria de Lourdes; Sharakova, Maria; Black, William Cormack

    2013-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti is the primary global vector to humans of yellow fever and dengue flaviviruses. Over the past 50 years, many population genetic studies have documented large genetic differences among global populations of this species. These studies initially used morphological polymorphisms, followed later by allozymes, and most recently various molecular genetic markers including microsatellites and mitochondrial markers. In particular, since 2000, fourteen publications and four unpublished datasets have used sequence data from the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 mitochondrial gene to compare Ae. aegypti collections and collectively 95 unique mtDNA haplotypes have been found. Phylogenetic analyses in these many studies consistently resolved two clades but no comprehensive study of mtDNA haplotypes have been made in Africa, the continent in which the species originated. Methods and Findings ND4 haplotypes were sequenced in 426 Ae. aegypti s.l. from Senegal, West Africa and Kenya, East Africa. In Senegal 15 and in Kenya 7 new haplotypes were discovered. When added to the 95 published haplotypes and including 6 African Aedes species as outgroups, phylogenetic analyses showed that all but one Senegal haplotype occurred in a basal clade while most East African haplotypes occurred in a second clade arising from the basal clade. Globally distributed haplotypes occurred in both clades demonstrating that populations outside Africa consist of mixtures of mosquitoes from both clades. Conclusions Populations of Ae. aegypti outside Africa consist of mosquitoes arising from one of two ancestral clades. One clade is basal and primarily associated with West Africa while the second arises from the first and contains primarily mosquitoes from East Africa PMID:23638196

  12. Neuropeptide F and its expression in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Stanek, Dawn M; Pohl, Jan; Crim, Joe W; Brown, Mark R

    2002-08-01

    A neuropeptide F (NPF) was isolated from an extract of adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes based on its immunoreactivity in a radioimmunoassay for Drosophila NPF. After sequencing the peptide, cDNAs encoding the NPF were identified from head and midgut. These cDNAs encode a prepropeptide containing a 36 amino acid peptide with an amidated carboxyl terminus, and its sequence shows it to be a member of the neuropeptide F/Y superfamily. Immunocytochemistry and Northern blots confirmed that both the brain and midgut of females are likely sources of NPF, found at its highest hemolymph titer before and 24 h after a blood meal. PMID:12182937

  13. Repellent activity of Ferronia elephantum Corr. (Rutaceae) leaf extract against Aedes aegypti (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R Venkatachalam; A Jebanesan

    2001-01-01

    The repellent activity of a methanol extract of Ferronia elephantum leaves against Aedes aegypti was studied in the laboratory. The percentage protection in relation to the dose method was used. The repellent activity at 1.0 and 2.5mg\\/cm2 concentrations gave 100% protection up to 2.14±0.16h and 4.00±0.24h, respectively. The total percentage protection of Ferronia elephantum was 45.8% at 1.0mg\\/cm2 and 59.0%

  14. Pathogenicity of the Fungus, Aspergillus clavatus, Isolated from the Locust, Oedaleus senegalensis, Against Larvae of the Mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Seye, Fawrou; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Mady; Njie, Ebrima; Marie Afoutou, José

    2009-01-01

    The use of insect pathogenic fungi is a promising alternative to chemical control against mosquitoes. Among the Hyphomycetes isolated from insects for mosquito control, the genus Aspergillus remains the least studied. In September 2005, four fungi were isolated from the Senegalese locust, Oedaleus senegalensis Kraus (Orthoptera: Acrididae), collected in Dakar, Senegal. One of these fungi, identified as Aspergillus clavatus, Desmazières (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) was highly pathogenic against larvae of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). An application of 1.2 mg/ml dry conidia yielded 100% mortality after 24 hours against both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while with An. gambiae it was 95%. With unidentified species in the genus Aspergillus, mortality after 24 h was <5% against all the larval species. Application of A. clavatus produced in a wheat powder medium using doses ranging between 4.3 to 21×107 spores/ml, caused 11 to 68% mortality against Cx. quinquefasciatus at 24h, and 37 to 100% against Ae. aegypti. Microscopic observations showed fungal germination on both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. Histological studies revealed that A. clavatus penetrated the cuticle, invaded the gut and disintegrated its cells. Some Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, treated with A. clavatus reached the pupal stage and produced infected adults. However, the infection was mainly located on the extremity of their abdomen. These results suggest that A. clavatus could be an effective tool to manage mosquito proliferation. PMID:20050773

  15. Deletion of the NSm Virulence Gene of Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Virus Replication in and Dissemination from the Midgut of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Kading, Rebekah C.; Crabtree, Mary B.; Bird, Brian H.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Miller, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we investigated the role of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) virulence genes NSs and NSm in mosquitoes and demonstrated that deletion of NSm significantly reduced the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of RVFV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The specific aim of this study was to further characterize midgut infection and escape barriers of RVFV in Ae. aegypti infected with reverse genetics-generated wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) or RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-?NSm) by examining sagittal sections of infected mosquitoes for viral antigen at various time points post-infection. Methodology and Principal Findings Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed an infectious blood meal containing either rRVF-wt or rRVF-?NSm. On days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 post-infection, mosquitoes from each experimental group were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, paraffin-embedded, sectioned, and examined for RVFV antigen by immunofluorescence assay. Remaining mosquitoes at day 14 were assayed for infection, dissemination, and transmission. Disseminated infections were observed in mosquitoes as early as three days post infection for both virus strains. However, infection rates for rRVF-?NSm were statistically significantly less than for rRVF-wt. Posterior midgut infections in mosquitoes infected with rRVF-wt were extensive, whereas midgut infections of mosquitoes infected with rRVF-?NSm were confined to one or a few small foci. Conclusions/Significance Deletion of NSm resulted in the reduced ability of RVFV to enter, replicate, and disseminate from the midgut epithelial cells. NSm appears to have a functional role in the vector competence of mosquitoes for RVFV at the level of the midgut barrier. PMID:24551252

  16. Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6 ± 1.8, 78.2 ± 0.5, and 77 ± 1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25320044

  17. Heritability and adaptive phenotypic plasticity of adult body size in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with implications for dengue vector competence

    E-print Network

    Severson, David

    Heritability and adaptive phenotypic plasticity of adult body size in the mosquito Aedes aegypti environmental conditions in the context of a heteroge- neous environment (Newman, 1992). Developmental; Colinet et al., 2007; Kasumovic et al., 2009). Species with an aquatic larval period are of particular

  18. RNA-seq analyses of blood-induced changes in gene expression in the mosquito vector species, Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariangela Bonizzoni; W Augustine Dunn; Corey L Campbell; Ken E Olson; Michelle T Dimon; Osvaldo Marinotti; Anthony A James

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hematophagy is a common trait of insect vectors of disease. Extensive genome-wide transcriptional changes occur in mosquitoes after blood meals, and these are related to digestive and reproductive processes, among others. Studies of these changes are expected to reveal molecular targets for novel vector control and pathogen transmission-blocking strategies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae), a vector of Dengue

  19. Laboratory studies of selected ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes on the host-seeking behavior of Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic attractant blends formulated from L-lactic acid and several synergists elicit significant attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) and An. albimanus (Weidemann) in olfactometer bioassays using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. The synergists in these blends are commonly acetone and/or dimeth...

  20. Physiological recordings and RNA sequencing of the gustatory appendages of the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electrophysiological recording of action potentials from sensory neurons of mosquitoes provides investigators a glimpse into the chemical perception of these disease vectors. We have recently identified a bitter sensing neuron in the labellum of female Aedes aegypti that responds to DEET and other ...

  1. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

  2. Evaluation of an experimental product based on Bacillus thuringiensis sorovar. israelensis against Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Paula de Araújo; Maria Alice Varjal de Melo-Santos; Sidney de Oliveira Carlos; Eugênia Maria Mariz Maranhão Rios; Lêda Regis

    2007-01-01

    The larvicidal activity of an experimental formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated under laboratory and simulated field conditions (SFC). Samples of technical powder (TP) were assayed to establish the LC50 and the potency of the product. The larvicidal activity of the TP and the tablet (T) were evaluated under SFC to assess the efficacy

  3. Larvicidal activity of 94 extracts from ten plant species of northeastern of Brazil against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia V. Oliveira; Jesú C. Ferreira Jr; Fabyanne S. Moura; Gerson S. Lima; Fernando M. de Oliveira; Patrícia Emanuella S. Oliveira; Lucia M. Conserva; Ana Maria Giulietti; Rosangela P. Lyra Lemos

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to find effective and affordable ways to control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), the larvicidal activities of 94 extracts from ten plant species belonging to eight families [Guettarda grazielae and Spermacoce verticillata (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba mollis and Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae), Eschweilera ovata (Lecytidaceae), Merremia aegyptia (Convolvulaceae), Ouratea nitida (Ochnnaceae), Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae), Rourea doniana (Connaraceae), and Tovomita

  4. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veena Prajapati; A. K. Tripathi; K. K. Aggarwal; S. P. S. Khanuja

    2005-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi

  5. Microclimate and human factors in the divergent ecology of Aedes aegypti along the Arizona, U.S./Sonora, MX border.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Mary H; Uejio, Christopher K; Walker, Kathleen; Ramberg, Frank; Moreno, Rafael; Rosales, Cecilia; Gameros, Mercedes; Mearns, Linda O; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Janes, Craig R

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the association of human and environmental factors with the presence of Aedes aegypti, the vector for dengue fever and yellow fever viruses, in a desert region in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Sixty-eight sites were longitudinally surveyed along the United States-Mexico border in Tucson, AZ, Nogales, AZ, and Nogales, Sonora during a 3-year period. Aedes aegypti presence or absence at each site was measured three times per year using standard oviposition traps. Maximum and minimum temperature and relative humidity were measured hourly at each site. Field inventories were conducted to measure human housing factors potentially affecting mosquito presence, such as the use of air-conditioning and evaporative coolers, outdoor vegetation cover, and access to piped water. The results showed that Ae. aegypti presence was highly variable across space and time. Aedes aegypti presence was positively associated with highly vegetated areas. Other significant variables included microclimatic differences and access to piped water. This study demonstrates the importance of microclimate and human factors in predicting Ae. aegypti distribution in an arid environment. PMID:20232228

  6. Spatial Patterns of High Aedes aegypti Oviposition Activity in Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Estallo, Elizabet Lilia; Más, Guillermo; Vergara-Cid, Carolina; Lanfri, Mario Alberto; Ludueña-Almeida, Francisco; Scavuzzo, Carlos Marcelo; Introini, María Virginia; Zaidenberg, Mario; Almirón, Walter Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Argentina, dengue has affected mainly the Northern provinces, including Salta. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial patterns of high Aedes aegypti oviposition activity in San Ramón de la Nueva Orán, northwestern Argentina. The location of clusters as hot spot areas should help control programs to identify priority areas and allocate their resources more effectively. Methodology Oviposition activity was detected in Orán City (Salta province) using ovitraps, weekly replaced (October 2005–2007). Spatial autocorrelation was measured with Moran’s Index and depicted through cluster maps to identify hot spots. Total egg numbers were spatially interpolated and a classified map with Ae. aegypti high oviposition activity areas was performed. Potential breeding and resting (PBR) sites were geo-referenced. A logistic regression analysis of interpolated egg numbers and PBR location was performed to generate a predictive mapping of mosquito oviposition activity. Principal Findings Both cluster maps and predictive map were consistent, identifying in central and southern areas of the city high Ae. aegypti oviposition activity. A logistic regression model was successfully developed to predict Ae. aegypti oviposition activity based on distance to PBR sites, with tire dumps having the strongest association with mosquito oviposition activity. A predictive map reflecting probability of oviposition activity was produced. The predictive map delimitated an area of maximum probability of Ae. aegypti oviposition activity in the south of Orán city where tire dumps predominate. The overall fit of the model was acceptable (ROC?=?0.77), obtaining 99% of sensitivity and 75.29% of specificity. Conclusions Distance to tire dumps is inversely associated with high mosquito activity, allowing us to identify hot spots. These methodologies are useful for prevention, surveillance, and control of tropical vector borne diseases and might assist National Health Ministry to focus resources more effectively. PMID:23349813

  7. Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2014-06-01

    An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

  8. Selective inhibitors of digestive enzymes from Aedes aegypti larvae identified by phage display.

    PubMed

    Soares, Tatiane Sanches; Soares Torquato, Ricardo Jose; Alves Lemos, Francisco Jose; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is a serious disease transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti during blood meal feeding. It is estimated that the dengue virus is transmitted to millions of individuals each year in tropical and subtropical areas. Dengue control strategies have been based on controlling the vector, Ae. aegypti, using insecticide, but the emergence of resistance poses new challenges. The aim of this study was the identification of specific protease inhibitors of the digestive enzymes from Ae. aegypti larvae, which may serve as a prospective alternative biocontrol method. High affinity protein inhibitors were selected by all of the digestive serine proteases of the 4th instar larval midgut, and the specificity of these inhibitors was characterized. These inhibitors were obtained from a phage library displaying variants of HiTI, a trypsin inhibitor from Haematobia irritans, that are mutated in the reactive loop (P1-P4'). Based on the selected amino acid sequence pattern, seven HiTI inhibitor variants were cloned, expressed and purified. The results indicate that the HiTI variants named T6 (RGGAV) and T128 (WNEGL) were selected by larval trypsin-like (IC(50) of 1.1 nM) and chymotrypsin-like enzymes (IC(50) of 11.6 nM), respectively. The variants T23 (LLGGL) and T149 (GGVWR) inhibited both larval chymotrypsin-like (IC(50) of 4.2 nM and 29.0 nM, respectively) and elastase-like enzymes (IC(50) of 1.2 nM for both). Specific inhibitors were successfully obtained for the digestive enzymes of Ae. aegypti larvae by phage display. Our data also strongly suggest the presence of elastase-like enzymes in Ae. aegypti larvae. The HiTI variants T6 and T23 are good candidates for the development as a larvicide to control the vector. PMID:23142191

  9. Water Level Flux in Household Containers in Vietnam - A Key Determinant of Aedes aegypti Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5–43.9%, 48.8–75.6% and 17.1–53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9–12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500L) increasing or decreasing by ?20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683

  10. Evaluation of Location-Specific Predictions by a Detailed Simulation Model of Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Legros, Mathieu; Magori, Krisztian; Morrison, Amy C.; Xu, Chonggang; Scott, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Alun L.; Gould, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeeter Buster is a stochastic, spatially explicit simulation model of Aedes aegypti populations, designed to predict the outcome of vector population control methods. In this study, we apply the model to two specific locations, the cities of Iquitos, Peru, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. These two sites differ in the amount of field data that is available for location-specific customization. By comparing output from Skeeter Buster to field observations in these two cases we evaluate population dynamics predictions by Skeeter Buster with varying degrees of customization. Methodology/Principal Findings Skeeter Buster was customized to the Iquitos location by simulating the layout of houses and the associated distribution of water-holding containers, based on extensive surveys of Ae. aegypti populations and larval habitats that have been conducted in Iquitos for over 10 years. The model is calibrated by adjusting the food input into various types of containers to match their observed pupal productivity in the field. We contrast the output of this customized model to the data collected from the natural population, comparing pupal numbers and spatial distribution of pupae in the population. Our results show that Skeeter Buster replicates specific population dynamics and spatial structure of Ae. aegypti in Iquitos. We then show how Skeeter Buster can be customized for Buenos Aires, where we only had Ae. aegypti abundance data that was averaged across all locations. In the Argentina case Skeeter Buster provides a satisfactory simulation of temporal population dynamics across seasons. Conclusions This model can provide a faithful description of Ae. aegypti populations, through a process of location-specific customization that is contingent on the amount of data available from field collections. We discuss limitations presented by some specific components of the model such as the description of food dynamics and challenges that these limitations bring to model evaluation. PMID:21799936

  11. Engineered resistance in Aedes aegypti to a West African and a South American strain of yellow fever virus.

    PubMed

    Higgs, S; Rayner, J O; Olson, K E; Davis, B S; Beaty, B J; Blair, C D

    1998-05-01

    Double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) viruses were engineered to transduce mosquito cells with antisense RNA derived either from the premembrane (prM) or polymerase (NS5) coding regions of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (YFV). Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells were infected at high multiplicities of infection (MOI) with each dsSIN virus. Forty-eight hours later, the transduced cells were challenged with an MOI of 0.1 of the Asibi strain of YFV. At 72-hr postchallenge, the cells were assayed by immunofluorescence for the presence of YFV antigen. Cells transduced with prM or NS5 antisense RNAs derived from the YFV genome displayed no YFV-specific antigens. In contrast, cells infected with control dsSIN viruses that expressed no antisense RNA or dengue virus-derived antisense RNAs were permissive for the challenge virus. To analyze resistance in the mosquito, five log10 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each dsSIN virus and three log10TCID50 of either a West African (BA-55) or South American (1899/81) strain of wild-type YFV were coinoculated into Ae. aegypti. Mosquitoes transduced with effector RNAs targeting the prM or NS5 gene regions did not transmit West African YFV and poorly transmitted the South American strain of YFV. PMID:9598458

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) provides residual control of Aedes aegypti in small containers.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Scott A; Rapley, Luke P; Benjamin, Seleena

    2010-06-01

    We examined the use of megadoses of VectoBac WG for residual control of Aedes aegypti in 2-L plastic buckets. Doses of 10x, 20x, and 50x the recommended rate of 8 mg/L provided >/= 90% control for 8, 8, and 23 weeks, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between dry (neat) or aqueous mixture of VectoBac WG. Pretreatment of dry containers up to 8 weeks before flooding did not significantly decrease efficacy through 11 success weeks. Thus, megadoses of dry formulations of Bti can be used for residual control of Ae. aegypti in small containers. Furthermore, these doses use small amounts of product (0.08-0.4 g/L) that is more practical to measure than the minute amounts (0.008 g/L) required by the recommended rate, and cost US$2.18 to treat 50 Cairns yards containing an average total of 80 containers. This method could also be used to control Aedes albopictus. PMID:20519600

  13. Sub-lethal metal stress response of larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Mario H.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) has adapted to urban environments; the urbanisation process provides suitable habitats for this disease vector subsequently increasing the probability of the transmission of pathogens in high-density environments. Urban environments provide metal stressed larval habitats. However, little is known about the physiological cost of metal stress or how this might affect the performance of this mosquito species. This study aims to characterise the sub-lethal physiological consequences of metal stress in Aedes aegypti. Various parameters of mosquito physiology under larval metal stress are assessed including larval metallothionein expression and the effects of larval metal stress on adult performance and their progeny. Results show that environmentally relevant larval metal stress compromises larval and adult development and performance, and results in larval metal tolerance along with an increase in lipid consumption. These performance costs are coupled to a dramatic increase in metallothionein expression in the midgut. Metal stress results in lowered adult body mass and neutral storage lipids at emergence, starvation tolerance, fecundity and starvation tolerance of offspring compared to non-metal stressed individuals. Ironically, larval metal stress results in increased adult longevity. Together, these findings indicate that even low levels of environmentally relevant larval metal stress have considerable physiological consequences for this important disease vector. PMID:24926118

  14. High-resolution crystal structure of FKBP12 from Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Sreekanth; Saw, Kai Qian; Nguyen, Quoc Toan; Baek, Kwanghee; Yoon, Ho Sup

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most infectious viral diseases prevalent mainly in tropical countries. The virus is transmitted by Aedes species of mosquito, primarily Aedes aegypti. Dengue remains a challenging drug target for years as the virus eludes the immune responses. Currently, no vaccines or antiviral drugs are available for dengue prevention. Previous studies suggested that the immunosuppressive drug FK506 shows antimalarial activity, and its molecular target, FK506-binding protein (FKBP), was identified in the Plasmodium parasite. Likewise, a FKBP family protein has been identified in A. aegypti (AaFKBP12) in which AaFKBP12 is assumed to play a similar role in its life cycle. FKBPs belong to a highly conserved class of proteins and are considered as an attractive pharmacological target. Herein, we present a high-resolution crystal structure of AaFKBP12 at 1.3 Å resolution and discuss its structural features throwing light in facilitating the design of potential antagonists against the dengue-transmitting mosquito. PMID:22517662

  15. Temperature-mediated differential expression of immune and stress-related genes in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Nyakeriga, Alice; Blackshear, Millon

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms by which natural populations of vector mosquitoes cope with daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature are poorly understood. We examined the effect of water temperature on expression of stress and immune-related genes in Aedes aegypti larvae. Aedes aegypti 3rd instars were exposed for 24 h to one of 7 constant temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C [control], 32 degrees C, 36 degrees C, or 40 degrees C) and expression of antimicrobial peptides (cecropin, defensin), transferrin, and heat shock proteins (HSP70 and HSP83) quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cecropin, defensin, and transferrin were overexpressed at 36 degrees C and underexpressed at 15 degrees C and 32 degrees C. HSP83 was overexpressed at 10 degrees C and 40 degrees C and underexpressed at 20 degrees C, while HSP70 was underexpressed at 15 degrees C, 32 degrees C, and 36 degrees C. These findings suggest that antimicrobial peptides can serve as biomarkers of thermal stress and that HSP83 may buffer mosquito larvae against extreme temperatures. PMID:22894117

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) Provides Residual Control of Aedes aegypti in Small Containers

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Scott A.; Rapley, Luke P.; Benjamin, Seleena

    2010-01-01

    We examined the use of megadoses of VectoBac WG for residual control of Aedes aegypti in 2-L plastic buckets. Doses of 10×, 20×, and 50× the recommended rate of 8 mg/L provided ? 90% control for 8, 8, and 23 weeks, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between dry (neat) or aqueous mixture of VectoBac WG. Pretreatment of dry containers up to 8 weeks before flooding did not significantly decrease efficacy through 11 success weeks. Thus, megadoses of dry formulations of Bti can be used for residual control of Ae. aegypti in small containers. Furthermore, these doses use small amounts of product (0.08–0.4 g/L) that is more practical to measure than the minute amounts (0.008 g/L) required by the recommended rate, and cost US$2.18 to treat 50 Cairns yards containing an average total of 80 containers. This method could also be used to control Aedes albopictus. PMID:20519600

  17. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  18. Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

  19. Relationship between leaf litter identity, expression of cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2012-04-01

    The role of toxic component of leaf litter in mediating the outcome of mosquito species interactions is not well documented. To examine the effect of leaf litter toxins on mosquito performance and interspecific interactions, we reared monospecific and heterospecific cultures of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae in microcosms with one of five leaf species and measured the expression of five cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of the two mosquito species. For both mosquito species, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in black alder, black walnut, and cypress infusion compared to sugar maple and eastern white pine infusion. In pine but not in other leaf treatments, the presence of A. albopictus had significant positive effects on A. aegypti wing length and development time to adulthood. A. albopictus from heterospecific cultures were larger than those from monospecific cultures and were smaller and took longer to develop in pine and sugar maple infusions than in the other infusions. Up regulation of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively appeared to be closely associated with the deleterious effects of sugar maple infusion on mosquito performance as was the down regulation of CYP6N12 (in A. aegypti) and lack of induction of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 (in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively) in pine infusion. Results suggest that metabolic capabilities that enable the two species to tolerate natural xenobiotics are associated with a fitness cost. PMID:22198240

  20. Rapid evolution of reduced receptivity to interspecific mating in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in response to satyrization by invasive Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Bargielowski, I.; Lounibos, L.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine the effect of reproductive interference on the dynamics of two mosquito vectors of public health concern and add to the growing literature on the strength and speed with which interspecific reproductive interference may drive evolution. Recent evidence supports a role for asymmetric reproductive interference, or satyrization, in competitive displacements of Aedes aegypti by Aedes albopictus. However, populations of A. aegypti sympatric with A. albopictus in nature evolve resistance to satyrization. Here we report that A. aegypti from Tucson, Arizona (USA), where A. albopictus are not known to occur, are satyrization-susceptible. Furthermore, in cage experiments we demonstrate rapid evolution in satyrization-susceptible lines. Exposing allopatric strains of A. aegypti to A. albopictus in cages led to significant reductions, within 1–3 generations, in the frequency of reproductive interference. We also demonstrate that satyrization-resistant A. aegypti females derived from selection experiments are significantly slower to mate with conspecific males, suggesting a cost for the evolution of satyrization-resistance. Results show how interspecific interactions between these vector species are rapidly evolving, with implications for the arboviral diseases, especially dengue and chikungunya, which they transmit. PMID:24563572

  1. Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro. Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?

    PubMed Central

    Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

    2012-01-01

    Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

  2. Invertebrate Carcasses as a Resource for Competing Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    to provide a sub- strate for the growth of bacteria and fungi that are consumed by mosquito larvae (Fish effects of accumulated inverte- brate carcasses as a resource for two competing mosquitoes, Aedes mosquito species as correlates of population growth, and were used to calculate a population performance

  3. Dissimilar effects on landing behavior by Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) when exposed to different pyrethroid insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes from three genera, Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say were tested for facultative landing and resting behavior on pyrethroid-treated surfaces paired with adjacent untreated surfaces. The three pyrethroids tested were bifenthrin, deltamethrin, ...

  4. Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

  5. Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response

    E-print Network

    Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2015-03-27

    Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model...

  6. Identification of Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Poupardin, Rodolphe; Srisukontarat, Wannaporn; Yunta, Cristina; Ranson, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Background Thailand is currently experiencing one of its worst dengue outbreaks in decades. As in most countries where this disease is endemic, dengue control in Thailand is largely reliant on the use of insecticides targeting both immature and adult stages of the Aedes mosquito, with the organophosphate insecticide, temephos, being the insecticide of choice for attacking the mosquito larvae. Resistance to temephos was first detected in Aedes aegypti larvae in Thailand approximately 25 years ago but the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been determined. Principal Findings Bioassays on Ae. aegypti larvae from Thailand detected temephos resistance ratios ranging from 3.5 fold in Chiang Mai to nearly 10 fold in Nakhon Sawan (NS) province. Synergist and biochemical assays suggested a role for increased carboxylesterase (CCE) activities in conferring temephos resistance in the NS population and microarray analysis revealed that the CCE gene, CCEae3a, was upregulated more than 60 fold in the NS population compared to the susceptible population. Upregulation of CCEae3a was shown to be partially due to gene duplication. Another CCE gene, CCEae6a, was also highly regulated in both comparisons. Sequencing and in silico structure prediction of CCEae3a showed that several amino acid polymorphisms in the NS population may also play a role in the increased resistance phenotype. Significance Carboxylesterases have previously been implicated in conferring temephos resistance in Ae aegypti but the specific member(s) of this family responsible for this phenotype have not been identified. The identification of a strong candidate is an important step in the development of new molecular diagnostic tools for management of temephos resistant populations and thus improved control of dengue. PMID:24651719

  7. Breeding of Aedes aegypti and A. simpsoni under the escarpment of the Tanzanian plateau

    PubMed Central

    Trpis, Milan

    1972-01-01

    Villages under the escarpment of the Tanzanian plateau were surveyed for breeding of Aedes aegypti. In some places more than 27% of the water containers outside houses harboured A. aegypti larvae, while there was practically no breeding in containers inside houses. From 2% to 10% of tree holes contained A. aegypti larvae. In places, as many as 47 A. simpsoni larvae were collected from one pineapple plant, and the total mean number of larvae per pineapple was 6.6, while the percentage of plants with larvae was as high as 93.6. The total mean number of larvae per colocasia plant was 2.9, but the number per banana plant was only 0.3. The plant Crinum was discovered to be a breeding site of A. simpsoni. Eggs of A. simpsoni were found in 55-80% of ovitraps placed in four villages. Of 20 traps found to contain eggs of this species 30% were in the village, 60% in gardens, and 10% at the edge of forest. It was observed that A. simpsoni females lay their eggs at all levels up to 5 m, but prefer ground level. PMID:4538907

  8. Juvenile hormone regulates Aedes aegypti Krüppel homolog 1 through a conserved E box motif.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingjun; Sui, Yipeng; Xu, Jingjing; Zhu, Fang; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays important roles in regulation of many physiological processes including development, reproduction and metabolism in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of JH signaling pathway are not completely understood. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of JH regulation of Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) in Aedes aegypti, we employed JH-sensitive Aag-2 cells developed from the embryos of this insect. In Aag-2 cells, AaKr-h1 gene is induced by nanomolar concentration of JH III, its expression peaked at 1.5 h after treatment with JH III. RNAi studies showed that JH induction of this gene requires the presence of Ae. aegypti methoprene-tolerant (AaMet). A conserved 13 nucleotide JH response element (JHRE, TGCCTCCACGTGC) containing canonical E box motif (underlined) identified in the promoter of AaKr-h1 is required for JH induction of this gene. Critical nucleotides in the JHRE required for JH action were identified by employing mutagenesis and reporter assays. Reporter assays also showed that basic helix loop helix (bHLH) domain of AaMet is required for JH induction of AaKr-h1. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method identified two isoforms of AaKr-h1, AaKr-h1? and AaKr-h1?, the expression of both isoforms is induced by JH III, but AaKr-h1? is the predominant isoform in both Aag-2 cells and Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:24931431

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C; Moorthi, P Vinayaga

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti. PMID:24173811

  10. Identification and Characterisation of Aedes aegypti Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Involved in Pyrethroid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lumjuan, Nongkran; Wicheer, Jureeporn; Leelapat, Posri; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald), to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid). Conclusions/Significance ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies. PMID:25047125

  11. Larvicidal and Cytotoxic Potential of Squamocin on the Midgut of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marilza S.; Cossolin, Jamile F. S.; Pereira, Mônica J. B.; Sant’Ana, Antônio E. G.; Lima, Milena D.; Zanuncio, José C.; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins are secondary metabolites exclusively produced by Annonaceae, which have antitumor, cytotoxic, and pesticide activities. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal and cytotoxic effect of squamocin from Annona squamosa on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) midgut. The compound was solubilized in 2% Tween 20 at 10, 20, 50, 80 and 100 ppm. The assay was conducted in a completely randomized design with four replications, each with 20 third-instar larvae. Larval mortality was assessed every hour until total mortality, and the data were subjected to Probit analysis. Cellular damage was evaluated every 30 min in groups comprising five larvae subjected to squamocin at 50 and 100 ppm for 240 min. The total larval mortality occurred after 360 min following application of 50, 80, and 100 ppm squamocin, and 600 min after applying other concentrations with LC50 at 6.4 ppm. Both 50 and 100 ppm of squamocin showed cytotoxic activity in the midgut epithelium of A. aegypti after 240 min with 50 ppm resulting in midgut cells with light cytoplasm containing small vacuoles, whereas at 100 ppm were found cells with cytoplasm highly vacuolated, damaged apical surface and cell protrusion toward the gut lumen. In conclusion, squamocin has the potential to control A. aegypti. PMID:24674934

  12. Cadherin Fragments from Anopheles gambiae Synergize Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Ba's Toxicity against Aedes aegypti Larvae ?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngjin; Hua, Gang; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Rahman, Khalidur; Adang, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    A peptide from cadherin AgCad1 of Anopheles gambiae larvae was reported as a synergist of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba's toxicity to the Anopheles mosquito (G. Hua, R. Zhang, M. A. Abdullah, and M. J. Adang, Biochemistry 47:5101-5110, 2008). We report that CR11 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (MPED) (CR11-MPED) and a longer peptide, CR9 to CR11 (CR9-11), from AgCad1 act as synergists of Cry4Ba's toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae, but a Diabrotica virgifera virgifera cadherin-based synergist of Cry3 (Y. Park, M. A. F. Abdullah, M. D. Taylor, K. Rahman, and M. J. Adang, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:3086-3092, 2009) did not affect Cry4Ba's toxicity. Peptides CR9-11 and CR11-MPED bound Cry4Ba with high affinity (13 nM and 23 nM, respectively) and inhibited Cry4Ba binding to the larval A. aegypti brush border membrane. The longer CR9-11 fragment was more potent than CR11-MPED in enhancing Cry4Ba against A. aegypti. PMID:19801487

  13. Effect of Myracrodruon urundeuva leaf lectin on survival and digestive enzymes of Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Pontual, Emmanuel Viana; de Albuquerque Lima, Thâmarah; de Lima Santos, Nataly Diniz; Sá, Roberto Araújo; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; do Amaral Ferraz Navarro, Daniela Maria; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2012-02-01

    Aedes aegypti transmits the viruses that cause yellow and dengue fevers. Vector control is essential, since a vaccine for dengue has not as yet been made available. This work reports on the larvicidal activity of Myracrodruon urundeuva leaf lectin (MuLL) against A. aegypti fourth-stage larvae (L(4)). Also, the resistance of MuLL to digestion by L(4) gut proteases and the effects of MuLL on protease, trypsin-like and ?-amylase activities from L(4) gut were evaluated to determine if lectin remains active in A. aegypti gut and if insect enzyme activities can be modulated by MuLL. MuLL promoted mortality of L(4) with LC(50) of 0.202 mg/ml. Haemagglutinating activity of MuLL was detected even after incubation for 96 h with L(4) gut preparation containing protease activity. MuLL affected the activity of gut enzymes, inhibiting protease and trypsin activities and stimulating ?-amylase activity. The results suggest that MuLL may become a new biodegradable larvicidal agent for dengue control. Larvicidal activity of MuLL may be linked to its resistance to proteolysis by larval enzymes and interference in the activity of digestive larval enzymes. PMID:21735148

  14. Oral toxicity of Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteriaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Onilda Santos; Prado, Geronimo Rodrigues; da Silva, João Luiz Rosa; Silva, Carlos Eugenio; da Costa, Marisa; Heermann, Ralf

    2013-08-01

    Dengue fever is an important vector-borne disease, mainly transmitted by Aedes aegypti. To date, there are no vaccines or effective drugs available against this arboviral disease. As mosquito control is practically the only method available to control dengue fever, alternative and cost-effective pest control strategies need to be explored. The gram-negative enteric bacteria Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus are symbiotically associated with nematode parasites, which themselves are highly pathogenic for insect larvae. Here, we evaluate the oral toxicity of these entomopathogenic bacteria in A. aegypti larvae. The susceptibility of larvae (third late or fourth early instars) was assessed by exposing them to suspensions containing Photorhabdus luminescens or Xenorhabdus nematophila, respectively. Two diet treatments were tested with larvae fed on pet food and unfed larvae. After 24 h, larvae began to die when exposed to the bacteria. Exposure to P. luminescens killed 73% of the fed and 83% of the unfed larvae, respectively. In comparison, X. nematophila was less pathogenic, killing 52% of the larvae in the fed and 42% in the unfed treatment. Remarkably, cannibalism was observed in all bioassays after exposing larvae to either of the bacterial species. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the efficiency of these entomopathogenic bacteria for oral A. aegypti killing. Our results provide a promising basis for using these bacteria as bioinsecticides for mosquito control in the future. PMID:23728731

  15. Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Figueira-Mansur, J; Ferreira-Pereira, A; Mansur, J F; Franco, T A; Alvarenga, E S L; Sorgine, M H F; Neves, B C; Melo, A C A; Leal, W S; Masuda, H; Moreira, M F

    2013-12-01

    Re-emergence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, which are both transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been correlated with insecticide resistance. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are ATP-dependent efflux pumps that are involved in the transport of substrates across membranes. Some of these proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we identified a putative P-glycoprotein in the Ae.?aegypti database based on its significantly high identity with Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Drosophila melanogaster and human P-gps. The basal ATPase activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in larvae was significantly increased in the presence of MDR modulators (verapamil and quinidine). An eightfold increase in Ae.?aegypti P-gp (AaegP-gp) gene expression was detected in temephos-treated larvae as determined by quantitative PCR. To analyse the potential role of AaegP-gp in insecticide efflux, a temephos larvicide assay was performed in the presence of verapamil. The results showed an increase of 24% in temephos toxicity, which is in agreement with the efflux reversing effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AaegP-gp gene caused a significant increase in temephos toxicity (57%). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time in insects that insecticide-induced P-gp expression can be involved in the modulation of insecticide efflux. PMID:23980723

  16. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  17. Thermal sensitivity of Aedes aegypti from Australia: empirical data and prediction of effects on distribution.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelly; Hoffmann, Ary A; Johnson, Petrina; Ritchie, Scott; Kearney, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    An understanding of physiological sensitivity to temperature and its variability is important for predicting habitat suitability for disease vectors under different climatic regimes. In this study, we characterized the thermal sensitivity of larval developmental rates and survival in several Australian mainland populations of the dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti. Males developed more rapidly than females, but there were no differences among populations for development time or survival despite previously demonstrated genetic differentiation for neutral markers. Optimal development and survival temperatures were 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The values for maximal development and survival were similar to standard functions used in the container inhabiting simulation (CIMSIM) model for predicting population dynamics ofAe. aegypti populations, but CIMSIM assumed a lower optimal temperature. Heat stress experiments indicated that larvae could withstand water temperatures up to 44 degrees C regardless of the rate at which temperature was increased. Results from development time measured under constant temperatures could predict development time under fluctuating conditions, whereas CIMSIM predicted faster rates of development. This difference acts to reduce the predicted potential number of generations of Ae. aegypti per year in Australia, although it does not influence its predicted distribution, which depends critically on the nature of the aquatic breeding sites. PMID:21845954

  18. Differential transcription profiles in Aedes aegypti detoxification genes following temephos selection

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Strode, Clare; Flores, Adriana E.; Garcia-Luna, Selene; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever flaviviruses. The organophosphate insecticide temephos is a larvicide that is used globally to control Ae. aegypti populations; many of which have in turn evolved resistance. Target site alteration in the acetylcholine esterase of this species has not being identified. Instead, we tracked changes in transcription of metabolic detoxification genes using the Ae. aegypti ‘Detox Chip’ microarray during five generations of temephos selection. We selected for temephos resistance in three replicates in each of six collections, five from México, and one from Perú. The response to selection was tracked in terms of lethal concentrations (LC50). Uniform upregulation was seen in the epsilon class glutathione-S-transferase genes (eGSTs) in strains from México prior to laboratory selection, while eGSTs in the Iquitos Perú strain became upregulated following five generations of temephos selection. While expression of many esterase genes (CCE) increased with selection, no single esterase was consistently upregulated and this same pattern was noted in the cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and in other genes involved in reduction or oxidation of xenobiotics. Bioassays using GST, CCE and CYP inhibitors suggest that various CCE instead of GSTs are the main metabolic mechanism conferring resistance to temephos. We show that temephos selected strains show no cross resistance to permethrin and that genes associated with temephos selection are largely independent of those selected with permethrin in a previous study. PMID:24299217

  19. Identification of novel LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Minervini, Crescenzio Francesco; Viggiano, Luigi; Caizzi, Ruggiero; Marsano, Renè Massimiliano

    2009-07-01

    We have detected seventy-six novel LTR retrotransposons in the genome of the mosquito Aedes aegypti by a genome wide analysis using the LTR_STRUC program. We have performed a phylogenetic classification of these novel elements and a distribution analysis in the genome of A. aegypti. These mobile elements belong either to the Ty3/gypsy or to the Bel family of retrotransposons and were not annotated in the mosquito LTR retrotransposon database (TEfam). We have found that approximately 1.8% of the genome is occupied by these newly detected retrotransposons that are distributed predominantly in intergenic genomic sequences and introns. The potential role of retrotransposon insertions linked to host genes is described and discussed. We show that a retrotransposon family belonging to the Osvaldo lineage has peculiar structural features, and its presence is likely to be restricted to the A. aegypti and to the Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus genomes. Furthermore we show that the ninja-like group of elements lacks the Primer Binding Site (PBS) sequence necessary for the replication of retrotransposons. These results integrate the knowledge on the complicate genomic structure of an important disease vector. PMID:19362135

  20. Bacteria as a source of oviposition attractant for Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Arbaoui, A A; Chua, T H

    2014-03-01

    Since a safe and effective mass vaccination program against dengue fever is not presently available, a good way to prevent and control dengue outbreaks depends mainly on controlling the mosquito vectors. Aedes aegypti mosquito populations can be monitored and reduced by using ovitraps baited with organic infusions. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted which demonstrated that the bacteria in bamboo leaf infusion produce volatile attractants and contact chemical stimulants attractive to the female mosquitoes. The results showed that the female mosquitoes laid most of their eggs (59.9 ± 8.1 vs 2.9 ± 2.8 eggs, P<0.001) in bamboo leaf infusions when compared to distilled water. When the fresh infusion was filtered with a 0.45 ?m filter membrane, the female mosquitoes laid significantly more eggs (64.1 ± 6.6 vs 4.9 ± 2.6 eggs, P<0.001) in unfiltered infusion. However when a 0.8 ?m filter membrane was used, the female laid significantly more eggs (62.0 ± 4.3 vs 10.1 ± 7.8 eggs, P<0.001) in filtrate compared to a solution containing the residue. We also found that a mixture of bacteria isolated from bamboo leaf infusion serve as potent oviposition stimulants for gravid Aedes mosquitoes. Aedes aegypti laid significantly more eggs (63.3 ± 6.5 vs 3.1 ± 2.4 eggs, P<0.001) in bacteria suspension compared to sterile R2A medium. Our results suggest microbial activity has a role in the production of odorants that mediate the oviposition response of gravid mosquitoes. PMID:24862053

  1. Wolbachia uses a host microRNA to regulate transcripts of a methyltransferase, contributing to dengue virus inhibition in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guangmei; Hussain, Mazhar; O’Neill, Scott L.; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    The endosymbiont Wolbachia is common among insects and known for the reproductive manipulations it exerts on hosts as well as inhibition of virus replication in their hosts. Recently, we showed that Wolbachia uses host microRNAs to manipulate host gene expression for its efficient maintenance in the dengue mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Cytosine methylation is mediated by a group of proteins called DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases, which are structurally and functionally conserved from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. The biological functions of cytosine methylation include host defense, genome stability, gene regulation, developmental promotion of organs, and lifespan regulation. Ae. aegypti has only one DNA methyltransferase gene (AaDnmt2) belonging to the cytosine methyltransferase family 2, which is the most deeply conserved and widely distributed gene among metazoans. Here, we show that in mosquitoes the introduced endosymbiont, Wolbachia, significantly suppresses expression of AaDnmt2, but dengue virus induces expression of AaDnmt2. Interestingly, we found that aae-miR-2940 microRNA, which is exclusively expressed in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes, down-regulates the expression of AaDnmt2. Reversely, overexpression of AaDnmt2 in mosquito cells led to inhibition of Wolbachia replication, but significantly promoted replication of dengue virus, suggesting a causal link between this Wolbachia manipulation and the blocking of dengue replication in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. In addition, our findings provide an explanation for hypomethylation of the genome in Wolbachia-infected Ae. aegypti. PMID:23733960

  2. Field efficacy of new larvicide products for control of multi-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Martinique (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Darriet, Frédéric; Agnew, Philip; Etienne, Manuel; Yp-Tcha, Marie-Michelle; Yébakima, André; Corbel, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    World-wide dengue vector control is hampered by the spread of insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti. We report the resistance status of a wild Ae. aegypti population from Martinique (Vauclin) to conventional larvicides (Bacillus thuringiensis var israeliensis [Bti] and temephos) and potential alternatives (spinosad, diflubenzuron, and pyriproxyfen). The efficacy and residual activity of these insecticides were evaluated under simulated and field conditions. The Vauclin strain exhibited a high level of resistance to temephos, a tolerance to insect growth regulators, and full susceptibility to spinosad and Bti. In simulated trials, pyriproxyfen and Bti showed long residual activities in permanent breeding containers (28 and 37 weeks), whereas under field conditions they failed to curtail Ae. aegypti populations after four weeks. Conversely, diflubenzuron and spinosad showed a residual efficacy of 16 weeks, suggesting that these chemicals may be promising alternatives to Bti and temephos for controlling insecticide-resistant Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21212213

  3. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with potential for control of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Santos, F P; Lopes, J; Vilas-Bôas, G T; Zequi, J A C

    2012-04-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) is the vector of dengue virus in Brazil. Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have shown satisfactory results in the control of Diptera, due to the production of proteins called Cry and Cyt. The aim of the present study was to select B. thuringiensis isolates carrying the cry and cyt genes, which are efficient in the control of Ae. aegypti. A collection of 27 isolates of B. thuringiensis, derived from various regions in Brazil, was evaluated using selective bioassays against A. aegypti larvae. Of the 27 isolates, five showed 100% larval mortality at a concentration of 0.05 ppm and the toxicity of these isolates in quantitative bioassays did not differ significantly at temperatures of 15, 25 and 35 °C. In addition, these isolates showed statistical differences for the LC50 values only above pH 9, which indicates a maintenance in insecticide potential in a wide range of alkaline pH values. This result is promising, considering that waste treatment reservoirs generally show an acid pH and higher temperatures. These isolates were also evaluated by PCR using specific primers for the genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10A, cry11, cyt1 and cyt2. The analyses demonstrated that all the five isolates showed amplification products for all the studied genes showing four different Cry proteins, besides Cyt proteins. The obtained results of bioassays and PCR demonstrates the great potential for the use of these isolates in controlling populations of Ae. Aegypti and perhaps other species of mosquitoes in a wide range of environments. PMID:22178674

  4. Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

  5. Toxicity studies for indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from Malang city, East Java on Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Gama, Zulfaidah Penata; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Suharjono; Setyowati, Faridah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis)isolates from Malang City for controlling Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) larvae. Methods Soil samples were taken from Purwantoro and Sawojajar sub-districts. Bacterial isolation was performed using B. thuringiensis selective media. Phenotypic characteristics of the isolates were obtained with the simple matching method. The growth and prevalence of spores were determined by the Total Plate Count method, and toxicity tests were also performed on the third instar larval stage of Ae. aegypti. The percentage of larval mortality was analysed using probit regression. The LC50 was analysed by ANOVA, and the Tukey HSD interval was 95%. Results Among the 33 selected bacterial isolates, six were obtained (PWR4-31, PWR4-32, SWJ4-2b, SWJ4-4b, SWJ-4k and SWJ5-1) that had a similar phenotype to reference B. thuringiensis. Based on the dendrogram, all of the bacterial isolates were 71% similar. Three isolates that had a higher prevalence of reference B. thuringiensis were PWR4-32, SWJ4-4b and SW5-1, of which the spore prevalence was 52.44%, 23.59%, 34.46%, respectively. These three indigenous isolates from Malang City successfully killed Ae. aegypti larvae. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing the larvae. Conclusions Six indigenous B. thuringiensis isolates among the 33 bacterial isolates found in the Sawojajar and Purwantoro sub-districts were toxic to the third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti. The PWR4-32 isolates were identical to the reference B. thuringiensis and had 88% phenotype similarity. The PWR4-32 isolates had the highest spore prevalence (52.44%), and the early stationary phase occurred at 36 h. The PWR4-32 isolates were the most effective at killing Ae. aegypti larvae (LC50-72 h=2.3×108 cells/mL). PMID:23593589

  6. Discovery and Characterization of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Aedes aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Swale, Daniel R.; Days, Emily; Weaver, C. David; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Konkel, Leah C.; Engers, Darren W.; Bollinger, Sean F.; Hopkins, Corey; Piermarini, Peter M.; Denton, Jerod S.

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening ‘hits’, the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid) is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels can be developed using conventional drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, it reinforces the notion that the physical and chemical properties that determine a compound's bioavailability in vivo will be critical in determining the efficacy of Kir channel inhibitors as insecticides. PMID:25375326

  7. Farnesyl Phosphatase, a Corpora allata Enzyme Involved in Juvenile Hormone Biosynthesis in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Nyati, Pratik; Nouzova, Marcela; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Clifton, Mark E.; Mayoral, Jaime G.; Noriega, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    Background The juvenile hormones (JHs) are sesquiterpenoid compounds that play a central role in insect reproduction, development and behavior. The late steps of JH III biosynthesis in the mosquito Aedes aegypti involve the hydrolysis of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to farnesol (FOL), which is then successively oxidized to farnesal and farnesoic acid, methylated to form methyl farnesoate and finally transformed to JH III by a P450 epoxidase. The only recognized FPP phosphatase (FPPase) expressed in the corpora allata (CA) of an insect was recently described in Drosophila melanogaster (DmFPPase). In the present study we sought to molecularly and biochemically characterize the FPP phosphatase responsible for the transformation of FPP into FOL in the CA of A. aegypti. Methods A search for orthologs of the DmFPPase in Aedes aegypti led to the identification of 3 putative FPPase paralogs expressed in the CA of the mosquito (AaFPPases-1, -2, and -3). The activities of recombinant AaFPPases were tested against general phosphatase substrates and isoprenoid pyrophosphates. Using a newly developed assay utilizing fluorescent tags, we analyzed AaFPPase activities in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) was used to evaluate the effect of reduction of AaFPPase mRNAs on JH biosynthesis. Conclusions AaFPPase-1 and AaFPPase-2 are members of the NagD family of the Class IIA C2 cap-containing haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase (HAD) super family and efficiently hydrolyzed FPP into FOL. AaFPPase activities were different in CA of sugar and blood-fed females. Injection of dsRNAs resulted in a significant reduction of AaFPPase-1 and AaFPPase-2 mRNAs, but only reduction of AaFPPase-1 caused a significant decrease of JH biosynthesis. These results suggest that AaFPPase-1 is predominantly involved in the catalysis of FPP into FOL in the CA of A. aegypti. PMID:23940797

  8. Effects of two insect growth regulators on the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) to Molinema dessetae (Nematoda:Filarioidea).

    PubMed

    Fournet, F; Sannier, C; Monteny, N

    1997-03-01

    The effects of 2 growth regulators, diflubenzuron (DFB) and OMS 2017, on the ability of females Aedes aegypti to become infected with Molinema dessetae was studied under laboratory conditions. OMS 2017 and DFB had no effect on either the amount of blood ingested or the microfilarial load. The infective potential of females that survived DFB treatment was significantly greater than untreated females, but there was no difference between OMS 2017-treated and control females. The percentage of infective larvae in the head after OMS 2017 and DFB treatments was significantly greater than for control females. Insect growth regulators appear to affect the vectorial competence of mosquitoes, and these results indicate the need for preliminary studies before these compounds are used in large-scale control programs. PMID:9152874

  9. Impact of water renewal on the residual effect of larvicides in the control of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Dantas Filho, Fábio Fernandes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais de; Regazzi, Ana Cláudia Ferreira; Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Lima, José Wellington de Oliveira

    2010-03-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the residual effect of three larvicides under laboratory conditions for 100 days in Aedes aegypti. The larval mortality rate was measured without water renewal or with daily water renewal (80%). With temephos, there was 100% mortality in both groups until the 70th day. In the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)-WDG test, there was no difference during the first 20 days. With Bti-G, without water renewal, mortality was sustained above 90% for up to 35 days. The second experiment (with water renewal) reduced the mortality to below 90% after the first 20 days. When renewed water was provided, the residual effect was significantly lower for all larvicides. PMID:20428685

  10. Structure-activity relationships of larvicidal monoterpenes and derivatives against Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sandra R L; Melo, Manuela A; Cardoso, Andrea Valença; Santos, Roseli L C; de Sousa, Damião P; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2011-06-01

    In the search for larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), a collection of monoterpenes were selected and evaluated. R- and S-limonene exhibited the highest larvicidal potency (LC(50)=27 and 30 ppm, respectively), followed by ?-terpinene (LC(50)=56 ppm) and RS-carvone (LC(50)=118 ppm). Structural characteristics which may contribute to the understanding of the larvicidal activity of monoterpenes were empirically identified. The presence of heteroatoms in the basic hydrocarbon structure decreases larvicidal potency. Conjugated and exo double bonds appear to increase larvicidal potency. Replacement of double bonds by more reactive epoxides decreases the larvicidal potency. The presence of hydroxyls in the cyclic structure resulted in decreased potency, probably due to increased polarity indicanting that lipophilicity seems to play an important role in increasing the larvicidal potency in this set of compounds. PMID:21376365

  11. Larvicidal isoxazoles: Synthesis and their effective susceptibility towards Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Diana C B; dos Anjos, Janaína V; Cavalcante, Nery N M; Santos, Geanne K N; Navarro, Daniela M do A F; Srivastava, Rajendra M

    2013-02-15

    Twenty 3,5-disubstituted isoxazoles have been synthesized and tested against fourth instar Aedes aegypti larvae. In the synthesis of title compounds, modifications have been made in the C-5 side-chain with a view to test their larvicidal activity. These isoxazoles have been obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of arylnitrile oxides to terminal alkynes which furnished the desired products in 20% to 79% yields. A comparative study of the larvicidal activity between 3-(3-aryl-isoxazol-5-yl)-propan-1-ols and 3-(3-aryl-isoxazol-5-yl)-propionic acids clearly demonstrated that the latter compounds possess much better larvicidal activity than the former. We also tested two esters, viz., methyl 3-[3-(phenyl)-isoxazole-5-yl] propionate and methyl 3-[3-(4-chlorophenyl)-isoxazole-5-yl] propionate, where the latter presented an excellent larvicidal profile. PMID:23321014

  12. A comparison of larval, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP surveillance for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti.

    PubMed

    Resende, Marcelo Carvalho de; Silva, Ivoneide Maria; Ellis, Brett R; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, the entomological surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is performed by government-mandated larval surveys. In this study, the sensitivities of an adult sticky trap and traditional surveillance methodologies were compared. The study was performed over a 12-week period in a residential neighbourhood of the municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An ovitrap and a MosquiTRAP were placed at opposite ends of each neighbourhood block (60 traps in total) and inspections were performed weekly. The study revealed significant correlations of moderate strength between the larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP measurements. A positive relationship was observed between temperature, adult capture measurements and egg collections, whereas precipitation and frequency of rainy days exhibited a negative relationship. PMID:24402144

  13. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of essential oils from northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lavor, Patrícia L; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Gois, Roberto W da Silva; de Sousa, Leôncio M; Bezerra, Gabrieli da P; Romero, Nirla R; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Alves, Péricles B; Gomes, Paulo C S

    2012-10-01

    The larvicidal activities of essential oils from the leaves of Artemisia vulgaris L., Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats. and Piper tuberculatum Jacq. were evaluated using third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil of P. tuberculqatum had the lowest LC50 value (106.3 +/- 2.2 microg/mL), followed by that of A. vulgaris (114.1 +/- 1.7 microg/mL) and C. flexuosus (121.6 +/- 0.8 micro/mL). The results show that these essential oils may be potent sources of natural larvicides. PMID:23157019

  14. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  15. Circadian clock of Aedes aegypti: effects of blood-feeding, insemination and RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Carla; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno da S; Lima, José BP; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitoes are the culprits of some of the most important vector borne diseases. A species’ potential as a vector is directly dependent on their pattern of behaviour, which is known to change according to the female’s physiological status such as whether the female is virgin/mated and unfed/blood-fed. However, the molecular mechanism triggered by and/or responsible for such modulations in behaviour is poorly understood. Clock genes are known to be responsible for the control of circadian behaviour in several species. Here we investigate the impact mating and blood-feeding have upon the expression of these genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti . We show that blood intake, but not insemination, is responsible for the down-regulation of clock genes. Using RNA interference, we observe a slight reduction in the evening activity peak in the fourth day after dstim injection. These data suggest that, as in Drosophila , clock gene expression, circadian behaviour and environmental light regimens are interconnected in Ae. aegypti . PMID:24473806

  16. Combined effect of biopesticides on the digestive enzymatic profiles of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Gamal, Zakia A; Abuldahab, Faten F

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated efficiency of two bacterial mosquito larvicides and a plant extract one against Aedes aegypti larvae when used in combinations with each other under laboratory conditions, is an integrated method of control. Plant extracts, especially botanical insecticides, are currently studied more and more because of the possibility of their use in plant protection. Many of the natural plant compounds and organic compounds used in the control of insect pests are known to affect digestive enzymes. When fed a diet of rice leaves treated with botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins in bioassays, activities of the digestive enzymes protease, amylase, and lipase in the A. aegypti larvae are affected. Digestive enzyme activities were affected by botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins individually and in combination. When combined, the effect was more severe at low concentration. There were statistically significant differences (P < or = 0.05) in enzyme activities in combined and individual treatments. The combination of Btk and botanical insecticides caused a two-fold decrease in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. A synergistic effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins was found when combined in low doses. These effects are most pronounced in early instars. PMID:22662595

  17. Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-02-15

    Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

  18. Efficacy of various larvicides against Aedes aegypti immatures in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos. PMID:23883850

  19. Susceptibility to Chlorpyrifos in Pyrethroid-Resistant Populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Beatriz; Ponce, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Jessica A.; Gutierrez, Selene M.; Villanueva, Olga K.; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Bobadilla, Cristina; Rodriguez, Iram P.; Black, William C.; Flores, Adriana E.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of Aedes aegypti (L) that expressed high levels of cross resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. Relative to LC50 and LC90 at 24h of a susceptible New Orleans (NO) three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (Coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio (RRLC90) =11.97; Pozarica, RRLC90=12.98; and Cosoleacaque, RRLC50= 13.94 and RRLC90=17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (Veracruz, RR=5.92), and two strains were susceptible (Tantoyuca and Martinez de la Torre, RRLC50 and RRLC90 < 5) in CDC bottle bioassays. Furthermore, high levels of ?/?-esterase activity in the sample populations were correlated with resistance, suggesting that esterase activity may be a mechanism causing the development of organophosphate resistance in these populations. Overall, the populations in this study were less resistant to chlorpyrifos than to pyrethroids. Rotation of insecticides used in control activities is recommended to delay or minimize the occurrence of high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos among local populations of Ae. aegypti. The diagnostic dose (DD) and diagnostic time (DT) for chlorpyrifos resistance monitoring was determined to be 85 ?g/ bottle and 30min, respectively, using the susceptible NO strain. PMID:24897857

  20. Control of Aedes aegypti larvae in household water containers by Chinese cat fish

    PubMed Central

    Neng, Wu; Shusen, Wang; Guangxin, Han; Rongman, Xu; Guangkun, Tang; Chen, Qian

    1987-01-01

    In 1980-81 an outbreak of dengue fever occurred in Guangdong province and in Guangxi-Zhuang autonomous region in the central-southern part of China. Subsequently, a nationwide survey indicated that the vector of the disease, Aedes aegypti, was confined to the coastal strip of Guangdong and Guangxi-Zhuang. Since the first case in the outbreak occurred in Guangxi-Zhuang, a community-based programme to control A. aegypti was set up in eight fishing villages of this region where the mosquito was breeding in household water containers. The principal method of control was use of the indigenous edible fish Clarias fuscus (Chinese cat fish), which is highly larvivorous and tolerant of harsh environmental conditions. Each container was stocked with a young fish, which could survive there for periods of up to a year. A team of primary medical personnel (barefoot doctors) made sure that the programme was correctly implemented. The programme was monitored from 1981 to 1985 in three of the villages, and the results indicated that the Breteau index remained at a low level throughout this period. PMID:3500803

  1. The role of male harassment on female fitness for the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Helinski, Michelle E.H.; Harrington, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual harassment studies in insects suggest that females can incur several kinds of costs from male harassment and mating. Here, we examined direct and indirect costs of male harassment on components of female fitness in the predominantly monandrous mosquito Aedes aegypti. To disentangle the costs of harassment versus the costs of mating, we held females at a low or high density with males whose claspers were modified to prevent insemination, and compared these to females held with normal males and to those held with females or alone. A reduced longevity was observed when females were held under high density conditions with males or females, regardless if male claspers had been modified. There was no consistent effect of harassment on female fecundity. Net reproductive rate (R0) was higher in females held at low density with normal males compared to females held with males in the other treatments, even though only a small number of females showed direct evidence of remating. Indirect costs and benefits that were not due to harassment alone were observed. Daughters of females held with normal males at high density had reduced longevity compared to daughters from females held without conspecifics. However, their fitness (R0) was higher compared to females in all other treatments. Overall, our results indicate that A. aegypti females do not suffer a fitness cost from harassment of males when kept at moderate densities, and they suggest the potential for benefits obtained from ejaculate components. PMID:25544799

  2. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Martônio P; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Rocha-Bezerra, Lady C B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Morais, Selene M; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC(50) and LC(90) values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL), lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL) and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour) The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD(50) > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight), but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituents from primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti. PMID:21562687

  3. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae of essential oils from four Guarea species.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lyege Amazonas Maciel; Lima, Maria da Paz; Marques, Marcia Ortiz Mayo; Facanali, Roselaine; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The essential oils of four Guarea species collected at Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Except for one diterpene detected, the compounds identified in the essential oils were hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major sesquiterpenes were alpha-santalene (26.26%) and alpha-copaene (14.61%) from G. convergens branches; caryophyllene epoxide (40.91%) and humulene epoxide II (14.43%) from G. humaitensis branches; cis-caryophyllene (33.37%) and alpha-trans-bergamotene (11.88%) from G. scabra leaves; caryophyllene epoxide (36.54%) in leaves and spathulenol (14.34%) in branches from G. silvatica. The diterpene kaurene (15.61%) was found in G. silvatica leaves. Larvicidal activity assay of essential oils against third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae revealed that at higher concentrations (500 and 250 microg/mL), all the essential oils caused 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The most active essential oils were those of G. humaitensis branches (LC(50) 48.6 microg/mL), G. scabra leaves (LC(50) 98.6 microg/mL) and G. silvatica (LC(50) 117.9 microg/mL). The differences in the toxicity of essential oils of Guarea species on A. aegypti are due to qualitative and quantitative variations of the components, therefore the larvicidal effect may be due to higher amount of the sesquiterpenes with caryophyllane skeleton. PMID:20724962

  4. A case study of the influence of local weather on Aedes aegypti (L.) aging and mortality.

    PubMed

    Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; Degallier, Nicolas; Servain, Jacques; Hannart, Alexis; Durand, Bruno; de Souza, Raimundo Nonato; Ribeiro, Zolyde Mota

    2013-06-01

    The survival rate of mosquitoes is an important topic that affects many aspects of decision-making in mosquito management. This study aims to estimate the variability in the survival rate of Ae. aegypti, and climate factors that are related to such variability. It is generally assumed that the daily probability of mosquito survival is independent of natural environment conditions and age. To test this assumption, a three-year fieldwork (2005-2007) and experimental study was conducted at Fortaleza-CE in Brazil with the aim of estimating daily survival rates of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti under natural conditions in an urban city. Survival rates of mosquitoes may be age-dependent and statistical analysis is a sensitive approach for comparing patterns of mosquito survival. We studied whether weather conditions occurring on a particular day influence the mortality observed on that particular day. We therefore focused on the impact of daily meteorological fluctuations around a given climate average, rather than on the influence of climate itself. With regard to survival time, multivariate analyses using the stepwise logistic regression model, adjusted for daily temperature, relative humidity, and saturated vapor pressure deficit (SVPD), suggest that age, the seasonal factor, and the SVPD were the most dependent mortality factors. Similar results were obtained using the Cox proportional hazard model, which explores the relationships between the survival and explanatory variables. PMID:23701604

  5. Natural habitats of Aedes Aegypti in the Caribbean--a review.

    PubMed

    Chadee, D D; Ward, R A; Novak, R J

    1998-03-01

    Natural breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in the Caribbean region were reviewed by conducting larval surveys in Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and referring to records from the Mosquitoes of Middle America project. Twelve types of natural habitats were recorded: rock holes (9.7%), calabashes (2.4%), tree holes (19.5%), leaf axils (4.8%), bamboo joints (14.9%), papaya stumps (7.3%), coconut shells (4.8%), bromeliads (7.3%), ground pools (14.9%), coral rock holes (9.7%), crab holes (2.4%), and conch shells (7.3%), of which the coconut shell and calabash habitats were new to the Caribbean. The countries having the highest prevalence of natural habitats were Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, with 9 types (22.0%), 7 types (17.0%), and 6 types (14.6%), respectively. The distribution of natural habitats of Ae. aegypti in the Caribbean region is discussed in relation to vector control measures. PMID:9599318

  6. Proline can be utilized as an energy substrate during flight of Aedes aegypti females.

    PubMed

    Scaraffia, P Y; Wells, M A

    2003-06-01

    In order to determine whether proline can be utilized as fuel during flight of Aedes aegypti, proline, alanine, and glutamine concentrations were monitored at 0, 30 and 60 min after flight using sugar-fed males and females, and blood meal-fed females. In sugar-fed and blood meal-fed females, flight lead to a significant decrease in proline and a significant increase in glutamine concentration in both hemolymph and thorax. Only during flight after a blood meal was a significant increase in the alanine concentration observed in hemolymph. After flight, the proline alanine and glutamine levels in the hemolymph and thorax from males did not change significantly. In addition, activities of enzymes related to amino acid metabolism were assayed in homogenates of cephalothorax and thorax from both sexes, and in fat body and midgut from females. In both sexes, the activities of all the enzymes studied were significantly higher in thorax than in cephalothorax. The levels of the enzymes involved in proline oxidation were higher in thorax than in fat body and midgut. These results suggest that proline can be used as an energy substrate for flight muscle of Ae. aegypti females. However, the elevation in glutamine levels observed in hemolymph and thorax after flight has not been reported in other insects that fuel flight using proline and may suggest an additional mechanism for shuttling ammonia between flight muscle and fat body is present in mosquitoes. PMID:12804719

  7. Rhodopsin coexpression in UV photoreceptors of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaobang; Leming, Matthew T.; Whaley, Michelle A.; O'Tousa, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. The two species express the rhodopsin orthologs Aaop8 and Agop8, respectively, in a large subset of these R7 photoreceptors that function as ultraviolet receptors. We show here that a divergent subfamily of mosquito rhodopsins, Aaop10 and Agop10, is coexpressed in these R7 photoreceptors. The properties of the A. aegypti Aaop8 and Aaop10 rhodopsins were analyzed by creating transgenic Drosophila expressing these rhodopsins. Electroretinogram recordings, and spectral analysis of head extracts, obtained from the Aaop8 strain confirmed that Aaop8 is an ultraviolet-sensitive rhodopsin. Aaop10 was poorly expressed and capable of eliciting only small and slow light responses in Drosophila photoreceptors, and electroretinogram analysis suggested that it is a long-wavelength rhodopsin with a maximal sensitivity near 500 nm. Thus, coexpression of Aaop10 rhodopsin with Aaop8 rhodopsin has the potential to modify the spectral properties of mosquito ultraviolet receptors. Retention of Op10 rhodopsin family members in the genomes of Drosophila species suggests that this rhodopsin family may play a conserved role in insect vision. PMID:24311804

  8. Major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity activity from leaves of Foeniculum vulgare against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Ro, Hee-Myong; Moon, Huyng-In

    2011-09-01

    The leaves of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae) were extracted and the major essential oil composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses conducted by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed the essential oils of F. vulgare leaves. The F. vulgare essential oil yield was 0.97%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were methyl clavicol (46.3%), ?-phellandrene (18.2%), fenchone (10.6%), (E)-anethole (11.3%), myrcene (3.4%), and ?-pinene (2.1%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 41.23?ppm and an LC(90) value of 65.24?ppm. Also, methyl clavicol (?98.0%), ?-phellandrene (?95.0%), fenchone (?98.0%), (E)-anethole (?99.0%), myrcene (?99.0%), and ?-pinene (?99.0%) were tested against the F(21) laboratory strain of A. aegypti. Fenchone (?98.0%) and (E)-anethole (?99.0%) have medium activity with an LC(50) value of 73.11?ppm and 102.41?ppm. The above data indicate that major compounds interaction may play a more important role in the toxicity of essential oil. PMID:21077804

  9. Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Siju, KP; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:592–608, 2014. PMID:23897410

  10. The Interactive Roles of Aedes aegypti Super-Production and Human Density in Dengue Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabha, Harish; Durham, David; Correa, Fabio; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Galvani, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Background A. aegypti production and human density may vary considerably in dengue endemic areas. Understanding how interactions between these factors influence the risk of transmission could improve the effectiveness of the allocation of vector control resources. To evaluate the combined impacts of variation in A. aegypti production and human density we integrated field data with simulation modeling. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from seven censuses of A. aegypti pupae (2007–2009) and from demographic surveys, we developed an agent-based transmission model of the dengue transmission cycle across houses in 16 dengue-endemic urban ‘patches’ (1–3 city blocks each) of Armenia, Colombia. Our field data showed that 92% of pupae concentrated in only 5% of houses, defined as super-producers. Average secondary infections (R0) depended on infrequent, but highly explosive transmission events. These super-spreading events occurred almost exclusively when the introduced infectious person infected mosquitoes that were produced in super-productive containers. Increased human density favored R0, and when the likelihood of human introduction of virus was incorporated into risk, a strong interaction arose between vector production and human density. Simulated intervention of super-productive containers was substantially more effective in reducing dengue risk at higher human densities. Significance/Conclusions These results show significant interactions between human population density and the natural regulatory pattern of A. aegypti in the dynamics of dengue transmission. The large epidemiological significance of super-productive containers suggests that they have the potential to influence dengue viral adaptation to mosquitoes. Human population density plays a major role in dengue transmission, due to its potential impact on human-A. aegypti contact, both within a person's home and when visiting others. The large variation in population density within typical dengue endemic cities suggests that it should be a major consideration in dengue control policy. PMID:22953017

  11. Undesirable Consequences of Insecticide Resistance following Aedes aegypti Control Activities Due to a Dengue Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos; Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of ?80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of both public and domestic intensification of chemical control due to a dengue outbreak. PMID:24676277

  12. Community-Based Control of Aedes aegypti By Using Mesocyclops in Southern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Vu Sinh; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Duc, Hoang Minh; Tu, Tran Cong; Thang, Vu Trong; Le, Nguyen Hoang; San, Le Hoang; Loan, Luu Le; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Khanh, Ly Huynh Kim; Trang, Huynh Thi Thuy; Lam, Leonie Z. Y.; Kutcher, Simon C.; Aaskov, John G.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported a new community-based mosquito control strategy that resulted in elimination of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) in 40 of 46 communes in northern and central Vietnam, and with annual recurrent total costs (direct and indirect) of only $0.28–$0.89 international dollars per person. This control strategy was extended to four provinces in southern Vietnam in Long An and Hau Giang (2004–2007) and to Long An, Ben Tre, and Vinh Long (2005–2010). In a total of 14 communes with 124,743 residents, the mean ± SD of adult female Ae. aegypti was reduced from 0.93 ± 0.62 to 0.06 ± 0.09, and the reduction of immature Ae. aegypti averaged 98.8%. By the final survey, no adults could be collected in 6 of 14 communes, and one commune, Binh Thanh, also had no immature forms. Although the community-based programs also involved community education and clean-up campaigns, the prevalence of Mesocyclops in large water storage containers > 50 liters increased from 12.77 ± 8.39 to 75.69 ± 9.17% over periods of 15–45 months. At the conclusion of the study, no confirmed dengue cases were detected in four of the five communes for which diagnostic serologic analysis was performed. The rate of progress was faster in communes that were added in stages to the program but the reason for this finding was unclear. At the completion of the formal project, sustainability funds were set up to provide each commune with the financial means to ensure that community-based dengue control activities continued. PMID:22556087

  13. Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron

    PubMed Central

    Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, José M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes. PMID:22291942

  14. TEMPERATURE INDUCES TRADE-OFFS BETWEEN DEVELOPMENT AND STARVATION RESISTANCE IN AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) LARVAE

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabha, H; Lord, CC; Lounibos, LP

    2011-01-01

    While heightened temperature increases the development rate of mosquitoes, for Aedes aegypti, larvae that commonly experience food limitation in urban habitats, temperature effects on adult production may also be influenced by changes in the capacity of larvae to survive without food. We carried out experiments at 2°C intervals between 20 and 30°C on the growth, maturation rate and the longevity of optimally fed larvae placed in starvation. Overall, both growth rate and starvation resistance were lower in the first three larval instars (L1-L3) as compared to L4, in which greater than 75% of growth occurred. While increased temperature reduced the duration of each instar, it had a U-shaped impact the effect of initial growth on starvation resistance, which increased from L1 to L2 at 20 and 30°C, remained constant at 22 and 28°C, and decreased at 24 and 26°C. Growth from L2 to L3 significantly increased starvation resistance only from 26-30°C. Increased temperature (above 22°C) consistently reduced starvation resistance in L1. In L2-L4, 2°C increments decreased starvation resistance between 20 and 24°C, but had weaker and instar-specific effects above 24°C. These data show that starvation resistance in Ae. aegypti depends on both instar and temperature, generating a tradeoff between increased development rate and reduced starvation survival of early instar larvae, particularly in the lower and middle temperatures of the dengue endemic 20-30°C range. We suggest that anabolic and catabolic processes in larvae have distinct temperature dependencies, which may ultimately cause temperature to modify density regulation of Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21410734

  15. Physiological and morphological aspects of Aedes aegypti developing larvae: effects of the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron.

    PubMed

    Farnesi, Luana C; Brito, José M; Linss, Jutta G; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L

    2012-01-01

    Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes. PMID:22291942

  16. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50<100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  17. Temperature induces trade-offs between development and starvation resistance in Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae.

    PubMed

    Padmanabha, H; Lord, C C; Lounibos, L P

    2011-12-01

    Heightened temperature increases the development rate of mosquitoes. However, in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), the larvae of which commonly experience limited access to food in urban habitats, temperature effects on adult production may also be influenced by changes in the capacity of larvae to survive without food. We carried out experiments to investigate the effects of temperatures increasing at intervals of 2 °C from 20 °C to 30 °C on the growth, maturation rate and longevity of optimally fed larvae placed in starvation. Overall, both growth rate and starvation resistance were lower in the first three larval instars (L1-L3) compared with L4, in which growth of >75% occurred. Although increasing the temperature reduced the duration of each instar, it had a U-shaped impact in terms of the effect of initial growth on starvation resistance, which increased from L1 to L2 at 20 °C and 30 °C, remained constant at 22 °C and 28 °C, and decreased at 24 °C and 26 °C. Growth from L2 to L3 significantly increased starvation resistance only from 26 °C to 30 °C. Increased temperature (>22 °C) consistently reduced starvation resistance in L1. In L2-L4, increments of 2 °C decreased starvation resistance between 20 °C and 24 °C, but had weaker and instar-specific effects at >24 °C. These data show that starvation resistance in Ae. aegypti depends on both instar and temperature, indicating a trade-off between increased development rate and reduced starvation survival of early-instar larvae, particularly in the lower and middle temperatures of the dengue-endemic range of 20-30 °C. We suggest that anabolic and catabolic processes in larvae have distinct temperature dependencies, which may ultimately cause temperature to modify the density regulation of Ae. aegypti populations. PMID:21410734

  18. Determinants of Heterogeneous Blood Feeding Patterns by Aedes aegypti in Iquitos, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Kelly A.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Reiner, Robert C.; Perkins, T. Alex; Astete, Helvio; Sihuincha, Moises; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Morrison, Amy C.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterogeneous mosquito biting results in different individuals in a population receiving an uneven number of bites. This is a feature of many vector-borne disease systems that, if understood, could guide preventative control efforts toward individuals who are expected to contribute most to pathogen transmission. We aimed to characterize factors determining biting patterns of Aedes aegypti, the principal mosquito vector of dengue virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Engorged female Ae. aegypti and human cheek swabs were collected from 19 houses in Iquitos, Peru. We recorded the body size, age, and sex of 275 consenting residents. Movement in and out of the house over a week (time in house) and mosquito abundance were recorded on eight separate occasions in each household over twelve months. We identified the individuals bitten by 96 engorged mosquitoes over this period by amplifying specific human microsatellite markers in mosquito blood meals and human cheek swabs. Using a multinomial model assuming a saturating relationship (power), we found that, relative to other residents of a home, an individual's likelihood of being bitten in the home was directly proportional to time spent in their home and body surface area (p<0.05). A linear function fit the relationship equally well (?AIC<1). Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that larger people and those who spend more time at home are more likely to receive Ae. aegypti bites in their homes than other household residents. These findings are consistent with the idea that measurable characteristics of individuals can inform predictions of the extent to which different people will be bitten. This has implications for an improved understanding of heterogeneity in different people's contributions to pathogen transmission, and enhanced interventions that include the people and places that contribute most to pathogen amplification and spread. PMID:24551262

  19. Diffusion of community empowerment strategies for Aedes aegypti control in Cuba: a muddling through experience.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Dennis; Lefèvre, Pierre; Castro, Marta; Toledo, María Eugenia; Zamora, Gilberto; Bonet, Mariano; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Effective participatory strategies in dengue control have been developed and assessed as small-scale efforts. The challenge is to scale-up and institutionalize these strategies within dengue control programs. We describe and critically analyze the diffusion process of an effective empowerment strategy within the Cuban Aedes aegypti control program, focusing on decision-making at the national level, to identify ways forward to institutionalize such strategies in Cuba and elsewhere. From 2005 to 2009, we carried out a process-oriented case study. We used participant observation, in-depth interviews with key informants involved in the diffusion process and document analysis. In a first phase, the data analysis was inductive. In a second phase, to enhance robustness of the analysis, emerging categories were contrasted with Rogers' five-stage conceptual model of the innovation-decision process, which was eventually used as the analytical framework. The diffusion of the empowerment strategy was a continuous and dynamic process. Adoption was a result of the perceived potential match between the innovative empowerment strategy and the performance gap of the Ae. aegypti control program. During implementation, the strategy was partially modified by top level Ae. aegypti control program decision-makers to accommodate program characteristics. However, structure, practices and organizational culture of the control program did not change significantly. Thus rejection occurred. It was mainly due to insufficient dissemination of know-how and underlying principles of the strategy by innovation developers, but also to resistance to change. The innovation-diffusion process has produced mitigated results to date, and the control program is still struggling to find ways to move forward. Improving the innovation strategy by providing the necessary knowledge about the innovation and addressing control program organizational changes is crucial for successful diffusion of empowerment strategies. Issues highlighted in this particular experience might be relevant in the innovation-diffusion process of other complex innovations within health systems. PMID:23517703

  20. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    TOTTEN, Daniel C.; VUONG, Mai; LITVINOVA, Oksana V.; JINWAL, Umesh K.; GULIA-NUSS, Monika; HARRELL, Robert A.; BENEŠ, Helen

    2014-01-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth-instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no E. coli ?-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body. However, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at all stages examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. PMID:23241066

  1. Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Dubrulle; Laurence Mousson; Sara Moutailler; Marie Vazeille; Anna-Bella Failloux

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V) which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus .A sAe. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as

  2. Water Use Practices Limit the Effectiveness of a Temephos-Based Aedes aegypti Larval Control Program in Northern Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando M. Garelli; Manuel O. Espinosa; Diego Weinberg; María A. Trinelli; Ricardo E. Gürtler

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundA five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions.MethodologyThe duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most

  3. Development and characterization of a double subgenomic chikungunya virus infectious clone to express heterologous genes in Aedes aegypti mosqutioes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana L. Vanlandingham; Konstantin Tsetsarkin; Chao Hong; Kimberly Klingler; Kate L. McElroy; Michael J. Lehane; Stephen Higgs

    2005-01-01

    Three full-length infectious cDNA clones based on the alphavirus chikungunya (CHIKV) were developed and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The full-length clone retained the viral phenotypes of CHIKV in both cell culture and in mosquitoes and should be a valuable tool for the study of virus interactions in an epidemiologically significant natural vector, Aedes aegypti. Two additional infectious clones

  4. Oligomerization of Cry11Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis Has an Important Role in Toxicity against Aedes aegypti?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Aguilar, Jose N.; Portugal, Leivi; Gómez, Isabel; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa of Bacillus thuringiensis are active against mosquitoes and show synergism. Cyt1Aa functions as a membrane receptor inducing Cry11Aa oligomerization. Here we characterized Cry11Aa helix ?-3 mutants impaired in oligomerization and toxicity against Aedes aegypti, indicating that oligomerization of Cry11Aa is important for toxin action. Cyt1Aa did not recover the insecticidal activity of Cry11Aa mutants. PMID:19820153

  5. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Il-Kwon Park

    2011-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD50 values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4?µg\\/?) followed by guineensine (1.9?µg\\/?), retrofractamide A (2.4?µg\\/?) and pipercide (3.2?µg\\/?).

  6. Repellent and adulticide efficacy of a combination containing 10% imidacloprid and 50% permethrin against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonthaya Tiawsirisup; Suwannee Nithiuthai; Morakot Kaewthamasorn

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the repellent and adulticide efficacy of the combination containing 10% imidacloprid and\\u000a 50% permethrin against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dogs. Blood-feeding success rates of the mosquitoes that were exposed to the treated dogs were 4.9 and 4.4%\\u000a on days 3 and 7 post the combination application (PCA), respectively, and blood-feeding success rates increased to 6.3,

  7. Identification and characterization of germline-specific promoters for remobilization of transgenes in the mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae

    E-print Network

    Hagen, Darren Erich

    2009-05-15

    .1. Defining the Problem ........................................................................ 1 1.1.1. Mosquito-borne pathogens.................................................... 1 1.1.2. Aedes aegypti, the Yellow Fever mosquito... vector for the pathogens that cause Yellow Fever and Dengue Fever. Ten to fifty million people contract Dengue Fever each year, leading to thousands of deaths. An additional 30,000 people die annually as a result of Yellow Fever (Centers for Disease...

  8. Exploring new thermal fog and ultra-low volume technologies to improve indoor control of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Farooq, Muhammad; Richardson, Alec G; Doud, Carl W; Putnam, John L; Szumlas, Daniel E; Richardson, Jason H

    2014-07-01

    Control of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efficiently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue outbreaks. As part of abroad study to assess the efficacy of dengue vector control tools for the U.S. Military, two pesticide delivery systems (ultra-low volume [ULV] and thermal fog) were evaluated for their ability to provide immediate control of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a contact insecticide inside simulated urban structures. An insect growth regulator was also applied to determine how well each sprayer delivered lethal doses of active ingredient to indoor water containers for pupal control. Mortality of caged Ae. aegypti, pesticide droplet size, and droplet deposition were recorded after applications. In addition, larval and pupal mortality was measured from treated water samples for 4 wk after the applications. The ULV and the thermal fogger performed equally well in delivering lethal doses of adulticide throughout the structures. The ULV resulted in greater larval mortality and adult emergence inhibition in the water containers for a longer period than the thermal fogger. Therefore, the ULV technology is expected to be a better tool for sustained vector suppression when combined with an effective insect growth regulator. However, during a dengue outbreak, either delivery system should provide an immediate knockdown of vector populations that may lower the risk of infection and allow other suppression strategies to be implemented. PMID:25118418

  9. First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.

    PubMed

    Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

  10. Molecular characterization of genes encoding trypsin-like enzymes from Aedes aegypti larvae and identification of digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Tatiane S; Watanabe, Renata M O; Lemos, Francisco J A; Tanaka, Aparecida S

    2011-12-10

    Trypsin-like enzymes play an important role in the Aedes aegypti digestive process. The trypsin-like enzymes present in adults were characterized previously, but little is known about trypsins in larvae. In the present work, we identified one of the trypsin enzymes from Ae. aegypti larval midgut using a library of trypsin gene fragments, which was the sequence known as AAEL005607 from the Ae. aegypti genome. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that AAEL005607 was transcribed in all larval instars, but it was not present in adult midgut. In order to confirm transcription data, the trypsin-like enzymes from 4th instar larvae of Ae. aegypti midgut were purified and sequenced. Purified trypsin showed identity with the amino-terminal sequence of AAEL005607, AAEL005609 and AAEL005614. These three trypsins have high amino acids identity, and could all be used as a template for the design of inhibitors. In conclusion, for the first time, digestive enzymes of 4th larval instar of Ae. aegypti were purified and characterized. The knowledge of digestive enzymes present in Ae. aegypti larvae may be helpful in the development of a larvicide. PMID:21914468

  11. Modeling dengue vector dynamics under imperfect detection: three years of site-occupancy by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in urban Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Torres, Samael D; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Luz, Sergio L B; Zamora-Perea, Elvira; Abad-Franch, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the vectors of dengue, the most important arboviral disease of humans. To date, Aedes ecology studies have assumed that the vectors are truly absent from sites where they are not detected; since no perfect detection method exists, this assumption is questionable. Imperfect detection may bias estimates of key vector surveillance/control parameters, including site-occupancy (infestation) rates and control intervention effects. We used a modeling approach that explicitly accounts for imperfect detection and a 38-month, 55-site detection/non-detection dataset to quantify the effects of municipality/state control interventions on Aedes site-occupancy dynamics, considering meteorological and dwelling-level covariates. Ae. aegypti site-occupancy estimates (mean 0.91; range 0.79-0.97) were much higher than reported by routine surveillance based on 'rapid larval surveys' (0.03; 0.02-0.11) and moderately higher than directly ascertained with oviposition traps (0.68; 0.50-0.91). Regular control campaigns based on breeding-site elimination had no measurable effects on the probabilities of dwelling infestation by dengue vectors. Site-occupancy fluctuated seasonally, mainly due to the negative effects of high maximum (Ae. aegypti) and minimum (Ae. albopictus) summer temperatures (June-September). Rainfall and dwelling-level covariates were poor predictors of occupancy. The marked contrast between our estimates of adult vector presence and the results from 'rapid larval surveys' suggests, together with the lack of effect of local control campaigns on infestation, that many Aedes breeding sites were overlooked by vector control agents in our study setting. Better sampling strategies are urgently needed, particularly for the reliable assessment of infestation rates in the context of control program management. The approach we present here, combining oviposition traps and site-occupancy models, could greatly contribute to that crucial aim. PMID:23472194

  12. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Costa, Ana L S; Conceição, Adilva S; Moura, Flávia de B Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC(50) 83.426?mg/L and LC(50) 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC(50) 0.94?mg/L, LC(50) 13.51?mg/L, and LC(50) 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  13. Bioactivity Evaluation of Plant Extracts Used in Indigenous Medicine against the Snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, and the Larvae of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Edilson Alves; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Costa, Ana L. S.; Conceição, Adilva S.; Moura, Flávia de B. Prado; Santana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the molluscicidal and larvicidal activity of eight plants that are used in the traditional medicine of the Pankararé indigenous people in the Raso da Catarina region, Bahia state, Brazil. The tested plants were chosen based on the results of previous studies. Only those plants that were used either as insect repellents or to treat intestinal parasitic infections were included in the study. Crude extracts (CEs) of these plants were tested for their larvicidal activity (against Aedes aegypti larvae in the fourth instar) and molluscicidal activity (against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata). The plant species Scoparia dulcis and Helicteres velutina exhibited the best larvicidal activities (LC50 83.426?mg/L and LC50 138.896?mg/L, resp.), and Poincianella pyramidalis, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Mimosa tenuiflora presented the best molluscicidal activities (LC50 0.94?mg/L, LC50 13.51?mg/L, and LC50 20.22?mg/L, resp.). As we used crude extracts as the tested materials, further study is warranted to isolate and purify the most active compounds. PMID:22194773

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Differential responses of the mosquito Aedes

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Bella Failloux1* Abstract Background: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both vectors of chikungunya virus as the virus could be found in saliva as early as two days after infection. An important question is whether between responses of mosquito species to the two viruses, (2) CHIKV infection only affected significantly

  15. Laboratory evaluation of the development of Aedes aegypti in two seasons: influence of different places and different densities.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Tatiana Forte; Holcman, Marcia Moreira; Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Domingos, Maria de Fatima; Barreiros, Rosa Maria Oliveira Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector in Brazil being the main vector of the dengue-fever. This paper employs survival curves to describe the time in days from larvae to adult forms of Aedes aegypti raised, individually and collectively, and compares it during winter and spring when positioned inside and outside a laboratory. The study was conducted in São Vicente, a coastal city in Southeastern Brazil. The lowest water temperature in winter and in spring was 20 °C and the highest was 26 °C in spring. Higher and more stable temperatures were measured in the intra compared to the peri in both seasons. Consequently, larvae positioned in the intra resulted in the lowest median time to develop in the individual and collective experiment (nine and ten days, respectively). At least 25% of the larvae positioned in the intra in the individual experiment in the spring took only seven days to reach adulthood. Sex ratios and the median time development by sex did not show significant differences. These results indicate that efforts to control Aedes aegypti must be continuous and directed mainly to prevent the intra-domiciliary sites that can be infested in a week in order to reduce the human-vector contact. PMID:25229215

  16. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF Aedes aegypti IN TWO SEASONS: INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PLACES AND DIFFERENT DENSITIES

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Tatiana Forte; Holcman, Marcia Moreira; Barbosa, Gerson Laurindo; Domingos, Maria de Fatima; Barreiros, Rosa Maria Oliveira Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector in Brazil being the main vector of the dengue-fever. This paper employs survival curves to describe the time in days from larvae to adult forms of Aedes aegypti raised, individually and collectively, and compares it during winter and spring when positioned inside and outside a laboratory. The study was conducted in São Vicente, a coastal city in Southeastern Brazil. The lowest water temperature in winter and in spring was 20 °C and the highest was 26 °C in spring. Higher and more stable temperatures were measured in the intra compared to the peri in both seasons. Consequently, larvae positioned in the intra resulted in the lowest median time to develop in the individual and collective experiment (nine and ten days, respectively). At least 25% of the larvae positioned in the intra in the individual experiment in the spring took only seven days to reach adulthood. Sex ratios and the median time development by sex did not show significant differences. These results indicate that efforts to control Aedes aegypti must be continuous and directed mainly to prevent the intra-domiciliary sites that can be infested in a week in order to reduce the human-vector contact. PMID:25229215

  17. Larval Development of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Peri-Urban Brackish Water and Its Implications for Transmission of Arboviral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Dharshini, Sangaralingam; Vinobaba, Muthuladchumy

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus Skuse mosquitoes transmit serious human arboviral diseases including yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Females of the two species have adapted to undergo preimaginal development in natural or artificial collections of freshwater near human habitations and feed on human blood. While there is an effective vaccine against yellow fever, the control of dengue and chikungunya is mainly dependent on reducing freshwater preimaginal development habitats of the two vectors. We show here that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus lay eggs and their larvae survive to emerge as adults in brackish water (water with <0.5 ppt or parts per thousand, 0.5–30 ppt and >30 ppt salt are termed fresh, brackish and saline respectively). Brackish water with salinity of 2 to 15 ppt in discarded plastic and glass containers, abandoned fishing boats and unused wells in coastal peri-urban environment were found to contain Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Relatively high incidence of dengue in Jaffna city, Sri Lanka was observed in the vicinity of brackish water habitats containing Ae. aegypti larvae. These observations raise the possibility that brackish water-adapted Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may play a hitherto unrecognized role in transmitting dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever in coastal urban areas. National and international health authorities therefore need to take the findings into consideration and extend their vector control efforts, which are presently focused on urban freshwater habitats, to include brackish water larval development habitats. PMID:22132243

  18. [Genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by mitochondrial gene ND4 analysis in eleven endemic areas for dengue in Peru].

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Pamela; Mamani, Enrique; Valle, Jorge; García, María Paquita; León, Walter; Villaseca, Pablo; Torres, Dina; Cabezas, César

    2013-04-01

    In order to establish the genetic variability of Aedes aegypti determined by the analysis of the MT-ND4 gene, in eleven endemic regions for dengue in Peru, 51 samples of Ae. Aegypti were tested. The genetic variability was determined through the amplification and sequencing of a fragment of 336 base-pairs of MT ND4, the analysis of intra-specific phylogeny was conducted with the Network Ver. 4.6.10 program; and the phylogenetic analysis, with the Neighbor Joining distance method. The presence of five haplotypes of Ae. Aegypti grouped in two lineages was identified: the first one includes haplotypes 1, 3 and 5, and the second one comprises haplotypes 2 and 4. The geographic distribution of each of the haplotypes found is also shown. It is concluded that this variability is caused by the active migration of this vector and the human activity-mediated passive migration. PMID:23949510

  19. High Level of Vector Competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Ten American Countries as a Crucial Factor in the Spread of Chikungunya Virus

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Rúa, Anubis; Zouache, Karima; Girod, Romain

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a major public health problem. In 2004, CHIKV began an unprecedented global expansion and has been responsible for epidemics in Africa, Asia, islands in the Indian Ocean region, and surprisingly, in temperate regions, such as Europe. Intriguingly, no local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had been reported in the Americas until recently, despite the presence of vectors and annually reported imported cases. Here, we assessed the vector competence of 35 American Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito populations for three CHIKV genotypes. We also compared the number of viral particles of different CHIKV strains in mosquito saliva at two different times postinfection. Primarily, viral dissemination rates were high for all mosquito populations irrespective of the tested CHIKV isolate. In contrast, differences in transmission efficiency (TE) were underlined in populations of both species through the Americas, suggesting the role of salivary glands in selecting CHIKV for highly efficient transmission. Nonetheless, both mosquito species were capable of transmitting all three CHIKV genotypes, and TE reached alarming rates as high as 83.3% and 96.7% in A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations, respectively. A. albopictus better transmitted the epidemic mutant strain CHIKV_0621 of the East-Central-South African (ECSA) genotype than did A. aegypti, whereas the latter species was more capable of transmitting the original ECSA CHIKV_115 strain and also the Asian genotype CHIKV_NC. Therefore, a high risk of establishment and spread of CHIKV throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more real than ever. IMPORTANCE Until recently, the Americas had never reported chikungunya (CHIK) autochthonous transmission despite its global expansion beginning in 2004. Large regions of the continent are highly infested with Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and millions of dengue (DEN) cases are annually recorded. Indeed, DEN virus and CHIK virus (CHIKV) share the same vectors. Due to a recent CHIK outbreak affecting Caribbean islands, the need for a Pan-American evaluation of vector competence was compelling as a key parameter in assessing the epidemic risk. We demonstrated for the first time that A. aegypti and A. albopictus populations throughout the continent are highly competent to transmit CHIK irrespective of the viral genotypes tested. The risk of CHIK spreading throughout the tropical, subtropical, and even temperate regions of the Americas is more than ever a reality. In light of our results, local authorities should immediately pursue and reinforce epidemiological and entomological surveillance to avoid a severe epidemic. PMID:24672026

  20. Suppression of Brugia malayi (sub-periodic) larval development in Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain) fed on blood of animals immunized with microfilariae.

    PubMed

    Mary, K Athisaya; Paily, K P; Hoti, S L

    2005-07-01

    Preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the role of filarial specific antibodies, raised in an animal model against the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi (sub-periodic), in blocking their early development in an experimental mosquito host, Aedes aegypti (Liverpool strain). In order to generate filarial specific antibodies, Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, were immunized either with live microfilariae (mf) of B. malayi or their homogenate. Mf were harvested from the peritoneal cavity of Mongolian gerbils with patent infection of B. malayi and fed to A. aegypti along with the blood from immunized animals. Development of the parasite in infected mosquitoes was monitored until they reached infective stage larvae (L3). Fewer number of parasites developed to first stage (L1) and subsequently to L2 and L3 in mosquitoes fed with blood of immunized animals, when compared to those fed with blood of control animals. The results thus indicated that filarial parasite specific antibodies present in the blood of the immunized animals resulted in the reduction of number of larvae of B. malayi developing in the mosquito host. PMID:16113889

  1. Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dogs.

    PubMed

    Franc, Michel; Genchi, Claudio; Bouhsira, Emilie; Warin, Stephan; Kaltsatos, Vassilios; Baduel, Laure; Genchi, Marc

    2012-10-26

    A spot-on formulation combining permethrin, dinotefuran and pyriproxyfen (Vectra 3D™ spot-on solution for dogs - one 10-25 kg pipette contains 196 mg dinotefuran, 1429 mg permethrin and 17 mg pyriproxyfen) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study designed to measure its efficacy to control Aedes aegypti (anti-feeding effect and mortality effect). The trial was performed according to Animal Welfare and Good Clinical Practice. Twelve dogs (five males and seven female, >3 years old, weighing 8.8-13.0 kg) were randomly allocated to treatment groups on pre-treatment mosquito counts: six dogs served as untreated controls, and six dogs were treated with the test formulation. Treatment consisted of applying a combination formulation to deliver at least 46.6 mg kg(-1) permethrin, 6.40 mg kg(-1) dinotefuran and 0.57 mg kg(-1) pyriproxyfen. The combination is designed to control fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. Each dog was infested with approximately 100 adult unfed A. aegypti once before treatment (day 6) then at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Counts and engorgement determination of dead and live mosquitoes were performed after 1h exposure period. In the treated group (group A), the repellency effect of the product based on engorgement status (anti-feeding effect), was 91.5%, 94%, 94.7%, 94% and 87% at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Mortality effect or insecticidal efficacy calculated at the end of the 1-h exposure was almost identical when calculated 24h after the 1-h exposure and remained above 93% until the end of the in-life phase. No adverse events were observed following treatment, including observations conducted 2, 4 and 24h after the last dog was treated. PMID:22709947

  2. Evaluation of a sampling methodology for rapid assessment of Aedes aegypti infestation levels in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A C; Astete, H; Chapilliquen, F; Ramirez-Prada, C; Diaz, Gloria; Getis, A; Gray, K; Scott, T W

    2004-05-01

    An epidemic of dengue during 2001 in Northwestern Peru reemphasized the need for efficient, accurate, and economical vector surveillance. Between November 1998 and January 1999, we carried out extensive entomological surveys in two neighborhoods of approximately 600 contiguous houses located in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, providing a unique opportunity to evaluate the Aedes aegypti (L.) rapid assessment survey strategy. Based on Pan American Health Organization recommendations, this strategy is used by the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MOH). In our analysis all household locations, including closed and unoccupied houses, were georeferenced and displayed in a geographic information system, which facilitated simulations of MOH surveys based on hypothetical systematic sampling transects. Larval, pupal, and adult mosquito indices were calculated for each simulation (n = 10) and compared with the indices calculated from the complete data set (n = 4). The range of indices calculated from simulations was moderately high, but included actual indices. For example, simulation ranges for house indices (HI, percentage of infested houses from complete survey) were 38-56% (45%), 36-42% (38%), 21-34% (30%), and 13-33% (27%) in four surveys. HI, Breteau index, pupae per hectare, adult index, and adults per hectare were more robust entomological indicators (coefficient of variation [CV]/mean = 0.1-2.9) than the container index, pupae per person, pupae per house, adults per person, and adults per house (CV/mean >20). Our results demonstrate that the MOH's Ae. aegypti risk assessment program provides reasonable estimates of indices based on samples from every house. However, it is critical that future studies investigate the association of these indices with rates of virus transmission to determine whether sampling variability will negatively impact the application of indices in a public health context. PMID:15185957

  3. Evaluation of Household Bleach as an Ovicide for the Control of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Andrew J; Amador, Manuel; Felix, Gilberto; Acevedo, Veronica; Barrera, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Accumulations of dormant eggs in container habitats allow Aedes aegypti populations to survive harsh environmental conditions and may frustrate control interventions directed at larval and adult life stages. While sodium hypochlorite solutions (NaOCl) have long been recognized as ovicides for use against dengue vectors, the susceptibility of eggs to spray applications has not been robustly evaluated on substrate materials representative of the most frequently utilized artificial container habitats. Experiments were performed under controlled and natural conditions by applying dilutions of household bleach (52.5 ppt NaOCl) as a spray to eggs on plastic, rubber, and concrete surfaces, with and without a smectite clay thickener. Laboratory assays identified the minimum NaOCl concentrations required to eliminate eggs on plastic (10 ppt), rubber (20 ppt) and concrete (20 ppt) surfaces. Addition of smectite clay reduced the minimum effective concentration to 10 ppt NaOCl for all 3 substrates. A minimum exposure period of 24 h was required to completely eliminate egg viability on concrete surfaces, even at the highest NaOCl concentration (52.5 ppt). Field experiments verified that spray application of a 1?3 dilution of household bleach mixed with smectite clay can reduce egg hatching by ? 99% in shaded and sun-exposed plastic containers. Similarly, 4?1 dilution of household bleach (with or without smectite clay) eliminated ? 98% of eggs from concrete surfaces in outdoor, water-filled drums. In this study, we propose a practical, effective and safe strategy for using household bleach to eliminate Ae. aegypti eggs in a range of artificial container habitats. PMID:25843179

  4. The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal

    PubMed Central

    Price, David P.; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Churbanov, Alexander; Houde, Peter; Milligan, Brook; Drake, Lisa L.; Gustafson, John E.; Hansen, Immo A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding. Results We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF) and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM). 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families. Conclusion The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding. PMID:21818341

  5. AaCAT1 of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Shiao, Shin-Hong; Voronov, Dmitri A.; Meleshkevitch, Ella A.; Drake, Lisa L.; Aguirre, Sarah E.; Fox, Jeffrey M.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    Insect yolk protein precursor gene expression is regulated by nutritional and endocrine signals. A surge of amino acids in the hemolymph of blood-fed female mosquitoes activates a nutrient signaling system in the fat bodies, which subsequently derepresses yolk protein precursor genes and makes them responsive to activation by steroid hormones. Orphan transporters of the SLC7 family were identified as essential upstream components of the nutrient signaling system in the fat body of fruit flies and the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. However, the transport function of these proteins was unknown. We report expression and functional characterization of AaCAT1, cloned from the fat body of A. aegypti. Expression of AaCAT1 transcript and protein undergoes dynamic changes during postembryonic development of the mosquito. Transcript expression was especially high in the third and fourth larval stages; however, the AaCAT1 protein was detected only in pupa and adult stages. Functional expression and analysis of AaCAT1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that it acts as a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter, with unique selectivity to l-histidine at neutral pH (K0.5l-His = 0.34 ± 0.07 mm, pH 7.2). Acidification to pH 6.2 dramatically increases AaCAT1-specific His+-induced current. RNAi-mediated silencing of AaCAT1 reduces egg yield of subsequent ovipositions. Our data show that AaCAT1 has notable differences in its transport mechanism when compared with related mammalian cationic amino acid transporters. It may execute histidine-specific transport and signaling in mosquito tissues. PMID:21262963

  6. Prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. (Sarcomastigophora: Acanthamoebidae) in wild populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Otta, Dayane Andriotti; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Carlesso, Ana Maris; da Silva, Onilda Santos

    2012-11-01

    Studies of interrelationship between microorganisms and mosquitoes are of great importance, since it can provide support for better understand related to biology, development and their control. In this way, it is known that mosquito larvae and free-living amoebae (FLA) normally occupy similar aquatic microhabitats. However, few studies have been conducted about such coexistence. For that reason, the objective of the present study was to verify the prevalence of Acanthamoeba spp. in wild populations of Aedes aegypti, as well as to characterize the genotypic lineage, and their possible pathogenicity through thermo- and osmotolerance. Amoebae were investigated in 60 pools, each containing ten larvae of A. aegypti, collected in Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). The Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically characterized and submitted to the polymerase chain reaction technique to confirm identification of the genus. In addition, genotype analyses as well as tests for presumptive pathogenicity in some samples were performed. Of the 60 pools examined, 54 (90 %) were positive for FLA. Of these isolates, 47 (87 %) belonged to the genus Acanthamoeba. The genotypic groups T4, T3 and T5 were identified, numbering 14 (53.8 %), ten (38.5 %) and two (7.7 %) isolates, respectively. The physiological tests performed with 14 strains showed that 12 (85.7 %) were non-pathogenic, while two (14.3 %) were considered as having low pathogenic potential. These results provide a basis for a better understanding of the interaction between these protozoan and mosquitoes in their natural habitat. This study is the first to report the isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from wild mosquitoes. PMID:22828934

  7. Larvicidal activity of Copaifera sp. (Leguminosae) oleoresin microcapsules against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Luiz Alberto; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Vieira, Edna da Silva; Nascimento, Mariane Pires do; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Kulkamp-Guerreiro, Irene Clemes; Silva, Onilda Santos da

    2012-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated the potential of Copaifera sp. oleoresin to control Aedes aegypti proliferation. However, the low water solubility is a factor that limits its applicability. Thus, the micro- or nanoencapsulation could be an alternative to allow its use in larval breeding places. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if achievable lethal concentrations could be obtained from Copaifera sp. oleoresin incorporated into polymers (synthetic or natural) and, mainly, if it can be sustained in the residual activity compared to the pure oil when tested against the A. aegypti larvae. Microcapsules were prepared by the process of emulsification/precipitation using the polymers of cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (PEMA), yielding four types of microcapsules: MicPEMA? and MicPEMA?, and MicCA? and MicCA?. When using only Copaifera sp. oleoresin, the larvicidal activity was observed at concentrations of LC???=?48 mg/L and LC???=?149 mg/L. For MicPEMA?, the LC?? and LC?? were 78 and 389 mg/L, respectively. Using MicPEMA?, the LC?? was 120 mg/L and LC?? > 500 mg/L. For microcapsules MicCA? and MicCA?, the LC?? and LC?? were 42, 164, 140, and 398 mg/L, respectively. For a dose of 150 mg/L of pure oleoresin, the residual activity remained above 20% for 10 days, while the dose of 400 mg/L remained above 40% for 21 days. The MicPEMA? microcapsules showed a loss in residual activity up to the first day; however, it remained in activity above 40% for 17 days. The microcapsules of MicCA? showed similar LC?? of pure oil with 150 mg/L. PMID:21850452

  8. Modeling the Non-Stationary Climate Dependent Temporal Dynamics of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Taynãna C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Nobre, Aline A.; Eiras, Álvaro E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Temperature and humidity strongly affect the physiology, longevity, fecundity and dispersal behavior of Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever. Contrastingly, the statistical associations measured between time series of mosquito abundance and meteorological variables are often weak and contradictory. Here, we investigated the significance of these relationships at different time scales. Methods and Findings A time series of the adult mosquito abundance from a medium-sized city in Brazil, lasting 109 weeks was analyzed. Meteorological variables included temperature, precipitation, wind velocity and humidity. As analytical tools, generalized linear models (GLM) with time lags and interaction terms were used to identify average effects while the wavelet analysis was complementarily used to identify transient associations. The fitted GLM showed that mosquito abundance is significantly affected by the interaction between lagged temperature and humidity, and also by the mosquito abundance a week earlier. Extreme meteorological variables were the best predictors, and the mosquito population tended to increase at values above and 54% humidity. The wavelet analysis identified non-stationary local effects of these meteorological variables on abundance throughout the study period, with peaks in the spring-summer period. The wavelet detected weak but significant effects for precipitation and wind velocity. Conclusion Our results support the presence of transient relationships between meteorological variables and mosquito abundance. Such transient association may be explained by the ability of Ae. aegypti to buffer part of its response to climate, for example, by choosing sites with proper microclimate. We also observed enough coupling between the abundance and meteorological variables to develop a model with good predictive power. Extreme values of meteorological variables with time lags, interaction terms and previous mosquito abundance are strong predictors and should be considered when understanding the climate effect on mosquito abundance and population growth. PMID:23976939

  9. Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: Comparison of House Index with Four Alternative Traps

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia T.; Lima, Arthur W. S.; Araújo, Simone C.; Lima, José Bento P.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A.; Galardo, Allan K. R.; Braga, Ima A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. Methods The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. Results The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. Conclusions All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. PMID:25668559

  10. Bioactivity of seagrass against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0?604 ± 0.0?040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0?972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity. PMID:23569973

  11. Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT. However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (? 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti. PMID:25242559

  12. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program. PMID:25368088

  13. Toxicity of thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Ali, Abbas; Ur Rehman, Junaid; Mamonov, Leonid K; Cantrell, Charles L; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-07-01

    Structure?activity relationships of nine thiophenes, 2,2':?5',2?-terthiophene (1), 2-chloro-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-1-yl acetate (2), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)but-3-yne-1,2-diyl diacetate (3), 4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yne-1,2-diyl diacetate (4), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)-2-hydroxybut-3-yn-1-yl acetate (5), 2-hydroxy-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-1-yl acetate (6), 1-hydroxy-4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yn-2-yl acetate (7), 4-(2,2'-bithiophen-5-yl)but-3-yne-1,2-diol (8), and 4-[5-(penta-1,3-diyn-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl]but-3-yne-1,2-diol (9), isolated from the roots of Echinops transiliensis, were studied as larvicides against Aedes aegypti. Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3?) and C(4?), and resulted in variations in efficacy. Terthiophene 1 showed the highest activity (LC50 , 0.16??g/ml) among compounds 1-9, followed by bithiophene compounds 3 (LC50 , 4.22??g/ml), 5 (LC50 , 7.45??g/ml), and 8 (LC50 , 9.89??g/ml), and monothiophene compounds 9 (LC50 , 12.45??g/ml), 2 (LC50 , 14.71??g/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95??g/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55??g/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97??g/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of thiophenes increase with increasing number of thiophene rings, and the most important active site in the structure of thiophenes could be the tetrahydro-thiophene moiety. In bithiophenes, 3, 5, and 8, A. aegypti larvicidal activity increased with increasing number of AcO groups attached to C(3?) or C(4?), indicating that AcO groups may play an important role in the larvicidal activity. PMID:25044586

  14. Detection of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti during 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Alia; Awash, Abdullah A; Esmail, Mohammed A; Al-Mohamadi, Hani A; Al-Salwai, Mostafa; Al-Jasari, Adel; Medhat, Iman; Morales-Betoulle, Maria E; Mnzava, Abraham

    2012-07-01

    In October 2010, the Ministry of Public Health and Population reported an outbreak of dengue-like acute febrile illness in Al Hodayda governorate. By January 2011, a total of 1542 cases had been recorded from 19 of the 26 districts in the governorate with 104 purportedly associated deaths. In response this event, in January 2011 entomological investigations aimed at identifying the primary vector and the epidemic associated etiological agent were carried out. Based on the reported cases and the progress of the outbreak in the governorate, mosquito collection was undertaken in two of the most recent outbreak areas; Al Khokha district (130km south of Al Hodayda) and Al Muneera district (100km north). Mosquito adults were collected from houses using BG-sentinel™ traps, aspiration of resting mosquitoes and knock-down spraying. Indoor and outdoor containers adjacent to the houses were inspected for larvae. Subsequently mosquito pools were analyzed by RT-PCR for detection of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4), and for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Aedes aegypti was the dominant mosquito species collected. Four pools represent 40% of the tested pools, all containing adult female Ae. aegypti, were positive for CHIKV. Three CHIKV isolates were obtained from the RNA positive mosquito pools and identified by rRT-PCR. This finding marks the first record of CHIKV isolated from Ae. aegypti in Yemen. The larval container and Breteau indices in the visited localities surveyed were estimated at 53.8 and 100, respectively. The emergence of this unprecedented CHIKV epidemic in Al Hodayda is adding up another arboviral burden to the already existing vector-borne diseases. Considering the governorate as one focal port in the Red Sea region, the spread of the disease to other areas in Yemen and in neighboring countries is anticipated. Public health education and simple measures to detect and prevent mosquito breeding in water storage containers could prevent and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne viruses like CHIKV and DENV in Yemen. PMID:22469818

  15. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district level. Since we had similar success in northern Vietnam from 1998 to 2000, this study demonstrates that this control model is broadly acceptable and achievable at community level but vigilance is required post-project to prevent reinfestation. PMID:15728869

  16. Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

  17. Multi-scale analysis of the associations among egg, larval and pupal surveys and the presence and abundance of adult female Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) in the city of Merida, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manrique-Saide, P; Coleman, P; McCall, P J; Lenhart, A; Vázquez-Prokopec, G; Davies, C R

    2014-09-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still no agreement on which indices of Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) presence and abundance better quantify entomological risk for dengue. This study reports the results of a multi-scale, cross-sectional entomological survey carried out in 1160 households in the city of Merida, Mexico to establish: (a) the correlation between levels of Ae. aegypti presence and abundance detected with aspirators and ovitraps; (b) which immature and egg indices correlate with the presence and abundance of Ae. aegypti females, and (c) the correlations amongst traditional Aedes indices and their modifications for pupae at the household level and within medium-sized geographic areas used for vector surveillance. Our analyses show that ovitrap positivity was significantly associated with indoor adult Ae. aegypti presence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50; P = 0.03], that the presence of pupae is associated with adult presence at the household level (OR = 2.27; P = 0.001), that classic Aedes indices are informative only when they account for pupae, and that window screens provide a significant level of protection against peridomestic Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.59; P = 0.02). Results reinforce the potential of using both positive collections in outdoor ovitraps and the presence of pupae as sensitive indicators of indoor adult female presence. PMID:24797405

  18. Pinpointing P450s Associated with Pyrethroid Metabolism in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Developing New Tools to Combat Insecticide Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J. Stevenson; Patricia Pignatelli; Dimitra Nikou; Mark J. I. Paine

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundPyrethroids are increasingly used to block the transmission of diseases spread by Aedes aegypti such as dengue and yellow fever. However, insecticide resistance poses a serious threat, thus there is an urgent need to identify the genes and proteins associated with pyrethroid resistance in order to produce effective counter measures. In Ae. aegypti, overexpression of P450s such as the CYP9J32

  19. Targeted gene expression in the transgenic Aedes aegypti using the binary Gal4-UAS system.

    PubMed

    Kokoza, Vladimir A; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we report the establishment of the binary Gal4/UAS system for the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. We utilized the 1.8-kb 5' upstream region of the vitellogenin gene (Vg) to genetically engineer mosquito lines with the Vg-Gal4 activator and established UAS-EGFP responder transgenic mosquito lines to evaluate the binary Gal4/UAS system. The results show that the Vg-Gal4 driver leads to a high level of tissue-, stage- and sex-specific expression of the EGFP reporter in the fat body of Vg-Gal4/UAS-EGFP hybrids after blood-meal activation. In addition, the applicability of this system to study hormonal regulation of gene expression was demonstrated in in vitro organ culture experiments in which the EGFP reporter was highly activated in isolated fat bodies of previtellogenic Vg-Gal4/UAS-EGFP females incubated in the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Hence, this study has opened the door for further refinement of genetic tools in mosquitoes. PMID:21536128

  20. Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

    2014-09-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial. PMID:25204067

  1. Fitness costs of resistance to Bti toxins in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Paris, Margot; David, Jean-Philippe; Despres, Laurence

    2011-08-01

    Sustainable insect vector disease control strategies involve delaying the evolution of resistance to insecticides in natural populations. The evolutionary dynamics of resistance in the field is highly dependent on the fitness cost of resistance alleles. To successfully manage resistance evolution in target species, it is not only important to find evidence of fitness cost in resistant insects, but also to determine at which stage of the insect's life it is expressed. Here, we show that resistance costs to the bacterio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) are expressed at all the life-stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, including egg survival, larval development time, and female fecundity. We show that the storage of eggs for 4 months is long enough to counter-select resistance alleles. This suggests that Bti resistance is not likely to evolve in temperate climates where most mosquito species overwinter as eggs. In tropical regions with a rapid turn-over of generations, resistance alleles are likely to be counter-selected in only few generations without treatment through fitness costs expressed in terms of larval development time and female fecundity. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of sustainable management strategies in light of the challenge of preserving the long-term efficiency of this environmentally safe anti-mosquito bio-insecticide. PMID:21461926

  2. Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) flight tones: Frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Benjamin J.; Emr, Kevin S.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. Recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female Aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. Fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. The male fundamental frequency was higher than that of the female and males modulated it over a wider range. Analysis of harmonics shows that the first six partials were nearly always within 1?Hz of integer multiples of the fundamental, even when the fundamental was being modulated. Along the front-back axis, amplitude attenuated as a function of distance raised to the power 2.3. Front and back recordings were out of phase, as were above and below, while left and right were in phase. Recordings from ahead and behind showed quadratic phase coupling, while others did not. Finally, two methods are presented for separating simultaneous flight tones in a single recording and enhancing their frequency resolution. Implications for mosquito behavior are discussed. PMID:25234901

  3. Coordinated changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Salvador; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile hormone III (JH) is synthesized by the corpora allata (CA) and plays a key role in mosquito development and reproduction. A decrease in JH titer during the last instar larvae allows pupation and metamorphosis to proceed. As the anti-metamorphic role of JH comes to an end, the CA of the late pupa once again synthesizes JH, which plays an essential role in orchestrating reproductive maturation. In spite of the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector, a detailed study of the changes of JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle has never been performed. In the present studies, using a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FD) method, we measured changes in JH levels in the hemolymph of female mosquitoes during the pupal and adult stages. Our results revealed tightly concomitant changes in JH biosynthesis and JH hemolymph titers during the gonotrophic cycle of female mosquito. Feeding high sugar diets resulted in an increase of JH titers, and mating also modified JH titers in hemolymph. In addition these studies confirmed that JH titer in mosquitoes is fundamentally determined by the rate of biosynthesis in the CA. PMID:25445664

  4. Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Ben Hassen, Najeh Belguith; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972 ?g cm(-2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae. PMID:25433312

  5. Assessing fitness costs for transgenic Aedes aegypti expressing the GFP marker and transposase genes

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, Nic; Hoddle, Mark S.; O'Brochta, David A.; Carey, Bryan; Atkinson, Peter W.

    2004-01-01

    The development of transgenic mosquitoes that are refractory to the transmission of human diseases such as malaria, dengue, and yellow fever has received much interest due to the ability to transform a number of vector mosquito species with transposable elements. Transgenic strains of mosquitoes have been generated with molecular techniques that exhibit a reduced capacity to transmit pathogens. These advancements have led to questions regarding the fitness of transgenic mosquitoes and the ability of transformed mosquitoes to compete and effectively spread beneficial genes through nontransformed field populations, the core requirement of a genetically based control strategy aimed at reducing the spread of mosquito-borne human disease. Here we examine the impact of transgenesis on the fitness of Aedes aegypti, a mosquito that transmits yellow fever. Mosquitoes were altered with two types of transgene, the enhanced GFP gene and two transposase genes from the Hermes and MOS1 transposable elements. We examined the effects of these elements on the survivorship, longevity, fecundity, sex ratio, and sterility of transformed mosquitoes and compared results to the nontransformed laboratory strain. We show that demographic parameters are significantly diminished in transgenic mosquitoes relative to the untransformed laboratory strain. Reduced fitness in transgenic mosquitoes has important implications for the development and utilization of this technology for control programs based on manipulative molecular modification. PMID:14711992

  6. Chemical and biological insecticides select distinct gene expression patterns in Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    PubMed

    Després, Laurence; Stalinski, Renaud; Faucon, Frédéric; Navratil, Vincent; Viari, Alain; Paris, Margot; Tetreau, Guillaume; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Reynaud, Stéphane; David, Jean-Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide evolution of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides represents a major challenge for public health, and the future of vector control largely relies on the development of biological insecticides that can be used in combination with chemicals (integrated management), with the expectation that populations already resistant to chemicals will not become readily resistant to biological insecticides. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways affected by selection with chemical or biological insecticides. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, a laboratory mosquito strain selected with a biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti) evolved increased transcription of many genes coding for endopeptidases while most genes coding for detoxification enzymes were under-expressed. By contrast, in strains selected with chemicals, genes encoding detoxification enzymes were mostly over-expressed. In all the resistant strains, genes involved in immune response were under-transcribed, suggesting that basal immunity might be a general adjustment variable to compensate metabolic costs caused by insecticide selection. Bioassays generally showed no evidence for an increased susceptibility of selected strains towards the other insecticide type, and all chemical-resistant strains were as susceptible to Bti as the unselected parent strain, which is a good premise for sustainable integrated management of mosquito populations resistant to chemicals. PMID:25540155

  7. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (11.1460? ? g·mL(-1) and 25.8689? ? g·mL(-1), resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40? ? g·mL(-1) (29.018? ? g·mL(-1) and 17.230? ? g·mL(-1), resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277? ? g·mL(-1) and 706.990? ? g·mL(-1)) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  8. Dynamics and characterization of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) key breeding sites.

    PubMed

    Valença, M A; Marteis, L S; Steffler, L M; Silva, A M; Santos, R L C

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the dynamics of containers used as breeding sites by Aedes aegypti (L.) in the city of Aracaju, SE, one of the Northeast Brazilian states. A total of three entomological surveys were performed during different precipitation levels. Breeding sites were categorized according to their function into storage, disposable containers, and reusable containers. "Mean number of pupae" and "frequency of each type of breeding site" were the criteria considered to identify key breeding sites. House index and Breteau index were calculated in each survey. A total of 3,647 water reservoirs were found, of which 220 were breeding sites, where 22,880 immature forms were identified. There were no differences in the mean number of larvae of several types of breeding sites and in the number of larvae among surveys. Larval indices showed a reduction in the second visit, but with no effect on adult occurrence when the number of pupae was considered. Key breeding sites resulted from containers used for water storage. The area studied showed conditions favorable to a new epidemic of dengue fever. PMID:23949815

  9. Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; de Souza, Terezinha Maria; de Paula Freire, Gabrielle; Farias, Davi Felipe; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; de Morais, Selene Maia; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed new insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species (Croton zehntneri, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton argyrophylloides, and Croton sonderianus) against Aedes aegypti mosquito. In addition, the acute toxicity upon mice was determined. All essential oils showed inhibition of egg hatching, with IC50 values ranging from 66.4 to 143.2 ?g?mL(-1), larvicidal activity with LC50 ranging from 25.5 to 94.6 ?g?mL(-1), and pupicidal action with PC50 ranging from 276.8 to over 500 ?g?mL(-1). Only L. sidoides, C. zehntneri, and C. argyrophylloides essential oils were able to inhibit the oviposition of female gravid mosquitoes with OD50 values of 35.3, 45.3, and 45.8 ?g?mL(-1), respectively. Oral acute toxicity in mice showed that C. sonderianus and C. argyrophylloides oils are nontoxic (LD50?>?6,000 mg.kg(-1)) while C. nepetaefolius, C. zehntneri, and L. sidoides oils are moderately toxic (LD50 3,840; 3,464, and 2,624 mg.kg(-1), respectively). The results indicate that these oils are promising sources of bioactive compounds, showing low or no toxicity to mammals. PMID:23435925

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): monitoring of populations to improve control strategies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Masuh, Héctor; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana A

    2008-06-01

    To study the seasonal fluctuations of populations of Aedes aegypti (L.), to improve control strategies, or to monitor chemical control interventions, a lightweight, inexpensive ovitrap made of black plastic, pail-shaped, stackable, and provided with a wood tongue depressor was used. Field assays were performed in the northeast and northwest part of Argentina. In a 1-year trial performed in Tartagal (Salta), almost 100% of the ovitraps were highly positive, collecting a total of 1,000/2,000 eggs during March and the first part of April. A focal treatment in the corresponding neighborhood, performed at this time, immediately began to reduce positive ovitraps in spite of the high temperatures registered, rising again in November after winter season. Another field trial was performed in the whole urban area of Iguazú (Misiones). Mosquito populations were evaluated after three weekly ultra low volume (ULV) applications with an EC formulation of permethrin in water. The number of positive ovitraps diminished from 49% to 10% after the treatments. The last one performed in Wanda (Misiones) showed that positive ovitraps inside the dwellings aided in determining reinfestation rates after an intervention with a smoke-generating formulation containing beta-cypermethrin. The work performed in three different situations in urban areas at high risk of dengue can be considered a preliminary assay to establish the effective performance of simple ovitraps, allowing the Vector Control Service of the Argentinian Ministry of Health its use to improve surveillance and control strategies. PMID:18344071

  11. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested. PMID:16493400

  12. Indirect effects of cigarette butt waste on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dieng, Hamady; Rajasaygar, Sudha; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Md Rawi, Che Salmah; Ahmad, Hamdan; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Fukumitsu, Yuki; Saad, Ahmad Ramli; Abdul Hamid, Suhaila; Vargas, Ronald Enrique Morales; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Fadzly, Nik; Abu Kassim, Nur Faeza; Hashim, Nur Aida; Ghani, Idris Abd; Abang, Fatimah Bt; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2013-11-13

    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans. PMID:24239749

  13. Costly Inheritance and the Persistence of Insecticide Resistance in Aedes aegypti Populations

    PubMed Central

    Schechtman, Helio; Souza, Max O.

    2015-01-01

    Global emergence of arboviruses is a growing public health concern, since most of these diseases have no vaccine or prevention treatment available. In this scenario, vector control through the use of chemical insecticides is one of the most important prevention tools. Nevertheless, their effectiveness has been increasingly compromised by the development of strong resistance observed in field populations, even in spite of fitness costs usually associated to resistance. Using a stage-structured deterministic model parametrised for the Aedes aegypti—the main vector for dengue—we investigated the persistence of resistance by studying the time for a population which displays resistance to insecticide to revert to a susceptible population. By means of a comprehensive series of in-silico experiments, we studied this reversal time as a function of fitness costs and the initial presence of the resistance allele in the population. The resulting map provides both a guiding and a surveillance tool for public health officers to address the resistance situation of field populations. Application to field data from Brazil indicates that reversal can take, in some cases, decades even if fitness costs are not small. As by-products of this investigation, we were able to fit very simple formulas to the reversal times as a function of either cost or initial presence of the resistance allele. In addition, the in-silico experiments also showed that density dependent regulation plays an important role in the dynamics, slowing down the reversal process. PMID:25933383

  14. Larvicidal activity of selected aloe species against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culiciade).

    PubMed

    Chore, Judith K; Obonyo, Meshack; Wachira, Francis N; Mireji, Paul O

    2014-01-01

    Management of mosquito vectors by current classes of mosquitocides is relatively ineffective and necessitates prospecting for novel insecticides with different modes of action. Larvicidal activities of 15 crude extracts from three geographically isolated Aloe ngongensis (Christian), Aloe turkanensis (Christian), and Aloe fibrosa (Lavranos & L.E.Newton) (Xanthorrhoeaceae) species (five each) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in Hasselquist) (Diptera: Culiciade L.) yellow fever mosquito. Freshly collected leaves were separately shade-dried to constant weight at room temperature (25?±?2°C) and powdered. Each powder was macerated in solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) for 72 h and subsequently filtered. Third-instar larvae (n?=?25) of the mosquito were exposed to the extracts at different concentrations for 24 h to establish dose response relationships. All the fractions of A. ngongensis were active below 1 mg/ml except A. fibrosa and A. turkanensis. The highest activity (LC50) mg/ml was obtained with extracts of A. fibrosa hexane (0.05 [0.04-0.06]), followed by A. ngongensis hexane (0.11 [0.08-0.15]) and A. turkanensis ethyl acetate (0.11 [0.09-0.12]). The activities are apparently Aloe species specific and extraction solvent dependent. These findings suggest that extracts from selected Aloe species have mosquitocidal principles that can be exploited in development of new insecticides. PMID:25502038

  15. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC50 was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC50 of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10?×?LC50) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6%, 76.7% and 100%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9%, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC50 and LC90 of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors. PMID:25669140

  16. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A.; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011 – 0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission. PMID:26135160

  17. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations

    PubMed Central

    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB), a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators. PMID:26107715

  18. Suppression of a Field Population of Aedes aegypti in Brazil by Sustained Release of Transgenic Male Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Danilo O; McKemey, Andrew R; Garziera, Luiza; Lacroix, Renaud; Donnelly, Christl A; Alphey, Luke; Malavasi, Aldo; Capurro, Margareth L

    2015-07-01

    The increasing burden of dengue, and the relative failure of traditional vector control programs highlight the need to develop new control methods. SIT using self-limiting genetic technology is one such promising method. A self-limiting strain of Aedes aegypti, OX513A, has already reached the stage of field evaluation. Sustained releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males led to 80% suppression of a target wild Ae. aegypti population in the Cayman Islands in 2010. Here we describe sustained series of field releases of OX513A Ae. aegypti males in a suburb of Juazeiro, Bahia, Brazil. This study spanned over a year and reduced the local Ae. aegypti population by 95% (95% CI: 92.2%-97.5%) based on adult trap data and 81% (95% CI: 74.9-85.2%) based on ovitrap indices compared to the adjacent no-release control area. The mating competitiveness of the released males (0.031; 95% CI: 0.025-0.036) was similar to that estimated in the Cayman trials (0.059; 95% CI: 0.011 - 0.210), indicating that environmental and target-strain differences had little impact on the mating success of the OX513A males. We conclude that sustained release of OX513A males may be an effective and widely useful method for suppression of the key dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The observed level of suppression would likely be sufficient to prevent dengue epidemics in the locality tested and other areas with similar or lower transmission. PMID:26135160

  19. Establishment and characterization of a new Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) cell line with special emphasis on virus susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, A B; Parashar, Deepti; Jadi, Ramesh S; Basu, Atanu; Mokashi, Chetan; Arankalle, Vidya A; Mishra, Akhilesh C

    2009-10-01

    A new cell line from the neonate larvae of Aedes aegypti (L) mosquito was established and characterized. The cell line at the 50th passage (P) level consisted of three prominent cell types, i.e., epithelial-like cells (92%), fibroblast-like cells (7%), and giant cells ( approximately 1%). Karyological analysis showed diploid (2n = 6) number of chromosomes in >75% cells at P-50. The growth kinetics studied at 52nd passage level showed approximately tenfold increase in cell number over a 10-d study period. The species specificity studies using DNA amplification fingerprinting profile analysis using RAPD primers demonstrated 100% homology with the host profile showing the integrity of the cell line. Electron microscopy revealed the absence of mycoplasma or other adventitious agents. The cell line supported the multiplication of seven arboviruses, i.e., Chikungunya (CHIK), Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, dengue 2 (DEN-2), Chandipura, vesicular stomatitis, and Chittoor viruses. The cell line did not replicate Ganjam and Kaisodi viruses. CHIK virus yield in the new cell line was approximately 3log and 0.5log 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50))/mL higher than Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, respectively. In the case of DEN-2 virus, it yielded 1log TCID(50)/mL higher than Vero E6, but lesser than C6/36 cell line. Due to its high susceptibility to a broad spectrum of viruses, the new cell line may find application in virus isolation during epidemics and in antigen production. PMID:19533252

  20. Bacterial Exposure at the Larval Stage Induced Sexual Immune Dimorphism and Priming in Adult Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-García, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramírez-Bello, Inci; Hernández-Martínez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage. PMID:26181517

  1. Insecticidal activity of isobutylamides derived from Piper nigrum against adult of two mosquito species, Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Piper nigrum fruit-derived piperidine alkaloid (piperine) and N-isobutylamide alkaloids (pellitorine, guineensine, pipercide and retrofractamide A) against female adults of Culex pipiens pallens and Aedes aegypti was examined. On the basis of 24-h LD(50) values, the compound most toxic to female C. pipiens pallens was pellitorine (0.4?µg/?) followed by guineensine (1.9?µg/?), retrofractamide A (2.4?µg/?) and pipercide (3.2?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.03?µg/?. Against female A. aegypti, the insecticidal activity was more pronounced in pellitorine (0.17?µg/?) than in retrofractamide A (1.5?µg/?), guineensine (1.7?µg/?), and pipercide (2.0?µg/?). LD(50) value of chlorpyrifos was 0.0014?µg/?. PMID:22010905

  2. Discrepancies between Aedes aegypti identification in the field and in the laboratory after collection with a sticky trap

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Lima, Arthur Weiss da Silva; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Galardo, Allan Kardec Ribeiro; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Braga, Ima Aparecida; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Currently, sticky traps are regularly employed to assist in the surveillance of Aedes aegypti infestation. We tested two alternative procedures for specimen identification performed by local health agents: directly in the field, as recommended by certain manufacturers, or after transportation to the laboratory. A total of 384 sticky traps (MosquiTRAP) were monitored monthly during one year in four geographically representative Brazilian municipalities. When the same samples were inspected in the field and in the laboratory, large differences were noted in the total number of mosquitoes recorded and in the number of specimens identified as Ae. aegypti by both procedures. Although field identification has the potential to speed vector surveillance, these results point to uncertainties in the evaluated protocol. PMID:25317711

  3. Efficacy of herbal essential oils as insecticide against Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and Anopheles dirus (Peyton and Harrison).

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Soonwera, Mayura

    2011-09-01

    The essential oils of Cananga odorata (ylang ylang), Citrus sinensis (orange), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella grass), Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus), Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove), were tested for their insecticide activity against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles dirus using the WHO standard susceptibility test. These were applied in soybean oil at dose of 1%, 5% and 10% (w/v). C. citratus had the KT, values against the three mosquito species tested but the knockdown rates (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes) were lower than some essential oils. C. citratus oil had high insecticidal activity against Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. dirus, with LC50 values of < 0.1, 2.22 and < 0.1%, respectively. Ten percent C. citratus gave the highest mortality rates (100%) 24 hours after application. This study demonstrates the potential for the essential oil of C. citratus to be used as an insecticide against 3 species of mosquitoes. PMID:22299433

  4. La Untadita: a procedure for maintaining washbasins and drums free of Aedes aegypti based on modification of existing practices.

    PubMed

    Sherman, C; Fernandez, E A; Chan, A S; Lozano, R C; Leontsini, E; Winch, P J

    1998-02-01

    Chlorine bleach and detergent are routinely used by householders in El Progreso, Honduras in the process of cleaning washbasins and drums, the two most important larval habitats of Aedes aegypti in the city. The efficacy of these materials in eliminating eggs, larvae, and pupae of Ae. aegypti was assessed under controlled conditions. The promising results obtained led to trials using a combination of chlorine bleach and detergent to apply to the walls of washbasins and drums as a method for eliminating eggs. The bleach maintained its ovicidal properties when mixed with detergent, and the detergent gave the mixture consistency so that it could be applied as a thin film to the walls. This new procedure was named the little dab (Untadita in Spanish) and allows households to direct their efforts against a stage of the mosquito life cycle that has been ignored in the past: the egg. PMID:9502612

  5. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292?mg/L after 24?h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  6. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292?mg/L after 24?h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  7. Synthesis, activity, and QSAR studies of tryptamine derivatives on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael R B; Brito, Thaysnara B; Nepel, Angelita; Costa, Emmanoel V; Barison, Andersson; Nunes, Rogéria S; Santos, Roseli L C; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2014-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) owing to numerous dengue epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Failure to control vector spreading is accounted for unorganized urban growth and resistance to larvicides and insecticides. Therefore, researchers are currently searching for new and more efficient larvicides and insecticides to aid dengue control measures. Triptamine is known to affect insect behavior, development, and physiology. Expression of this compound in plants has reduced the growth rate of herbivore insects. In view of these facts, it was of our interest to synthesize triptamine amide derivatives as potential larvicides against Ae. aegypti, establishing a Structure-Activity Relationship. Eleven amide derivatives of triptamine were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their larvicidal activity against third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide exhibited the highest overall larvicidal potency, while N-(2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl) acetamide displayed the lowest larvicidal potency. A regression equation correlating the larvicidal activity with Log P was obtained. We have found a clear relationship between the larvicidal activity of non-chlorinated compounds and Log P. Analysis of the relationship between Log P and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti may be useful in the evaluation of potential larvicidal compounds. PMID:24295020

  8. The impact of larval and adult dietary restriction on lifespan, reproduction and growth in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Joy, Teresa K; Arik, Anam J; Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Johnson, Adiv A; Riehle, Michael A

    2010-09-01

    Dietary restriction extends lifespan in many organisms, but little is known about how it affects hematophagous arthropods. We demonstrated that diet restriction during either larval or adult stages extends Aedes aegypti lifespan. A. aegypti females fed either single or no blood meals survived 30-40% longer than those given weekly blood meals. However, mosquitoes given weekly blood meals produced far more eggs. To minimize reproduction's impact on lifespan, adult mosquitoes were fed artificial blood meals containing <10% of the protein in normal human blood, minimizing egg production. A. aegypti fed artificial blood meals containing 25mg/ml of BSA had significantly shorter lifespans than those fed either 10 or 5mg/ml. To assess the impact of larval dietary restriction on adult lifespan, we maintained larval A. aegypti on 2X, 1X (normal diet), 0.5X or 0.25X diets. Adult mosquitoes fed 0.5X and 0.25X larval diets survived significantly longer than those fed the 2X larval diet regardless of adult diet. In summary, dietary restriction during both larval and adult stages extends lifespan. This diet-mediated lifespan extension has important consequences for understanding how dietary restriction regulates lifespan and disease transmission. PMID:20451597

  9. Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones are involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Emadeldin Y; Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Obenauer, Peter J; Diclaro, Joseph W

    2014-12-01

    Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens of thousands of flying males. In this study, we examined Aedes aegypti swarming behavior and identified associated chemical cues. Novel evidence is provided that Ae. aegypti females aggregate by means of olfactory cues, such as aggregation pheromones. Isolation of Ae. aegypti aggregation pheromones was achieved by aeration of confined mosquitoes and collection of associated volatiles by glass filters. The collected volatiles were identified through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Three aggregation pheromones were collected and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene-1,4-dione (ketoisophorone) (CAS# 1125-21-9, t(R) = 18.75), 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione (the saturated analog of ketoisophorone) (CAS# 20547-99-3, t(R) = 20.05), and 1-(4-ethylphenyl) ethanone (CAS# 937-30-4, t(R) = 24.22). Our biological studies revealed that the identified compounds stimulated mosquito behavior under laboratory conditions. The mechanism of mosquito swarm formation is discussed in light of our behavioral study findings. A preliminary field trial demonstrated the potential application of the isolated aggregation pheromones in controlling Ae. aegypti. PMID:25424264

  10. Effects of culture medium and formulation on the larvicidal activity of the mosquito pathogen Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidiales) against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Blanco, María Guadalupe; Leal-López, Erika Yazmín; Ochoa-Salazar, Ozmel Alejandro; Elías-Santos, Myriam; Galán-Wong, Luis Jesús; Quiroz-Martínez, Humberto

    2011-02-01

    In this work, we examined the production of infective zoospores of Lagenidium giganteum in four culture media, and the larvicidal activity of the cultures was determined against Aedes aegypti larvae, as well as the effect of polymer encapsulation. Medium containing sunflower seed extract showed the greatest production of zoospores, 5.92×10(6) zoospores/ml after six days of fermentation at 25±2°C and 150rpm shaking. This culture tested against A. aegypti 1st stage larvae caused different mortality rates at 24, 48 and 72h posttreatment. The LC(50) obtained was 43.9, 41.1 and 42.9?l of total culture/ml, at 24, 48 and 72h posttreatment respectively, while the culture grown in medium with soybean meal showed 3-5 times higher LC(50) values. Finally, the total culture including mycelium, zoospores and presporangia formulated with 2.5% pectin showed significantly higher mortality rates, around 100% more than the unformulated culture, whose values were from 40 to 1% at 3, 6, 9, and 12d posttreatment in the bioassays carried out in the laboratory to determine residual activity. PMID:21056028

  11. Efficacy of thermal fog application of deltacide, a synergized mixture of pyrethroids, against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue.

    PubMed

    Mani, T R; Arunachalam, N; Rajendran, R; Satyanarayana, K; Dash, A P

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of indoor and peridomestic thermal fog applications of deltacide, a synergized mixture of pyrethroids (S-bioallethrin 0.7% w/v, deltamethrin 0.5% w/v and piperonyl butoxide 8.9% w/v) against adult populations of Aedes aegypti in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. We bioassayed adult caged mosquitoes, counted indoor resting and human landing adult mosquitoes and assessed the percentage of potential breeding sites with Aedes larvae. The bioassay mortalities indicated that the knockdown and killing effect was greater when fogging was applied inside houses rather than around them. Peridomestic thermal fogging reduced the resting and biting populations by 76% and 40%, respectively for the 3 days after treatment, whereas indoor fogging suppressed adult populations for 5 days. PMID:16359411

  12. Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-03-01

    Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

  13. Risk Factors for the Presence of Chikungunya and Dengue Vectors (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), Their Altitudinal Distribution and Climatic Determinants of Their Abundance in Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Joshi, Hari Datt; O’Hara, Robert B.; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas. PMID:25774518

  14. [A mathematical model for the chemical control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) having acquired chemical resistance].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Alape, Leonardo D; Toro-Zapata, Hernán D; Muñoz-Loaiza, Aníbal

    2010-12-01

    Dengue fever is a common vector-borne disease in tropical and subtropical areas. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female Aedes mosquito. Since no vaccines are currently available which can protect against infection, disease control relies on controlling the mosquito population. This work was aimed at modelling such mosquito's population dynamics regarding chemical control of the adult population and its acquired resistance to chemicals. The model was analysed by using classical dynamic system theory techniques and mosquito growth threshold was determined as this establishes when a particular population may prosper in the environment or when it is likely to disappear. A suitable chemical control strategy was developed from such threshold. Simulations were made in control and non-control scenarios; this determined the degree of control application effectiveness against different levels of acquired resistance. PMID:22030690

  15. A Secure Semi-Field System for the Study of Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Scott A.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Freeman, Anthony J.; Odell, Robin G.; Graham, Neal; DeJong, Paul A.; Standfield, Graeme W.; Sale, Richard W.; O'Neill, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Background New contained semi-field cages are being developed and used to test novel vector control strategies of dengue and malaria vectors. We herein describe a new Quarantine Insectary Level-2 (QIC-2) laboratory and field cages (James Cook University Mosquito Research Facility Semi-Field System; MRF SFS) that are being used to measure the impact of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis on populations of Aedes aegypti in Cairns Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The MRF consists of a single QIC-2 laboratory/insectary that connects through a central corridor to two identical QIC-2 semi-field cages. The semi-field cages are constructed of two layers of 0.25 mm stainless steel wire mesh to prevent escape of mosquitoes and ingress of other insects. The cages are covered by an aluminum security mesh to prevent penetration of the cages by branches and other missiles in the advent of a tropical cyclone. Parts of the cage are protected from UV light and rainfall by 90% shade cloth and a vinyl cover. A wooden structure simulating the understory of a Queenslander-style house is also situated at one end of each cage. The remainder of the internal aspect of the cage is covered with mulch and potted plants to emulate a typical yard. An air conditioning system comprised of two external ACs that feed cooled, moistened air into the cage units. The air is released from the central ceiling beam from a long cloth tube that disperses the airflow and also prevents mosquitoes from escaping the cage via the AC system. Sensors located inside and outside the cage monitor ambient temperature and relative humidity, with AC controlled to match ambient conditions. Data loggers set in the cages and outside found a <2°C temperature difference. Additional security features include air curtains over exit doors, sticky traps to monitor for escaping mosquitoes between layers of the mesh, a lockable vestibule leading from the connecting corridor to the cage and from inside to outside of the insectary, and screened (0.25 mm mesh) drains within the insectary and the cage. A set of standard operating procedures (SOP) has been developed to ensure that security is maintained and for enhanced surveillance for escaping mosquitoes on the JCU campus where the MRF is located. A cohort of male and female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were released in the cage and sampled every 3–4 days to determine daily survival within the cage; log linear regression from BG-sentinel trapping collections produced an estimated daily survival of 0.93 and 0.78 for females and males, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The MRF SFS allows us to test novel control strategies within a secure, contained environment. The air-conditioning system maintains conditions within the MRF cages comparable to outside ambient conditions. This cage provides a realistic transitional platform between the laboratory and the field in which to test novel control measures on quarantine level insects. PMID:21445333

  16. Comparison of Life History Characteristics of the Genetically Modified OX513A Line and a Wild Type Strain of Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irka Bargielowski; Derric Nimmo; Luke Alphey; Jacob C. Koella

    2011-01-01

    The idea of implementing genetics-based insect control strategies modelled on the traditional SIT (Sterile Insect Technique), such as RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal), is becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we compare a genetically modified line of Aedes aegypti carrying a tetracycline repressible, lethal positive feedback system (OX513A) with a genetically similar, unmodified counterpart and their respective

  17. Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti , the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Chaiyasit; Wej Choochote; Eumporn Rattanachanpichai; Udom Chaithong; Prasong Chaiwong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Pongsri Tippawangkosol; Doungrat Riyong; Benjawan Pitasawat

    2006-01-01

    Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The

  18. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  19. Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase, the ultimate enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of juvenile hormone III, exhibits subtrate control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the cloning, sequencing, characterization, 3D modeling and docking of Aedes aegypti juvenile hormone acid methyl transferase (AeaJHAMT), the enzyme that converts juvenile hormone acid (JHA) into juvenile hormone (JH). Purified recombinant AeaJHAMT was extensively characterized for enzym...

  20. EFICIÊNCIA DE PRODUTOS À BASE DE CLORO COMO AGENTES LETAIS DE Aede aegypti (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE) DÉBORA GUIMARÃES LIMA CARNEIRO 1 & CARLOS FERNANDO SALGUEIROSA DE ANDRADE 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmilson Ricardo Gonçalves

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of the effectiveness of a sample of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate compared with the usual pool c hlorine, calcium hypochlorite, on the mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae, vector of dengue. Laboratory bioassays wer e carried out with the concentrations of 0.6 ppm of Sodium dichloroisocyanurate and 1ppm of swimming pool chlorine, as representing its common

  1. Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhijian Tu

    1997-01-01

    Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

  2. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

  3. ECDYSTEROID TITERS AND DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ECDYSONE-REGULATED GENES DURING METAMORPHOSIS OF THE YELLOW FEVER MOSQUITO, AEDES AEGYPTI (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecdysteroid titers and expression profiles of ecdysone-regulated genes were determined during the last instar larval and during the pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Three peaks of ecdysteroids occurring at approximately 24, 30-33 and 45-48 hrs after ecdysis to the fourth instar l...

  4. Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

    Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

  5. Laboratory studies of Aedes aegypti (L.) attraction to ketones, sulfides and primary chloroalkanes tested alone and in combination with l-lactic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attraction of female Aedes aegypti to single compounds and binary compositions comprised of L-lactic acid and an additional saturated compound from a set of ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes was studied using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. These chemical classes were studied because o...

  6. A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.

    PubMed

    Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

    2015-01-21

    We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although the tendency is very weak. PMID:25451964

  7. Evolution of insect arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferases: Structural evidence from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Han, Qian; Robinson, Howard; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M.; Li, Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (aaNAT) catalyzes the transacetylation from acetyl-CoA to arylalkylamines. aaNATs are involved in sclerotization and neurotransmitter inactivation in insects. Phyletic distribution analysis confirms three clusters of aaNAT-like sequences in insects: typical insect aaNAT, polyamine NAT-like aaNAT, and mosquito unique putative aaNAT (paaNAT). Here we studied three proteins: aaNAT2, aaNAT5b, and paaNAT7, each from a different cluster. aaNAT2, a protein from the typical insect aaNAT cluster, uses histamine as a substrate as well as the previously identified arylalkylamines. aaNAT5b, a protein from polyamine NAT -like aaNAT cluster, uses hydrazine and histamine as substrates. The crystal structure of aaNAT2 was determined using single-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods, and that of native aaNAT2, aaNAT5b and paaNAT7 was detected using molecular replacement techniques. All three aaNAT structures have a common fold core of GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase superfamily proteins, along with a unique structural feature: helix/helices between ?3 and ?4 strands. Our data provide a start toward a more comprehensive understanding of the structure–function relationship and physiology of aaNATs from the mosquito Aedes aegypti and serve as a reference for studying the aaNAT family of proteins from other insect species. The structures of three different types of aaNATs may provide targets for designing insecticides for use in mosquito control. PMID:22753468

  8. Insecticide-Driven Patterns of Genetic Variation in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti in Martinique Island

    PubMed Central

    Paupy, Christophe; Bringuier, Charline; Yebakima, André; Chandre, Fabrice; David, Jean-Philippe; Corbel, Vincent; Despres, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Effective vector control is currently challenged worldwide by the evolution of resistance to all classes of chemical insecticides in mosquitoes. In Martinique, populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have been intensively treated with temephos and deltamethrin insecticides over the last fifty years, resulting in heterogeneous levels of resistance across the island. Resistance spreading depends on standing genetic variation, selection intensity and gene flow among populations. To determine gene flow intensity, we first investigated neutral patterns of genetic variability in sixteen populations representative of the many environments found in Martinique and experiencing various levels of insecticide pressure, using 6 microsatellites. Allelic richness was lower in populations resistant to deltamethrin, and consanguinity was higher in populations resistant to temephos, consistent with a negative effect of insecticide pressure on neutral genetic diversity. The global genetic differentiation was low, suggesting high gene flow among populations, but significant structure was found, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance at the global scale. Then, we investigated adaptive patterns of divergence in six out of the 16 populations using 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNP outliers displaying levels of genetic differentiation out of neutral expectations were detected, including the kdr-V1016I mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Association tests revealed a total of seven SNPs associated with deltamethrin resistance. Six other SNPs were associated with temephos resistance, including two non-synonymous substitutions in an alkaline phosphatase and in a sulfotransferase respectively. Altogether, both neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic variation in mosquito populations appear to be largely driven by insecticide pressure in Martinique. PMID:24204999

  9. Genetic Mapping of Specific Interactions between Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Dengue Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valérie; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Lambrechts, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Specific interactions between host genotypes and pathogen genotypes (G×G interactions) are commonly observed in invertebrate systems. Such specificity challenges our current understanding of invertebrate defenses against pathogens because it contrasts the limited discriminatory power of known invertebrate immune responses. Lack of a mechanistic explanation, however, has questioned the nature of host factors underlying G×G interactions. In this study, we aimed to determine whether G×G interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes aegypti vectors in nature can be mapped to discrete loci in the mosquito genome and to document their genetic architecture. We developed an innovative genetic mapping strategy to survey G×G interactions using outbred mosquito families that were experimentally exposed to genetically distinct isolates of two dengue virus serotypes derived from human patients. Genetic loci associated with vector competence indices were detected in multiple regions of the mosquito genome. Importantly, correlation between genotype and phenotype was virus isolate-specific at several of these loci, indicating G×G interactions. The relatively high percentage of phenotypic variation explained by the markers associated with G×G interactions (ranging from 7.8% to 16.5%) is consistent with large-effect host genetic factors. Our data demonstrate that G×G interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions of the mosquito genome, some of which have a large effect on the phenotype. This finding establishes the existence of tangible host genetic factors underlying specific interactions between invertebrates and their pathogens in a natural system. Fine mapping of the uncovered genetic loci will elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mosquito-virus specificity. PMID:23935524

  10. Susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti from the Colombian Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Maestre-Serrano, Ronald; Gomez-Camargo, Doris; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Flores, Adriana E

    2014-11-01

    We determined the susceptibility to insecticides and the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in resistance in nine populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) of the Colombian Caribbean region. Bioassays were performed on larvae for susceptibility to temephos and on adults to the insecticides malathion, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, permethrin, deltamethrin, ?-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin. The resistance ratio (RR) for each insecticide in the populations was determined, using the susceptible Rockefeller strain as a susceptible control. Additionally, we evaluated the response of the populations to the diagnostic dose (DD) of the organochlorine pesticide DDT. The following biochemical mechanisms associated with resistance were studied: ?-esterases, ?-esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione s-transferases (GST) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (iAChE) as well as the presence of kdr I1,016 mutation and its frequency. All populations studied showed susceptibility to the organophosphates evaluated (RR?

  11. Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control. PMID:23569922

  12. Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management. PMID:25629069

  13. Temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti in different districts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, measured by two types of traps.

    PubMed

    Honório, N A; Codeço, C T; Alves, F C; Magalhães, M A F M; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R

    2009-09-01

    Dengue dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as in many dengue-endemic regions of the world, is seasonal, with peaks during the wet-hot months. This temporal pattern is generally attributed to the dynamics of its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.). The objectives of this study were to characterize the temporal pattern of Ae. aegypti population dynamics in three neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro and its association with local meteorological variables; and to compare positivity and density indices obtained with ovitraps and MosquiTraps. The three neighborhoods are distinct in vegetation coverage, sanitation, water supply, and urbanization. Mosquito sampling was carried out weekly, from September 2006 to March 2008, a period during which large dengue epidemics occurred in the city. Our results show peaks of oviposition in early summer 2007 and late summer 2008, detected by both traps. The ovitrap provided a more sensitive index than MosquiTrap. The MosquiTrap detection threshold showed high variation among areas, corresponding to a mean egg density of approximately 25-52 eggs per ovitrap. Both temperature and rainfall were significantly related to Ae. aegypti indices at a short (1 wk) time lag. Our results suggest that mean weekly temperature above 22-24 degrees C is strongly associated with high Ae. aegypti abundance and consequently with an increased risk of dengue transmission. Understanding the effects of meteorological variables on Ae. aegypti population dynamics will help to target control measures at the times when vector populations are greatest, contributing to the development of climate-based control and surveillance measures for dengue fever in a hyperendemic area. PMID:19769029

  14. Water level flux in household containers in Vietnam--a key determinant of Aedes aegypti population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Jason A L; Clements, Archie C A; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Le Hoang; Tran, Son Hai; Le, Nghia Trung; Vu, Nam Sinh; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2012-01-01

    We examined changes in the abundance of immature Aedes aegypti at the household and water storage container level during the dry-season (June-July, 2008) in Tri Nguyen village, central Vietnam. We conducted quantitative immature mosquito surveys of 171 containers in the same 41 households, with replacement of samples, every two days during a 29-day period. We developed multi-level mixed effects regression models to investigate container and household variability in pupal abundance. The percentage of houses that were positive for I/II instars, III/IV instars and pupae during any one survey ranged from 19.5-43.9%, 48.8-75.6% and 17.1-53.7%, respectively. The mean numbers of Ae. aegypti pupae per house ranged between 1.9-12.6 over the study period. Estimates of absolute pupal abundance were highly variable over the 29-day period despite relatively stable weather conditions. Most variability in pupal abundance occurred at the container rather than the household level. A key determinant of Ae. aegypti production was the frequent filling of the containers with water, which caused asynchronous hatching of Ae. aegypti eggs and development of cohorts of immatures. We calculated the probability of the water volume of a large container (>500 L) increasing or decreasing by ?20% to be 0.05 and 0.07 per day, respectively, and for small containers (<500 L) to be 0.11 and 0.13 per day, respectively. These human water-management behaviors are important determinants of Ae. aegypti production during the dry season. This has implications for choosing a suitable Wolbachia strain for release as it appears that prolonged egg desiccation does not occur in this village. PMID:22911683

  15. Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

  16. Low efficacy of delthamethrin-treated net against Singapore Aedes aegypti is associated with kdr-type resistance.

    PubMed

    Pang, S C; Chiang, L P; Tan, C H; Vythilingam, I; Lam-Phua, S G; Ng, L C

    2015-03-01

    There has been a worldwide surge in the number and severity of dengue in the past decades. In Singapore, relentless vector control efforts have been put in to control the disease since the 1960's. Space spraying, fogging, chemical treatment and source reduction are some commonly used methodologies for controlling its vectors, particularly Aedes aegypti. Here, as we explored the use of a commercially available delthamethrin-treated net as an alternative strategy and the efficacy of the treated net was found to be limited. Through bioassays and molecular studies, the failure of the treated net to render high mortality rate was found to be associated with the knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation. This is the first report of kdr- mutations in Singapore's Ae. aegypti. At least one point mutation, either homozygous or heterozygous, at amino acid residue V1016G of DIIS6 or F1269C of DIIIS6 was detected in 93% of field strains of Ae. aegypti. Various permutations of wild type and mutant amino acids of the four alleles were found to result in varying degree of survival rate among local field Ae. aegypti when exposed to the deltamethrin treated net. Together with the association of higher survival rate with the presence of both V1016G and F1269C, the data suggest the role of these mutations in the resistance to the deltamethrin. The high prevalence of these mutations were confirmed in a country wide survey where 70% and 72% of the 201 Ae. aegypti analysed possessed the mutations at residues 1016 and 1269 respectively. The highest mutated frequency combination was found to be heterozygous alleles (VG/FC) at both residues 1016 and 1269 (37.8%), followed by homozygous mutation at allele 1269 (24.4%) and homozygous mutation at allele 1016 (22.9%). The kdr- type of resistance among the vector is likely to undermine the effectiveness of pyrethroids treated materials against these mosquitoes. PMID:25801264

  17. The effects of temperature and humidity on the eggs of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Dickerson, Catherine Zindler

    2009-05-15

    Causative influences that impact the separation of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in different geographic areas were determined, as well as how they are affected by the abiotic conditions as seen in the habitats they frequent in Texas...

  18. In-silico homology modeling of three isoforms of insect defensins from the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Linn., 1762).

    PubMed

    Dhananjeyan, K J; Sivaperumal, R; Paramasivan, R; Thenmozhi, V; Tyagi, B K

    2009-05-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. It is caused by any of the four serologically distinct dengue viruses, namely DENV1-4. The viruses are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Understanding various defence mechanisms of insects has become a prime area of research worldwide. In insects, the first line of defence against invading pathogens includes cellular mechanisms and a battery of antimicrobial peptides such as defensins, cecropins etc. Defensins--cationic, cysteine-rich peptides consisting of approximately 40 amino acids with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria--have been reported from a wide range of organisms. In the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, three isoforms of defensins are reported to be expressed in a spatial and temporal fashion. This report presents the three-dimensional structures of the three isoforms of Ae. aegypti defensins predicted by comparative modeling. Prediction was done with Modeller 9v1 and the structures validated through a series of tests. The best results of the prediction study are presented, and may help lead to the discovery of new synthetic peptides or derivatives of defensins that could be useful in the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:19085024

  19. [Risk factors of pupal infestation with community-based Aedes aegypti in a municipality of Havana City].

    PubMed

    del Carmen Marquetti, María; Bisset, Juan; Portillo, Reina; Magdalena, Rodríguez; Leyva, Maureen

    2007-01-01

    The risk factors of pupal infestation with community-based Aedes aegypti were identified in four areas of Playa municipality, located in the urban zone of Havana City The deposits with the highest positivity to the vector were the artificial ones and the low tanks. It was confirmed that 99.03% of the sites visited contained at least one deposit with water, and that 4 areas presented a very similar behaviour in ratio of tanks per site, since in all of them the water was supplied every other day. That is why the difference in the positivity was not due to factors related to the water supply. Of the positive deposits, 87.17% were located in backyards, and 91.3% of the positive low tanks had no cover, or were partially covered. It was found that in the positivity of the deposits to the dengue vector, only 8.7% were non-community dependent. If there had had an active participation of the community directed to cover the tanks, to change the water in the water troughs, and to clean the backyards, the pupal infestation due to Aedes aegypti would have drastically increased in the studied areas. PMID:23427418

  20. Insecticidal potency of bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis SV2 and Serratia nematodiphila SV6 against larvae of mosquito species Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

    2012-05-01

    The tremendous worldwide efforts to isolate novel mosquito larvicidal bacteria with improved efficacy present significant promise to control vector-borne diseases of public health importance. In the present study, two native bacterial isolates, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt SV2) and Serratia species (SV6) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal potential against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus with reference to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) H 14. The native Gram-positive, spore-forming Bt SV2 isolate showed 100% mortality against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, in parallel to Bti H14 strain. After 24 h, Bt SV2 showed 98%, 89%, and 80.67%, and Bti H14 showed 92%, 98.33%, and 60% mortality against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Serratia SV6 showed highest activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (100%) followed by Anopheles stephensi (95%) and Aedes aegypti (91%) after 48 h of exposure. The Gram-negative Serratia SV6 showed delayed toxicity compared to Bti H14 and Bt SV2 against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The relative mortality of all treatments after 12-h exposures showed the varied toxicity with respect to exposure time, bacterial treatment, and mosquito species. Genetic relatedness of the strains was confirmed on the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions based on alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences which indicated a strong clustering of the strain SV2 with B. thuringiensis and the strain SV6 with Serratia nematodiphila. In conclusion, the native isolate B. thuringiensis SV2 showed significant toxicity while Serratia SV6 showed less and delayed toxicity against several mosquito species compared with BtiH14. They may be used as novel bacterial insecticidal agents in mosquito vector-borne disease control. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mosquito larvicidal potential of Serratia species. PMID:22065062

  1. Co-occurrence of Point Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Background Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Conclusions/Significance Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. PMID:25077956

  2. Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antônio Pancrácio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects adapt to them. PMID:25796215

  3. Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, José Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85–87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78–300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (15–56 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency. PMID:24778255

  4. Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Bedoya-Pérez, Leidy P; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Flores-Escobar, Biviana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. Cells can trigger different survival mechanisms to counteract the effects of sub-lytic doses of pore forming toxins. Particularly, two signaling pathways have been demonstrated to play a role in the defense mechanism to other toxins in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. These are the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) pathways, which are proposed to facilitate membrane repair responses. In this work we analyzed the role of these pathways in Aedes aegypti response to intoxication with Cry11Aa toxin. We show that UPR is activated upon toxin ingestion. The role of these two pathways was analyzed in vivo by using RNA interference. We silenced the expression of specific proteins in A. aegypti larvae. Gene silencing of Ire-1 and Xbp-1 proteins from UPR system, resulted in hypersensitive to Cry11Aa toxin action. In contrast, silencing of Cas-1, Scap and S2P from SREBP pathway had no affect on Cry11Aa toxicity in A. aegypti larvae. However, the role of SREBP pathway requires further studies to be conclusive. Our data indicate that the UPR pathway is involved in the insect defense against Cry toxins. PMID:23594997

  5. Close encounters: contributions of carbon dioxide and human skin odour to finding and landing on a host in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Emerson S; Ray, Anandasankar; Cardé, Ring T

    2014-03-01

    In a wind-tunnel study, the upwind flight and source location of female Aedes aegypti to plumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and odour from human feet is tested. Both odour sources are presented singly and in combination. Flight upwind along the plumes is evident for both CO2 and odour from human feet when the odours are presented alone. Likewise, both odour sources are located by more than 70% of mosquitoes in less than 3 min. When both CO2 and odour from human feet are presented simultaneously in two different choice tests (with plumes superimposed or with plumes separated), there is no evidence that females orientate along the plume of CO2 and only a few mosquitoes locate its source. Rather, the foot odour plume is navigated and the source of foot odour is located by over 80% of female Ae. aegypti. When a female is presented a plume of CO2 within a broad plume of human foot odour of relatively low concentration, the source of CO2 is not located; instead, flight is upwind in the diffuse plume of foot odour. Although upwind flight by Ae. aegypti at long range is presumably induced by CO2 and the threshold of response to skin odours is lowered, our findings suggest that once females have arrived near a prospective human host, upwind orientation and landing are largely governed by the suite of odours from a human foot, while orientation is no longer influenced by CO2. PMID:24839345

  6. The efficacy of a chitin synthesis inhibitor against field populations of organophosphate-resistant Aedes aegypti in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontoura, Nathalia Giglio; Bellinato, Diogo Fernandes; Valle, Denise; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2012-05-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main focus of dengue control campaigns. Because of widespread resistance against conventional chemical insecticides, chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) are considered control alternatives. We evaluated the resistance status of four Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations to both the organophosphate temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin, which are used in Brazil to control larvae and adults, respectively. All vector populations exhibited high levels of temephos resistance and varying rates of alterations in their susceptibility to pyrethroids. The effect of the CSI novaluron on these populations was also investigated. Novaluron was effective against all populations under laboratory conditions. Field-simulated assays with partial water replacement were conducted to evaluate novaluron persistence. Bioassays were continued until an adult emergence inhibition of at least 70% was attained. We found a residual effect of eight weeks under indoor conditions and novaluron persisted for five-six weeks in assays conducted in an external area. Our data show that novaluron is effective against the Ae. aegypti populations tested, regardless of their resistance to conventional chemical insecticides. PMID:22510835

  7. Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. Results The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Conclusion Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. PMID:23777277

  8. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Clausena dentata (Rutaceae) plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol agents. The present study is to evaluate adulticidal activity of Clausena dentata plant extract against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The highest mortality was found in acetone extracts against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 4.1783 mg/ml (3.8201-7.1026), 9.3884 mg/ml (7. 8258-13.1820) and 4.2451 mg/ml (3.8547-8.0254), 12.3214 mg/ml (10.9287-16.2220), respectively. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min, and the mortality data were recorded. Result shows that Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus are 85 ± 2 and 89 ± 1.5, respectively. A mortality of 100 % was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. dentata have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25573693

  9. Human impacts have shaped historical and recent evolution in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Julia E.; Evans, Benjamin R.; Zheng, Wei; Obas, Vanessa; Barrera-Martinez, Laura; Egizi, Andrea; Zhao, Hongyu; Caccone, Adalgisa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Though anthropogenic impacts are often considered harmful to species, human modifications to the landscape can actually create novel niches to which other species can adapt. These “domestication” processes are especially important in the context of arthropod disease vectors, where ecological overlap of vector and human populations may lead to epidemics. Here, we present results of a global genetic study of one such species, the dengue and yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, whose evolutionary history and current distribution have been profoundly shaped by humans. We used DNA sequences of four nuclear genes and 1504 SNP markers developed with RAD-tag sequencing to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti originated in Africa, where a domestic form arose and spread throughout the tropical and subtropical world with human trade and movement. Results confirmed African ancestry of the species, and supported a single subspeciation event leading to the pantropical domestic form. Additionally, genetic data strongly supported the hypothesis that human trade routes first moved domestic Ae. aegypti out of Africa into the New World, followed by a later invasion from the New World into Southeast Asia and the Pacific. These patterns of domestication and invasion are relevant to many species worldwide, as anthropogenic forces increasingly impact evolutionary processes. PMID:24111703

  10. Close encounters: contributions of carbon dioxide and human skin odour to finding and landing on a host in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    LACEY, EMERSON S.; RAY, ANANDASANKAR; CARDÉ, RING T.

    2014-01-01

    In a wind-tunnel study, the upwind flight and source location of female Aedes aegypti to plumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and odour from human feet is tested. Both odour sources are presented singly and in combination. Flight upwind along the plumes is evident for both CO2 and odour from human feet when the odours are presented alone. Likewise, both odour sources are located by more than 70% of mosquitoes in less than 3 min. When both CO2 and odour from human feet are presented simultaneously in two different choice tests (with plumes superimposed or with plumes separated), there is no evidence that females orientate along the plume of CO2 and only a few mosquitoes locate its source. Rather, the foot odour plume is navigated and the source of foot odour is located by over 80% of female Ae. aegypti. When a female is presented a plume of CO2 within a broad plume of human foot odour of relatively low concentration, the source of CO2 is not located; instead, flight is upwind in the diffuse plume of foot odour. Although upwind flight by Ae. aegypti at long range is presumably induced by CO2 and the threshold of response to skin odours is lowered, our findings suggest that once females have arrived near a prospective human host, upwind orientation and landing are largely governed by the suite of odours from a human foot, while orientation is no longer influenced by CO2. PMID:24839345

  11. Hot temperatures can force delayed mosquito outbreaks via sequential changes in Aedes aegypti demographic parameters in autocorrelated environments.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Luis Fernando; Scott, Thomas W; Morrison, Amy C; Takada, Takenori

    2014-01-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a common pantropical urban mosquito, vector of dengue, Yellow Fever and chikungunya viruses. Studies have shown Ae. aegypti abundance to be associated with environmental fluctuations, revealing patterns such as the occurrence of delayed mosquito outbreaks, i.e., sudden extraordinary increases in mosquito abundance following transient extreme high temperatures. Here, we use a two-stage (larvae and adults) matrix model to propose a mechanism for environmental signal canalization into demographic parameters of Ae. aegypti that could explain delayed high temperature induced mosquito outbreaks. We performed model simulations using parameters estimated from a weekly time series from Thailand, assuming either independent or autocorrelated environments. For autocorrelated environments, we found that long delays in the association between the onset of "hot" environments and mosquito outbreaks (10 weeks, as observed in Thailand) can be generated when "hot" environments sequentially trigger a larval survival decrease and over-compensatory fecundity increase, which lasts for the whole "hot" period, in conjunction with a larval survival increase followed by a fecundity decrease when the environment returns to "normal". This result was not observed for independent environments. Finally, we discuss our results implications for prospective entomological research and vector management under changing environments. PMID:23537497

  12. Biological activity of selected Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant essential oils against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Murugesan, Arunachalam Ganesan

    2012-03-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Mentha piperita L. Ocimum basilicum L. Curcuma longa L. and Zingiber officinale L. were investigated against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).The results indicated that the mortality rates at 80, 100, 200 and 400 ppm of M. piperita, Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum concentrations were highest amongst all concentrations of the crude extracts tested against all the larval instars and pupae of A. aegypti. Result of log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed that lethal concentration LC?? and LC?? values were 47.54 and 86.54 ppm for M. piperita, 40.5 and 85.53 ppm for Z. officinale, 115.6 and 193.3 ppm for C. longa and 148.5 and 325.7 ppm for O. basilicum, respectively. All of the tested oils proved to have strong larvicidal activity (doses from 5 to 350 ppm) against A. aegypti fourth instars, with the most potent oil being M. piperita extract, followed by Z. officinale, C. longa and O. basilicum. In general, early instars were more susceptible than the late instars and pupae. The results achieved suggest that, in addition to their medicinal activities, Lamiaceae and Zingiberaceae plant extracts may also serve as a natural larvicidal agent. PMID:21881945

  13. Toxicity of Brazilian plant seed extracts to two strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget animals.

    PubMed

    Souza, T M; Farias, D F; Soares, B M; Viana, M P; Lima, G P G; Machado, L K A; Morais, S M; Carvalho, A F U

    2011-07-01

    Seed ethanolic extracts of 21 Brazilian plants were evaluated for ovicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal activities against insecticide-susceptible (SS) and field-collected (FC) strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), as well as for their effects on nontarget organisms. Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allemao extract was highly toxic to both mosquito strains. Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler extract showed low toxicity and was 38-68 times less toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae than was M. urundeuva extract. The pupicidal activity (LC50) of 14 plant seed extracts ranged between 9 and 433/g/ml, and toxicities were comparable to both mosquito strains. Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. and Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemao) Ducke extracts showed the highest activities against pupae of FC and SS strains. None of the extracts showed 100% ovicidal activity. In addition, the active extracts did not show high acute toxicity to mice (LD50 > 1.5 g/kg), except that of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong. Most of the active extracts exhibited low toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii. The extracts of M. urundeuva, P. moniliformis, and L. auriculata are promising sources of recognized classes of insecticidal compounds with good selectivity against immature stages of Ae. aegypti. PMID:21845944

  14. Vector control measures failed to affect genetic structure of Aedes aegypti in a sentinel metropolitan area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Kathleen R; Ribeiro, Gilmar; Silva dos Santos, Carlos Gustavo; de Lima, Eliaci Couto; Melo, Paulo R S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; Silva, Luciano K

    2013-12-01

    In order to evaluate subpopulation differentiation, effective population size (Ne) and evidence for population bottlenecks at various geographic levels, Aedes aegypti larvae were collected longitudinally from 2007 to 2009 from four areas in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The DNA from each larva was isolated and genotyped with five independent microsatellite markers. FST and Jost's D revealed significant population structuring (P<0.05) at the municipal and regional levels, while only RST was able to detect genetic differentiation at the level of strata within these areas. Ne analysis from longitudinal data did not show any evidence of significant change in population structure. The census population measured by the house index, however, showed a significant trend toward decrease in these areas. Active vector control measures did contribute to vector reduction, but this was not enough to decrease A. aegypti population genetic diversity in Salvador. The understanding of A. aegypti population dynamics may be helpful for planning and evaluation of control measures to make them more effective. PMID:24028791

  15. Optimizing ovitrap use for Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Queensland, Australia: effects of some abiotic factors on field efficacy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Long, Sharron A; Russell, Richard C; Ritchie, Scott A

    2006-12-01

    Insecticide-treated lethal ovitraps are used for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland, Australia. In an effort to optimize their use, the influence of deployment height, premise shading, and protection from wind on trap efficacy was assessed in field experiments. Sticky ovitraps were used as a proxy for lethal ovitraps because they provide a direct measure of adult visitation rates. Sticky ovitraps deployed at ground level for 1 wk captured significantly more female Ae. aegypti (mean +/- SE, 1.7 +/- 0.4) than those set at 1.75-m elevation (1.0 +/- 0.3). Setting traps on the leeward side of houses significantly improved collections during a dry season experiment but not in the wet season. Traps set at lightly or heavily shaded premises performed equally well. To determine the optimum number of ovitraps to set per premise, five treatments making up different numbers of traps (1, 2, 4, 6, or 8) were trialled in a Latin square experimental design. Female Ae. aegypti collections increased as more traps were deployed, although mean collections by using 4 (2.6 +/- 0.6), 6 (2.4 +/- 0.5), or 8 traps (4.8 +/- 1.3) could not be separated statistically, suggesting that 4 traps was the optimum number for routine deployment. PMID:17304930

  16. Survival of larvivorous fish used for biological control of Aedes aegypti larvae in domestic containers with different chlorine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; de Paula, Francisco José Júnior; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Heukelbach, Jorg; Lima, José Wellington de Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    The two fish species Betta splendens (Regan) and Poecilia reticulata (Peters) are known predators of Aedes aegypti (L., 1762) larvae. Both species have been used for biological control in northeastern Brazil. However, the feasibility of these fish for the control of Ae. aegypti larvae in domestic containers may be limited by their survival in chlorinated water, as supplied by the public water system. We exposed fish to three different concentrations of chlorine: 1, 1.5, and 2.0 mg/liter. All B. splendens survived at 1.0 mg/liter chlorine concentration; 72.5 and 39.3% of B. splendens survived chlorine concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/liter, respectively. In contrast, only 4.4% of P. reticulata survived at a chlorine concentration of 1.0 mg/liter. We conclude that B. splendens may be an appropriate species for biological control of Ae. aegypti in domestic water tanks. PMID:19645286

  17. Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone requires a receptor tyrosine kinase to activate egg formation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Kevin J; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-04-21

    Mosquitoes are major disease vectors because most species must feed on blood from a vertebrate host to produce eggs. Blood feeding by the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti triggers the release of two neurohormones, ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptides (ILPs), which activate multiple processes required for egg formation. ILPs function by binding to the insulin receptor, which activates downstream components in the canonical insulin signaling pathway. OEH in contrast belongs to a neuropeptide family called neuroparsins, whose receptor is unknown. Here we demonstrate that a previously orphanized receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) from A. aegypti encoded by the gene AAEL001915 is an OEH receptor. Phylogenetic studies indicated that the protein encoded by this gene, designated AAEL001915, belongs to a clade of RTKs related to the insulin receptor, which are distinguished by an extracellular Venus flytrap module. Knockdown of AAEL001915 by RNAi disabled OEH-mediated egg formation in A. aegypti. AAEL001915 was primarily detected in the mosquito ovary in association with follicular epithelial cells. Both monomeric and dimeric AAEL001915 were detected in mosquito ovaries and transfected Drosophila S2 cells. Functional assays further indicated that OEH bound to dimeric AAEL001915, which resulted in downstream phosphorylation of Ak strain transforming factor (Akt). We hypothesize that orthologs of AAEL001915 in other insects are neuroparsin receptors. PMID:25848040

  18. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  19. Expression profiling and comparative analyses of seven midgut serine proteases from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Brackney, Doug E.; Isoe, Jun; Black, W.C.; Zamora, Jorge; Foy, Brian D.; Miesfeld, Roger L.; Olson, Ken E.

    2010-01-01

    Aedes aegypti utilizes blood for energy production, egg maturation and replenishment of maternal reserves. The principle midgut enzymes responsible for bloodmeal digestion are endoproteolytic serine-type proteases within the S1.A subfamily. While there are hundreds of serine protease-like genes in the A. aegypti genome, only five are known to be expressed in the midgut. We describe the cloning, sequencing and expression profiling of seven additional serine proteases and provide a genomic and phylogenetic assessment of these findings. Of the seven genes, four are constitutively expressed and three are transcriptionally induced upon blood feeding. The amount of transcriptional induction is strongly correlated among these genes. Alignments reveal that, in general, the conserved catalytic triad, active site and accessory catalytic residues are maintained in these genes and phylogenetic analysis shows that these genes fall within three distinct clades; trypsins, chymotrypsins and serine collagenases. Interestingly, a previously described trypsin consistently arose with other serine collagenases in phylogenetic analyses. These results suggest that multiple gene duplications have arisen within the S1.A subfamily of midgut serine proteases and/or that A. aegypti has evolved an array of proteases with a broad range of substrate specificities for rapid, efficient digestion of bloodmeals. PMID:20100490

  20. Functional implications of the peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the immunity of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Beerntsen, B T

    2015-06-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) play essential roles in the immune systems of insects and higher animals against certain pathogens, including bacteria. In insects, most studies on the functions of PGRPs have been performed in Drosophila, with only limited studies in mosquitoes, which are important disease vectors. In the present study, we analysed the PGRP sequences of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, acquired from two genome databases, and identified a total of seven PGRP genes; namely, PGRP-S1, -SC2, -LA, -LB, -LC, -LD and -LE. Bacterial injection using the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus luteus showed that three PGRPs responded directly to both bacterial stimuli. Subsequently, the transcriptional expression of six of these PGRPs was knocked down using double-stranded RNA-injection-based RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi of the PGRPs resulted in different impacts on the immune responses of Ae.?aegypti to the two bacteria, as evidenced by the changes in mosquito survival rates after bacterial challenges as well as the differential regulation of several antimicrobial peptides and a number of other genes involved in mosquito immune pathways. Our data suggest that PGRP-LC is a significant factor in mediating immune responses to both E.?coli and M.?luteus, and the other PGRPs play only minor roles against these two bacteria, with PGRP-SC2 and -LB also serving as potential negative regulators for certain immune pathway(s) in Ae.?aegypti. PMID:25588548

  1. The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hayden, Mary H; Bieringer, Paul E

    2014-05-01

    The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of temperature on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic range margins where future rising temperatures could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how temperature impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the temperature ranges for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool range margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic range now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating temperatures impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water temperature. The general shape of the relationship between water temperature and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower developmental zero temperature (10-14 degrees C) is exceeded, there is a near-linear relationship up to 30 degrees C. Above this temperature, the development rate is relatively stable or even decreases slightly before falling dramatically near the upper developmental zero temperature, which occurs at -38-42 degrees C. Based on life stage-specific linear relationships between water temperature and development rate in the 15-28 degrees C range, the lower developmental zero temperature is estimated to be 14.0 degrees C for eggs, 11.8 degrees C for larvae, and 10.3 degrees C for pupae. We further conclude that available population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti, such as CIMSiM and Skeeter Buster, likely produce robust predictions based on water temperatures in the 16-35 degrees C range, which includes the geographic areas where Ae. aegypti and its associated pathogens present the greatest threat to human health, but that they may be less reliable in cool range margins where water temperatures regularly fall below 15 degrees C. Finally, we identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its range, now and in the future, based on impacts on mosquito population dynamics of temperature and other important factors, such as water nutrient content, larval density, presence of biological competitors, and human behavior. PMID:24897844

  2. A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?

    PubMed Central

    Juliano, Steven A.; Lounibos, L. Philip; O’Meara, George F.

    2007-01-01

    We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar experiments manipulating numbers of A. albopictus in cemetery vases were conducted at three sites of A. aegypti persistence and three sites where A. aegypti was apparently extinct. The experiments were done using numbers of larvae that were determined by observed numbers of larvae for each site, and with resources (leaf detritus) that accumulated in experimental vases placed into each field site. In both the early rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was low) and the late rainy season (when number of mosquito larvae was high), there was a significant effect of treatment on developmental progress of experimental A. aegypti. In the late rainy season, when numbers of larvae were high, there was also a significant effect of treatment on survivorship of A. aegypti. However, the competition treatment × site type (A. aegypti persists vs extinct) interaction was never significant, indicating that the competitive effect of A. albopictus on A. aegypti did not differ systematically between persistence versus extinction sites. Thus, although competition from A. albopictus is strong under field conditions at all sites, we find no evidence that variation in the impact of interspecific competition is associated with coexistence or exclusion. Interspecific competition among larvae is thus a viable explanation for exclusion or reduction of A. aegypti in south Florida, but variation in the persistence of A. aegypti following invasion does not seem to be primarily a product of variation in the conditions in the aquatic environments of cemetery vases. PMID:15024640

  3. Insecticidal and genotoxic potential of two semi-synthetic derivatives of dillapiole for the control of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Joselita Maria Mendes; Rafael, Míriam Silva

    2014-09-15

    The effects of two semi-synthetic dillapiole derivatives, ethyl-ether dillapiole and n-butyl ether dillapiole, on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti were studied in view of the need for expansion and renovation of strategic action to control this mosquito - the vector of Dengue virus -, which currently shows a high resistance to chemical insecticides. Eggs and third-instar larvae of A. aegypti that had been exposed to different concentrations of these two compounds showed toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. Classical cytogenetic assays showed genotoxicity caused by the two compounds in A. aegypti from the cumulative effect of nuclear abnormalities, indicating that these derivatives may be potential alternatives to control A. aegypti. PMID:25308546

  4. Temporal Patterns of Abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Kamgang, Basile; Ngoagouni, Carine; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Paupy, Christophe; Kazanji, Mirdad

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were t