These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Laboratory evaluation of the response of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus uninfected and infected with dengue virus to deet  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the response of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) adults, uninfected and infected with four serotypes of dengue virus, to a repellent containing 5% deet. The results showed that mosquitoes infected with the four serotypes of dengue respond i...

2

The Aedes aegypti Toll Pathway Controls Dengue Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of viruses, in addition to an RNA interference–based defense system. We have used the recently released whole-genome sequence of the Ae. aegypti mosquito, in combination with high-throughput gene expression and RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetic analyses, to characterize its response to dengue virus infection in different body compartments. We have further addressed the impact of the mosquito's endogenous microbial flora on virus infection. Our findings indicate a significant role for the Toll pathway in regulating resistance to dengue virus, as indicated by an infection-responsive regulation and functional assessment of several Toll pathway–associated genes. We have also shown that the mosquito's natural microbiota play a role in modulating the dengue virus infection, possibly through basal-level stimulation of the Toll immune pathway. PMID:18604274

Xi, Zhiyong; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George

2008-01-01

3

The Aedes aegypti Toll Pathway Controls Dengue Virus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue viruses, utilizes its innate immune system to ward off a variety of pathogens, some of which can cause disease in humans. To date, the features of insects' innate immune defenses against viruses have mainly been studied in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, which appears to utilize different immune pathways against different types of

Zhiyong Xi; Jose L. Ramirez; George Dimopoulos

2008-01-01

4

Differential Protein Modulation in Midguts of Aedes aegypti Infected with Chikungunya and Dengue 2  

E-print Network

Differential Protein Modulation in Midguts of Aedes aegypti Infected with Chikungunya and Dengue 2 diseases. Among the diseases caused by arboviruses, dengue and chikungunya are responsible for a high rate an oral infection (7 DPI) with dengue 2 (DENV-2) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses. Gel profile comparisons

Boyer, Edmond

5

Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023

2014-01-01

6

BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING LEPTOLEGNIA CHAPMANII INFECTION IN AEDES AEGYPTI L. (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of water volume, container surface area and the density of hosts and fungal zoospores on the infectivity of the oomycete fungus, Leptolegnia chapmanii Seymour to Aedes aegypti (L.) were investigated in the laboratory. Late third or early fourth instar larvae from a laboratory colony of A...

7

Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination. PMID:22493862

Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

2012-03-01

8

Mosquito Infestation and Dengue Virus Infection in Aedes aegypti Females in Schools in Mérida, México  

PubMed Central

We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from schools in Mérida, México, during 2008 and 2009. Backpack aspiration from 24 schools produced 468 females of Ae. aegypti and 1,676 females of another human biter, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae. aegypti females were collected most commonly from classrooms followed by offices and bathrooms. Of these females, 24.7% were freshly fed. Examination of 118 pools of Ae. aegypti females (total of 415 females) for presence of DENV RNA produced 19 positive pools (16.1%). DENV-infected pools were detected from 11 (45.8%) of 24 schools and came from different room types, including classrooms, offices, and bathrooms. The overall rate of DENV infection per 100 Ae. aegypti females was 4.8. We conclude that schools in Mérida present a risk environment for students, teachers, and other personnel to be exposed to mosquitoes and bites of DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females. PMID:21363990

García-Rejón, Julián E.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Farfán-Ale, José Arturo; Flores-Flores, Luis F.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; del Rosario Najera-Vazquez, Maria; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

2011-01-01

9

Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.  

PubMed

West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ? 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR) and 202 genes that were ? 10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR) during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:21909258

Colpitts, Tonya M; Cox, Jonathan; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Feitosa, Fabiana M; Cheng, Gong; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Krishnan, Manoj N; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol

2011-09-01

10

Alterations in the Aedes aegypti Transcriptome during Infection with West Nile, Dengue and Yellow Fever Viruses  

PubMed Central

West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were ?5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR) and 202 genes that were ?10-fold differentially down-regulated (DDR) during infection with one of the three flaviviruses. Comparative analysis revealed that the expression profile of 20 DUR genes and 15 DDR genes was quite similar between the three flaviviruses on D1 of infection, indicating a potentially conserved transcriptomic signature of flaviviral infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed changes in expression of genes from diverse cellular processes, including ion binding, transport, metabolic processes and peptidase activity. We also demonstrate that virally-regulated gene expression is tissue-specific. The overexpression of several virally down-regulated genes decreased WNV infection in mosquito cells and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Among these, a pupal cuticle protein was shown to bind WNV envelope protein, leading to inhibition of infection in vitro and the prevention of lethal WNV encephalitis in mice. This work provides an extensive list of targets for controlling flaviviral infection in mosquitoes that may also be used to develop broad preventative and therapeutic measures for multiple flaviviruses. PMID:21909258

Colpitts, Tonya M.; Cox, Jonathan; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Feitosa, Fabiana M.; Cheng, Gong; Kurscheid, Sebastian; Wang, Penghua; Krishnan, Manoj N.; Higgs, Stephen; Fikrig, Erol

2011-01-01

11

Complex Modulation of the Aedes aegypti Transcriptome in Response to Dengue Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is the most important arboviral disease world-wide, with Aedes aegypti being the major vector. Interactions between the mosquito host and dengue viruses (DENV) are complex and vector competence varies among geographically-distinct Ae. aegypti populations. Additionally, dengue is caused by four antigenically-distinct viral serotypes (DENV1–4), each with multiple genotypes. Each virus genotype interacts differently with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Analyses of alterations in mosquito transcriptional profiles during DENV infection are expected to provide the basis for identifying networks of genes involved in responses to viruses and contribute to the molecular-genetic understanding of vector competence. In addition, this knowledge is anticipated to support the development of novel disease-control strategies. RNA-seq technology was used to assess genome-wide changes in transcript abundance at 1, 4 and 14 days following DENV2 infection in carcasses, midguts and salivary glands of the Ae. aegypti Chetumal strain. DENV2 affected the expression of 397 Ae. aegypti genes, most of which were down-regulated by viral infection. Differential accumulation of transcripts was mainly tissue- and time-specific. Comparisons of our data with other published reports reveal conservation of functional classes, but limited concordance of specific mosquito genes responsive to DENV2 infection. These results indicate the necessity of additional studies of mosquito-DENV interactions, specifically those focused on recently-derived mosquito strains with multiple dengue virus serotypes and genotypes. PMID:23209765

Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Dunn, W. Augustine; Campbell, Corey L.; Olson, Ken E.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; James, Anthony A.

2012-01-01

12

Complement-related proteins control the flavivirus infection of Aedes aegypti by inducing antimicrobial peptides.  

PubMed

The complement system functions during the early phase of infection and directly mediates pathogen elimination. The recent identification of complement-like factors in arthropods indicates that this system shares common ancestry in vertebrates and invertebrates as an immune defense mechanism. Thioester (TE)-containing proteins (TEPs), which show high similarity to mammalian complement C3, are thought to play a key role in innate immunity in arthropods. Herein, we report that a viral recognition cascade composed of two complement-related proteins limits the flaviviral infection of Aedes aegypti. An A. aegypti macroglobulin complement-related factor (AaMCR), belonging to the insect TEP family, is a crucial effector in opposing the flaviviral infection of A. aegypti. However, AaMCR does not directly interact with DENV, and its antiviral effect requires an A. aegypti homologue of scavenger receptor-C (AaSR-C), which interacts with DENV and AaMCR simultaneously in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, recognition of DENV by the AaSR-C/AaMCR axis regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exerts potent anti-DENV activity. Our results both demonstrate the existence of a viral recognition pathway that controls the flaviviral infection by inducing AMPs and offer insights into a previously unappreciated antiviral function of the complement-like system in arthropods. PMID:24722701

Xiao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuofeng; Pang, Xiaojing; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

2014-04-01

13

Dynamics of the “Popcorn” Wolbachia Infection in Outbred Aedes aegypti Informs Prospects for Mosquito Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Forty percent of the world's population is at risk of contracting dengue virus, which produces dengue fever with a potentially fatal hemorrhagic form. The wMelPop Wolbachia infection of Drosophila melanogaster reduces life span and interferes with viral transmission when introduced into the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue virus. Wolbachia has been proposed as an agent for preventing transmission of dengue virus. Population invasion by Wolbachia depends on levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility, fitness effects, and maternal transmission. Here we characterized these traits in an outbred genetic background of a potential target population of Ae. aegypti using two crossing schemes. Cytoplasmic incompatibility was strong in this background, and the maternal transmission rate of Wolbachia was high. The infection substantially reduced longevity of infected adult females, regardless of whether adults came from larvae cultured under high or low levels of nutrition or density. The infection reduced the viability of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs. Viability was particularly low when eggs were laid by older females and when diapausing eggs had been stored for a few weeks. The infection affected mosquito larval development time and adult body size under different larval nutrition levels and densities. The results were used to assess the potential for wMelPop-CLA to invade natural populations of Ae. aegypti and to develop recommendations for the maintenance of fitness in infected mosquitoes that need to compete against field insects. PMID:21135075

Yeap, H. L.; Mee, P.; Walker, T.; Weeks, A. R.; O'Neill, S. L.; Johnson, P.; Ritchie, S. A.; Richardson, K. M.; Doig, C.; Endersby, N. M.; Hoffmann, A. A.

2011-01-01

14

Detection of Dengue Virus NS1 Antigen in Infected Aedes aegypti Using a Commercially Available Kit  

PubMed Central

Epidemic dengue has emerged throughout the tropical world. In the continued absence of a vaccine against dengue virus (DENV), mosquito vector surveillance and control programs are essential to reduce human infections. An effective test to detect DENV in infected mosquitoes would be a valuable addition to the surveillance effort. We investigated DENV detection in infected Aedes aegypti using a commercially available DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) ELISA kit (Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag), and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation assays. The DENV-infected mosquitoes were subjected to field-relevant conditions and assayed individually and pooled with uninfected mosquitoes. Overall, DENV NS1 antigen was detected in 98% of infected mosquitoes/pools versus 79% for RT-PCR and 29% for virus isolation. Our results indicate that NS1 is an excellent analyte for detection of DENV in Ae. aegypti and that the tested NS1 antigen kit provides a sensitive, rapid, and convenient test for DENV surveillance in mosquitoes. PMID:23185074

Voge, Natalia V.; Sánchez-Vargas, Irma; Blair, Carol D.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.

2013-01-01

15

Defense reactions by larvae of Aedes aegypti during infection by the aquatic fungus Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycete).  

PubMed

The adherence of zoospores of Lagenidium giganteum to the cuticle of mosquito larvae is the initial step in the infection process. Subsequently, a germ tube penetrates the integument, inducing a rapid melanization of the injured cuticle and epidermis. After entering the hemocoel the developing hyphae are occasionally encapsulated locally. This process is slow (6 to 12 h postincubation) and most frequently cell-free, although it can be mediated by circulating hemocytes. Sporadic hemocyte mediation of the humoral encapsulation process in larval stages of Culicidae adds a previously unreported dimension to this unusual type of defense reaction. The defense reactions of larvae of Aedes aegypti were ineffective against observed infection by Lagenidium giganteum. PMID:3416342

Brey, P T; Lebrun, R A; Papierok, B; Ohayon, H; Vennavalli, S; Hafez, J

1988-07-01

16

Limited Dengue Virus Replication in Field-Collected Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Infected with Wolbachia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Dengue is one of the most widespread mosquito-borne diseases in the world. The causative agent, dengue virus (DENV), is primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a species that has proved difficult to control using conventional methods. The discovery that A. aegypti transinfected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia showed limited DENV replication led to trial field releases of these mosquitoes in Cairns, Australia as a biocontrol strategy for the virus. Methodology/Principal Findings Field collected wMel mosquitoes that were challenged with three DENV serotypes displayed limited rates of body infection, viral replication and dissemination to the head compared to uninfected controls. Rates of dengue infection, replication and dissemination in field wMel mosquitoes were similar to those observed in the original transinfected wMel line that had been maintained in the laboratory. We found that wMel was distributed in similar body tissues in field mosquitoes as in laboratory ones, but, at seven days following blood-feeding, wMel densities increased to a greater extent in field mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that virus-blocking is likely to persist in Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes after their release and establishment in wild populations, suggesting that Wolbachia biocontrol may be a successful strategy for reducing dengue transmission in the field. PMID:24587459

Frentiu, Francesca D.; Zakir, Tasnim; Walker, Thomas; Popovici, Jean; Pyke, Alyssa T.; van den Hurk, Andrew; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Scott L.

2014-01-01

17

Variation in susceptibility to oral infection with dengue viruses among geographic strains of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The comparative susceptibility of 13 geographic strains of Aedes aegypti to oral infection with dengue viruses was studied by feeding the mosquitoes on a virus-erythrocyte-sugar suspension. Significant variation in susceptibility to four dengue serotypes was observed among the geographic strains tested. Mosquito strains which were more susceptible to one serotype were also more susceptible to the other serotypes, suggesting that the factors controlling susceptibility were the same for all types. The amount of virus required to infect mosquitoes orally varied inversely with the susceptibility of the geographic strain. Thresholds of infection were not the same for dengue types 1, 2, 3 and 4. There was no apparent difference in infectivity between prototype and recently isolated strains of dengue types 1 and 3. Crossing experimentibility as the resistant parent. No difference was observed between resistant and susceptible mosquito strains in the rate or the amount of viral replication after infection by the parenteral route, or in their ability to transmit dengue 2 virus after infection by the oral route. PMID:507282

Gubler, D J; Nalim, S; Tan, R; Saipan, H; Sulianti Saroso, J

1979-11-01

18

Induction of a Peptide with Activity against a Broad Spectrum of Pathogens in the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV) to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV

Natthanej Luplertlop; Pornapat Surasombatpattana; Sirilaksana Patramool; Emilie Dumas; Ladawan Wasinpiyamongkol; Laure Saune; Rodolphe Hamel; Eric Bernard; Denis Sereno; Frédéric Thomas; David Piquemal; Hans Yssel; Laurence Briant; Dorothée Missé

2011-01-01

19

Analysis of Early Dengue Virus Infection in Mice as Modulated by Aedes aegypti Probing  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV), the etiologic agent of dengue fever, is transmitted during probing of human skin by infected-mosquito bite. The expectorated viral inoculum also contains an assortment of mosquito salivary proteins that have been shown to modulate host hemostasis and innate immune responses. To examine the potential role of mosquito probing in DENV establishment within the vertebrate host, we inoculated mice intradermally with DENV serotype 2 strain 1232 at sites where Aedes aegypti had or had not probed immediately prior. We assayed these sites 3 h postinoculation with transcript arrays for the Toll-like receptor (TLR), RIG-I-like receptor, and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways of the innate immune system. We then chose TLR7, transcription factor p65 (RelA), gamma interferon (IFN-?), and IFN-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) from the arrays for further investigation and assayed these transcripts at 10 min, 3 h, and 6 h postinoculation. The transcripts for TLR7, RelA, IFN-?, and IP-10 were significantly downregulated between 2- and 3-fold in the group subjected to mosquito probing relative to the virus-only inoculation group at 3 h postinoculation. A reduction in these transcripts could indicate reduced DENV recognition and antigen presentation and diminished inhibition of viral replication and spread. Further, mosquito probing resulted in viremia titers significantly higher than those in mice that did not receive probing. A. aegypti probing has a significant effect on the innate immune response to DENV infection and generates an early immune environment more permissive to the establishment of infection. PMID:24198426

McCracken, M. K.; Christofferson, R. C.; Chisenhall, D. M.

2014-01-01

20

Investigations of Koutango Virus Infectivity and Dissemination Dynamics in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti has already been implicated in the emergence of dengue and chikungunya viruses in the southern US. Vector competence is the ability of a mosquito species to support transmission of an arbovirus, which is bounded by its ability to support replication and dissemination of the virus through the mosquito body to the salivary glands to be expectorated in the saliva at the time of feeding on a vertebrate host. Here, we investigate the vector competence of A. aegypti for the arbovirus koutango by orally challenging mosquitoes with two titers of virus. We calculated the effective vector competence, a cumulative measure of transmission capability weighted by mosquito survival, and determined that A. aegypti was competent at the higher dose only. We conclude that further investigation is needed to determine the infectiousness of vertebrate hosts to fully assess the emergence potential of this virus in areas rich in A. aegypti. PMID:25574140

de Araújo Lobo, Jaime M; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Mores, Christopher N

2014-01-01

21

Differential Gene Expression from Midguts of Refractory and Susceptible Lines of the Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Infected with Dengue-2 Virus  

PubMed Central

Suppressive subtractive hybridization was used to evaluate the differential expression of midgut genes of feral populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia that are naturally refractory or susceptible to Dengue-2 virus infection. A total of 165 differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified in the subtracted libraries. The analysis showed a higher number of differentially expressed genes in the susceptible Ae. aegypti individuals than the refractory mosquitoes. The functional annotation of ESTs revealed a broad response in the susceptible library that included immune molecules, metabolic molecules and transcription factors. In the refractory strain, there was the presence of a trypsin inhibitor gene, which could play a role in the infection. These results serve as a template for more detailed studies aiming to characterize the genetic components of refractoriness, which in turn can be used to devise new approaches to combat transmission of dengue fever. PMID:20572793

Barón, Olga L.; Ursic-Bedoya, Raul J.; Lowenberger, Carl A.; Ocampo, Clara B.

2010-01-01

22

Comparative Expression Profiles of Midgut Genes in Dengue Virus Refractory and Susceptible Aedes aegypti across Critical Period for Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti is the primary mosquito vector for dengue virus (DENV) worldwide. Infectivity of dengue virus varies among natural populations of this mosquito. How A. aegypti responds to DENV infection relative to which genes and associated pathways contribute to its differential susceptibility as a vector is not well defined. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we used custom cDNA microarrays to identify groups of genes that were differentially expressed in midgut tissues between susceptible and refractory strains in a highly time specific manner. While genes involved in protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, mRNA surveillance, and the proteasome were significantly up-regulated in the susceptible strain, several metabolic processes including glycolysis, glycan biosynthesis and Wnt pathway were active in the refractory strain. In addition, several key signaling genes were expressed as common responsive genes in both susceptible and refractory mosquitoes that may be necessary for signal transduction to trigger the appropriate host response to the viral infection. These are coordinately expressed in the form of tight gene networks and expression clusters that may be necessary to differentially contribute to the progression of dengue infection between the two strains. Conclusions Our data show that highly correlated differential expression of responsive genes throughout the post infection period in A. aegypti midgut tissues is necessary for a coordinated transcriptional response of the mosquito genes to host or defend the viral infection. PMID:23077596

deBruyn, Becky; Lovin, Diane D.; Harker, Brent W.; Gomez-Machorro, Consuelo; Mori, Akio; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Severson, David W.

2012-01-01

23

Operational use of household bleach to "crash and release" Aedes aegypti prior to Wolbachia-infected mosquito release.  

PubMed

Dengue (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) remains the leading arboviral cause of mortality in the tropics. Wolbachia pipientis has been shown to interrupt DENV transmission and is presently being trialled as a biological control. However, deployment issues have arisen on methods to temporarily suppress wild mosquito populations before Wolbachia-infected mosquito releases. By suppressing wild populations, fewer Ae. aegypti releases are required to achieve a sustainable Wolbachia density threshold. Furthermore, public distress is reduced. This study tests the application of domestic bleach (4% NaCIO) to temporarily "crash" immature Aedes populations in water-filled containers. Spray application NaClO (215 ppm) resulted in a mean 48-h mortality of 100, 100, 97, and 88% of eggs, second-instar larvae, fourth-instar larvae, and pupae, respectively. In the field, NaClO delayed ovipositing by 9 d in cooler months, and 11 d in hotter months, after which oviposition resumed in treated receptacles. We found bleach treatment of pot-plant bases did not cause wilting, yellowing, or dropping of leaves in two ornamental plants species. Domestically available NaClO could be adopted for a "crash and release" strategy to temporarily suppress wild populations of Ae. aegypti in containers before release of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes. The "crash and release" strategy is also applicable to other mosquito species, e.g., Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in strategies using released mosquitoes. PMID:23540123

Jacups, Susan P; Ball, Tamara S; Paton, Christopher J; Johnson, Petrina H; Ritchie, Scott A

2013-03-01

24

Aedes aegypti ML and Niemann-Pick type C family members are agonists of dengue virus infection.  

PubMed

Upon exposure to dengue virus, the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector mounts an anti-viral immune defense by activating the Toll, JAK/STAT, and RNAi pathways, thereby limiting infection. While these pathways and several other factors have been identified as dengue virus antagonists, our knowledge of factors that facilitate dengue virus infection is limited. Previous dengue virus infection-responsive transcriptome analyses have revealed an increased mRNA abundance of members of the myeloid differentiation 2-related lipid recognition protein (ML) and the Niemann Pick-type C1 (NPC1) families upon dengue virus infection. These genes encode lipid-binding proteins that have been shown to play a role in host-pathogen interactions in other organisms. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of a ML and a NPC1 gene family member in both laboratory strain and field-derived Ae. aegypti mosquitoes resulted in significantly elevated resistance to dengue virus in mosquito midguts, suggesting that these genes play roles as dengue virus agonists. In addition to their possible roles in virus cell entry and replication, gene expression analyses suggested that ML and NPC1 family members also facilitate viral infection by modulating the mosquito's immune competence. Our study suggests that the dengue virus influences the expression of these genes to facilitate its infection of the mosquito host. PMID:24135719

Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

2014-03-01

25

Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City  

PubMed Central

Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore was a disease of the urban human population, with concentrations of cases occurring in areas of high population density. Mosquito surveys revealed that these areas also had high population densities of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The disease occurred throughout the year but the incidence of cases appeared to follow a seasonal pattern. Observations from 1966 to 1968 showed that the number of cases increased in April, reached a peak in November, and, thereafter, decreased until the next increase in April of the following year. The epidemic curve generally agreed with the fluctuations of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations, although the latter species appeared to show a better correspondence with the incidence of cases. Six dengue viruses were isolated from the two Aedes species during 1966. One dengue type 2 virus was isolated from a pool of Ae. aegypti and 1 dengue type 1 virus and 4 dengue type 2 viruses were recovered from 5 pools of Ae. albopictus. These viruses were isolated from mosquitos collected during the period of increase in the incidence of cases and in 4 different areas of the city. The dengue virus infection rates per 1 000 mosquitos estimated in the present study were 0.51 for Ae. aegypti and 0.59 for Ae. albopictus. The data obtained in the present study suggest that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are involved in the transmission of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Singapore. PMID:5316749

Chan, Y. C.; Ho, B. C.; Chan, K. L.

1971-01-01

26

Characterization of the antigen distribution and tissue tropisms of three phenotypically distinct yellow fever virus variants in orally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Arbovirus dissemination from the midgut of a vector mosquito is a critical step in facilitating virus transmission to a susceptible host. We previously characterized the genetic determinants of yellow fever virus (YFV) dissemination from the Aedes aegypti mosquito midgut using 2 genetically and phenotypically distinct strains of YFV: the wild-type, disseminating YFV Asibi strain and the attenuated, midgut-restricted YFV 17D vaccine strain. We examined the process of viral dissemination in YFV-infected Ae. aegypti by characterizing the tissue tropisms of 3 YF viruses in Ae. aegypti: Asibi, 17D, and a chimeric virus (17D/Asibi M-E) containing the Asibi membrane (M) and envelope (E) structural protein genes and 17D nonstructural genes. Ae. aegypti were infected orally, and whole, sectioned mosquitoes were evaluated for antigen distribution at 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days postinfection by immunohistochemical staining. Virus antigen was consistently observed in the posterior and anterior midgut, cardial epithelium, salivary glands, fat body, and nervous tissues in Asibi- and 17D/Asibi M-E-infected Ae. aegypti following 10 or 14-day extrinsic incubation, respectively. Amplification of virus in the abdominal and thoracic fat body is hypothesized to facilitate YFV infection of the Ae. aegypti salivary glands. As expected, 17D infection was generally limited to the midgut following oral infection. However, there did not appear to be a direct correlation between distribution of infection in the midgut and dissemination to the secondary tissues. PMID:18494601

McElroy, Kate L; Girard, Yvette A; McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2008-10-01

27

The Influence of Dengue Virus Serotype-2 Infection on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Motivation and Avidity to Blood Feed  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti, a species that lives in close association with human dwellings. The behavior of DENV-infected mosquitoes needs further investigation, especially regarding the potential influence of DENV on mosquito biting motivation and avidity. Methodology/Principal findings We orally challenged 4–5 day-old Ae. aegypti females with a low passage DENV serotype -2 (DENV-2) to test whether the virus influences motivation to feed (the likelihood that a mosquito obtains a blood-meal and the size of its blood meal) and avidity (the likelihood to re-feed after an interrupted first blood-meal). To assay motivation, we offered mosquitoes an anesthetized mouse for 2, 3, 4 or 5 minutes 7 or 14 days after the initial blood meals and measured the time they started feeding. 60.5% of the unexposed mosquitoes fed on the mouse, but only 40.5% of the positive ones did. Exposed but negative mosquitoes behaved similarly to unexposed ones (55.0% feeding). Thus DENV-2 infection decreased the mosquitoes’ motivation to feed. To assay avidity, we offered the same mosquitoes a mouse two hours after the first round of feeding, and we measured the time at which they started probing. The exposed (positive or negative) mosquitoes were more likely to re-feed than the unexposed ones and, in particular, the size of the previous blood-meal that kept mosquitoes from re-feeding was larger in the exposed than in the unexposed mosquitoes. Thus, DENV-2 infection increased mosquito avidity. Conclusions/Significance DENV-2 significantly decreased the mosquitoes’ motivation to feed, but increased their avidity (even after taking account the amount of blood previously imbibed). As these are important components of transmission, we expect that the changes of the blood-feeding behaviour impact the vectorial capacity Ae. aegypti for dengue. PMID:23755202

Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Gandini, Mariana; Koella, Jacob C.

2013-01-01

28

On the analysis of parasite effect for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been reported in some countries that the population of Aedes aegypti has been significantly reduced by the invasion of Aedes albopictus. There has been a hypothesis explaining this phenomenon of which investigated the influence of parasites pathogenesis to the competition between these two mosquito species in the fields. Ascogregarina taiwanensis and Ascogregarina culicis are known as parasites that infect Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Several studies have concluded that Ascogregarina taiwanensis caused high fatality for Aedes aegypti larvae, but Ascogregarina culicis was not pathogenic to Aedes albopictus larvae. Therefore, Ascogregarina taiwanensis may contribute to reduce the number of populations Aedes aegypti in the fields. Inspired by these facts, a mathematical model depicting interaction between parasites and mosquitoes is constructed in this paper. In this model are included six dynamic mosquito compartments, i.e. egg, larvae, infected larvae, adult, infected adult and one dynamic compartment for parasite. Derivation of the existence criteria and the stability analysis of parasite-free equilibrium as well as the basic offspring for the model are presented. Numerical simulations for sensitivity analysis indicating the invasive species for variation parameters are shown.

Kallista, Meta; Aldila, Dipo; Nuraini, Nuning; Soewono, Edy

2014-03-01

29

Suppressing Dengue-2 Infection by Chemical Inhibition of Aedes aegypti Host Factors  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus host factors (DENV HFs) that are essential for the completion of the infection cycle in the mosquito vector and vertebrate host represent potent targets for transmission blocking. Here we investigated whether known mammalian DENV HF inhibitors could influence virus infection in the arthropod vector A. aegypti. We evaluated the potency of bafilomycin (BAF; inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPase (vATPase)), mycophenolic acid (MPA; inhibitor of inosine-5?-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH)), castanospermine (CAS; inhibitor of glucosidase), and deoxynojirimycin (DNJ; inhibitor of glucosidase) in blocking DENV infection of the mosquito midgut, using various treatment methods that included direct injection, ingestion by sugar feeding or blood feeding, and silencing of target genes by RNA interference (RNAi). Injection of BAF (5 µM) and MPA (25 µM) prior to feeding on virus-infected blood inhibited DENV titers in the midgut at 7 days post-infection by 56% and 60%, and in the salivary gland at 14 days post-infection by 90% and 83%, respectively, while treatment of mosquitoes with CAS or DNJ did not affect susceptibility to the virus. Ingestion of BAF and MPA through a sugar meal or together with an infectious blood meal also resulted in various degrees of virus inhibition. RNAi-mediated silencing of several vATPase subunit genes and the IMPDH gene resulted in a reduced DENV infection, thereby indicating that BAF- and MPA-mediated virus inhibition in adult mosquitoes most likely occurred through the inhibition of these DENV HFs. The route and timing of BAF and MPA administration was essential, and treatment after exposure to the virus diminished the antiviral effect of these compounds. Here we provide proof-of-principle that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated depletion of the DENV HFs vATPase and IMPDH can be used to suppress DENV infection of adult A. aegypti mosquitoes, which may translate to a reduction in DENV transmission. PMID:25101828

Kang, Seokyoung; Shields, Alicia R.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Dimopoulos, George

2014-01-01

30

Workbook on Identification of Aedes Aegypti Larvae.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This self-instructional booklet is designed to enable yellow fever control workers to identify the larvae of "Aedes aegypti." The morphological features of mosquito larvae are illustrated in this partially programed text, and the distinguishing features of "A. aegypti" indicated. A glossary is included. (AL)

Pratt, Harry D.; And Others

31

Reintroduction of Aedes aegypti into Grand Cayman.  

PubMed

In October 2002 Aedes aegypti was detected on Grand Cayman after an absence of 5 years. This study outlines the techniques used by the Mosquito Research & Control Unit of the Cayman Islands to monitor the reintroduction of Ae. aegypti and to determine the extent of the new infestation. Suggestions are made for improvements of port disinsection activities to minimize further introductions. PMID:19852214

Wheeler, Alan S; Petrie, William D; Malone, David

2009-09-01

32

Bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito Aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes.  

PubMed

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (DENV) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. Besides DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV) is also transmitted by A. aegypti. Susceptibility of A. aegypti to West Nile virus (WNV) has also been confirmed. Although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of A. aegypti to DENV, YFV and WNV. In the current study, usages of codon context sequences (codon pairs for neighboring amino acids) of the vector (A. aegypti) genome as well as the flaviviral genomes are investigated. We used bioinformatics methods to quantify codon context bias in a genome-wide manner of A. aegypti as well as DENV, WNV and YFV sequences. Mutual information statistics was applied to perform bicluster analysis of codon context bias between vector and flaviviral sequences. Functional relevance of the bicluster pattern was inferred from published microarray data. Our study shows that codon context bias of DENV, WNV and YFV sequences varies in a bicluster manner with that of specific sets of genes of A. aegypti. Many of these mosquito genes are known to be differentially expressed in response to flaviviral infection suggesting that codon context sequences of A. aegypti and the flaviviruses may play a role in the susceptible interaction between flaviviruses and this mosquito. The bias in usages of codon context sequences likely has a functional association with susceptibility of A. aegypti to flaviviral infection. The results from this study will allow us to conduct hypothesis-driven tests to examine the role of codon context bias in evolution of vector-virus interactions at the molecular level. PMID:24838953

Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

2014-10-01

33

Towards a Casa Segura: A Consumer Product Study of the Effect of Insecticide-Treated Curtains on Aedes aegypti and Dengue Virus Infections in the Home  

PubMed Central

The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus–infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission. PMID:23732254

Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; del Rosario Nájera-Vázquez, Maria; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K.; Black, William C.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J.

2013-01-01

34

Towards a Casa Segura: a consumer product study of the effect of insecticide-treated curtains on Aedes aegypti and dengue virus infections in the home.  

PubMed

The home, or domicile, is the principal environment for transmission of dengue virus (DENV) between humans and mosquito vectors. Community-wide distribution of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs), mimicking vector control program-driven interventions, has shown promise to reduce DENV infections. We conducted a Casa Segura consumer product intervention study in Mérida, Mexico to determine the potential to reduce intradomicillary DENV transmission through ITC use in individual homes. Dengue virus infections in mosquitoes and in humans were reduced in homes with ITCs in one of two study subareas. Overall, ITCs reduced intradomicillary DENV transmission; ITC homes were significantly less likely to experience multiple DENV infections in humans than NTC homes. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti females were reduced within the ITC homes where curtain use was highest. Some homes yielded up to nine infected Ae. aegypti females. This study provides insights regarding best practices for Casa Segura interventions to protect homes from intradomicillary DENV transmission. PMID:23732254

Loroño-Pino, María Alba; García-Rejón, Julián E; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Gomez-Carro, Salvador; Nuñez-Ayala, Guadalupe; Nájera-Vázquez, Maria del Rosario; Losoya, Arturo; Aguilar, Lyla; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Beaty, Meaghan K; Black, William C; Keefe, Thomas J; Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J

2013-08-01

35

Ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

We investigated the mechanisms by which Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are able to metabolize ammonia. When females were given access to solutions containing NH(4)Cl or to a blood meal, hemolymph glutamine and proline concentrations increased markedly, indicating that ammonium/ammonia can be removed from the body through the synthesis of these two amino acids. The importance of glutamine synthetase was shown when an inhibitor of the enzyme was added to the meal causing the glutamine concentration in hemolymph to decrease significantly, while the proline concentration increased dramatically. Unexpectedly, we found an important role for glutamate synthase. When mosquitoes were fed azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, the glutamine concentration increased and the proline concentration decreased significantly. This confirms the presence of glutamate synthase in mosquitoes and suggests that this enzyme contributes to the production of glutamate for proline synthesis. Several key enzymes related to ammonium/ammonia metabolism showed activity in homogenates of mosquito fat body and midgut. The mosquito genes encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase were cloned and sequenced. The mRNA expression patterns of these genes were examined by a real-time RT-PCR in fat body and midgut. The results show that female mosquitoes have evolved efficient mechanisms to detoxify large loads of ammonium/ammonia. PMID:15804581

Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Isoe, Jun; Murillo, Adrian; Wells, Michael A

2005-05-01

36

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster aegypti, and Culex pipiens, the primary vectors for malaria, yellow fever and dengue, and lymphatic 103

Severson, David

37

Susceptibility of Florida Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to dengue viruses from Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Locally acquired dengue cases in the continental U.S. are rare. However, outbreaks of dengue-1 during 2009, 2010, and 2013 in Florida and dengue-1 and -2 in Texas suggest vulnerability to transmission. Travel and commerce between Puerto Rico and the U.S. mainland is common, which may pose a risk for traveler-imported dengue cases. Mosquitoes were collected in Florida and used to evaluate their susceptibility to dengue viruses (DENV) from Puerto Rico. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were susceptible to virus infection with DENV-1 and -2. No significant differences were observed in rates of midgut infection or dissemination between Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus for DENV-1 (6-14%). Aedes aegypti was significantly more susceptible to midgut infection with DENV-2 than Ae. albopictus (Ae. aegypti, ?28%; Ae. albopictus, ?9%). The dissemination rate with dengue-2 virus for Ae. aegypti (23%) was greater than Ae. albopictus (0%), suggesting that Ae. albopictus is not likely to be an important transmitter of the DENV-2 isolate from Puerto Rico. These results are discussed in light of Florida's vulnerability to DENV transmission. PMID:25424270

Alto, Barry W; Smartt, Chelsea T; Shin, Dongyoung; Bettinardi, David; Malicoate, Jolene; Anderson, Sheri L; Richards, Stephanie L

2014-12-01

38

Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City  

PubMed Central

Fluctuations in the adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations and their relationship to rainfall were studied by weekly collections from a number of stations in the city. Aedes aegypti populations generally fluctuated with the rainfall, with multiple peaks, except in the middle of the year when there was no increase in rainfall at the time of the peak in population. It is suggested that other regulating factors, in addition to rainfall, also determine the fluctuations of this species. Aedes albopictus also fluctuated, with three peaks in a year, and these bore a close relationship to rainfall. In one area, both larvae and adults of Ae. albopictus were studied simultaneously. The larval populations were investigated by exposing tin cans in the field. The population peaks of larvae were found to precede those of adults by almost exactly 2 months. It is suggested that each adult population peak represents the cumulative effect of more than one generation of mosquitos. PMID:5316747

Ho, B. C.; Chan, K. L.; Chan, Y. C.

1971-01-01

39

Induction of a Peptide with Activity against a Broad Spectrum of Pathogens in the Aedes aegypti Salivary Gland, following Infection with Dengue Virus  

PubMed Central

The ultimate stage of the transmission of Dengue Virus (DENV) to man is strongly dependent on crosstalk between the virus and the immune system of its vector Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti). Infection of the mosquito's salivary glands by DENV is the final step prior to viral transmission. Therefore, in the present study, we have determined the modulatory effects of DENV infection on the immune response in this organ by carrying out a functional genomic analysis of uninfected salivary glands and salivary glands of female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes infected with DENV. We have shown that DENV infection of salivary glands strongly up-regulates the expression of genes that encode proteins involved in the vector's innate immune response, including the immune deficiency (IMD) and Toll signalling pathways, and that it induces the expression of the gene encoding a putative anti-bacterial, cecropin-like, peptide (AAEL000598). Both the chemically synthesized non-cleaved, signal peptide-containing gene product of AAEL000598, and the cleaved, mature form, were found to exert, in addition to antibacterial activity, anti-DENV and anti-Chikungunya viral activity. However, in contrast to the mature form, the immature cecropin peptide was far more effective against Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and, furthermore, had strong anti-parasite activity as shown by its ability to kill Leishmania spp. Results from circular dichroism analysis showed that the immature form more readily adopts a helical conformation which would help it to cause membrane permeabilization, thus permitting its transfer across hydrophobic cell surfaces, which may explain the difference in the anti-pathogenic activity between the two forms. The present study underscores not only the importance of DENV-induced cecropin in the innate immune response of Ae. aegypti, but also emphasizes the broad-spectrum anti-pathogenic activity of the immature, signal peptide-containing form of this peptide. PMID:21249175

Patramool, Sirilaksana; Dumas, Emilie; Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Saune, Laure; Hamel, Rodolphe; Bernard, Eric; Sereno, Denis; Thomas, Frédéric; Piquemal, David; Yssel, Hans; Briant, Laurence; Missé, Dorothée

2011-01-01

40

Spatial Stability of Adult Aedes aegypti Populations  

PubMed Central

Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of Aedes aegypti. This study explored if the number of female adults of Ae. aegypti in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of Ae. aegypti. There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs. PMID:22144449

Barrera, Roberto

2011-01-01

41

Burchellin: study of bioactivity against Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 is a widespread insect pest of serious medical importance. Since no effective vaccine is available for treating dengue, the eradication or control of the main mosquito vector is regarded as essential. Since conventional insecticides have limited success, plants may be an alternative source of larvicidal agents, since they contain a rich source of bioactive chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the neolignan burchellin isolated from Ocotea cymbarum (Lauraceae), a plant from the Amazon region, against third instar larvae of A. aegypti. Methods Burchellin obtained from O. cymbarum was analyzed. The inhibitory activity against A. aegypti eggs and larvae and histological changes in the digestive system of treated L3 larvae were evaluated. In addition, nitric oxide synthase activity and nitric oxide levels were determined, and cytotoxicity bioassays performed. Results The data showed that burchellin interfered with the development cycle of the mosquito, where its strongest toxic effect was 100% mortality in larvae (L3) at concentrations???30 ppm. This compound did not show target cell toxicity in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and proved to have molecular stability when dissolved in water. The L3 and L4 larvae treated with the compound showed cellular destruction and disorganization, cell spacing, and vacuolization of epithelial cells in small regions of the midgut. Conclusion The neolignan burchellin proved to be a strong candidate for a natural, safe and stable phytolarvicidal to be used in population control of A. aegypti. PMID:24713267

2014-01-01

42

Altered behavioral responses of Sindbis virus-infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to DEET and non-DEET based insect repellents.  

PubMed

Changes in the time to first bite (TFB) and the bloodfeeding behavior of adult female Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes following dissemination of Sindbis virus (SINV) were observed after exposure to repellents with the active ingredients (AI) DEET, picaridin, 2-undecanone (2-U), and oil of lemon eucalyptus. Dissemination of SINV significantly decreased (P<0.0001) the TFB of DEET (15%) and picaridin (15%) by 46% and 37%, respectively. Significant (P<0.0001) changes in activation, probing, and engorgement times were observed in SINV infected mosquitoes after exposure to the four repellents compared to uninfected mosquitoes. Taken together, a decrease in TFB and time to complete the four bloodfeeding stages will lessen the prey-status, and enhance both the chances of mosquito survival and arbovirus transmission. PMID:22289669

Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-de; Bowers, Doria F

2012-06-01

43

Experimental Transmission of Mayaro Virus by Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of Mayaro fever have been associated with a sylvatic cycle of Mayaro virus (MAYV) transmission in South America. To evaluate the potential for a common urban mosquito to transmit MAYV, laboratory vector competence studies were performed with Aedes aegypti from Iquitos, Peru. Oral infection in Ae. aegypti ranged from 0% (0/31) to 84% (31/37), with blood meal virus titers between 3.4 log10 and 7.3 log10 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. Transmission of MAYV by 70% (21/30) of infected mosquitoes was shown by saliva collection and exposure to suckling mice. Amount of viral RNA in febrile humans, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, ranged from 2.7 to 5.3 log10 PFU equivalents/mL. Oral susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to MAYV at titers encountered in viremic humans may limit opportunities to initiate an urban cycle; however, transmission of MAYV by Ae. aegypti shows the vector competence of this species and suggests potential for urban transmission. PMID:21976583

Long, Kanya C.; Ziegler, Sarah A.; Thangamani, Saravanan; Hausser, Nicole L.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Higgs, Stephen; Tesh, Robert B.

2011-01-01

44

Host and viral features of human dengue cases shape the population of infected and infectious Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease of humans. The host and virus variables associated with dengue virus (DENV) transmission from symptomatic dengue cases (n = 208) to Aedes aegypti mosquitoes during 407 independent exposure events was defined. The 50% mosquito infectious dose for each of DENV-1–4 ranged from 6.29 to 7.52 log10 RNA copies/mL of plasma. Increasing day of illness, declining viremia, and rising antibody titers were independently associated with reduced risk of DENV transmission. High early DENV plasma viremia levels in patients were a marker of the duration of human infectiousness, and blood meals containing high concentrations of DENV were positively associated with the prevalence of infectious mosquitoes 14 d after blood feeding. Ambulatory dengue cases had lower viremia levels compared with hospitalized dengue cases but nonetheless at levels predicted to be infectious to mosquitoes. These data define serotype-specific viremia levels that vaccines or drugs must inhibit to prevent DENV transmission. PMID:23674683

Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Thi Hue Kien, Duong; Tuan, Trung Vu; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Chau N. B.; Vo Thi, Long; Thi, Dui Le; Nguyen, Hoa Lan; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Holmes, Edward C.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Bryant, Juliet E.; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Nguyen, Huong Thi Cam; Nguyen, Lan Thi Hong; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Hung The; Luong, Tai Thi Hue; Wills, Bridget; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P.

2013-01-01

45

Detritus Type Alters the Outcome of Interspecific Competition Between Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies of interspeciÞc competition between Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae show that Ae. albopictus are superior resource competitors to Ae.aegypti. Single-species studies indicate that growth and survival of Ae.albopictus and Ae.aegypti larvae are affected by the type of detritus present in containers, which presumably affects the amount and quality of microorganisms that the mosquito

Ebony G. Murrell; Steven A. Juliano

2008-01-01

46

Substitution of Wild-Type Yellow Fever Asibi Sequences for 17D Vaccine Sequences in ChimeriVax–Dengue 4 Does Not Enhance Infection of Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

To address concerns that a flavivirus vaccine/wild-type recombinant virus might have a high mosquito infectivity phenotype, the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D backbone of the ChimeriVax– dengue 4 virus was replaced with the corresponding gene sequences of the virulent YFV Asibi strain. Field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under investigation and held for 14 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in titrated body or head triturates. Our data indicate that, even in the highly unlikely event of recombination or substantial backbone reversion, virulent sequences do not enhance the transmissibility of ChimeriVax viruses. In light of the low-level viremias that have been observed after vaccination in human volunteers coupled with low mosquito infectivity, it is predicted that the risk of mosquito infection and transmission of ChimeriVax vaccine recombinant/revertant viruses in nature is minimal. PMID:18266608

McGee, Charles E.; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; McElroy, Kate L.; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Decelle, Thierry; Higgs, Stephen

2008-01-01

47

Substitution of wild-type yellow fever Asibi sequences for 17D vaccine sequences in ChimeriVax-dengue 4 does not enhance infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

To address concerns that a flavivirus vaccine/wild-type recombinant virus might have a high mosquito infectivity phenotype, the yellow fever virus (YFV) 17D backbone of the ChimeriVax-dengue 4 virus was replaced with the corresponding gene sequences of the virulent YFV Asibi strain. Field-collected and laboratory-colonized Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under investigation and held for 14 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in titrated body or head triturates. Our data indicate that, even in the highly unlikely event of recombination or substantial backbone reversion, virulent sequences do not enhance the transmissibility of ChimeriVax viruses. In light of the low-level viremias that have been observed after vaccination in human volunteers coupled with low mosquito infectivity, it is predicted that the risk of mosquito infection and transmission of ChimeriVax vaccine recombinant/revertant viruses in nature is minimal. PMID:18266608

McGee, Charles E; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin; Vanlandingham, Dana L; McElroy, Kate L; Lang, Jean; Guy, Bruno; Decelle, Thierry; Higgs, Stephen

2008-03-01

48

Field validation of the gravid Aedes trap (GAT) for collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that alarge GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7x and 2.4X more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10-50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools ofAe. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28 degreeC and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only approximately 10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries. PMID:24605471

Ritchie, Scott A; Buhagiar, Tamara S; Townsend, Michael; Hoffmann, Ary; Van Den Hurk, Andrew F; McMahon, Jamie L; Eiras, Alvaro E

2014-01-01

49

Probing functional polymorphisms in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease world-wide and its primary vector is the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The current lack of commercially-available vaccines makes control of vector populations the only effective strategy to prevent dengue transmission. Aedes aegypti geographic populations exhibit great variability in insecticide resistance and susceptibility to dengue infection. The characterization of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as molecular markers to study quantitatively this variation is needed greatly because this species has a low abundance of microsatellite markers and limited known restriction fragments length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) markers. Results We used RNA-seq to characterize SNPs in three Ae. aegypti strains, including the Liverpool (LVP) strain, from which the current genome annotation is derived. We identified 131,764 unique genome locations with at least one alternative nucleotide to what is reported in the reference annotation. These comprised changes in both open-reading frames (ORFs) and untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts. An in depth-look at sequence variation in immunity genes revealed that those associated with autophagy, MD2-like receptors and Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins had more sequence variation in their 3’UTRs than mutations associated with non-synonymous changes. This supports the conclusion that these genes had maintained their functional specificity while being adapted to different regulatory domains. In contrast, a number of peroxidases, serpins and Clip-domain serine proteases exhibited conservation of putative UTR regulatory sequences while displaying diversification of the ORFs. Transcriptome evidence also was found for ~2500 novel transcriptional units (NTUs) not annotated in the reference genome. Conclusions The transcriptome-wide assessment of within and inter-strain polymorphisms in Ae. aegypti adds considerably to the number of molecular markers available for genetic studies in this mosquito. Additionally, data supporting NTU discovery emphasizes the need for continuous amendments of the reference genome annotation. PMID:24168143

2013-01-01

50

Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

51

Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

52

Reduced survival and reproductive success generates selection pressure for the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti to evolve resistance against infection by the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis  

PubMed Central

The success and sustainability of control measures aimed at reducing the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases will depend on how they influence the fitness of mosquitoes in targeted populations. We investigated the effects of the microsporidian parasite Vavraia culicis on the survival, blood-feeding behaviour and reproductive success of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the main vector of dengue. Infection reduced survival to adulthood and increased adult female mosquito age-dependent mortality relative to uninfected individuals; this additional mortality was closely correlated with the number of parasite spores they harboured when they died. In the first gonotrophic cycle, infected females were less likely to blood-feed, took smaller meals when they did so, and developed fewer eggs than uninfected females. Even though the conditions of this laboratory study favoured minimal developmental times, the costs of infection were already being experienced by the time females reached an age at which they could first reproduce. These results suggest there will be selection pressure for mosquitoes to evolve resistance against this pathogen if it is used as an agent in a control program to reduce the transmission of mosquito-borne human diseases. PMID:24822081

Sy, Victoria E; Agnew, Philip; Sidobre, Christine; Michalakis, Yannis

2014-01-01

53

Free flight of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

High speed video observations of free flying male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the dengue and yellow fever vector, along with custom measurement methods, enable measurement of wingbeat frequency, body position and body orientation of mosquitoes during flight. We find these mosquitoes flap their wings at approximately 850 Hz. We also generate body yaw, body pitch and wing deviation measurements with standard deviations of less than 1 degree and find that sideways velocity and acceleration are important components of mosquito motion. Rapid turns involving changes in flight direction often involve large sideways accelerations. These do not correspond to commensurate changes in body heading, and the insect's flight direction and body heading are decoupled during flight. These findings call in to question the role of yaw control in mosquito flight. In addition, using orientation data, we find that sideways accelerations are well explained by roll-based rotation of the lift vector. In contrast, the insect's body pitch...

Iams, S M

2012-01-01

54

Comparison of Vector Competence of Aedes mediovittatus and Aedes aegypti for Dengue Virus: Implications for Dengue Control in the Caribbean  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes mediovittatus mosquitoes are found throughout the Greater Antilles in the Caribbean and often share the same larval habitats with Ae. Aegypti, the primary vector for dengue virus (DENV). Implementation of vector control measures to control dengue that specifically target Ae. Aegypti may not control DENV transmission in Puerto Rico (PR). Even if Ae. Aegypti is eliminated or DENV refractory mosquitoes are released, DENV transmission may not cease when other competent mosquito species like Ae. Mediovittatus are present. To compare vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes, we studied relative infection and transmission rates for all four DENV serotypes. Methods To compare the vector competence of Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti, mosquitoes were exposed to DENV 1–4 per os at viral titers of 5–6 logs plaque-forming unit (pfu) equivalents. At 14 days post infectious bloodmeal, viral RNA was extracted and tested by qRT-PCR to determine infection and transmission rates. Infection and transmission rates were analyzed with a generalized linear model assuming a binomial distribution. Results Ae. Aegypti had significantly higher DENV-4 infection and transmission rates than Ae. mediovittatus. Conclusions This study determined that Ae. Mediovittatus is a competent DENV vector. Therefore dengue prevention programs in PR and the Caribbean should consider both Ae. Mediovittatus and Ae. Aegypti mosquitoes in their vector control programs. PMID:25658951

Poole-Smith, B. Katherine; Hemme, Ryan R.; Delorey, Mark; Felix, Gilberto; Gonzalez, Andrea L.; Amador, Manuel; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Barrera, Roberto

2015-01-01

55

Gustatory receptor expression in the labella and legs of aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is a dangerous disease vector, infecting a growing number of people every year with dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses. Contact chemoreception in mosquitoes influences a number of behaviors including host-selection, oviposition and feeding. While...

56

Impact of daily temperature fluctuations on dengue virus transmission by Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

Impact of daily temperature fluctuations on dengue virus transmission by Aedes aegypti Louis that diurnal temperature range (DTR) affects two important parameters underlying dengue virus (DENV less susceptible to virus infection and died faster under larger DTR around the same mean temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Mathematical model of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti mosquito population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue disease in many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Dengue became major public concern in these countries due to the unavailability of vaccine or drugs for dengue disease in the market. Hence, the only way to control the spread of DF and DHF is by controlling the vectors carrying the disease, for instance with fumigation, temephos or genetic manipulation. Many previous studies conclude that Aedes aegypti may develop resistance to many kind of insecticide, including temephos. Mathematical model for transmission of temephos resistance in Aedes aegypti population is discussed in this paper. Nontrivial equilibrium point of the system and the corresponding existence are shown analytically. The model analysis have shown epidemiological trends condition that permits the coexistence of nontrivial equilibrium is given analytically. Numerical results are given to show parameter sensitivity and some cases of worsening effect values for illustrating possible conditions in the field.

Aldila, D.; Nuraini, N.; Soewono, E.; Supriatna, A. K.

2014-03-01

58

Stage-Structured Population Dynamics of AEDES AEGYPTI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aedes aegypti is the main vector in the transmission of dengue fever, a vector-borne disease affecting world population living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Better understanding of the dynamics of its population growth will help in the efforts of controlling the spread of this disease. In looking at the population dynamics of Aedes aegypti, this paper explored the stage-structured modeling of the population growth of the mosquito using the matrix population model. The life cycle of the mosquito was divided into five stages: eggs, larvae, pupae, adult1 and adult2. Developmental rates were obtained for the average Malaysian temperature and these were used in constructing the transition matrix for the matrix model. The model, which was based only on temperature, projected that the population of Aedes aegypti will blow up with time, which is not realistic. For further work, other factors need to be taken into account to obtain a more realistic result.

Yusoff, Nuraini; Budin, Harun; Ismail, Salemah

59

Vector Competence in West African Aedes aegypti Is Flavivirus Species and Genotype Dependent  

PubMed Central

Background Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is a quantitative genetic trait that varies among geographic locations and among different flavivirus species and genotypes within species. The subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus, found mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered to be refractory to both dengue (DENV) and yellow fever viruses (YFV) compared to the more globally distributed Ae. aegypti aegypti. Within Senegal, vector competence varies with collection site and DENV-2 viral isolate, but knowledge about the interaction of West African Ae. aegypti with different flaviviruses is lacking. The current study utilizes low passage isolates of dengue-2 (DENV-2-75505 sylvatic genotype) and yellow fever (YFV BA-55 -West African Genotype I, or YFV DAK 1279-West African Genotype II) from West Africa and field derived Ae. aegypti collected throughout Senegal to determine whether vector competence is flavivirus or virus genotype dependent. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight collections of 20–30 mosquitoes from different sites were fed a bloodmeal containing either DENV-2 or either isolate of YFV. Midgut and disseminated infection phenotypes were determined 14 days post infection. Collections varied significantly in the rate and intensity of midgut and disseminated infection among the three viruses. Conclusions/Significance Overall, vector competence was dependent upon both viral and vector strains. Importantly, contrary to previous studies, sylvatic collections of Ae. aegypti showed high levels of disseminated infection for local isolates of both DENV-2 and YFV. PMID:25275366

Dickson, Laura B.; Sanchez-Vargas, Irma; Sylla, Massamba; Fleming, Karen; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

60

Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ?16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti. PMID:25064814

Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

2014-07-23

61

Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Imported into the Netherlands, 2010  

PubMed Central

During summer 2010, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were discovered in the Netherlands. Using genetic markers, we tracked the origin of these mosquitoes to a tire shipment from Miami, Florida, USA. Surveillance of tire exports from the United States should be included as part of a comprehensive surveillance system. PMID:22172498

Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Dik, Marian; Den Hartog, Wietse; Beeuwkes, Jacob; Powell, Jeffrey R.

2011-01-01

62

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Habitat Preferences in South Texas, USA  

PubMed Central

The South Texas region has a historical record of occasional dengue outbreaks. The recent introduction of chikungunya virus to the Caribbean suggests that this disease may be a concern as well. Six different cities and three field habitat types (residential, tire shops, and cemeteries) were examined for evidence of habitat and longitudinal preference of two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti was more prevalent in tire shop sites, while A. albopictus was more prevalent in cemetery sites. In residential sites, the relative abundance of the two species varied with longitude, with A. albopictus being more abundant near the coast, and A. aegypti being more abundant inland. There was also a temporal variation, with A. aegypti declining in frequency over time in residential sites. These results have implications for control strategies and disease risk and suggest a greater need for increased surveillance and research in the region. PMID:25520559

Champion, Samantha R; Vitek, Christopher J

2014-01-01

63

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Habitat Preferences in South Texas, USA.  

PubMed

The South Texas region has a historical record of occasional dengue outbreaks. The recent introduction of chikungunya virus to the Caribbean suggests that this disease may be a concern as well. Six different cities and three field habitat types (residential, tire shops, and cemeteries) were examined for evidence of habitat and longitudinal preference of two vector species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. A. aegypti was more prevalent in tire shop sites, while A. albopictus was more prevalent in cemetery sites. In residential sites, the relative abundance of the two species varied with longitude, with A. albopictus being more abundant near the coast, and A. aegypti being more abundant inland. There was also a temporal variation, with A. aegypti declining in frequency over time in residential sites. These results have implications for control strategies and disease risk and suggest a greater need for increased surveillance and research in the region. PMID:25520559

Champion, Samantha R; Vitek, Christopher J

2014-01-01

64

Molecular analysis of the Aedes aegypti carboxypeptidase gene family.  

PubMed

To gain a better understanding of coordinate regulation of protease gene expression in the mosquito midgut, we undertook a comprehensive molecular study of digestive carboxypeptidases in Aedes aegypti. Through a combination of cDNA cloning using degenerate PCR primers, and database mining of the recently completed A. aegypti genome, we cloned and characterized 18 A. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 11 of these genes belong to the carboxypeptidase A family (AaCPA-I through AaCPA-XI), and seven to the carboxypeptidase B gene family (AaCPB-I through AaCPB-VII). Phylogenetic analysis of 32 mosquito carboxypeptidases from five different species indicated that most of the sequence divergence in the carboxypeptidase gene family occurred prior to the separation of Aedes and Anopheles mosquito lineages. Unlike the CPA genes that are scattered throughout the A. aegypti genome, six of seven CPB genes were found to be located within a single 120 kb genome contig, suggesting that they most likely arose from multiple gene duplication events. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that 11 of the A. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes were induced up to 40-fold in the midgut in response to blood meal feeding, with peak expression times ranging from 3 to 36 h post-feeding depending on the gene. PMID:18977440

Isoe, Jun; Zamora, Jorge; Miesfeld, Roger L

2009-01-01

65

Molecular Analysis of the Aedes aegypti Carboxypeptidase Gene Family  

PubMed Central

To gain a better understanding of coordinate regulation of protease gene expression in the mosquito midgut, we undertook a comprehensive molecular study of digestive carboxypeptidases in Aedes aegypti. Through a combination of cDNA cloning using degenerate PCR primers, and database mining of the recently completed Ae. aegypti genome, we cloned and characterized 18 Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 11 of these genes belong to the carboxypeptidase A family (AaCPA-I through AaCPA-XI), and seven to the carboxypeptidase B gene family (AaCPB-I through AaCPB-VII). Phylogenetic analysis of 32 mosquito carboxypeptidases from five different species indicated that most of the sequence divergence in the carboxypeptidase gene family occurred prior to the separation of Aedes and Anopheles mosquito lineages. Unlike the CPA genes that are scattered throughout the Ae. aegypti genome, six of seven CPB genes were found to be located within a single 120 kb genome contig, suggesting that they most likely arose from multiple gene duplication events. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that 11 of the Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes were induced up to 40-fold in the midgut in response to blood meal feeding, with peak expression times ranging from 3-36 hours post-feeding depending on the gene. PMID:18977440

Isoe, Jun; Zamora, Jorge; Miesfeld, Roger L.

2009-01-01

66

History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti - A Review  

PubMed Central

The adaptation of insect vectors of human diseases to breed in human habitats (domestication) is one of the most important phenomena in medical entomology. Considerable data are available on the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in this regard and here we integrate the available information including genetics, behaviour, morphology, ecology and biogeography of the mosquito, with human history. We emphasise the tremendous amount of variation possessed by Ae. aegypti for virtually all traits considered. Typological thinking needs to be abandoned to reach a realistic and comprehensive understanding of this important vector of yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya. PMID:24473798

Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

2013-01-01

67

Biogeography of the two major arbovirus mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae), in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

Background In the past ten years, the Indian Ocean region has been the theatre of severe epidemics of chikungunya and dengue. These outbreaks coincided with a high increase in populations of Aedes albopictus that outcompete its sister taxon Aedes aegypti in most islands sampled. The objective of this work was to update the entomological survey of the two Aedes species in the island of Madagascar which has to face these arboviroses. Methods The sampling of Aedes mosquitoes was conducted during two years, from October 2007 to October 2009, in fifteen localities from eight regions of contrasting climates. Captured adults were identified immediately whereas immature stages were bred until adult stage for determination. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using two mtDNA genes, COI and ND5 and trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood (ML) method with the gene time reversible (GTR) model. Experimental infections with the chikungunya virus strain 06.21 at a titer of 107.5 pfu/mL were performed to evaluate the vector competence of field-collected mosquitoes. Disseminated infection rates were measured fourteen days after infection by immunofluorescence assay performed on head squashes. Results The species Aedes aegypti was detected in only six sites in native forests and natural reserves. In contrast, the species Aedes albopictus was found in 13 out of the 15 sites sampled. Breeding sites were mostly found in man-made environments such as discarded containers, used tires, abandoned buckets, coconuts, and bamboo cuts. Linear regression models showed that the abundance of Ae. albopictus was significantly influenced by the sampling region (F = 62.00, p < 2.2 × 10-16) and period (F = 36.22, p = 2.548 × 10-13), that are associated with ecological and climate variations. Phylogenetic analysis of the invasive Ae. albopictus distinguished haplotypes from South Asia and South America from those of Madagascar, but the markers used were not discriminant enough to discern Malagasy populations. The experimental oral infection method showed that six Ae. albopictus populations exhibited high dissemination infection rates for chikungunya virus ranging from 98 to 100%. Conclusion In Madagascar, Ae. albopictus has extended its geographical distribution whereas, Ae. aegypti has become rare, contrasting with what was previously observed. Changes are predominantly driven by human activities and the rainfall regime that provide suitable breeding sites for the highly anthropophilic mosquito Ae. albopictus. Moreover, these populations were found to be highly susceptible to chikungunya virus. In the light of this study, Ae. albopictus may have been involved in the recent outbreaks of chikungunya and dengue epidemics in Madagascar, and consequently, control measures should be promoted to limit its current expansion. PMID:22433186

2012-01-01

68

Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of the alphavirus chikungunya. Vector control strategies utilizing engineered gene drive systems are being developed as a means of replacing wild, pathogen transmitting mosquitoes with individuals refractory to disease transmission, or bringing about population suppression. Several of these systems, including Medea, UDMEL, and site-specific nucleases, which can be used to drive genes into populations or bring about population suppression, utilize transcriptional regulatory elements that drive germline-specific expression. Here we report the identification of multiple regulatory elements able to drive gene expression specifically in the female germline, or in the male and female germline, in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These elements can also be used as tools with which to probe the roles of specific genes in germline function and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference.

Akbari, Omar S.; Papathanos, Philippos A.; Sandler, Jeremy E.; Kennedy, Katie; Hay, Bruce A.

2014-02-01

69

Effect of Wolbachia on insecticide susceptibility in lines of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Two stable infections of Wolbachia pipientis, wMelPop and wMel, now established in Aedes aegypti, are being used in a biocontrol program to suppress the transmission of dengue. Any effects of Wolbachia infection on insecticide resistance of mosquitoes may undermine the success of this program. Bioassays of Ae. aegypti were conducted to test for differences in response to insecticides between Wolbachia infected (wMelPop, wMel) and uninfected lines. Insecticides screened were bifenthrin, the pyrethroid commonly used for adult knockdown, as well as larvicides: Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, the organophosphate, temephos and the insect growth regulator, s-methoprene. While differences in response between lines were detected for some insecticides, no obvious or consistent effects related to presence of Wolbachia infection were observed. Spreading Wolbachia infections are, therefore, unlikely to affect the efficacy of traditional chemical control of mosquito outbreaks. PMID:23149015

Endersby, N M; Hoffmann, A A

2013-06-01

70

Similarity solutions for systems arising from an Aedes aegypti model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper a new model for the Aedes aegypti mosquito dispersal dynamics was proposed and its Lie point symmetries were investigated. According to the carried group classification, the maximal symmetry Lie algebra of the nonlinear cases is reached whenever the advection term vanishes. In this work we analyze the family of systems obtained when the wind effects on the proposed model are neglected. Wide new classes of solutions to the systems under consideration are obtained.

Freire, Igor Leite; Torrisi, Mariano

2014-04-01

71

Novel Strategies to Control Aedes aegypti and Dengue  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vector-borne diseases are resurgent throughout the world. There are critical needs to develop novel approaches and strategies\\u000a and improved public health capacity to prevent and control these diseases. Dengue is an archetypical resurging and emerging\\u000a disease. At the Arthropod-Borne and Infectious Diseases Laboratory, we are investigating novel strategies for Aedes aegypti and dengue control; including development of (1) transgenic Ae.

Barry Beaty; Scott Bernhardt; William Black; Carol Blair; Lars Eisen; Darwin Elizondo-Quiroga; Jose Farfan-Ale; Saul Lozano-Fuentes; Alexander Franz; Ken E. Olson; Irma Sanchez-Vargas

72

Intraspecific Competition and Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report computational simulations for the evolution of the population of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The results suggest that controlling the mosquito population, on the basis of intraspecific competition at the larval stage, can be an efficient mechanism for controlling the spread of the epidemic. The results also show the presence of a kind of genetic evolution in vector population, which results mainly in increasing the average lifespan of individuals in adulthood.

Paixão, C. A.; Charret, I. C.; Lima, R. R.

2012-04-01

73

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre-and Post-Blood Meal  

E-print Network

The Fat Body Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal Transcriptomes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti, Pre- and Post- Blood Meal. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22573. doi@nmsu.edu Introduction The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is the primary vector for dengue fever, several

Houde, Peter

74

Larvicidal activity of Tagetes erecta against Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of essential oil from Tagetes erecta against 3rd instars of Aedes aegypti and to determine the amounts of larvicidal thiophenes in all plant tissues. The oil obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry showed 14 compounds. The main compounds were piperitone (45.72%), D-limonene (9.67%), and piperitenone (5.89%). The essential oil was active against larvae of Ae. aegypti, with LC50 of 79.78 microg/ml and LC90 of 100.84 microg/ml. The larvicidal thiophene contents were higher in the roots and flowers as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, T. erecta constitutes a good source of varied compounds showing larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. PMID:21805850

Marques, Márcia M M; Morais, Selene M; Vieira, Icaro G P; Vieira, Mariano G S; Raquel, Ana; Silva, A; De Almeida, Raimundo Rafael; Guedes, Maria Izabel F

2011-06-01

75

Male accessory gland substances from Aedes albopictus affect the locomotor activity of Aedes aegypti females  

PubMed Central

Dengue is one of the world’s most important mosquito-borne diseases and is usually transmitted by one of two vector species: Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus . These two diurnal mosquitoes are frequently found coexisting in similar habitats, enabling interactions between adults, such as cross-mating. The objective of this study was to assess cross-mating between Ae. aegypti females and Ae. albopictus males under artificial conditions and evaluate the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti virgin females injected with male accessory gland (MAG) homogenates to infer the physiological and behavioural responses to interspecific mating. After seven days of exposure, 3.3-16% of Ae. aegypti females mated with Ae. albopictus males. Virgin Ae. aegypti females injected with conspecific and heterospecific MAGs showed a general decrease in locomotor activity compared to controls and were refractory to mating with conspecific males. The reduction in diurnal locomotor activity induced by injections of conspecific or heterospecific MAGs is consistent with regulation of female reproductive activities by male substances, which are capable of sterilising female Ae. aegypti through satyrisation by Ae. albopictus . PMID:24473799

Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Codeço, Claudia Torres; Honório, Nildimar Alves; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Lounibos, Leon Philip

2013-01-01

76

Integrated proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of the Aedes aegypti eggshell  

PubMed Central

Background Mosquito eggshells show remarkable diversity in physical properties and structure consistent with adaptations to the wide variety of environments exploited by these insects. We applied proteomic, transcriptomic, and hybridization in situ techniques to identify gene products and pathways that participate in the assembly of the Aedes aegypti eggshell. Aedes aegypti population density is low during cold and dry seasons and increases immediately after rainfall. The survival of embryos through unfavorable periods is a key factor in the persistence of their populations. The work described here supports integrated vector control approaches that target eggshell formation and result in Ae. aegypti drought-intolerant phenotypes for public health initiatives directed to reduce mosquito-borne diseases. Results A total of 130 proteins were identified from the combined mass spectrometric analyses of eggshell preparations. Conclusions Classification of proteins according to their known and putative functions revealed the complexity of the eggshell structure. Three novel Ae. aegypti vitelline membrane proteins were discovered. Odorant-binding and cysteine-rich proteins that may be structural components of the eggshell were identified. Enzymes with peroxidase, laccase and phenoloxidase activities also were identified, and their likely involvements in cross-linking reactions that stabilize the eggshell structure are discussed. PMID:24707823

2014-01-01

77

Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes vittatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Senegal and Cape Verde archipelago for West African lineages of chikungunya virus.  

PubMed

To assess the risk of emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in West Africa, vector competence of wild-type, urban, and non-urban Aedes aegypti and Ae. vittatus from Senegal and Cape Verde for CHIKV was investigated. Mosquitoes were fed orally with CHIKV isolates from mosquitoes (ArD30237), bats (CS13-288), and humans (HD180738). After 5, 10, and 15 days of incubation following an infectious blood meal, presence of CHIKV RNA was determined in bodies, legs/wings, and saliva using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Aedes vittatus showed high susceptibility (50-100%) and early dissemination and transmission of all CHIKV strains tested. Aedes aegypti exhibited infection rates ranging from 0% to 50%. Aedes aegypti from Cape Verde and Kedougou, but not those from Dakar, showed the potential to transmit CHIKV in saliva. Analysis of biology and competence showed relatively high infective survival rates for Ae. vittatus and Ae. aegypti from Cape Verde, suggesting their efficient vector capacity in West Africa. PMID:25002293

Diagne, Cheikh T; Faye, Oumar; Guerbois, Mathilde; Knight, Rachel; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Dia, Ibrahima; Faye, Ousmane; Weaver, Scott C; Sall, Amadou A; Diallo, Mawlouth

2014-09-01

78

Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City  

PubMed Central

There is a current belief stemming from statements made in the literature that Ae. aegypti is displacing Ae. albopictus in a number of cities of South-East Asia and in Calcutta, India. A critical review of these works showed that either the observations were inconclusive or the methods of collection were biased for one or the other species. Extensive surveys of the larval habitats of the two species in Singapore showed that the sharing of breeding habitats was uncommon in both urban and rural areas. In the laboratory, Ae. aegypti took a slightly shorter time to complete its development from egg-hatching to adult emergence. It is concluded that information available at present is insufficient to interpret the Ae. aegypti—Ae. albopictus population balance resulting from interspecific competition in Singapore. The pattern of distribution of the two species is unlikely to be the result of competitive displacement; it is, rather, probable that this pattern results from factors that favour the rapid increase and spread of one species over the other. It is suggested that Ae. aegypti in the city is favoured by rapid and extensive urbanization and by the higher fecundity and shorter life cycle of the species. PMID:5316748

Chan, K. L.; Chan, Y. C.; Ho, B. C.

1971-01-01

79

Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single speci...

80

Gene flow networks among American Aedes aegypti populations  

PubMed Central

The mosquito Aedes aegypti, the dengue virus vector, has spread throughout the tropics in historical times. While this suggests man-mediated dispersal, estimating contemporary connectivity among populations has remained elusive. Here, we use a large mtDNA dataset and a Bayesian coalescent framework to test a set of hypotheses about gene flow among American Ae. aegypti populations. We assessed gene flow patterns at the continental and subregional (Amazon basin) scales. For the Americas, our data favor a stepping-stone model in which gene flow is higher among adjacent populations but in which, at the same time, North American and southeastern Brazilian populations are directly connected, likely via sea trade. Within Amazonia, the model with highest support suggests extensive gene flow among major cities; Manaus, located at the center of the subregional transport network, emerges as a potentially important connecting hub. Our results suggest substantial connectivity across Ae. aegypti populations in the Americas. As long-distance active dispersal has not been observed in this species, our data support man-mediated dispersal as a major determinant of the genetic structure of American Ae. aegypti populations. The inferred topology of interpopulation connectivity can inform network models of Ae. aegypti and dengue spread. PMID:23144654

Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Cunha, Ivana C L; Santos, Walter S; Luz, Sérgio L B; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Abad-Franch, Fernando

2012-01-01

81

Larvicidal activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Labiatae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol leaf and flower extracts of Ocimum sanctum were studied against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf extract of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. The LC50 values of O. sanctum against the larvae of A. aegypti

A. Mohamed Anees

2008-01-01

82

Comparison of the insecticide susceptibilities of laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.  

PubMed

A susceptible strain of Aedes albopictus derived from the Gainesville strain (Florida, USA) was established in our laboratory. The larvicidal efficacies of the neurotoxic insecticides temephos, permethrin and the pure cis and trans-permethrin isomers and the microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Ae. albopictus were estimated and compared to a susceptible strain of Aedes aegypti. The larvicidal effect of insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen was also evaluated in both mosquito strains. The median lethal concentration/median emergency inhibition values for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, respectively, were: temephos, 3.058 and 6.632 ppb, permethrin, 3.143 and 4.933 ppb, cis-permethrin, 4.457 and 10.068 ppb, trans-permethrin, 1.510 and 3.883 ppb, Bti, 0.655 and 0.880 ppb and pyriproxyfen, 0.00774 and 0.01642 ppb. Ae. albopictus was more tolerant than Ae. aegypti to all six larvicides evaluated. The order of susceptibility for Ae. aegypti was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > temephos > permethrin > cis-permethrin and for Ae. albopictus was pyriproxyfen > Bti > trans-permethrin > permethrin > temephos > cis-permethrin. Because both species can be found together in common urban, suburban and rural breeding sites, the results of this work provide baseline data on the susceptibility of Ae. albopictus to insecticides commonly used for controlling Ae. aegypti in the field. PMID:22241122

Gómez, Andrea; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

2011-12-01

83

Neuropeptidomics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptidomic data were collected on the mosquito Ae. aegypti which is considered the most tractable mosquito species for physiological and endocrine studies. The data were solely obtained by direct mass spectrometric profiling, including tandem fragmentation, of selected tissues from single specimens which yielded a largely complete accounting of the putative bioactive neuropeptides; truncated neuropeptides with low abundance were not counted as mature peptides. Differential processing within the CNS was detected for the CAPA-precursor and differential post-translational processing (pyroglutamate formation) was detected for AST-C and CAPA-PVK-2. For the first time in insects, we succeeded in the direct mass spectrometric profiling of midgut tissue which yielded a comprehensive and immediate overview of the peptides involved in the endocrine system of the gut. Head peptides which were earlier identified as the most abundant RFamides of Ae. aegypti, were not detected in any part of the CNS or midgut. This study provides a framework for future investigations on mosquito endocrinology and neurobiology. Given the high sequence similarity of neuropeptide precursors identified in other medically important mosquitoes, conclusions regarding the peptidome of Ae. aegypti likely are applicable to these mosquitoes. PMID:20163154

Predel, Reinhard; Neupert, Susanne; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Crim, Joe W.; Brown, Mark R.; Russell, William K.; Kahnt, Jörg; Russell, David H.; Nachman, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

84

Association of Human Immune Response to Aedes aegypti Salivary Proteins with Dengue Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dengue viruses (DENV; family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) are transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and can cause dengue fever (DF), a relatively benign disease, or more severe dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF). Arthropod saliva contains proteins delivered into the bite wound that can modulate the host haemostatic and immune responses to facilitate the intake of a blood meal. The potential effects on DENV infection of previous exposure to Ae. aegypti salivary proteins have not been investigated. We collected Ae. aegypti saliva, concentrated the proteins, and fractionated them by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). By use of immunoblots we analysed reactivity with the mosquito salivary proteins (MSP) of sera from 96 Thai children diagnosed with secondary DENV infections leading either to DF or DHF, or with no DENV infection, and found that different proportions of each patient group had serum antibodies reactive to specific Ae. aegypti salivary proteins. Our results suggest that prior exposure to MSP might play a role in the outcome of DENV infection in humans. PMID:21995849

Machain-Williams, Carlos; Mammen, Mammen P; Zeidner, Nordin S; Beaty, Barry J; Prenni, Jessica E.; Nisalak, Ananda

2011-01-01

85

Aedes FADD: A novel death domain-containing protein required for antibacterial immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Dawn M. Cooper*,1 , Ciara M. Chamberlain 1 , Carl Lowenberger 1 and the arboviruses that cause Dengue fever, Yellow fever and West Nile fever. Much of the current research efforts

Lowenberger, Carl

86

Investigation of the Cry4B-prohibitin interaction in Aedes aegypti cells.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces insecticidal toxins active against insects. Cry4B, one of the major insecticidal toxins produced by Bt subsp. israelensis, is highly toxic to mosquitoes in the genus Aedes: the major vectors of dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Previous work has shown that Cry4B binds to several mid-gut membrane proteins in Aedes aegypti larvae including prohibitin, a protein recently identified as a receptor that also mediates entry of dengue virus into Aedes cells. This study confirms the interaction between Cry4B and prohibitin by co-immunoprecipitation analysis and demonstrates colocalization of prohibitin and Cry4B by confocal microscopy. While activated Cry4B toxin showed high larvicidal activity, it was not cytotoxic to two Aedes cell lines, allowing determination of its effect on dengue virus infectivity in the absence of Cry4B-induced cell lysis. Pre-exposure of Aedes cells to Cry4B resulted in a significant reduction in the number of infected cells compared to untreated cells. PMID:22767320

Kuadkitkan, Atichat; Smith, Duncan R; Berry, Colin

2012-10-01

87

Pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Singapore.  

PubMed

We report the first comprehensive insecticide susceptibility status ofAedes aegypti (L.) larvae from Singapore. The study indicated that Ae. aegypti is susceptible to temephos, although resistance (RR50 = 1.29-4.43-fold) couldbe developing. Of high concern is the detection of moderate to high resistance to permethrin (RR50 = 29-47-fold) and etofenprox (RR50 = 14-34-fold). Biolarvicide Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) remains effective. The insecticide susceptibility profile of Ae. aegypti larvae was found to be homogenous among the different sites studied across the island city. The addition of synergists piperonyl butoxide, S,S,S,-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, and triphenyl phosphate generally failed to enhance the toxicity of the insecticides investigated, suggesting an insignificant role of metabolic-based resistance, and a possible involvement of target site resistance. Further biochemical investigation of specific metabolic enzyme activities suggested that detoxifying enzymes, mono-oxygenases, esterases, glutathione S-transferases, and altered acetylcholinesterases, generally did not contribute to the resistance observed. This study clearly demonstrated that pyrethroid resistance is widespread among Ae. aegypti population and lowered susceptibility to organophosphates is developing. PMID:24605467

Koou, Sin-Ying; Chong, Chee-Seng; Vythilingam, Indra; Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Chow-Yang

2014-01-01

88

Targeted genome editing in Aedes aegypti using TALENs.  

PubMed

The Culicine mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is both a major vector of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and a genetic model organism for arbovirus transmission. TALE nucleases (TALENs), a group of artificial enzymes capable of generating site-specific DNA lesions, consist of a non-specific FokI endonuclease cleavage domain fused to an engineered DNA binding domain specific to a target site. While TALENs have become an important tool for targeted gene disruption in a variety of organisms, application to the mosquito genome is a new approach. We recently described the use of TALENs to perform heritable genetic disruptions in A. aegypti. Here, we provide detailed methods that will allow other research laboratories to capitalize on the potential of this technology for understanding mosquito gene function. We describe target site selection, transient embryo-based assays to rapidly assess TALEN activity, embryonic microinjection and downstream screening steps to identify target site mutations. PMID:24556554

Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M; Adelman, Zach N

2014-08-15

89

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine

Yuko Ishida; Angela M. Chen; Jennifer M. Tsuruda; Anthon J. Cornel; Mustapha Debboun; Walter S. Leal

2004-01-01

90

Ecological Modeling of Aedes aegypti (L.) Pupal Production in Rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of dengue, the most important arboviral infection globally. Until an effective vaccine is licensed and rigorously administered, Ae. aegypti control remains the principal tool in preventing and curtailing dengue transmission. Accurate predictions of vector populations are required to assess control methods and develop effective population reduction strategies. Ae. aegypti develops primarily in artificial water holding containers. Release recapture studies indicate that most adult Ae. aegypti do not disperse over long distances. We expect, therefore, that containers in an area of high development site density are more likely to be oviposition sites and to be more frequently used as oviposition sites than containers that are relatively isolated from other development sites. After accounting for individual container characteristics, containers more frequently used as oviposition sites are likely to produce adult mosquitoes consistently and at a higher rate. To this point, most studies of Ae. aegypti populations ignore the spatial density of larval development sites. Methodology Pupal surveys were carried out from 2004 to 2007 in rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. In total, 84,840 samples of water holding containers were used to estimate model parameters. Regression modeling was used to assess the effect of larval development site density, access to piped water, and seasonal variation on container productivity. A varying-coefficients model was employed to account for the large differences in productivity between container types. A two-part modeling structure, called a hurdle model, accounts for the large number of zeroes and overdispersion present in pupal population counts. Findings The number of suitable larval development sites and their density in the environment were the primary determinants of the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti pupae. The productivity of most container types increased significantly as habitat density increased. An ecological approach, accounting for development site density, is appropriate for predicting Ae. aegypti population levels and developing efficient vector control programs. PMID:21267055

Aldstadt, Jared; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kijchalao, Udom; Richardson, Jason; Jones, James W.; Scott, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

91

Occurrence of Natural Vertical Transmission of Dengue-2 and Dengue-3 Viruses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus perform an important role in the transmission of the dengue virus to human populations, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Despite a lack of understanding in relation to the maintenance of the dengue virus in nature during interepidemic periods, the vertical transmission of the dengue virus in populations of A. aegypti and A. albopictus appears to be of significance in relation to the urban scenario of Fortaleza. Methods From March 2007 to July 2009 collections of larvae and pupae of Aedes spp were carried out in 40 neighborhoods of Fortaleza. The collections yielded 3,417 (91%) A. aegypti mosquitoes and 336 (9%) A. albopictus mosquitoes. Only pools containing females, randomly chosen, were submitted to the following tests indirect immunofluorescence (virus isolation), RT-PCR/nested-PCR and nucleotide sequencing at the C-prM junction of the dengue virus genome. Results The tests on pool 34 (35 A. albopictus mosquitoes) revealed with presence of DENV-3, pool 35 (50 A. aegypti mosquitoes) was found to be infected with DENV-2, while pool 49 (41 A. albopictus mosquitoes) revealed the simultaneous presence of DENV-2 and DENV-3. Based on the results obtained, there was a minimum infection rate of 0.5 for A. aegypti and 9.4 for A. albopictus. The fragments of 192 bp and 152 bp related to DENV-3, obtained from pools 34 and 49, was registered in GenBank with the access codes HM130699 and JF261696, respectively. Conclusions This study recorded the first natural evidence of the vertical transmission of the dengue virus in populations of A. aegypti and A. albopictus collected in Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil, opening a discuss on the epidemiological significance of this mechanism of viral transmission in the local scenario, particularly with respect to the maintenance of these viruses in nature during interepidemic periods. PMID:22848479

Martins, Victor Emanuel Pessoa; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kamimura, Michel Tott; de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda Montenegro; De Simone, Salvatore Giovanni; Dutra, Rosa Fireman; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

2012-01-01

92

Functional genetic characterization of salivary gland development in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the devastating global impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, very little is known about mosquito developmental biology. In this investigation, functional genetic analysis of embryonic salivary gland development was performed in Aedes aegypti, the dengue and yellow fever vector and an emerging model for vector mosquito development. Although embryonic salivary gland development has been well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, little is known about this process in mosquitoes or other arthropods. Results Mosquitoes possess orthologs of many genes that regulate Drosophila melanogaster embryonic salivary gland development. The expression patterns of a large subset of these genes were assessed during Ae. aegypti development. These studies identified a set of molecular genetic markers for the developing mosquito salivary gland. Analysis of marker expression allowed for tracking of the progression of Ae. aegypti salivary gland development in embryos. In Drosophila, the salivary glands develop from placodes located in the ventral neuroectoderm. However, in Ae. aegypti, salivary marker genes are not expressed in placode-like patterns in the ventral neuroectoderm. Instead, marker gene expression is detected in salivary gland rudiments adjacent to the proventriculus. These observations highlighted the need for functional genetic characterization of mosquito salivary gland development. An siRNA- mediated knockdown strategy was therefore employed to investigate the role of one of the marker genes, cyclic-AMP response element binding protein A (Aae crebA), during Ae. aegypti salivary gland development. These experiments revealed that Aae crebA encodes a key transcriptional regulator of the secretory pathway in the developing Ae. aegypti salivary gland. Conclusions The results of this investigation indicated that the initiation of salivary gland development in Ae. aegypti significantly differs from that of D. melanogaster. Despite these differences, some elements of salivary gland development, including the ability of CrebA to regulate secretory gene expression, are conserved between the two species. These studies underscore the need for further analysis of mosquito developmental genetics and may foster comparative studies of salivary gland development in additional insect species. PMID:23497573

2013-01-01

93

The Sublethal Effects of the Entomopathic Fungus Leptolegnia chapmanii on Some Biological Parameters of the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue in the Americas. The use of chemical insecticides is recommended during outbreaks of dengue in order to reduce the number of adult mosquitoes; however, because Ae. aegypti is highly synanthropic, the use of insecticides in densely populated areas is a dangerous practice. Leptolegnia chapmanii Seymour (Straminipila: Peronosporomycetes) is an entomopathogenic microorganism that has demonstrated marked pathogenicity toward the larvae of a number of mosquito species, with little or no effect on non-target insects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the sublethal effects of L. chapmanii on fecundity, number of gonotrophic cycles, fertility, and relationship between wing length and fecundity in Ae. aegypti females. Ae. aegypti females that survived infection with L. chapmanii laid fewer eggs, had a smaller number of gonotrophic cycles, had shorter wings, and were less fertile than controls. This is the first study on the sublethal effects experienced by specimens of Ae. aegypti that survived infection with zoospores of L. chapmanii. Although field studies should be carried out, the results obtained in this study are encouraging because the high and rapid larval mortality caused by L. chapmanii coupled with the reduction of reproductive capacity in Ae. aegypti females seem to cause a significant reduction in the number of adults in the mid and long term, thereby reducing the health risks associated with Ae. aegypti. PMID:23901823

Pelizza, S.A.; Scorsetti, A.C.; Tranchida, M.C.

2013-01-01

94

Germline excision of transgenes in Aedes aegypti by homing endonucleases  

PubMed Central

Aedes (Ae.) aegypti is the primary vector for dengue viruses (serotypes1–4) and chikungunya virus. Homing endonucleases (HEs) are ancient selfish elements that catalyze double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) in a highly specific manner. In this report, we show that the HEs Y2-I-AniI, I-CreI and I-SceI are all capable of catalyzing the excision of genomic segments from the Ae. aegypti genome in a heritable manner. Y2-I-AniI demonstrated the highest efficiency at two independent genomic targets, with 20–40% of Y2-I-AniI-treated individuals producing offspring that had lost the target transgene. HE-induced DSBs were found to be repaired via the single-strand annealing (SSA) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways in a manner dependent on the availability of direct repeat sequences in the transgene. These results support the development of HE-based gene editing and gene drive strategies in Ae. aegypti, and confirm the utility of HEs in the manipulation and modification of transgenes in this important vector. PMID:23549343

Aryan, Azadeh; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

2013-01-01

95

Functional Development of the Octenol Response in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Attraction of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to 1-octen-3-ol (octenol), CO2, lactic acid, or ammonia emitted by vertebrate hosts is not only contingent on the presence of odorants in the environment, but is also influenced by the insect’s physiological state. For anautogenous mosquito species, like A. aegypti, newly emerged adult females neither respond to host odors nor engage in blood-feeding; the bases for these behaviors are poorly understood. Here we investigated detection of two components of an attractant blend emitted by vertebrate hosts, octenol, and CO2, by female A. aegypti mosquitoes using electrophysiological, behavioral, and molecular approaches. An increase in sensitivity of octenol olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) was correlated with an increase in odorant receptor gene (Or) expression and octenol-mediated attractive behavior from day 1 to day 6 post-emergence. While the sensitivity of octenol ORNs was maintained through day 10, behavioral responses to octenol decreased as did the ability of females to discriminate between octenol and octenol?+?CO2. Our results show differing age-related roles for the peripheral receptors for octenol and higher order neural processing in the behavior of female mosquitoes. PMID:23471139

Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Durand, Nicolas F.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2013-01-01

96

Modelling adult Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus survival at different temperatures in laboratory and field settings  

PubMed Central

Background The survival of adult female Aedes mosquitoes is a critical component of their ability to transmit pathogens such as dengue viruses. One of the principal determinants of Aedes survival is temperature, which has been associated with seasonal changes in Aedes populations and limits their geographical distribution. The effects of temperature and other sources of mortality have been studied in the field, often via mark-release-recapture experiments, and under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Survival results differ and reconciling predictions between the two settings has been hindered by variable measurements from different experimental protocols, lack of precision in measuring survival of free-ranging mosquitoes, and uncertainty about the role of age-dependent mortality in the field. Methods Here we apply generalised additive models to data from 351 published adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus survival experiments in the laboratory to create survival models for each species across their range of viable temperatures. These models are then adjusted to estimate survival at different temperatures in the field using data from 59 Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus field survivorship experiments. The uncertainty at each stage of the modelling process is propagated through to provide confidence intervals around our predictions. Results Our results indicate that adult Ae. albopictus has higher survival than Ae. aegypti in the laboratory and field, however, Ae. aegypti can tolerate a wider range of temperatures. A full breakdown of survival by age and temperature is given for both species. The differences between laboratory and field models also give insight into the relative contributions to mortality from temperature, other environmental factors, and senescence and over what ranges these factors can be important. Conclusions Our results support the importance of producing site-specific mosquito survival estimates. By including fluctuating temperature regimes, our models provide insight into seasonal patterns of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus population dynamics that may be relevant to seasonal changes in dengue virus transmission. Our models can be integrated with Aedes and dengue modelling efforts to guide and evaluate vector control, better map the distribution of disease and produce early warning systems for dengue epidemics. PMID:24330720

2013-01-01

97

Stable Transformation of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, with the Hermes Element from the Housefly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the world's most important vector of yellow fever and dengue viruses. Work is currently in progress to control the transmission of these viruses by genetically altering the capacity of wild Ae. aegypti populations to support virus replication. The germline transformation system reported here constitutes a major advance toward the implementation of this control strategy. A

Nijole Jasinskiene; Craig J. Coates; Mark Q. Benedict; Anthony J. Cornel; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Anthony A. James; Frank H. Collins

1998-01-01

98

Cloning, sequencing and functional expression of an acetylcholinesterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A degenerate PCR strategy was used to isolate a fragment of the acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace) homolog from Aedes aegypti and screen for a cDNA clone containing the complete open reading frame of the gene. The predicted amino acid sequence of the Aedes gene shares 64% identify with Ace from Drosophila and 87% identity with the acetylcholinesterase gene from another mosquito

Nicola Anthony; Thomas Rocheleau; Giovani Mocelin; Hwa-Jung Lee; Richard ffrench-Constant

1995-01-01

99

Genetic Mapping of Specific Interactions between Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Dengue Viruses  

E-print Network

Genetic Mapping of Specific Interactions between Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Dengue Viruses. In this study, we aimed to determine whether G6G interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes that G6G interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

Diel periodicity in the landing of Aedes aegypti on man*  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of transmission of disease agents by vectors depends, in part, on the probability of host-vector contact, which can vary with fluctuations of both host and vector. As important as seasonal variations is 24-hour periodicity in activity. Periodicity in the landing of males and females of Aedes aegypti on man has been assessed by means of catches of 15 hours or longer, with several persons as a bait. The assessments were made in a suburban area of Tanzania and continued throughout one year. Activity was observed to be almost entirely diurnal and diphasic. Whereas the detailed activity pattern of males agreed closely with that found elsewhere in East Africa, that of the females was unusual on account of the symmetry of the morning and afternoon peaks. Possible causes of differences among studies are discussed. PMID:4544150

Trpis, M.; McClelland, G. A. H.; Gillett, J. D.; Teesdale, C.; Rao, T. R.

1973-01-01

101

Repellents Inhibit P450 Enzymes in Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti  

PubMed Central

The primary defence against mosquitoes and other disease vectors is often the application of a repellent. Despite their common use, the mechanism(s) underlying the activity of repellents is not fully understood, with even the mode of action of DEET having been reported to be via different mechanisms; e.g. interference with olfactory receptor neurones or actively detected by olfactory receptor neurones on the antennae or maxillary palps. In this study, we discuss a novel mechanism for repellence, one of P450 inhibition. Thirteen essential oil extracts from Colombian plants were assayed for potency as P450 inhibitors, using a kinetic fluorometric assay, and for repellency using a modified World Health Organisation Pesticide Evaluations Scheme (WHOPES) arm-in cage assay with Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti mosquitoes. Bootstrap analysis on the inhibition analysis revealed a significant correlation between P450-inhibition and repellent activity of the oils. PMID:23152795

Jaramillo Ramirez, Gloria Isabel; Logan, James G.; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Stashenko, Elena; Moores, Graham D.

2012-01-01

102

Pyrethroid Resistance in Aedes aegypti from Grand Cayman  

PubMed Central

The Grand Cayman population of Aedes aegypti is highly resistant to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides. Glutathione transferase, cytochrome P450, and esterase levels were increased in the Grand Cayman population relative to a susceptible laboratory strain, but synergist studies did not implicate elevated insecticide detoxification as a major cause of resistance. The role of target site resistance was therefore investigated. Two substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel were identified, V1016I in domain II, segment 6 (IIS6) (allele frequency = 0.79) and F1534C in IIIS6 (allele frequency = 0.68). The role of the F1534C mutation in conferring resistance to insecticides has not been previously established and so a tetraplex polymerase chain reaction assay was designed and used to genotype mosquitoes that had been exposed to insecticides. The F1534C mutation was strongly correlated with resistance to DDT and permethrin. PMID:20682868

Harris, Angela F.; Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Ranson, Hilary

2010-01-01

103

Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

Torres, Sandra Maria; da Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; da Silva, Valdemiro Amaro

2014-01-01

104

Cumulative mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae treated with compounds.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, carapa guianensis essential oils and fermented extract of Carica papaya against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae). METHODS The larvicide test was performed in triplicate with 300 larvae for each experimental group using the third larval stage, which were exposed for 24h. The groups were: positive control with industrial larvicide (BTI) in concentrations of 0.37 ppm (PC1) and 0.06 ppm (PC2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 50.0% concentration (G1); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 25.0% concentration (G2); treated with compounds of essential oils and fermented extract, 12.5% concentration (G3); and negative control group using water (NC1) and using dimethyl (NC2). The larvae were monitored every 60 min using direct visualization. RESULTS No mortality occurred in experimental groups NC1 and NC2 in the 24h exposure period, whereas there was 100% mortality in the PC1 and PC2 groups compared to NC1 and NC2. Mortality rates of 65.0%, 50.0% and 78.0% were observed in the groups G1, G2 and G3 respectively, compared with NC1 and NC2. CONCLUSIONS The association between three essential oils from Azadirachta indica, Melaleuca alternifolia, Carapa guianensis and fermented extract of Carica papaya was efficient at all concentrations. Therefore, it can be used in Aedes aegypti Liverpool third larvae stage control programs. PMID:25119939

Torres, Sandra Maria; Cruz, Nadine Louise Nicolau da; Rolim, Vitor Pereira de Matos; Cavalcanti, Maria Inês de Assis; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Silva Júnior, Valdemiro Amaro da

2014-06-01

105

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis in Yucatán State, México, with a summary of published collection records for Ae. cozumelensis  

PubMed Central

We collected mosquito immatures from artificial containers during 2010–2011 from 26 communities, ranging in size from small rural communities to large urban centers, located in different parts of Yucatán State in southeastern México. The arbovirus vector Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was collected from all 26 examined communities, and nine of the communities also yielded another container-inhabiting Aedes mosquito: Aedes (Howardina) cozumelensis. The communities from which Ae. cozumelensis were collected were all small, rural communities (<6,000 inhabitants) in the north-central part of Yucatán State. These new collection records for Ae. cozumelensis demonstrate that this mosquito has a far broader geographic range in the Yucatán Peninsula than previously known. Ae. cozumelensis immatures were collected from both residential premises and cemeteries, with specimens recovered from rock holes as well as various artificial containers including metal cans, flower vases, buckets, tires and a water storage tank. The co-occurrence with Ae. aegypti in small rural communities poses intriguing questions regarding linkages between these mosquitoes, including the potential for direct competition for larval development sites. Additional studies are needed to determine how commonly Ae. cozumelensis feeds on human blood and whether it is naturally infected with arboviruses or other pathogens of medical or veterinary importance. We also summarize the published records for Ae. cozumelensis, which are restricted to collections from México’s Yucatán Peninsula and Belize, and uniformly represent geographic locations where Ae. aegypti can be expected to occur. PMID:23181861

García-Rejón, Julián E.; López-Uribe, Mildred P.; Loroño-Pino, María Alba; Arana-Guardia, Roger; Puc-Tinal, Maria; López-Uribe, Genny M.; Coba-Tún, Carlos; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Black IV, William C.; Beaty, Barry J.; Eisen, Lars

2013-01-01

106

Origin of the Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in California  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever is among the most widespread vector-borne infectious diseases. The primary vector of dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Ae. aegypti is prevalent in the tropics and sub-tropics and is closely associated with human habitats outside its native range of Africa. While long established in the southeastern United States of America where dengue is re-emerging, breeding populations have never been reported from California until the summer of 2013. Using 12 highly variable microsatellite loci and a database of reference populations, we have determined that the likely source of the California introduction is the southeastern United States, ruling out introductions from abroad, from the geographically closer Arizona or northern Mexico populations, or an accidental release from a research laboratory. The power to identify the origin of new introductions of invasive vectors of human disease relies heavily on the availability of a panel of reference populations. Our work demonstrates the importance of generating extensive reference databases of genetically fingerprinted human-disease vector populations to aid public health efforts to prevent the introduction and spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25077804

Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Kramer, Vicki; Hardstone Yoshimizu, Melissa; Powell, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

107

Chemometric studies on potential larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) is the vector of yellow and dengue fever. In this study, chemometric tools, such as, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Consensus PCA (CPCA), and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), were applied to a set of fifty five active compounds against Ae. aegypti larvae, which includes terpenes, cyclic alcohols, phenolic compounds, and their synthetic derivatives. The calculations were performed using the VolSurf+ program. CPCA analysis suggests that the higher weight blocks of descriptors were SIZE/SHAPE, DRY, and H2O. The PCA was generated with 48 descriptors selected from the previous blocks. The scores plot showed good separation between more and less potent compounds. The first two PCs accounted for over 60% of the data variance. The best model obtained in PLS, after validation leave-one-out, exhibited q(2) = 0.679 and r(2) = 0.714. External prediction model was R(2) = 0.623. The independent variables having a hydrophobic profile were strongly correlated to the biological data. The interaction maps generated with the GRID force field showed that the most active compounds exhibit more interaction with the DRY probe. PMID:23676010

Scotti, Luciana; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Silva, Viviane Barros; Santos, Sandra Regina Lima; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H; Mendonça, Francisco J B

2014-03-01

108

Regulated expression of microinjected DNA in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

We have developed a novel molecular genetic approach to investigating gene regulation in adult mosquitoes called whole body transfection (WBT). This DNA microinjection method allows for both constitutive and regulated expression of plasmid vectors in the fat body and midgut of adult mosquitoes within 24 h of injection. Using a luciferase reporter gene containing the Aedes aegypti heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) promoter, we optimized the WBT protocol at various times post-injection and used these parameters to measure the expression of a vitellogenin-luciferase reporter gene in response to blood meal feeding. These studies showed that a 843 bp fragment of the Ae. aegypti vitellogenin-C (VgC) promoter caused a greater than 200-fold induction of luciferase activity in a strict tissue-specific manner, and only in response to feeding. Functional mapping of the VgC promoter by WBT identified essential upstream regulatory elements in the region spanning -780 to -182 bp from the transcriptional start site. We also constructed a lipopolysaccharide-regulated expression vector using a 1096 bp genomic fragment of the Ae. aegypti cecropin B (CecB) promoter. Our data show that four days after WBT injection, the CecB-luciferase reporter gene could be induced more than 100-fold in the fat body following lipopolysaccharide injection. Moreover, we found that lipopolysaccharide-induction of the CecB reporter gene occurred up to 28 days post-WBT injection. These data suggest that WBT could provide a novel strategy to express recombinant proteins and RNAi constructs in adult mosquitoes using conventional microinjection methods. PMID:17257211

Isoe, J; Kunz, S; Manhart, C; Wells, M A; Miesfeld, R L

2007-02-01

109

Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.  

PubMed

Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

2014-01-01

110

Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter  

PubMed Central

Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

2014-01-01

111

Adult Survivorship of the Dengue Mosquito Aedes aegypti Varies Seasonally in Central Vietnam  

PubMed Central

The survival characteristics of the mosquito Aedes aegypti affect transmission rates of dengue because transmission requires infected mosquitoes to survive long enough for the virus to infect the salivary glands. Mosquito survival is assumed to be high in tropical, dengue endemic, countries like Vietnam. However, the survival rates of wild populations of mosquitoes are seldom measured due the difficulty of predicting mosquito age. Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam is the site of a pilot release of Ae. aegypti infected with a strain of Wolbachia pipientis bacteria (wMelPop) that induces virus interference and mosquito life-shortening. We used the most accurate mosquito age grading approach, transcriptional profiling, to establish the survival patterns of the mosquito population from the population age structure. Furthermore, estimations were validated on mosquitoes released into a large semi-field environment consisting of an enclosed house, garden and yard to incorporate natural environmental variability. Mosquito survival was highest during the dry/cool (January-April) and dry/hot (May-August) seasons, when 92 and 64% of Hon Mieu mosquitoes had survived to an age that they were able to transmit dengue (12 d), respectively. This was reduced to 29% during the wet/cool season from September to December. The presence of Ae. aegypti older than 12 d during each season is likely to facilitate the observed continuity of dengue transmission in the region. We provide season specific Ae. aegypti survival models for improved dengue epidemiology and evaluation of mosquito control strategies that aim to reduce mosquito survival to break the dengue transmission cycle. PMID:24551251

Hugo, Leon E.; Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Trewin, Brendan J.; Wockner, Leesa F.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Nghia, Le Trung; Hine, Emma; Ryan, Peter A.; Kay, Brian H.

2014-01-01

112

Vertical infestation of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in apartments in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.  

PubMed

Dengue is a serious public health problem in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to compare the vertical infestation of Aedes population in 2 apartments in Kuala Lumpur with different status of dengue incidence (i.e., high-dengue-incidence area and area with no reported dengue cases). The study was also conducted to assess the relationship between environmental factors such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity and Aedes population that may influence Aedes infestation. Surveillance with a mosquito larvae trapping device was conducted for 28 continuous weeks (January to July 2012) in Vista Angkasa (VA) and Inderaloka (IL) apartments located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The results indicated that both Aedes spp. could be found from ground to higher floor levels of the apartments, with Aedes aegypti being more predominant than Ae. albopictus. Data based on mixed and single breeding of Aedes spp. on different floors did not show any significant difference. Both rainfall (R3; i.e., the amount of rainfall collected during the previous 3 wk before the surveillance period began) and RH data showed significant relationship with the number of Aedes larvae collected in VA and IL. No significant difference was found between the numbers of Aedes larvae in both study areas as well as maximum and minimum temperatures. Results also indicated adaptations of Ae. aegypti to the ecosystem at each elevation of high-rise buildings, with Ae. albopictus staying inside of apartment units. PMID:24551965

Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Shafie, Aziz; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Sulaiman, Wan Yusoff Wan

2013-12-01

113

Sublethal iridovirus disease of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is due to viral replication not cytotoxicity.  

PubMed

Invertebrate iridescent viruses (Iridoviridae) possess a highly cytotoxic protein. In mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) usually causes covert (inapparent) infection that reduces fitness. To determine whether sublethal effects of IIV-6 are principally due to cytotoxicity of the viral inoculum (which inhibits macromolecular synthesis in the host), or caused by replication of the virus larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L) were exposed to untreated IIV-6 virus that had previously been deactivated by heat or ultraviolet light. Control larvae were not exposed to virus. Larval development time was shortest in control larvae and extended in larvae exposed to untreated virus. Covertly infected mosquitoes laid significantly fewer eggs, produced between 20 and 35% fewer progeny and had reduced longevity compared to other treatments. Wing length was shortest in mosquitoes exposed to heat-deactivated virus. Multivariate analysis of the same data identified fecundity and progeny production as the most influential variables in defining differences among treatments. Overall, viral infection resulted in a 34% decrease in the net reproductive rate (R0) of covertly infected mosquitoes, vs. only 5-17% decrease of R0 following treatments with deactivated virus, compared to controls. Sublethal effects of IIV-6 in Ae. aegypti appear to be mainly due to virus replication, rather than cytotoxic effects of the viral inoculum. PMID:12823836

Marina, C F; Ibarra, J E; Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Fernández-Salas, I; Valle, J; Williams, T

2003-06-01

114

Climate change and the potential global distribution of Aedes aegypti: spatial modelling using GIS and CLIMEX.  

PubMed

We examined the potential added risk posed by global climate change on the dengue vector Aedes aegypti abundance using CLIMEX, a powerful tool for exploring the relationship between the fundamental and realised niche of any species. After calibrating the model using data from several knowledge domains, including geographical distribution records, we estimated potential distributions of the mosquito under current and future potential scenarios. The impact of climate change on its potential distribution was assessed with two global climate models, the CSIRO-Mk3.0 and the MIROC-H, run with two potential, future emission scenarios (A1B and A2) published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We compared today's climate situation with two arbitrarily chosen future time points (2030 and 2070) to see the impact on the worldwide distribution of A. aegypti . The model for the current global climate indicated favourable areas for the mosquito within its known distribution in tropical and subtropical areas. However, even if much of the tropics and subtropics will continue to be suitable, the climatically favourable areas for A. aegypti globally are projected to contract under the future scenarios produced by these models, while currently unfavourable areas, such as inland Australia, the Arabian Peninsula, southern Iran and some parts of North America may become climatically favourable for this mosquito species. The climate models for the Aedes dengue vector presented here should be useful for management purposes as they can be adapted for decision/making regarding allocation of resources for dengue risk toward areas where risk infection remains and away from areas where climatic suitability is likely to decrease in the future. PMID:24893017

Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

2014-05-01

115

CAGE TRIALS USING AN ENDOGENOUS MEIOTIC DRIVE GENE IN THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI TO PROMOTE POPULATION REPLACEMENT  

E-print Network

CAGE TRIALS USING AN ENDOGENOUS MEIOTIC DRIVE GENE IN THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI TO PROMOTE potential, and have previously been reported in two mosquito species: Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens established three experimental population types that were initiated with 100%, 10%, and 1% male mosquitoes

Severson, David

116

Growth characteristics of ChimeriVax-Den vaccine viruses in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Thailand.  

PubMed

Four chimeric yellow fever (YF) 17D-dengue (DEN) candidate vaccine viruses (ChimeriVax-DEN; Acambis, Cambridge, MA) were characterized in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected from Thailand. The four vaccine viruses contained the relevant prM and E genes of wild-type dengue viruses (DENV; serotypes 1-4) substituted for the equivalent genes in the YF vaccine virus (17D) backbone. Each chimera conferred protection against the homologous DENV serotype; a tetravalent mix of all four chimeras stimulates an immune response against all serotypes. Field-collected mosquitoes from Thailand were fed on blood containing each of the viruses under study and held 21 days after infection. Infection and dissemination rates were based on antigen detection in the body or head tissues, respectively. All four wild-type DENV serotypes infected and disseminated, but the candidate vaccine viruses were highly attenuated in mosquitoes with respect to infection and especially with respect to dissemination. Considering the low level viremias anticipated in humans vaccinated with these viruses, it is predicted that the risks of infection and transmission by mosquitoes in nature is minimal. PMID:17124001

Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klingler, Kimberly A; McElroy, Kate L; McGee, Charles E; Harrington, Laura; Lang, Jean; Monath, Thomas P; Guirakhoo, Farshad

2006-11-01

117

Truck-mounted area-wide application of pyriproxyfen targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in northeast Florida  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of truck-mounted ULV applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus populations in an urban setting. The study was conducted over a 3 ½ month period (Jun – Oct 2012), during wh...

118

Resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos and adaptive disadvantages  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos Fersol 1G (temephos 1% w/w) associated with the adaptive disadvantage of insect populations in the absence of selection pressure. METHODS A diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L and doses between 0.28 mg a.i./L and 1.40 mg a.i./L were used. Vector populations collected between 2007 and 2008 in the city of Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, were evaluated. To evaluate competition in the absence of selection pressure, insect populations with initial frequencies of 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant individuals were produced and subjected to the diagnostic dose for two months. Evaluation of the development of aquatic and adult stages allowed comparison of the life cycles in susceptible and resistant populations and construction of fertility life tables. RESULTS No mortality was observed in Ae. aegypti populations subjected to the diagnostic dose of 0.28 mg a.i./L. The decreased mortality observed in populations containing 20.0%, 40.0%, 60.0%, and 80.0% resistant insects indicates that temephos resistance is unstable in the absence of selection pressure. A comparison of the life cycles indicated differences in the duration and viability of the larval phase, but no differences were observed in embryo development, sex ratio, adult longevity, and number of eggs per female. CONCLUSIONS The fertility life table results indicated that some populations had reproductive disadvantages compared with the susceptible population in the absence of selection pressure, indicating the presence of a fitness cost in populations resistant to temephos. PMID:25372168

Diniz, Morgana Michele Cavalcanti de Souza Leal; Henriques, Alleksandra Dias da Silva; Leandro, Renata da Silva; Aguiar, Dalvanice Leal; Beserra, Eduardo Barbosa

2014-01-01

119

IPB7 transposase behavior in Drosophila melanogaster and Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Transposons are used in insect science as genetic tools that enable the transformation of insects and the identification and isolation of genes though their ability to insert in or near to them. Four transposons, piggyBac, Mos1, Hermes and Minos are commonly used in insects beyond Drosophila melanogaster with piggyBac, due to its wide host range and frequency of transposition, being the most commonly chosen. The utility of these transposons as genetic tools is directly proportional to their activity since higher transposition rates would be expected to lead to higher transformation frequencies and higher frequencies of insertion throughout the genome. As a consequence there is an ongoing need for hyperactive transposases for use in insect genetics, however these have proven difficult to obtain. IPB7 is a hyperactive mutant of the piggyBac transposase that was identified by a genetic screen performed in yeast, a mammalian codon optimized version of which was then found to be highly active in rodent embryonic stem cells with no apparent deleterious effects. Here we report the activity of IPB7 in D. melanogaster and the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Somatic transposition assays revealed an increase in IPB7's transposition rate from wild-type piggyBac transposase in D. melanogaster but not Ae. aegypti. However the use of IPB7 in D. melanogaster genetic transformations produced a high rate of sterility and a low transformation rate compared to wild-type transposase. This high rate of sterility was accompanied by significant gonadal atrophy that was also observed in the absence of the piggyBac vector transposon. We conclude that IPB7 has increased activity in the D. melanogaster germ-line but that a component of the sterility associated with its activity is independent of the presence of the piggyBac transposon. PMID:23835045

Wright, Jennifer A; Smith, Ryan C; Li, Xianghong; Craig, Nancy L; Atkinson, Peter W

2013-10-01

120

Differential identification of Ascogregarina species (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae) in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

We report 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for distinguishing morphologically similar gregarine species based on amplification of variable regions of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. The gregarines we investigated were Ascogregarina barretti (Vavra), A. culicis (Ross), and A. taiwanensis (Lien and Levine), parasites of the mosquitoes Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus), and Ae. albopictus (Skuse), respectively. These 3 important vector mosquitoes often utilize the same container habitats, where larval development and infection by the parasite occurs, leaving ample opportunity for cross-species gregarine infection. Because previous studies have shown that the parasites A. culicis and A. taiwanensis variably affect fitness in both normal and abnormal mosquito hosts, distinguishing parasite infection and species is important. The task is complicated by the fact that these 2 parasite species are virtually identical in morphology, whereas A. barretti is morphologically distinct. Of the 2 PCR-based assays reported here, the first provides a rapid, sensitive, and straight-forward means of general ascogregarine detection based on a single PCR amplification. The second method provides a means of differentiation between A. culicis and A. taiwanensis based on a species-specific PCR assay. Together, these assays allow whole mosquitoes to be tested for the presence of Ascogregarina species as well as identification of both A. culicis and A. taiwanensis singly or in dual infections. PMID:16539016

Morales, Maria E; Ocampo, Clara B; Cadena, Horacio; Copeland, Claudia S; Termini, Michael; Wesson, Dawn M

2005-12-01

121

Differentiation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) with egg surface morphology and morphometrics using scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential arboviral vectors leading to high human fatality worldwide. Efforts in the present study were made to differentiate the eggs of A. aegypti and A. albopictus morphologically and morphometrically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphometrically, these species' eggs were 48.48% significantly different of the 33 attributes including egg dimensions, micropylar apparatus, dimensions and density of outer chorionic cells (OCCs), tubercles and width of exochorionic network. In comparison to A. aegypti eggs, A. albopictus eggs were significantly smaller and more tapered at the posterior end; however, the micropylar disc of A. aegypti was wider and had incomplete circular sectors whereas it was a narrower polygon without sectors in A. albopictus. These species were also significantly different with regards to OCC which enclose both large central and small peripheral tubercles. Specifically, the exochorionic networks in A. aegypti were interwoven, reticulated and extensively wide whereas they were narrow, prominent and solid-wall-like in A. albopictus. This feature may strengthen A. albopictus eggs against desiccation, when they are laid in containers. The morphometrical and morphological analysis of the egg's attributes of A. aegypti and A. albopictus may be helpful in understanding egg biology as well as in species confirmation. PMID:21920819

Suman, Devi Shankar; Shrivastava, Anchal R; Pant, S C; Parashar, Brahma Dutta

2011-09-01

122

Differential Susceptibility of Two Field Aedes aegypti Populations to a Low Infectious Dose of Dengue Virus  

PubMed Central

Background The infectious dose required to infect mosquito vectors when they take a blood meal from a viremic person is a critical parameter underlying the probability of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. Because experimental vector competence studies typically examine the proportion of mosquitoes that become infected at intermediate or high DENV infectious doses in the blood meal, the minimum blood meal titer required to infect mosquitoes is poorly documented. Understanding the factors influencing the lower infectiousness threshold is epidemiologically significant because it determines the transmission potential of humans with a low DENV viremia, possibly including inapparent infections, and during the onset and resolution of the viremic period of acutely infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the susceptibility of two field-derived Aedes aegypti populations from Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand when they were orally exposed to low titers of six DENV-2 isolates derived from the serum of naturally infected humans living in the same region. The infectious dose, time-point post-blood feeding, viral isolate and mosquito population, were significant predictors of the proportion of mosquitoes that became infected. Importantly, the dose-response profile differed significantly between the two Ae. aegypti populations. Although both mosquito populations had a similar 50% oral infectious dose (OID50), the slope of the dose-response was shallower in one population, resulting in a markedly higher susceptibility at low blood meal titers. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that mosquitoes in nature vary in their infectious dose-response to DENV. Thus, different mosquito populations have a differential ability to acquire DENV infection at low viremia levels. Future studies on human-to-mosquito DENV transmission should not be limited to OID50 values, but rather they should be expanded to account for the shape of the dose-response profile across a range of virus titers. PMID:24664142

Pongsiri, Arissara; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Jarman, Richard G.; Scott, Thomas W.; Lambrechts, Louis

2014-01-01

123

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24 Cys-55, Cys-51 Cys-104, Cys-95 Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38 Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted ?2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal ?-helix at low pH.

Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M.; Tsuruda, Jennifer M.; Cornel, Anthon J.; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S.

2004-09-01

124

Intriguing olfactory proteins from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Four antennae-specific proteins (AaegOBP1, AaegOBP2, AaegOBP3, and AaegASP1) were isolated from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti and their full-length cDNAs were cloned. RT-PCR indicated that they are expressed in female and, to a lesser extent, in male antennae, but not in control tissues (legs). AaegOBP1 and AaegOBP3 showed significant similarity to previously identified mosquito odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in cysteine spacing pattern and sequence. Two of the isolated proteins have a total of eight cysteine residues. The similarity of the spacing pattern of the cysteine residues and amino acid sequence to those of previously identified olfactory proteins suggests that one of the cysteine-rich proteins (AaegOBP2) is an OBP. The other (AaegASP1) did not belong to any group of known OBPs. Structural analyses indicate that six of the cysteine residues in AaegOBP2 are linked in a similar pattern to the previously known cysteine pairing in OBPs, i.e., Cys-24-Cys-55, Cys-51-Cys-104, Cys-95-Cys-113. The additional disulfide bridge, Cys-38-Cys-125, knits the extended C-terminal segment of the protein to a predicted alpha2-helix. As indicated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra, the extra rigidity seems to prevent the predicted formation of a C-terminal alpha-helix at low pH. PMID:15338030

Ishida, Yuko; Chen, Angela M; Tsuruda, Jennifer M; Cornel, Anthon J; Debboun, Mustapha; Leal, Walter S

2004-09-01

125

The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III. PMID:9599328

Schwartz, A M; Paskewitz, S M; Orth, A P; Tesch, M J; Toong, Y C; Goodman, W G

1998-03-01

126

Bioactivity of selected plant essential oils against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioactivity of 14 essential oils from five plants has been studied using the brine shrimp lethality test and the Aedes aegypti larvicidal assay. All essential oils screened had LC50 values smaller than 200 ?g\\/ml, showing significant lethality against brine shrimp. In addition, nine of the 14 essential oils tested showed toxicity against the fourth-instar A. aegypti larvae in 24

Sen-Sung Cheng; Hui-Ting Chang; Shang-Tzen Chang; Kun-Hsien Tsai; Wei-June Chen

2003-01-01

127

Bioefficacy of crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (Family: Cyperaceae ) cultured cells, against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the growth inhibition activity of the crude extract of Cyperus aromaticus (C. aromaticus) cultured cells against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Ae. albopictus) under laboratory conditions, and determine the sublethal effects (EI50) of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells on some biological and morphological parameters of both Aedes mosquito species during two generations as well. Methods The cell suspension cultures of C. aromaticus were activated from five callus lines (P4, Pa, Z1, Z6 and Ml) derived from the root explants of in vitro plantlets. The cultured cells were extracted in chloroform and used as plant material for the present study. For detection of juvenile hormone III, the crude extracts were analyzed by HPLC. Then the crude extracts of the three C. aromaticus cultured cell lines which contained varied amounts of juvenile hormone III [high level (P4 cell line), medium level (Z1 cell line) and low level (Ml cell line)] were tested against Aedes mosquito species. Laboratory evaluation was performed against late third instar larvae of the Vector Control Research Unit strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus using the standard WHO method. The effects of EI50 of the C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells on fecundity, fertility, growth period, sex ratio, adult size and longevity of Aedes mosquitoes were assessed. Results Bioassay tests presented the remarkable growth inhibition activity of the crude extracts of C. aromaticus cultured cells against the two Aedes mosquitoes. Between the two mosquito species, Ae. albopictus was more susceptible to the crude extracts with lower EI50 values. EI50 of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells (P4) increased the sterility indices in the parental generation females in both Aedes mosquito species. A significant delay in the pupal formation and adult emergence were observed in the parental generation of the both mosquito species. The sex ratio of the adult population either parental or F1 generation of the Aedes mosquito species was not significantly affected by the EI50 dosage of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured P4 cells. A significant decrease in the wing length of the treated adult (female and male) of Aedes aegypti as well as the treated female of Ae. albopictus were observed. Longevity of the adult female of the parental generation of both Aedes mosquitoes as well as females of F1 generation of Ae. albopictus were significantly decreased. Conclusions The present study revealed the potential of the crude extract of C. aromaticus cultured cells in controlling vector mosquito populations in the effort to reduce the transmission of vector borne diseases. PMID:24075340

Kamiabi, Fatemeh; Jaal, Zairi; Keng, Chan Lai

2013-01-01

128

Pollution by conspecifics as a component of intraspecific competition among Aedes aegypti larvae  

E-print Network

Pollution by conspecifics as a component of intraspecific competition among Aedes aegypti larvae, Montpellier, France Abstract. 1. The role of pollution by conspecifics in the costs associated with larval the effects of other processes to be expressed. 3. A cost of growing in polluted water was found: this cost

129

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AN ENDOGENOUS MEIOTIC DRIVE SYSTEM IN AEDES AEGYPTI IN TRINIDAD  

E-print Network

POPULATION DYNAMICS OF AN ENDOGENOUS MEIOTIC DRIVE SYSTEM IN AEDES AEGYPTI IN TRINIDAD SUNG-JAE CHA of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad, West Indies Abstract. An endogenous meiotic drive system) population in Trinidad. The meiotic driver (MD ) is tightly linked to the male determining locus

Severson, David

130

Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the

A. Abdul Rahuman; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; P. Venkatesan; Kannappan Geetha

2008-01-01

131

Developmental and environmental regulation of AaeIAP1 transcript in Aedes aegypti.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apoptosis (programmed cell death) is a tightly regulated physiological process. The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key regulators for apoptosis. An inhibitor of apoptosis protein gene IAP1 was recently cloned from Aedes aegypti (AaeIAP1, Genbank accession no. DQ993355), however, it is n...

132

Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

133

The maxillary palp of aedes aegypti, a model of multisensory integration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, are obligate blood-feeders and vectors of the pathogens that cause dengue fever, yellow fever and Chikungunya. This feeding behavior concludes a series of multisensory events guiding the mosquito to its host from a distance. The antennae and maxillary...

134

Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Piperidines as Adulticides against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticides is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a beginning of our collaborative effort to...

135

Structure-Activity Relationships of 33 Carboxamides as Toxicants Against Female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aedes aegypti (L.) is the primary vector of both dengue and yellow fever. Use of insecticides is one of the primary ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control in recent years. As a part of our effort to search for new ...

136

Aedes aegypti in Brazil: genetically differentiated populations with high susceptibility to dengue and yellow fever viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aedes aegypti was eliminated from Brazil in 1955, but re-infested the country in the 1970s. Dengue outbreaks have occurred since 1981 and became endemic in several cities in Brazil after 1986. Urban yellow fever has not occurred since 1942, and only jungle yellow fever cases have been reported. A population genetic analysis using isoenzyme variation combined with an evaluation of

R Lourenço-de-Oliveira; M Vazeille; A. M. B de Filippis; A. B Failloux

2004-01-01

137

AN INSULIN-LIKE PEPTIDE REGULATES EGG MATURATION AND METABOLISM IN THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ingestion of vertebrate blood is essential for egg maturation and transmission of disease-causing parasites by female mosquitoes. Prior studies with the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, indicated blood feeding stimulates egg production by triggering the release of hormones from MNCs in the mosq...

138

Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

139

Comparative study of four membranes for evaluation of new insect/arthropod repellents using Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four different membranes: Baudruche; Hemotek, sausage, and silicone-based membrane were evaluated as human skin substitute for an in vitro repellent study using Aedes aegypti. No significant difference was observed in repellent activity (ED50) of DEET among the membranes. Sausage membrane was selec...

140

Permethrin Induces Overexpression of Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit 3 in Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using quantitative PCR (QPCR), the relative transcriptional levels of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (CO3) were studied in Aedes aegypti (L.) in response to treatments with acetone, permethrin, or fipronil. The transcriptional levels of CO3 were significantly (p <0.05) higher in acetone-treated Ae. ...

141

RDengue um ambiente para o monitoramento de ovos do mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the development of an integrated environment providing support for monitoring amounts of eggs of the Aedes aegypti, the main vector of the dengue disease. The proposed environment combines computa- tional resources and tools for spatial and\\/or temporal statistical analysis. The system is used on eggs count data obtained from the an experiment conducted within the context of

Wagner Hugo Bonat; Henrique Silva Dallazuana; Paulo Justiniano; Ribeiro Junior

142

Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

143

Toxicity of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) and Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) leaf extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...

144

VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF DENGUE VIRUS IN Aedes aegypti COLLECTED IN PUERTO IGUAZÚ, MISIONES, ARGENTINA  

PubMed Central

A finding of vertical transmission of the DEN 3 virus in male specimens of Aedes aegypti, collected in the 2009 fall-winter period, in Puerto Iguazú city, Misiones, Argentina, using the RT-PCR technique in a 15-specimen pool is reported. This result is analyzed within the context of the epidemiological situation of Argentina's northeast border. PMID:24626420

Espinosa, Manuel; Giamperetti, Sergio; Abril, Marcelo; Seijo, Alfredo

2014-01-01

145

Patterns of Geographic Expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities. Methods We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level. Results Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos. Conclusion In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats. PMID:25101786

Guagliardo, Sarah Anne; Barboza, José Luis; Morrison, Amy C.; Astete, Helvio; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Kitron, Uriel

2014-01-01

146

Competition for amino acids between Wolbachia and the mosquito host, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The endosymbiont Wolbachia represents a promising method of dengue control, as it reduces the ability of the primary vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, to transmit viruses. When mosquitoes infected with the virulent Wolbachia strain wMelPop are fed non-human blood, there is a drastic reduction in mosquito fecundity and egg viability. Wolbachia has a reduced genome and is clearly dependent on its host for a wide range of nutritional needs. The fitness defects seen in wMelPop-infected A. aegypti could be explained by competition between the mosquito and the symbiont for essential blood meal nutrients, the profiles of which are suboptimal in non-human blood. Here, we examine cholesterol and amino acids as candidate molecules for competition, as they have critical roles in egg structural development and are known to vary between blood sources. We found that Wolbachia infection reduces total cholesterol levels in mosquitoes by 15-25%. We then showed that cholesterol supplementation of a rat blood meal did not improve fecundity or egg viability deficits. Conversely, amino acid supplementation of sucrose before and after a sheep blood meal led to statistically significant increases in fecundity of approximately 15-20 eggs per female and egg viability of 30-40%. This mosquito system provides the first empirical evidence of competition between Wolbachia and a host over amino acids and may suggest a general feature of Wolbachia-insect associations. These competitive processes could affect many aspects of host physiology and potentially mosquito fitness, a key concern for Wolbachia-based mosquito biocontrol. PMID:24337107

Caragata, Eric P; Rancès, Edwige; O'Neill, Scott L; McGraw, Elizabeth A

2014-01-01

147

Replicate surveys of larval habitats of Aedes aegypti in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever in Bangkok, Thailand*  

PubMed Central

Dengue haemorrhagic fever in Bangkok and Thonburi occurs principally during the wet season. The mosquito vector is Aedes aegypti. A study was made of the larval habitats of A. aegypti in 14 localities, at three different times of the year, to determine whether there were fluctuations in the A. aegypti population, as measured by the number of occupied habitats, which could be correlated with the incidence of the infection. The habitats were classified into 6 categories and a single larva was collected for identification from each one that was occupied. The number and percentage of occupied habitats of each category per 100 houses were analysed to determine whether there were differences between localities and between times of the year. Almost all the comparisons between localities were highly significant. There was evidence of slight changes in the number of occupied habitats from time to time, the chief increase being between the cool and the warm seasons and the chief decrease from the wet to the cool season, but it seems unlikely that outbreaks of dengue haemorrhagic fever can be explained by increases in A. aegypti densities during the wet season. PMID:5307596

Tonn, R. J.; Sheppard, P. M.; MacDonald, W. W.; Bang, Y. H.

1969-01-01

148

Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are potential vectors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The recent CHIKV outbreaks were caused by a new variant characterized by a mutation in the E1 glycoprotein gene (E1-226V) which has favored a better transmissibility by Ae. albopictus. As Ae. albopictus tends to replace Ae. aegypti in many regions, one question remained: is Ae. albopictus as efficient as Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV? Methodology and Findings We infected orally both species with the variant E1-226V and estimated the infection, the viral dissemination, and the transmission rate by real time RT-PCR. Additionally, we used an in vitro assay to determine the amount of virus delivered by mosquitoes in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which underwent an efficient dissemination as detectable in the salivary glands at day 2 post-infection (pi). Infectious CHIKV particles were delivered by salivary glands from day 2 with a maximum at day 6 pi for Ae. albopictus (103.3 PFU) and day 7 pi for Ae. aegypti (102.5 PFU). Conclusions Ae. albopictus is slightly more efficient than Ae. aegypti to transmit the variant E1-226V of CHIKV. These results will help to design an efficient vector control to limit transmission as soon as the first human cases are diagnosed. PMID:19521520

Dubrulle, Mathieu; Mousson, Laurence; Moutailler, Sara; Vazeille, Marie; Failloux, Anna-Bella

2009-01-01

149

Colonization of Aedes aegypti midgut by the endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatid Blastocrithidia culicis.  

PubMed

Monoxenous trypanosomatids inhabit invertebrate hosts throughout their life cycle. However, there have been cases of HIV-positive patients who have presented opportunistic infections caused by these protozoa, offering new perspectives to the study of interactions between monoxenics and hematophagous insect vectors. Some monoxenous trypanosomatids present a symbiotic bacterium in the cytoplasm, which seems to promote biochemical and morphological changes in the host trypanosomatids, such as alterations in plasma membrane carbohydrates and the reduction of the paraxial rod. In this work, we investigated the colonization of Aedes aegypti with Blastocrithidia culicis, an endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatid. B. culicis remained in the insect digestive tract for 38 days after feeding. Optical microscopy analysis revealed an infection process characterized by a homogenous distribution of the trypanosomatid along the midgut epithelium; no preferential interaction of protozoa with any cell type was observed. Ultrastructural analysis showed that during the colonization process, trypanosomatids interacted mainly with midgut cells through their flagellum, which penetrates the microvilli preferentially near the tight junctions. Prolonged infections promoted insect midgut degradation, culminating with the arrival of protozoa in the hemocel. By demonstrating B. culicis colonization in a bloodsucking insect, we suggest that vector transmission of monoxenous trypanosomatids to vertebrate host may occur in nature. PMID:16572337

Corrêa-da-Silva, Miguel S; Fampa, Patrícia; Lessa, Luiz P; Silva, Edalton dos Reis; dos Santos Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Saraiva, Elvira M B; Motta, Maria Cristina M

2006-09-01

150

Effects of artesunate treatment on Plasmodium gallinaceum transmission in the vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

In the absence of vaccines, chemotherapy is an effective and economical way for controlling malaria. Development of anti-malarial drugs that target pathogenic blood stage parasites and gametocytes is preferable for the treatment as it can alleviate the host's morbidity and mortality and block transmission of the Plasmodium parasite. Recently, our laboratory has developed an in vivo transmission blocking assay that involves administration of 7 consecutive daily doses of a test compound into domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) infected with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum with 10% parasitaemia and 1% gametocytaemia. To compromise the cost and time for artesunate (ATN) treatment, this study aimed to investigate effects of a 5-day consecutive administration of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) ATN on P. gallinaceum infection in chickens and transmission to two natural vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Our study showed that the treatment with 10mg/kg ATN for 7 days, but not 5 days, completely eliminated blood stage infections, prevented recrudescence and blocked gametocyte production and transmission of P. gallinaceum to its vectors, thereby confirming the potent schizontocidal and gametocytocidal activities of ATN. This regimen should be further evaluated in field trials. PMID:25466617

Pruck-Ngern, Mintra; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn; Chumpolbanchorn, Kamlang; Pimnon, Suntorn; Narkpinit, Somphong; Harnyuttanakorn, Pongchai; Buddhirakkul, Prayute; Saiwichai, Tawee

2015-01-15

151

Genomic composition and evolution of Aedes aegypti chromosomes revealed by the analysis of physically mapped supercontigs  

PubMed Central

Background An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes. PMID:24731704

2014-01-01

152

The Role of NF-?B Factor REL2 in the Aedes aegypti Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes transmit numerous diseases that continue to be an enormous burden on public health worldwide. Transgenic mosquitoes impervious to vector-borne pathogens, in concert with vector control and drug and vaccine development, comprise an arsenal of means anticipated to defeat mosquito-spread diseases in the future. Mosquito transgenesis allows tissue-specific manipulation of their major immune pathways and enhances the ability to study mosquito–pathogen interactions. Here, we report the generation of two independent transgenic strains of Aedes aegypti overexpressing the NF-?B transcriptional factor REL2, a homologue of Drosophila Relish, which is shown to be under the control of the vitellogenin promoter in the mosquito fat body after a blood meal. We show that this REL2 overexpression in the fat body results in transcriptional activation of Defensins A, C, and D, and Cecropins A and N, as well as translation and secretion of Defensin A protein into the hemolymph. We also demonstrate that induction of REL2 results in the increased resistance of the mosquito to tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Importantly, induction of transgenic REL2 leads to the significant decrease in susceptibility of Ae. aegypti to Plasmodium gallinaceum infection. Consistently, RNAi knockdown of REL2 in wild-type mosquitoes results in a delay in Defensin A and Cecropin A expression in response to infection and in increased susceptibility to both bacteria and P. gallinaceum. Moreover, our transgenic assays demonstrate that the N-terminus of the mosquito REL2, which includes the His/Gln-rich and Serine-rich regions, plays a role in its transactivation properties. PMID:19552893

Antonova, Yevgeniya; Alvarez, Kanwal S.; Kim, Yu Jung; Kokoza, Vladimir; Raikhel, Alexander S.

2009-01-01

153

The Effect of Virus-Blocking Wolbachia on Male Competitiveness of the Dengue Vector Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia blocks the transmission of dengue virus by its vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, and is currently being evaluated for control of dengue outbreaks. Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that results in the developmental failure of offspring in the cross between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. This increases the relative success of infected females in the population, thereby enhancing the spread of the beneficial bacterium. However, Wolbachia spread via CI will only be feasible if infected males are sufficiently competitive in obtaining a mate under field conditions. We tested the effect of Wolbachia on the competitiveness of A. aegypti males under semi-field conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings In a series of experiments we exposed uninfected females to Wolbachia-infected and uninfected males simultaneously. We scored the competitiveness of infected males according to the proportion of females producing non-viable eggs due to incompatibility. We found that infected males were equally successful to uninfected males in securing a mate within experimental tents and semi-field cages. This was true for males infected by the benign wMel Wolbachia strain, but also for males infected by the virulent wMelPop (popcorn) strain. By manipulating male size we found that larger males had a higher success than smaller underfed males in the semi-field cages, regardless of their infection status. Conclusions/Significance The results indicate that Wolbachia infection does not reduce the competitiveness of A. aegypti males. Moreover, the body size effect suggests a potential advantage for lab-reared Wolbachia-males during a field release episode, due to their better nutrition and larger size. This may promote Wolbachia spread via CI in wild mosquito populations and underscores its potential use for disease control. PMID:25502564

Segoli, Michal; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Lloyd, Jane; Omodei, Gavin J.; Ritchie, Scott A.

2014-01-01

154

Comparative Genome Analysis of the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti with Drosophila melanogaster and the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in silico comparative genomics approach was used to identify putative orthologs to genetically mapped genes from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, in the Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae genome databases. Comparative chromosome positions of 73 D. melanogaster orthologs indicated significant deviations from a random distribution across each of the five A. aegypti chromosomal regions, suggesting that some ancestral chromosome elements

D. W. Severson; B. DEBRUYN; D. D. LOVIN; S. E. BROWN; D. L. KNUDSON; I. MORLAIS

2004-01-01

155

Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal PMID:23088621

2012-01-01

156

Susceptibility of laboratory and field-collected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis H-14.  

PubMed

Susceptibility levels of a few laboratory-cultured and dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) at different storage ages were studied. The susceptibility of laboratory-cultured World Health Organization (WHO) Bora Bora reference, Vector Control Research Unit (VCRU), and Fumakilla Malaysia Berhad (FMB) strains of Ae. aegypti to Bti was examined. The sensitivity to Bti decreased with storage age. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for Bti increased by 2-3 times after 2 years compared to a fresh sample (3-6 months of storage). However, after the 2-year storage period, Bti still provided very good efficacy against all laboratory-cultured susceptible strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The observed 95% lethal concentration values were about 20 times lower than the recommended concentration (6,000 international toxic units (ITU)/liter). Results obtained from the study against the dengue-endemic area field-collected strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus confirmed the effectiveness of the Bti after storage for 2 years (18-24 months). For Ae. aegypti, the Ujung Batu strain was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Sungai Nibong strain showed the most tolerance. Susceptibility of laboratory-cultured strains varied; the Air Itam strain of Ae. albopictus was the most susceptible to Bti, whereas the Kampung Serani strain was the most tolerant among the field strains. However, the laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus was more susceptible than all the field strains. PMID:16646329

Lee, Y W; Zairi, J

2006-03-01

157

Changing Domesticity of Aedes aegypti in Northern Peninsular Malaysia: Reproductive Consequences and Potential Epidemiological Implications  

PubMed Central

Background The domestic dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in indoor containers. However, in northern peninsular Malaysia, they show equal preference for breeding in both indoor and outdoor habitats. To evaluate the epidemiological implications of this peridomestic adaptation, we examined whether Ae. aegypti exhibits decreased survival, gonotrophic activity, and fecundity due to lack of host availability and the changing breeding behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings This yearlong field surveillance identified Ae. aegypti breeding in outdoor containers on an enormous scale. Through a sequence of experiments incorporating outdoors and indoors adapting as well as adapted populations, we observed that indoors provided better environment for the survival of Ae. aegypti and the observed death patterns could be explained on the basis of a difference in body size. The duration of gonotrophic period was much shorter in large-bodied females. Fecundity tended to be greater in indoor acclimated females. We also found increased tendency to multiple feeding in outdoors adapted females, which were smaller in size compared to their outdoors breeding counterparts. Conclusion/Significance The data presented here suggest that acclimatization of Ae. aegypti to the outdoor environment may not decrease its lifespan or gonotrophic activity but rather increase breeding opportunities (increased number of discarded containers outdoors), the rate of larval development, but small body sizes at emergence. Size is likely to be correlated with disease transmission. In general, small size in Aedes females will favor increased blood-feeding frequency resulting in higher population sizes and disease occurrence. PMID:22363516

Saifur, Rahman G. M.; Dieng, Hamady; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Salmah, Md Rawi Che; Satho, Tomomitsu; Miake, Fumio; Hamdan, Ahmad

2012-01-01

158

Coexistence of Philodina roseola (Rotifera: Bdelloidea) with larvae of Aedes aegypti in India.  

PubMed

The vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus of dengue and Chikungunya fever are closely associated with human habitations and adapted to feed on human blood. They undergo larval and pupal development in natural and artificial freshwater collections in the urban and peri-urban environment. Although reports are available about the feeding behaviour of the thriving mosquito larvae, much information is still required to understand the successful survival of Aedes mosquitoes in small and temporary water collections. This study was undertaken to determine the co-existence and prevalence of Philodina roseola and other Bdelloid rotifers in the container habitats of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. The investigation was conducted in 43 villages which belong to four districts in South India, affected by the epidemic of either dengue or Chikungunya fever. A total of 2093 houses and 12980 containers were examined for Aedes breeding and those containers with Aedes larvae were chosen for further investigation. The investigation showed that, the P. roseola was found associated in 502 (98.2%) containers, P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. in 126 containers (25%) and P. roseola along with other Philodina sp. and other Bdelloid rotifers found in 93 containers (19%). Since the members of the genus Philodina can survive desiccation, reproduce by parthenogenesis, can be transported by wind easily and more importantly, it can incorporate the genome of other organisms including viruses, understanding the co-existence and relationship of Philodina sp. with Aedes larvae would be helpful in the control of Aedes breeding and the control measures can be designed keeping the association of Bdelloids with Aedes in mind. PMID:25134889

Muniaraj, M; Sathish Babu, R

2014-06-01

159

Screening of dengue virus in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) by one-step SYBR green-based reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay during 2004-2007 in Southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

We carried out virological surveillance of dengue virus (DENV) in field-caught Aedes mosquitoes during 2004-2007 to estimate the monthly prevalence of infected females in dengue high-risk areas of Taiwan. A total of 92,892 Aedes aegypti (43,133 females and 49,759 males) and 79,315 Aedes albopictus (57,319 females and 21,996 males) adults were collected, grouped into 25,654 pools, and processed for virus detection using a one-step SYBR Green-based real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. DENVs were periodically and sympatrically detected in Ae. aegypti females in accordance with major dengue outbreaks and the corresponding dengue serotypes. Only 0.2% of 7628 pools of Ae. aegypti females were positive for DENVs. This resulted in an overall estimated infection rate (maximum likelihood estimation) of 0.970 per 1000 mosquitoes (95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.53-1.65). The total monthly infection rates ranged from 0.50 to 2.23 per 1000 mosquitoes (95% CI?=?0.03-10.71). When sampling areas were scaled down to the city level, monthly infection rates increased to 0.73-12.59 (95% CI?=?0.06-59.19). Monthly infection rates over all sampling areas and at the city level increased significantly by month. All positive pools were collected in July (one pool), August (two pools), September (one pool), October (three pools), November (four pools), and December (one pool). All four virus serotypes were detected in mosquitoes, which were consistent with dengue serotypes infecting humans in 2004 (DENV-4), 2005 and 2006 (DENV-2 and DENV-3), and 2007 (DENV-1). Our results provide supporting evidence that, in general, DENV infection rates were low in local Aedes mosquito population during 2004-2007 and that transovarial transmission may not be occurring or is occurring at much lower rates than evidenced in some endemic countries. PMID:21128850

Chen, Chien-Fu; Shu, Pei-Yun; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Su, Chien-Ling; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wang, Jen-Hsin; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Wu, Ho-Sheng

2010-12-01

160

Vector competence of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes for filarial nematodes is affected by age and nutrient limitation.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are one of the most important vectors of human disease. The ability of mosquitoes to transmit disease is dependent on the age structure of the population, as mosquitoes must survive long enough for the parasites to complete their development and infect another human. Age could have additional effects due to mortality rates and vector competence changing as mosquitoes senesce, but these are comparatively poorly understood. We have investigated these factors using the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. Rather than observing any effects of immune senescence, we found that older mosquitoes were more resistant, but this only occurred if they had previously been maintained on a nutrient-poor diet of fructose. Constant blood feeding reversed this decline in vector competence, meaning that the number of parasites remained relatively unchanged as mosquitoes aged. Old females that had been maintained on fructose also experienced a sharp spike in mortality after an infected blood meal ("refeeding syndrome") and few survived long enough for the parasite to develop. Again, this effect was prevented by frequent blood meals. Our results indicate that old mosquitoes may be inefficient vectors due to low vector competence and high mortality, but that frequent blood meals can prevent these effects of age. PMID:25446985

Ariani, Cristina V; Juneja, Punita; Smith, Sophia; Tinsley, Matthew C; Jiggins, Francis M

2015-01-01

161

Behavioral responses of two dengue virus vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), to DUET and its components.  

PubMed

Ultralow volume droplets of DUET, prallethrin, and sumithrin at a sublethal dose were applied to unfed (nonbloodfed) and bloodfed female Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in a wind tunnel. Control spray droplets only contained inert ingredients. Individual mosquitoes were videotaped before, during, and after spraying and various behaviors analyzed. During the spray periods of all three pesticide treatments, mosquitoes spent a greater percentage of time moving, and the distance moved was greater than for mosquitoes in the control treatments. In the postspray period, the percent of time moving increased for mosquitoes exposed to all pesticide treatments compared with the controls. After treatment, all females spent more time walking compared with controls, with unfed Ae. aegypti females walking more after exposure to DUET and sumithrin than after exposure to prallethrin and the control. Pesticide exposure increased flying in both species. Sumithrin exposure increased activity and velocity of unfed mosquitoes more than bloodfed mosquitoes. DUET and sumithrin treatments enhanced activity of Ae. aegypti females more than Ae. albopictus females. PMID:24180111

Clark, Gary G; Golden, Frances V; Allan, Sandra A; Cooperband, Miriam F; McNelly, James R

2013-09-01

162

Vectorial Capacity of Aedes aegypti: Effects of Temperature and Implications for Global Dengue Epidemic Potential  

PubMed Central

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics but has a high potential to spread to new areas. Dengue infections are climate sensitive, so it is important to better understand how changing climate factors affect the potential for geographic spread and future dengue epidemics. Vectorial capacity (VC) describes a vector's propensity to transmit dengue taking into account human, virus, and vector interactions. VC is highly temperature dependent, but most dengue models only take mean temperature values into account. Recent evidence shows that diurnal temperature range (DTR) plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. In this study, we used relative VC to estimate dengue epidemic potential (DEP) based on the temperature and DTR dependence of the parameters of A. aegypti. We found a strong temperature dependence of DEP; it peaked at a mean temperature of 29.3°C when DTR was 0°C and at 20°C when DTR was 20°C. Increasing average temperatures up to 29°C led to an increased DEP, but temperatures above 29°C reduced DEP. In tropical areas where the mean temperatures are close to 29°C, a small DTR increased DEP while a large DTR reduced it. In cold to temperate or extremely hot climates where the mean temperatures are far from 29°C, increasing DTR was associated with increasing DEP. Incorporating these findings using historical and predicted temperature and DTR over a two hundred year period (1901–2099), we found an increasing trend of global DEP in temperate regions. Small increases in DEP were observed over the last 100 years and large increases are expected by the end of this century in temperate Northern Hemisphere regions using climate change projections. These findings illustrate the importance of including DTR when mapping DEP based on VC. PMID:24603439

Liu-Helmersson, Jing; Stenlund, Hans; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim

2014-01-01

163

Reciprocal Tripartite Interactions between the Aedes aegypti Midgut Microbiota, Innate Immune System and Dengue Virus Influences Vector Competence  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus is one of the most important arboviral pathogens and the causative agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It is transmitted between humans by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and at least 2.5 billion people are at daily risk of infection. During their lifecycle, mosquitoes are exposed to a variety of microbes, some of which are needed for their successful development into adulthood. However, recent studies have suggested that the adult mosquito's midgut microflora is critical in influencing the transmission of human pathogens. In this study we assessed the reciprocal interactions between the mosquito's midgut microbiota and dengue virus infection that are, to a large extent, mediated by the mosquito's innate immune system. We observed a marked decrease in susceptibility to dengue virus infection when mosquitoes harbored certain field-derived bacterial isolates in their midgut. Transcript abundance analysis of selected antimicrobial peptide genes suggested that the mosquito's microbiota elicits a basal immune activity that appears to act against dengue virus infection. Conversely, the elicitation of the mosquito immune response by dengue virus infection itself influences the microbial load of the mosquito midgut. In sum, we show that the mosquito's microbiota influences dengue virus infection of the mosquito, which in turn activates its antibacterial responses. PMID:22413032

Ramirez, Jose Luis; Souza-Neto, Jayme; Torres Cosme, Rolando; Rovira, Jose; Ortiz, Alma; Pascale, Juan M.; Dimopoulos, George

2012-01-01

164

Insecticidal and Repellent Activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the toxic effects of essential oils isolated from Siparuna guianensis against Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus (eggs, larvae, pupae, and adult) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. The oviposition-deterring activity, egg viability, and repellence activity in the presence of different essential oils concentrations were determined. The essential oils showed high toxicity to all developmental stages of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. Furthermore, the oils also showed high repellent activity towards the adult stage of mosquitoes (0.025 to 0.550 ?g/cm2 skin conferred 100% repellence up to 120 min) and in contact with cultured insect cells (C6/36) induced death possibly by necrosis. The results presented in this work show the potential of S. guianensis essential oils for the development of an alternative and effective method for the natural control of mosquitoes in homes and urban areas. PMID:25646797

Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner Souza; dos Santos, Suetonio Fernandes; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ascencio, Sergio Donizeti; de Mendonça Lopes, Magnólia; Viana, Kelvinson Fernandes; Didonet, Julcemar; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

2015-01-01

165

Gender-related family head schooling and Aedes aegypti larval breeding risk in Southern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate if family head genre-associated education is related to the risk of domiciliary Aedes aegypti larval breeding in a dengue-endemic village of Southern Mexico. Material and Methods. A family head was con- sidered to have a low education level if he\\/she had not com- pleted elementary school. To estimate larval breeding risk within each household, a three-category Maya

Rogelio Danis-Lozano; Mario H Rodríguez; Mauricio Hernández-Avila

2002-01-01

166

Engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in molecular genetics makes possible the development of alternative disease control strategies that target the competence of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. We tested the regulatory region of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene of Aedes aegypti for its ability to express potential antipathogen factors in transgenic mosquitoes. Hermes-mediated transformation was used to integrate a 2.1-kb Vg-promoter fragment driving the expression of

Vladimir Kokoza; Abduelaziz Ahmed; Wen-Long Cho; Nijole Jasinskiene; Anthony A. James; Alexander Raikhel

2000-01-01

167

YOLK PROTEIN UPTAKE IN THE OOCYTE OF THE MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI. L  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Yolk proteins are thought,to enter certain eggs by a process akin to micropinocytosis but the detailed mechanism,has not been,previously depicted. In this study the formation,of protein yolk was,investigated in the mosquito,Aedes aegypti L. Ovaries were fixed in phos- phate-buffered osmium tetroxide, for electron microscopy, before and at intervals after a meal of blood. The deposition of protein yolk in

T. F. Roth; K. R. Porter

1964-01-01

168

The effects of temperature and humidity on the eggs of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Texas  

E-print Network

date back before the 1650?s (Spielman and D?Antonio 2001). Ae. aegypti is a primary vector for such anthroponoses as Yellow fever and Dengue fever. In August of 1985, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, was discovered in a tire dump... in Houston, Texas (Sprenger and Wuithiranygool 1986). Ae. albopictus is also a floodwater species and a secondary vector of a multitude of diseases including West Nile and Dengue fever. Ae. albopictus may thus amplify a disease outbreak. Since 1985, Ae...

Dickerson, Catherine Zindler

2009-05-15

169

Effect of sublethal dosages of insecticides on chikungunya virus susceptible and refractory strains of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Three strains of Aedes aegypti mosquitos viz (i) CRS, refractory to Chikungunya (CHIK) virus by oral route of infection but susceptible to DDT (2) CSS, susceptible to CHIK virus and also susceptible to DDT (3) CSS-DDTR, susceptible to CHIK virus but resistant to DDT, were examined for the effect of sublethal dosages of DDT and deltamethrin on their fecundity. Biochemical analysis showed that there was an increase in glutathione s-transferase activity in the CSS-DDTR strain which was associated with DDT resistance. There was an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the CRS strain, however it was not associated with resistance to all the three insecticides tested. No significant differences in the fecundity of these three strains were observed, though there was some increase in the number of non layers in CSS-DDTR strain after the treatment of DDT and mean number of eggs laid by CSS and CRS strains was slightly reduced (0.5 > p < 0.1) after the treatment with deltamethrin. PMID:7777922

Mourya, D T; Gokhale, M D; Banerjee, K

1994-09-01

170

Sustained, Area-Wide Control of Aedes aegypti Using CDC Autocidal Gravid Ovitraps  

PubMed Central

We have shown that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) autocidal gravid ovitraps (AGO trap) reduced the Aedes aegypti population and prevented mosquito outbreaks in southern Puerto Rico. After showing treatment efficacy for 1 year, we deployed three traps per home in an area that formerly did not have traps and in a site that served as the intervention area. Two new areas were selected as reference sites to compare the density of Ae. aegypti without traps. We monitored mosquitoes and weather every week in all four sites. The hypotheses were the density of Ae. aegypti in the former reference area converges to the low levels observed in the intervention area, and mosquito density in both areas having control traps is lower than in the new reference areas. Mosquito density in the former reference area decreased 79% and mosquito density in the new reference areas was 88% greater than in the intervention areas. PMID:25223937

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Acevedo, Verónica; Hemme, Ryan R.; Félix, Gilberto

2014-01-01

171

The Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene is a cell autonomous genetic marker in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The cinnabar gene of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) encodes for kynurenine hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in ommochrome biosynthesis. This gene is commonly included as a visible genetic marker in gene vectors used to create transgenic Aedes aegypti (L.) that are homozygous for the khw allele, the mosquito homolog of cinnabar. Unexpectedly, the phenotype of cells expressing kynurenine hydroxylase in transgenic Ae. aegypti is cell autonomous as demonstrated by the recovery of insects heterozygous for the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene with mosaic eye color patterns. In addition, a transgenic gynandromorph was recovered in which one-half of the insect was expressing the kynurenine hydroxylase transgene, including one eye with red pigmentation, whereas the other half of the insect was homozygous khw and included a white eye. The cell autonomous behavior of cinnabar in transgenic Ae. aegypti is unexpected and increases the utility of this genetic marker. PMID:16119567

Sethuraman, Nagaraja; O'Brochta, David A

2005-07-01

172

Larvicidal activities of six plants extracts against two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

Larvicidal activity of crude chloroform, dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves and roots of six Indian plants, Aegle marmelos L., Balanites aegyptica L., Calotropis gigantica L., Murraya koenigii L., Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. and Plumbago zeylanica L., were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects. However, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extracts of P. zeylanica roots and B. aegyptica roots against Ae.aegypti (LC50 169.61 mg/lit, 289.59 mg/lit) and An.stephensi (LC50 222.34 mg/lit, 102.29 mg/lit), respectively. The methanol extracts of plants were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach aid for the control of mosquito species, Ae. aegypti, and An.stephensi. PMID:21399575

Patil, S V; Patil, C D; Salunkhe, R B; Salunke, B K

2010-12-01

173

Testing fungus impregnated cloths for the control of adult Aedes aegypti under natural conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated. Findings When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818?+?10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818?+?0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar. Conclusion The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti. PMID:24010874

2013-01-01

174

Genetic Diversity of Brazilian Aedes aegypti: Patterns following an Eradication Program  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti is the most important vector of dengue fever in Brazil, where severe epidemics have recently taken place. Ae. aegypti in Brazil was the subject of an intense eradication program in the 1940s and 50s to control yellow fever. Brazil was the largest country declared free of this mosquito by the Pan-American Health Organization in 1958. Soon after relaxation of this program, Ae. aegypti reappeared in this country, and by the early 1980s dengue fever had been reported. The aim of this study is to analyze the present-day genetic patterns of Ae. aegypti populations in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied the genetic variation in samples of 11 widely spread populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil based on 12 well-established microsatellite loci. Our principal finding is that present-day Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations form two distinct groups, one in the northwest and one in the southeast of the country. These two groups have genetic affinities to northern South American countries and the Caribbean, respectively. This is consistent with what has been reported for other genetic markers such as mitochondrial DNA and allele frequencies at the insecticide resistance gene, kdr. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the genetic patterns in present day populations of Ae. aegypti in Brazil are more consistent with a complete eradication of the species in the recent past followed by re-colonization, rather than the alternative possibility of expansion from residual pockets of refugia. At least two colonizations are likely to have taken place, one from northern South American countries (e.g., Venezuela) that founded the northwestern group, and one from the Caribbean that founded the southeastern group. The proposed source areas were never declared free of Ae. aegypti. PMID:25233218

Monteiro, Fernando A.; Shama, Renata; Martins, Ademir J.; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Brown, Julia E.; Powell, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

175

Sublethal effects of atrazine and glyphosate on life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Although exposure of mosquito larvae to agricultural chemicals such as herbicides is common and widespread, our understanding of how these chemicals affect mosquito ecology and behavior is limited. This study investigated how an environmentally relevant concentration of two herbicides, atrazine and glyphosate, affects mosquito life history traits. One hundred and fifty (150) first instar Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) or Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) larvae were reared in 1.6 L of live oak leaf (Quercus virginiana) infusion in the presence (5 mg/L) or absence (0 mg/L) of atrazine or glyphosate. The containers were monitored daily to determine the emergence rates, sex ratio, male and female emergence times, and female body size. Emergence rates of A. aegypti from atrazine treatment were significantly higher relative to either glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?93?±?6% (±95% CI), glyphosate?=?82?±?5%, control?=?78?±?5%), while emergence rates of A. albopictus in atrazine treatments were significantly higher than in glyphosate treatments but not in controls (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?84?±?5 %, glyphosate?=?76?±?4%, control?=?78?±?4%). For both mosquito species, a sex ratio distortion with male bias was observed in control and glyphosate treatments, but not in atrazine treatments (A. aegypti: atrazine?=?0.90?±?0.17 (±SE), glyphosate?=?1.63?±?0.21, control?=?1.69?±?0.26; A. albopictus: atrazine?=?1.09?±?0.08, glyphosate?=?1.88?±?0.12, control?=?1.37?±?0.11). Emergence times for both sexes of the two mosquito species were significantly longer in atrazine treatments compared to glyphosate or control treatments (A. aegypti: females: atrazine?=?11.20?±?0.50 (days?±?95 % CI), glyphosate?=?9.71?±?0.23, control?=?9.87?±?0.21; males: atrazine?=?9.46?±?0.27, glyphosate?=?8.80?±?0.25, control?=?8.85?±?0.24; A. albopictus: females: atrazine?=?17.40?±?1.70, glyphosate?=?12.4?±?0.40, control?=?12.5?±?0.30; males: atrazine?=?12.96?±?0.41, glyphosate?=?10.48?±?0.24, control?=?10.64?±?0.37). For A. albopictus but not A. aegypti, adult females from atrazine treatment had significantly longer wing lengths compared to those from glyphosate or control treatments (A. albopictus: atrazine?=?3.06?±?0.07 (mm?±?95% CI), glyphosate?=?2.80?±?0.07, control?=?2.83?±?0.06). These results demonstrate the potential for atrazine, a widely used herbicide, to influence epidemiologically relevant life history traits of mosquitoes. PMID:24853538

Bara, Jeffrey J; Montgomery, Allison; Muturi, Ephantus J

2014-08-01

176

Identification of germline transcriptional regulatory elements in Aedes aegypti  

E-print Network

vector for the yellow fever and dengue viruses, and is also responsible for recent outbreaks of these efforts4 . Vaccines are available for yellow fever, but there are still ,200,000 cases each year and in the early embryo, through overexpression or RNA interference. A edes aegypti is the major vector for yellow

Hay, Bruce A.

177

Proof of concept for a novel insecticide bioassay based on sugar feeding by adult Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia aegypti).  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti L. (Stegomyia aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Disease management is largely based on mosquito control achieved by insecticides applied to interior resting surfaces and through space sprays. Population monitoring to detect insecticide resistance is a significant component of integrated disease management programmes. We developed a bioassay method for assessing insecticide susceptibility based on the feeding activity of mosquitoes on plant sugars. Our prototype sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay system was composed of inexpensive, disposable components, contained minimal volumes of insecticide, and was compact and highly transportable. Individual mosquitoes were assayed in a plastic cup that contained a sucrose-permethrin solution. Trypan blue dye was added to create a visual marker in the mosquito's abdomen for ingested sucrose-permethrin solution. Blue faecal spots provided further evidence of solution ingestion. With the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay, the permethrin susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females from two field-collected strains was characterized by probit analysis of dosage-response data. The field strains were also tested by forced contact of females with permethrin residues on filter paper. Dosage-response patterns were similar, indicating that the sugar-insecticide feeding bioassay had appropriately characterized the permethrin susceptibility of the two strains. PMID:23077986

Stell, F M; Roe, R M; Arellano, C; Kennedy, L; Thornton, H; Saavedra-Rodriguez, K; Wesson, D M; Black, W C; Apperson, C S

2013-09-01

178

Distinct variation in vector competence among nine field populations of Aedes aegypti from a Brazilian dengue-endemic risk city  

PubMed Central

Background In Brazil, dengue epidemics erupt sporadically throughout the country and it is unclear if outbreaks may initiate a sustainable transmission cycle. There are few studies evaluating the ability of Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations to transmit dengue virus (DENV). The aim of this study was to compare DENV susceptibility of field-captured Ae. aegypti populations from nine distinct geographic areas of the city of Belo Horizonte in 2009 and 2011. Infection Rate (IR), Vector Competence (VC) and Disseminated Infection Rate (DIR) were determined. Methods Aedes aegypti eggs from each region were collected and reared separately in an insectary. Adult females were experimentally infected with DENV-2 and the virus was detected by qPCR in body and head samples. Data were analyzed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17. Results IR varied from 40.0% to 82.5% in 2009 and 60.0% to 100.0% in 2011. VC ranged from 25.0% to 77.5% in 2009 and 25.0% to 80.0% in 2011. DIR oscillated from 68.7% to 100.0% in 2009 and 38.4% to 86.8 in 2011. When the results were evaluated by a logistic model using IR as covariate, North, Barreiro, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the strongest association in 2009. In 2011, a similar association was observed for South-Central, Venda Nova, West and Northeast regions. Using VC as covariate, South-Central and Venda Nova showed the most relevant association in 2009. In 2011, South-Central, Venda Nova and Barreiro presented the greatest revelation associations. When DIR data were analyzed by logistic regression models, Pampulha, South-Central, Venda Nova, West, Northeast and East (2009) as well as South-Central, Venda Nova and West (2011) were the districts showing the strongest associations. Conclusions We conclude that Ae. aegypti populations from Belo Horizonte exhibit wide variation in vector competence to transmit dengue. Therefore, vector control strategies should be adapted to the available data for each region. Further analysis should be conducted to better understand the reasons for this large variability in vector competence and how these parameters correlate with epidemiological findings in subsequent years. PMID:25015526

2014-01-01

179

Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus against various synthetic and natural repellent compounds.  

PubMed

The behavioral responses of colony populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles minimus to four essential oils (citronella, hairy basil, catnip, and vetiver), two standard repellents (DEET and picaridin), and two synthetic pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin) were conducted in the laboratory using an excito-repellency test system. Results revealed that Cx. quinquefasciatus and An. minimus exhibited much stronger behavioral responses to all test compounds (65-98% escape for contact, 21.4-94.4% escape for non-contact) compared to Ae. aegypti (3.7-72.2% escape (contact), 0-31.7% (non-contact)) and Ae. albopictus (3.5-94.4% escape (contact), 11.2-63.7% (non-contact)). In brief, essential oil from vetiver elicited the greatest irritant responses in Cx. quinquefasciatus (96.6%) and An. minimus (96.5%) compared to the other compounds tested. The synthetic pyrethroids caused a stronger contact irritant response (65-97.8% escape) than non-contact repellents (0-50.8% escape for non-contact) across all four mosquito species. Picaridin had the least effect on all mosquito species. Findings from the current study continue to support the screening of essential oils from various plant sources for protective properties against field mosquitoes. PMID:25424262

Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; White, Sabrina A; Achee, Nicole L; Sanguanpong, Unchalee; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-12-01

180

QTL Mapping of Genome Regions Controlling Temephos Resistance in Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the principal vector of dengue and yellow fever flaviviruses. Temephos is an organophosphate insecticide used globally to suppress Ae. aegypti larval populations but resistance has evolved in many locations. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) controlling temephos survival in Ae. aegypti larvae were mapped in a pair of F3 advanced intercross lines arising from temephos resistant parents from Solidaridad, México and temephos susceptible parents from Iquitos, Peru. Two sets of 200 F3 larvae were exposed to a discriminating dose of temephos and then dead larvae were collected and preserved for DNA isolation every two hours up to 16 hours. Larvae surviving longer than 16 hours were considered resistant. For QTL mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at 23 single copy genes and 26 microsatellite loci of known physical positions in the Ae. aegypti genome. In both reciprocal crosses, Multiple Interval Mapping identified eleven QTL associated with time until death. In the Solidaridad×Iquitos (SLD×Iq) cross twelve were associated with survival but in the reciprocal IqxSLD cross, only six QTL were survival associated. Polymorphisms at acetylcholine esterase (AchE) loci 1 and 2 were not associated with either resistance phenotype suggesting that target site insensitivity is not an organophosphate resistance mechanism in this region of México. Conclusions/Significance Temephos resistance is under the control of many metabolic genes of small effect and dispersed throughout the Ae. aegypti genome. PMID:25330200

Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe del Carmen; Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

181

Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow Among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico.  

PubMed

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C

2015-01-01

182

Oviposition and Embryotoxicity of Indigofera suffruticosa on Early Development of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Aqueous extract of Indigofera suffruticosa leaves obtained by infusion was used to evaluate the oviposition, its effect on development of eggs and larvae, and morphological changes in larvae of Aedes aegypti. The bioassays were carried out with aqueous extract in different concentrations on eggs, larvae, and female mosquitoes, and the morphological changes were observed in midgut of larvae. The extract showed repellent activity on A. aegypti mosquitoes, reducing significantly the egg laying by females with control substrate (343 (185–406)) compared with the treated substrate (88 (13–210)). No eclosion of A. aegypti eggs at different concentrations studied was observed. The controleclodedin 35%. At concentration of 250??g/mL, 93.3% of larvae remained in the second instar of development and at concentrations of 500, 750, and 1000??g/mL the inhibitory effect was lower with percentages of 20%, 53.3%, and 46.6%, respectively. Morphological changes like disruption on the peritrophic envelope (PE), discontinued underlying epithelium, increased gut lumen, and segments with hypertrophic aspects were observed in anterior region of medium midgut of larvae of A. aegypti. The results showed repellent activity, specific embryotoxicity, and general growth retardation in A. aegypti by medium containing aqueous extract of I. suffruticosa leaves. PMID:21822443

Vieira, Jeymesson Raphael Cardoso; Leite, Roberta Maria Pereira; Lima, Izabela Rangel; Navarro, Daniela do Amaral Ferraz; Bianco, Everson Miguel; Leite, Sônia Pereira

2012-01-01

183

Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we explicitly outlined here, point to clear targets for entomological investigation. PMID:25052008

2014-01-01

184

Development of a comparative genetic linkage map for Armigeres subalbatus using Aedes aegypti RFLP markers.  

PubMed

One of the causative agents of lympahtic filariasis is the nematode parasite Brugia malayi that requires a competent mosquito vector for its development and transmission. Armigeres subalbatus mosquitoes rapidly destroy invading B. malayi microfilariae via a defense response known as melanotic encapsulation. We have constructed a genetic linkage map for this mosquito species using RFLP markers from Aedes aegypti. This heterologous approach was possible because of the conserved nature of the coding sequences used as markers and provided an experimental framework to evaluate the hypothesis that linkage and gene order are conserved between these mosquito species. Of the 56 Ae. aegypti markers tested, 77% hybridize to genomic DNA digests of Ar. subalbatus under stringent conditions, with 53% of these demonstrating strain-specific polymorphisms. Twenty-six Ae. aegypti markers have been mapped using an F2- segregating Ar. subalbatus population derived from a cross of strains originating in Japan and Malaysia. Linear order of these marker loci is highly conserved between the two species. Only 1 of these markers, LF92, was not linked in the manner predicted by the Ae. aegypti map. In addition, the autosomal sex-determination locus that occurs in linkage group 1 in Ae. aegypti resides in group 3 in Ar. subalbatus. The Ar. subalbatus map provides a basic genetic context that can be utilized in further genetic studies to clarify the genetic basis of parasite resistance in this mosquito and is a necessary precursor to the identification of genome regions that carry genes that determine the encapsulation phenotype. [The composite map and sequence database information for Ae. aegypti markers can be retrieved directly from the Ae. aegypti Genome Database through the World Wide Web: http://klab.agsci.colostate.edu.] PMID:9445486

Ferdig, M T; Taft, A S; Severson, D W; Christensen, B M

1998-01-01

185

A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested whether interspecific competition from Aedes albopictus had measurable effects on A. aegypti at the typical numbers of larval mosquitoes found in cemetery vases in south Florida. We also tested whether the effect of interspecific competition from A. albopictus on A. aegypti differed between sites where A. aegypti either persists or went extinct following invasion by A. albopictus. Similar

Steven A. Juliano; L. Philip Lounibos; George F. O’Meara

2004-01-01

186

Occurrence of apocrine secretion in the larval gut epithelial cells of Aedes aegypti L., Anopheles albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga and Culex quinquefasciatus say (Diptera: Culicidae): a defense strategy against infection by Bacillus sphaericus Neide?  

PubMed

Cell hypertrophy was the first reaction of the gut epithelial cells of Aedes aegypti (L.), Anopheles albitarsis (Lynch-Arribálzaga) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) to the toxins of strains 2362 and S1116 of Bacillus sphaericus, as cells had an increase of intracellular secretory activity. Soon after the cell hypertrophy developed, vesicles were formed at the cell apical portion, which detached with the plasma membrane, characterizing a type of apocrine secretion like. The first pathway of contamination of the mosquito larvae by these bacteria is through the gut, by feeding. Depending on the species of Culicidae and on the bacterial strain used, the hypertrophy of the gut epithelium occurred between 5 and 15 min after exposure to the contaminated environment. The second aspect observed after hypertrophy was the increase in apocrine secretion. The basophilic vesicles that detached from the cells remained between the peritrophic membrane and the gut lumen, such vesicles were filled with material of unknown nature. The gut posterior region showed secretory activity in both control and treated larvae, being much more intense in bacteria-exposed larvae. There were remarkable differences in the epithelial cell reaction according to the toxins of the two bacterial strains, but C.quinquefasciatus was the most susceptible. Differences in the gut cell reactions to the toxins produced by the two bacterial strains are discussed. PMID:19943010

Oliveira, Caroline D; Tadei, Wanderli P; Abdalla, Fábio C

2009-01-01

187

Factors favoring houseplant container infestation with Aedes aegypti larvae in Marília, São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Since reinvasion of São Paulo State by the Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito in 1985, flower pots and vases have been important larval habitats despite educational messages focusing on their control. The objectives of this study were to characterize flower pots and vases as larval habitats with respect to the quantities present and infested, the types of plants involved, and the specific locations of the mosquito larvae; to explore local names for houseplants; and to examine factors affecting acceptance of control measures. The results showed an average of more than four potential plant-related larval habitats per premises, of which only 0.4% were occupied by the vector. Plant-related containers represented 31% of all the containers with Aedes aegypti larvae. Although a sample of 126 respondents was able to list 105 different houseplant names, 49% of the positive plants were of two types: ferns and the ornamental plant Dieffenbachia avoena. The public's apparent unwillingness to accept recommended anti-aegypti control measures involving houseplants seems related to the relative rarity of aegypti larvae in the very common houseplant containers, the control program's poor credibility as a source of information about plants, and a perception that the recommended control measures are harmful to plants. An intervention currently being planned for dengue control will use educational material that refers specifically to those plants whose containers are most commonly found to harbor aegypti larvae; it will also utilize information sources such as botanists with greater credibility regarding plants; and it will set out alternative plant care recommendations that are more likely to appeal as beneficial to the plants and that will stand a better chance of being accepted. PMID:9149524

Macoris, M L; Mazine, C A; Andrighetti, M T; Yasumaro, S; Silva, M E; Nelson, M J; Winch, P J

1997-04-01

188

Spatial Clustering of Aedes aegypti Related to Breeding Container Characteristics in Coastal Ecuador: Implications for Dengue Control  

PubMed Central

Mosquito management within households remains central to the control of dengue virus transmission. An important factor in these management decisions is the spatial clustering of Aedes aegypti. We measured spatial clustering of Ae. aegypti in the town of Borbón, Ecuador and assessed what characteristics of breeding containers influenced the clustering. We used logistic regression to assess the spatial extent of that clustering. We found strong evidence for juvenile mosquito clustering within 20 m and for adult mosquito clustering within 10 m, and stronger clustering associations for containers ? 40 L than those < 40 L. Aedes aegypti clusters persisted after adjusting for various container characteristics, suggesting that patterns are likely attributable to short dispersal distances rather than shared characteristics of containers in cluster areas. These findings have implications for targeting Ae. aegypti control efforts. PMID:24002483

Schafrick, Nathaniel H.; Milbrath, Meghan O.; Berrocal, Veronica J.; Wilson, Mark L.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

2013-01-01

189

Effects of insemination and blood-feeding on locomotor activity of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) females under laboratory conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is an arbovirus disease transmitted by two Aedes mosquitoes: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Virgin females of these two species generally show a bimodal and diurnal pattern of activity, with early morning and late afternoon peaks. Although some studies on the flight activity of virgin, inseminated and blood-fed Ae. aegypti females have been carried out under laboratory conditions, little is known about the effects of such physiological states on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. The aim of this study was to analyze, under laboratory conditions, the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under LD 12:12, at 25°C. Methods Both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females were obtained from established laboratory colonies. Control groups were represented by virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions, using an activity monitor that registers individual activity every thirty minutes. Results Virgin/unfed Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females showed a diurnal and bimodal pattern of locomotor activity, with peaks at early morning and late afternoon. Insemination and blood-feeding significantly decreased the locomotor activity of Ae. aegypti females, but inseminated/blood-fed Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus females showed a similar significant decrease on the locomotor activity compared to virgin/unfed females. Conclusions This study is the first demonstration of the effects of insemination and blood-feeding on the locomotor activity of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females under artificial conditions. Data suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti females respond in different ways to physiological status changes and such divergence between these two dengue vectors, associated with several ecological differences, could be related to the greater dengue vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in Americas in comparison to Ae. albopictus. PMID:24990394

2014-01-01

190

Embryonic desiccation resistance in Aedes aegypti: presumptive role of the chitinized Serosal Cuticle  

PubMed Central

Background One of the major problems concerning dengue transmission is that embryos of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, resist desiccation, surviving several months under dry conditions. The serosal cuticle (SC) contributes to mosquito egg desiccation resistance, but the kinetics of SC secretion during embryogenesis is unknown. It has been argued that mosquito SC contains chitin as one of its components, however conclusive evidence is still missing. Results We observed an abrupt acquisition of desiccation resistance during Ae. aegypti embryogenesis associated with serosal cuticle secretion, occurring at complete germ band extension, between 11 and 13 hours after egglaying. After SC formation embryos are viable on dry for at least several days. The presence of chitin as one of the SC constituents was confirmed through Calcofluor and WGA labeling and chitin quantitation. The Ae. aegypti Chitin Synthase A gene (AaCHS1) possesses two alternatively spliced variants, AaCHS1a and AaCHS1b, differentially expressed during Ae. aegypti embryonic development. It was verified that at the moment of serosal cuticle formation, AaCHS1a is the sole variant specifically expressed. Conclusion In addition to the peritrophic matrix and exoskeleton, these findings confirm chitin is also present in the mosquito serosal cuticle. They also point to the role of the chitinized SC in the desiccation resistance of Ae. aegypti eggs. AaCHS1a expression would be responsible for SC chitin synthesis. With this embryological approach we expect to shed new light regarding this important physiological process related to the Ae. aegypti life cycle. PMID:18789161

Rezende, Gustavo Lazzaro; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Gentile, Carla; Farnesi, Luana Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Peixoto, Alexandre Afrânio; Valle, Denise

2008-01-01

191

Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Methods Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Results Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Conclusions/Significance Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human–vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting. PMID:23469302

Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

2013-01-01

192

Serratia odorifera mediated enhancement in susceptibility of Aedes aegypti for chikungunya virus  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: The susceptibility of the mosquito to the invading pathogen is predominantly dictated by the complex interactions between the mosquito midgut and the surface proteins of the invading pathogen. It is well documented that the midgut microbiota plays an important role in determining the susceptibility of the mosquito to the pathogen. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Serratia odorifera, an endogenous cultivable midgut inhabitant of Aedes aegypti on the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) susceptibility to this mosquito. Methods: Ae. aegypti females free of gutflora were co-fed with CHIKV and either of the two midgut inhabitants namely, S. odorifeara and Microbacterium oxydans. CHIKV dissemination was checked on 10th day post feeding (DPF) using indirect immunoflurescence assay and plaque assay. CHIKV interacting proteins of the mosquito midgut were identified using virus overlay protein binding assay and MALDI TOF/TOF analysis. Results: The observations revealed that co-feeding of S. odorifera with CHIKV significantly enhanced the CHIKV susceptibility in adult Ae. aegypti, as compared to the mosquitoes fed with CHIKV alone and CHIKV co-fed with another midgut inhabitant, M. oxydans. Virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) results revealed that porin and heat shock protein (HSP60) of Ae. aegypti midgut brush border membrane fraction interacted with CHIKV. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of this study indicated that the enhancement in the CHIKV susceptibility of Ae. aegypti females was due to the suppression of immune response of Ae. aegypti as a result of the interaction between S. odorifera P40 protein and porin on the gut membrane. PMID:25027087

Apte-Deshpande, Anjali D.; Paingankar, Mandar S.; Gokhale, Mangesh D.; Deobagkar, Dileep N.

2014-01-01

193

The Neovolcanic Axis Is a Barrier to Gene Flow among Aedes aegypti Populations in Mexico That Differ in Vector Competence for Dengue 2 Virus  

PubMed Central

Background Aedes aegypti is the main mosquito vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Previous population genetic and vector competence studies have demonstrated substantial genetic structure and major differences in the ability to transmit dengue viruses in Ae. aegypti populations in Mexico. Methodology/Principal Findings Population genetic studies revealed that the intersection of the Neovolcanic axis (NVA) with the Gulf of Mexico coast in the state of Veracruz acts as a discrete barrier to gene flow among Ae. aegypti populations north and south of the NVA. The mosquito populations north and south of the NVA also differed in their vector competence (VC) for dengue serotype 2 virus (DENV2). The average VC rate for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from populations from north of the NVA was 0.55; in contrast the average VC rate for mosquitoes from populations from south of the NVA was 0.20. Most of this variation was attributable to a midgut infection and escape barriers. In Ae. aegypti north of the NVA 21.5% failed to develop midgut infections and 30.3% of those with an infected midgut failed to develop a disseminated infection. In contrast, south of the NVA 45.2% failed to develop midgut infections and 62.8% of those with an infected midgut failed to develop a disseminated infection. Conclusions Barriers to gene flow in vector populations may also impact the frequency of genes that condition continuous and epidemiologically relevant traits such as vector competence. Further studies are warranted to determine why the NVA is a barrier to gene flow and to determine whether the differences in vector competence seen north and south of the NVA are stable and epidemiologically significant. PMID:19564909

Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; de Lourdes Munoz, Maria; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Olson, Ken E.; Beaty, Barry J.; Black, William C.

2009-01-01

194

The Dengue Virus Mosquito Vector Aedes aegypti at High Elevation in México  

PubMed Central

México has cities (e.g., México City and Puebla City) located at elevations > 2,000 m and above the elevation ceiling below which local climates allow the dengue virus mosquito vector Aedes aegypti to proliferate. Climate warming could raise this ceiling and place high-elevation cities at risk for dengue virus transmission. To assess the elevation ceiling for Ae. aegypti and determine the potential for using weather/climate parameters to predict mosquito abundance, we surveyed 12 communities along an elevation/climate gradient from Veracruz City (sea level) to Puebla City (?2,100 m). Ae. aegypti was commonly encountered up to 1,700 m and present but rare from 1,700 to 2,130 m. This finding extends the known elevation range in México by > 300 m. Mosquito abundance was correlated with weather parameters, including temperature indices. Potential larval development sites were abundant in Puebla City and other high-elevation communities, suggesting that Ae. aegypti could proliferate should the climate become warmer. PMID:22987656

Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Hayden, Mary H.; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Kobylinski, Kevin C.; Uejio, Christopher K.; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Monache, Luca Delle; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Steinhoff, Daniel F.; Eisen, Lars

2012-01-01

195

Genetics and Morphology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Septic Tanks in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Dengue viruses, primarily transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.), affect an estimated 50–100 million people yearly. Traditional approaches to control mosquito population numbers, such as the use of pesticides, have had only limited success. Atypical mosquito behavior may be one reason why current vector control efforts have been less efficacious than expected. In Puerto Rico, for example, adult Ae. aegypti have been observed emerging from septic tanks. Interestingly, adults emerging from septic tanks are larger on average than adults collected from surface containers. To determine whether adults colonizing septic tanks constitute a separate Ae. aegypti population, we used 12 previously validated microsatellite loci to examine adult mosquitoes collected from both septic tanks and surface containers, but found no evidence to suggest genetic differentiation. Size differences between septic tank and surface mosquitoes were reduced when nutrient levels were held constant across experimental groups. Despite the absence of evidence suggesting a genetic difference between experimental groups in this study, Ae. aegypti emerging from septic tanks may still represent a more dangerous phenotype and should be given special consideration when developing vector control programs and designing public health interventions in the future. PMID:22238867

SOMERS, GERARD; BROWN, JULIA E.; BARRERA, ROBERTO; POWELL, JEFFREY R.

2012-01-01

196

Post-integration stability of piggyBac in Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The post-integration activity of piggyBac transposable element gene vectors in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was tested under a variety of conditions. The embryos from five independent transgenic lines of Ae. aegypti, each with a single integrated non-autonomous piggyBac transposable element gene vector, were injected with plasmids containing the piggyBac transposase open-reading frame under the regulatory control of the Drosophila melanogaster hsp70 promoter. No evidence for somatic remobilization was detected in the subsequent adults whereas somatic remobilization was readily detected when similar lines of transgenic D. melanogaster were injected with the same piggyBac transposase-expressing plasmid. Ae. aegypti heterozygotes of piggyBac reporter-containing transgenes and piggyBac transposase-expressing transgenes showed no evidence of somatic and germ-line remobilization based on phenotypic and molecular detection methods. The post-integration mobility properties of piggyBac in Ae. aegypti enhance the utility of this gene vector for certain applications, particularly those where any level of vector remobilization is unacceptable. PMID:17681233

Sethuraman, Nagaraja; Fraser, Malcolm J; Eggleston, Paul; O'Brochta, David A

2007-09-01

197

Genetic mapping a meiotic driver that causes sex ratio distortion in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

An endogenous meiotic driver in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti can cause highly male-biased sex ratio distortion in crosses from suitable genetic backgrounds. We previously selected a strain that carries a strong meiotic drive gene (D) linked with the male-determining allele (M) on chromosome 1 in A. aegypti. Here, we performed segregation analysis of the M(D) locus among backcross (BC(1)) progeny from a driver male and drive-sensitive females. Assessment of sex ratios among BC(2) progeny showed ?5.2% recombination between the M(D) locus and the sex determination locus. Multipoint linkage mapping across this region revealed consistent marker orders and recombination frequencies with the existing reference linkage map and placed the M(D) locus within a 6.5-cm interval defined by the LF159 locus and microsatellite marker 446GAA, which should facilitate future positional cloning efforts. PMID:22308303

Shin, Dongyoung; Mori, Akio; Severson, David W

2012-01-01

198

Post-Integration Silencing of piggyBac Transposable Elements in Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The piggyBac transposon, originating in the genome of the Lepidoptera Trichoplusia ni, has a broad host range, making it useful for the development of a number of transposon-based functional genomic technologies including gene vectors, enhancer-, gene- and protein-traps. While capable of being used as a vector for the creation of transgenic insects and insect cell lines, piggyBac has very limited mobility once integrated into the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. A transgenic Aedes aegypti cell line (AagPB8) was created containing three integrated piggyBac elements and the remobilization potential of the elements was tested. The integrated piggyBac elements in AagPB8 were transpositionally silent in the presence of functional transposase, which was shown to be capable of catalyzing the movement of plasmid-borne piggyBac elements in the same cells. The structural integrity of one of the integrated elements along with the quality of element-flanking DNA, which is known to influence transposition rates, were tested in D. melanogaster. The element was found to be structurally intact, capable of transposition and excision in the soma and germ-line of Drosophila melanogaster, and in a DNA sequence context highly conducive to element movement in Drosophila melanogaster. These data show that transpositional silencing of integrated piggyBac elements in the genome of Aedes aegypti appears to be a function of higher scale genome organization or perhaps epigenetic factors, and not due to structural defects or suboptimal integration sites. PMID:23861905

Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Esnault, Caroline; O’Brochta, David A.

2013-01-01

199

Identification and characterization of juvenile hormone esterase gene from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE) plays an important role in regulating juvenile hormone titers. Recent sequencing and annotation of the Aedes aegypti genome identified ten putative jhe gene sequences. Analysis of these ten putative jhe gene sequences showed that only three of them, EAT43357, EAT43353 and EAT43354 contained GQSAG motif and showed high sequence similarity with the sequences of jhe genes identified from other insect species. To determine which putative jhe gene(s) code for functional JHE, the mRNA profiles of EAT43357, EAT43353 and EAT43354 were measured during the final instar larval and pupal stages by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. The mRNA for EAT43357 was detected during the late final instar larval stage. In contrast, EAT43354 mRNA was detected only during the pupal stage and EAT43353 mRNA was detected only during the larval stage. The mRNA of EAT43357 was detected in both fat body and midgut tissues. JHE enzyme levels gradually increased during the final instar larval stage reaching a peak at 42 hr after ecdysis into the final instar larval stage. The mRNA expression profiles of EAT43357 correlate with the developmental expression profiles of JHE enzyme activity suggesting that this gene may encode for a functional JHE. The EAT43357 and EAT43354 cDNA were expressed in a baculovirus system. Proteins isolated from Sf9 cells infected with recombinant baculovirus expressing EAT43357 but not EAT43354 gene exhibited JHE activity confirming that EAT43357 gene codes for a functional JHE enzyme. PMID:17628281

Bai, Hua; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Palli, Subba Reddy

2007-01-01

200

Risk Factors for the Presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Domestic Water-Holding Containers in Areas Impacted by the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project, Laos  

PubMed Central

We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires. PMID:23458958

Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W.; Brey, Paul T.

2013-01-01

201

Genetic differentiation of Aedes aegypti mainland and island populations from southern Thailand.  

PubMed

Isozymes of 5 wild-caught collections of Aedes aegypti were compared by using starch gel electrophoresis. All collections were collected from Surat-Thanee Province, southern Thailand, an area considered to be a hyperendemic zone for dengue virus. One collection was from Donsak Harbor, whereas the other 4 collections were from 4 districts of Samui Island. The percent polymorphic loci (24.2-33%) in the 4 island collections was lower than in the mainland collection (36.4%). This study revealed a large effective migration rate among all 5 collections. No fixed differences were detected. No significant differentiation was found among the 5 collections from Surat-Thanee Province. PMID:12322938

Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai

2002-09-01

202

Promising Aedes aegypti Repellent Chemotypes Identified through Integrated QSAR, Virtual Screening, Synthesis, and Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Molecular field topology analysis, scaffold hopping, and molecular docking were used as complementary computational tools for the design of repellents for Aedes aegypti, the insect vector for yellow fever, chikungunya, and dengue fever. A large number of analogues were evaluated by virtual screening with Glide molecular docking software. This produced several dozen hits that were either synthesized or procured from commercial sources. Analysis of these compounds by a repellent bioassay resulted in a few highly active chemicals (in terms of minimum effective dosage) as viable candidates for further hit-to-lead and lead optimization effort. PMID:24039693

Oliferenko, Polina V.; Oliferenko, Alexander A.; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Osolodkin, Dmitry I.; Pillai, Girinath G.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Tsikolia, Maia; Agramonte, Natasha M.; Clark, Gary G.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Katritzky, Alan R.

2013-01-01

203

Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed. PMID:16253435

de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G

2005-12-01

204

Excito-repellency of essential oils against an Aedes aegypti (L.) field population in Thailand.  

PubMed

An investigation of the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti (= Stegomyia aegypti) to various concentrations of essential oils (2.5, 5, and 10%) extracted from hairy basil (Ocimum americanum Linn), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus Rendle), and plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb) were performed using an excito-repellency test chamber. Results showed that Ae. aegypti exhibited varying levels of escape response in both the contact and noncontact chambers in response to different essential oils. The magnitude of the behaviors changed in a dose-response fashion depending on the percent volume to volume concentration of oil used. A 2.5% concentration of hairy basil oil produced a significantly greater escape response compared to the other extracts at the same concentration (P< 0.05). Oils of ginger, lemongrass, and citronella produced stronger irritant and repellent responses at the median 5% concentration compared to the lowest and highest concentrations. There was marked suppression of escape for both contact and noncontact tests using 10% concentrations of hairy basil, lemongrass, and citronella, with high knockdown for all three oils after 30 min. Hairy basil and lemongrass had the highest insecticidal activity to Ae. aegypti, with LC50 values of 6.3 and 6.7 percent, respectively. We conclude that the essential oils from native plants tested, and likely many other extracts found in plants, have inherent repellent and irritant qualities that should to be screened and optimized for their behavior-modifying properties against Ae. aegypti and other biting arthropods of public health and pest importance. PMID:24820563

Boonyuan, Wasana; Grieco, John P; Bangs, Michael J; Prabaripai, Atchariya; Tantakom, Siripun; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

2014-06-01

205

Food as a limiting factor for Aedes aegypti in water-storage containers.  

PubMed

An understanding of the ecological factors that regulate natural populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can improve control and reduce the incidence of dengue (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in tropical areas. We investigated whether immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers from an urban area were under food limitation. We used starvation resistance (number of days alive without food) as an indicator of the feeding history in third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. Resistance to starvation and other measures of immature success, such as development time, survival, and adult mass, were investigated across a wide range of feeding conditions in the laboratory. Resistance to starvation of third-instar larvae and body mass of adults emerging from pupae collected in water-storage containers in an urban area were compared with the laboratory results. If resistance to starvation and adult mass of field-collected Ae. aegypti corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory, then food limitation could be inferred in field-collected larvae. Results showed that resistance to starvation was well correlated with previous feeding levels and with the other measures of immature success. Both resistance to starvation and adult body mass of field-collected specimens corresponded with the lower levels of feeding in the laboratory. Therefore, it was concluded that food limitation or competition is likely to be a regulatory factor in water-storage containers in the urban area. It is recommended that any control measure applied to immature Ae. aegypti in water-storage containers should eliminate all or most of the individuals, otherwise unintended, undesirable results might occur, such as the production of more and larger adults. PMID:15266737

Arrivillaga, Jazzmin; Barrera, Roberto

2004-06-01

206

Adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Mosquito vectors are responsible for the transmission of parasitic and viral infections, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in developing countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the adulticidal and smoke toxicity of Cipadessa baccifera (Roth) against three important mosquitoes vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Adult mortality was observed after 24-h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in acetone extract against An. stephensi followed by Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LD50 and LD90 values 16.021 (14.080-18.345), 29.095 (25.118-34.089); 23.581 (22.100-28.315), 38.636 (35.321-41.021); and 13.560 (9.479-17.391), 248.35 (203.47-344.43) mg/ml, respectively. No mortality was recorded in the control. Smoke toxicity was observed at 10-min interval for 40 min and the mortality data were recorded. Among the C. baccifera plant powder tested. Smoke toxicity results show that Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. stephensi, and Ae. aegypti shows 88.6?±?1.8, 78.2?±?0.5, and 77?±?1, respectively. One hundred percent mortality was recorded in the commercial mosquito control. The present study shows that C. baccifera leaf powder can be used as an efficient toxicity against mosquitoes. These results suggest that the leaf extracts of C. baccifera have a potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:25320044

Ramkumar, Govindaraju; Karthi, Sengodan; Muthusamy, Ranganathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

2015-01-01

207

Larvicidal activity of 94 extracts from ten plant species of northeastern of Brazil against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to find effective and affordable ways to control of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae), the larvicidal activities of 94 extracts from ten plant species belonging to eight families [Guettarda grazielae and Spermacoce verticillata (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba mollis and Triplaris americana (Polygonaceae), Eschweilera ovata (Lecytidaceae), Merremia aegyptia (Convolvulaceae), Ouratea nitida (Ochnnaceae), Protium heptaphyllum (Burseraceae), Rourea doniana (Connaraceae), and Tovomita

Patrícia V. Oliveira; Jesú C. Ferreira Jr; Fabyanne S. Moura; Gerson S. Lima; Fernando M. de Oliveira; Patrícia Emanuella S. Oliveira; Lucia M. Conserva; Ana Maria Giulietti; Rosangela P. Lyra Lemos

2010-01-01

208

Analysis of a vitellogenin gene of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti and comparisons to vitellogenins from other organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genomic clone of the Aedes aegypti vitellogenin A1 gene was sequenced¶¶Genbank accession number L41842. including 2015 bp of 5? untranscribed sequence, 6369 bp of open reading frame interrupted by two introns, and a short 3? untranslated region. Primer extension was used to identify the transcription initiation site. The amino termini of the large and small subunits were located by

Patricia Romans; Zhijian Tu; Zhaoxi Ke; Henry H. Hagedorn

1995-01-01

209

RNA-seq analyses of blood-induced changes in gene expression in the mosquito vector species, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Hematophagy is a common trait of insect vectors of disease. Extensive genome-wide transcriptional changes occur in mosquitoes after blood meals, and these are related to digestive and reproductive processes, among others. Studies of these changes are expected to reveal molecular targets for novel vector control and pathogen transmission-blocking strategies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae), a vector of Dengue

Mariangela Bonizzoni; W Augustine Dunn; Corey L Campbell; Ken E Olson; Michelle T Dimon; Osvaldo Marinotti; Anthony A James

2011-01-01

210

Transient expression of the Drosophila melanogaster cinnabar gene rescues eye color in the white eye (WE) strain of Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of eye pigment in the Aedes aegypti WE (white eye) colony was confirmed to be due to a mutation in the kynurenine hydroxylase gene, which catalyzes one of the steps in the metabolic synthesis of ommochrome eye pigments. Partial restoration of eye color (orange to red phenotype) in pupae and adults occurred in both sexes when first or

Anthony J Cornel; Mark Q. Benedict; Cristina Salazar Rafferty; Antony J Howells; Frank. H Collins

1997-01-01

211

Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as DEET and other insect repellents. Two other ...

212

cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a blood meal-induced trypsin from the mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA for a midgut trypsin induced by a blood meal has been cloned and sequenced from the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The 862 base sequence codes for a 257 amino acid protein, which is presumably a trypsin precursor, since the sequence of purified mosquito trypsin begins at residue 26, immediately following an arginine residue in the precursor. The amino terminal

CAROLINA BARILLAS-MURY; ROLF GRAF; HENRY H. HAGEDORN; MICHAEL A. WELLS

1991-01-01

213

Laboratory studies of selected ketones, sulfides, and chloroalkanes on the host-seeking behavior of Aedes aegypti.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Synthetic attractant blends formulated from L-lactic acid and several synergists elicit significant attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) and An. albimanus (Weidemann) in olfactometer bioassays using a triple-cage dual-port olfactometer. The synergists in these blends are commonly acetone and/or dimeth...

214

RESISTANCE OF AEDES AEGYPTI TO ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN SEVERAL MUNICIPALITIES IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO AND ESPÍRITO SANTO, BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical insecticides have been widely used in Brazil for several years. This exposes mosquito populations to an intense selection pressure for resistance to insecticides. In 1999, the Brazilian National Health Foundation started the first program designed to monitor the resistance of Aedes aegypti to insecticides. We analyzed populations from 10 municipalities (from 84 selected in Brazil) in the states of

JOSÉ BENTO PEREIRA LIMA; MARCELLA PEREIRA DA-CUNHA; RONALDO CARNEIRO DA SILVA JÚNIOR; ALLAN KARDEC; RIBEIRO GALARDO; SILVA SOARES; IMA APARECIDA BRAGA; RICARDO PIMENTEL RAMOS; DENISE VALLE

2003-01-01

215

Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) provides residual control of Aedes aegypti in small containers.  

PubMed

We examined the use of megadoses of VectoBac WG for residual control of Aedes aegypti in 2-L plastic buckets. Doses of 10x, 20x, and 50x the recommended rate of 8 mg/L provided >/= 90% control for 8, 8, and 23 weeks, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between dry (neat) or aqueous mixture of VectoBac WG. Pretreatment of dry containers up to 8 weeks before flooding did not significantly decrease efficacy through 11 success weeks. Thus, megadoses of dry formulations of Bti can be used for residual control of Ae. aegypti in small containers. Furthermore, these doses use small amounts of product (0.08-0.4 g/L) that is more practical to measure than the minute amounts (0.008 g/L) required by the recommended rate, and cost US$2.18 to treat 50 Cairns yards containing an average total of 80 containers. This method could also be used to control Aedes albopictus. PMID:20519600

Ritchie, Scott A; Rapley, Luke P; Benjamin, Seleena

2010-06-01

216

Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) Provides Residual Control of Aedes aegypti in Small Containers  

PubMed Central

We examined the use of megadoses of VectoBac WG for residual control of Aedes aegypti in 2-L plastic buckets. Doses of 10×, 20×, and 50× the recommended rate of 8 mg/L provided ? 90% control for 8, 8, and 23 weeks, respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality between dry (neat) or aqueous mixture of VectoBac WG. Pretreatment of dry containers up to 8 weeks before flooding did not significantly decrease efficacy through 11 success weeks. Thus, megadoses of dry formulations of Bti can be used for residual control of Ae. aegypti in small containers. Furthermore, these doses use small amounts of product (0.08–0.4 g/L) that is more practical to measure than the minute amounts (0.008 g/L) required by the recommended rate, and cost US$2.18 to treat 50 Cairns yards containing an average total of 80 containers. This method could also be used to control Aedes albopictus. PMID:20519600

Ritchie, Scott A.; Rapley, Luke P.; Benjamin, Seleena

2010-01-01

217

Efficacy of photodynamic therapy against larvae of Aedes aegypti: confocal microscopy and fluorescence-lifetime imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a few demonstration on the use of Photodynamic Reaction as possibility to eliminate larvae that transmit diseases for men has been successfully demonstrated. This promising tool cannot be vastly used due to many problems, including the lake of investigation concerning the mechanisms of larvae killing as well as security concerning the use of photosensitizers in open environment. In this study, we investigate some of the mechanisms in which porphyrin (Photogem) is incorporated on the Aedes aegypti larvae previously to illumination and killing. Larvae at second instar were exposed to the photosensitizer and after 30 minutes imaged by a confocal fluorescence microscope. It was observed the presence of photosensitizer in the gut and at the digestive tract of the larva. Fluorescence-Lifetime Imaging showed greater photosensitizer concentration in the intestinal wall of the samples, which produces a strong decrease of the Photogem fluorescence lifetime. For Photodynamic Therapy exposition to different light doses and concentrations of porphyrin were employed. Three different light sources (LED, Fluorescent lamp, Sun light) also were tested. Sun light and fluorescent lamp shows close to 100% of mortality after 24 hrs. of illumination. These results indicate the potential use of photodynamic effect against the LARVAE of Aedes aegypti.

de Souza, L. M.; Pratavieira, S.; Inada, N. M.; Kurachi, C.; Corbi, J.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Bagnato, V. S.

2014-03-01

218

Oviposition-Stimulant and Ovicidal Activities of Moringa oleifera Lectin on Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti. Methodology/Principal Findings WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0–60 protein fraction), at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73%) in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL), compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control). Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45±8.7 %, 20±11 % and 55±7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05) lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75–95%). Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50) were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99) after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population. Conclusions/Significance WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti control. PMID:22970317

Santos, Nataly Diniz de Lima; de Moura, Kézia Santana; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Santos, Geanne Karla Novais; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2012-01-01

219

Larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of Artemisia annua (Asterales: Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

This study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of Artemisia annua against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Dried cells of Artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. The extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. At 24-h post treatment, the LC50 values for Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respectively. The percentage mortality of larvae was directly proportional to the tested concentration. Anopheles sinensis was found to be the most susceptible species, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most tolerant to the Artemisia annua extract. The results indicated that the Artemisia annua extract showed concentration-dependent oviposition deterrent activity and had a strong deterrent effect. At 500 ppm, the percentage effective repellency was more than 85% compared with the control group for all the species, with oviposition activity index values of -0.94, -0.95, and -0.78 for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. In the ovicidal assay, the percentage hatchability of eggs after treatment with 500 ppm of Artemisia annua extract was significantly lower than the control, with values of 48.84?±?4.08, 38.42?±?3.67, and 79.35?±?2.09% for Aedes aegypti, Anopheles sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Artemisia annua was found to be more effective against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles sinensis compared with Culex quinquefasciatus. This study indicated that crude extract of A. annua could be a potential alternative for use in vector management programs. PMID:23835922

Cheah, Shao-Xiong; Tay, Jia-Wei; Chan, Lai-Keng; Jaal, Zairi

2013-09-01

220

Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes Aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In tropical and sub ]tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio ]economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data-- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation-- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Monaghan, A. J.; Eisen, L.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Ochoa, C.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriquez, C. M.; Quattrochi, D.; MorenoMadrinan, M. J.

2012-01-01

221

Investigating the Potential Range Expansion of the Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Mexico with NASA Earth Science Remote Sensing Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector for the virus causing dengue, a serious public health issue in these areas. Through ongoing NSF- and NASA-funded studies, field surveys of Aedes aegypti and an integrated modeling approach are being used to improve our understanding of the potential range of the mosquito to expand toward heavily populated high elevation areas such as Mexico City under various climate change and socio-economic scenarios. This work serves three primary objectives: (1) Employ NASA remotely-sensed data to supplement the environmental monitoring and modeling component of the project. These data -- for example, surface temperature, precipitation, vegetation indices, soil moisture and elevation -- are critical for understanding the habitat necessary for mosquito survival and abundance; (2) Implement training sessions to instruct scientists and students from Mexico and the U.S. on how to use remote sensing and implement the NASA SERVIR Regional Visualization and Monitoring System; (3) Employ the SERVIR framework to optimize the dissemination of key project results in order to increase their societal relevance and benefits in developing climate adaptation strategies. Field surveys of larval, pupal and adult Aedes aegypti, as well as detailed physical and social household characteristics, were conducted in the summers of 2011and 2012 at geographic scales from the household to the community along a transect from sea level to 2400 m ASL. These data are being used in models to estimate Aedes aegypti habitat suitability. In 2011, Aedes aegypti were identified at an elevation of over 2150 m in Puebla, the highest elevation at which this species has been observed.

Crosson, W. L.; Eisen, L.; Estes, M. G.; Estes, S. M.; Hayden, M.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Monaghan, A. J.; Moreno Madriñán, M. J.; Ochoa, C.; Quattrochi, D.; Tapia, B.; Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.

2012-12-01

222

Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro. Are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?  

PubMed Central

Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus (0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; do Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; de Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço

2012-01-01

223

Relationship between leaf litter identity, expression of cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.  

PubMed

The role of toxic component of leaf litter in mediating the outcome of mosquito species interactions is not well documented. To examine the effect of leaf litter toxins on mosquito performance and interspecific interactions, we reared monospecific and heterospecific cultures of Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus Skuse larvae in microcosms with one of five leaf species and measured the expression of five cytochrome P450 genes and life history traits of the two mosquito species. For both mosquito species, survival to adulthood was significantly higher in black alder, black walnut, and cypress infusion compared to sugar maple and eastern white pine infusion. In pine but not in other leaf treatments, the presence of A. albopictus had significant positive effects on A. aegypti wing length and development time to adulthood. A. albopictus from heterospecific cultures were larger than those from monospecific cultures and were smaller and took longer to develop in pine and sugar maple infusions than in the other infusions. Up regulation of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively appeared to be closely associated with the deleterious effects of sugar maple infusion on mosquito performance as was the down regulation of CYP6N12 (in A. aegypti) and lack of induction of CYP6Z6 and CYP9M9 (in A. aegypti and A. albopictus respectively) in pine infusion. Results suggest that metabolic capabilities that enable the two species to tolerate natural xenobiotics are associated with a fitness cost. PMID:22198240

Kim, Chang-Hyun; Muturi, Ephantus J

2012-04-01

224

Identification of Carboxylesterase Genes Implicated in Temephos Resistance in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Thailand is currently experiencing one of its worst dengue outbreaks in decades. As in most countries where this disease is endemic, dengue control in Thailand is largely reliant on the use of insecticides targeting both immature and adult stages of the Aedes mosquito, with the organophosphate insecticide, temephos, being the insecticide of choice for attacking the mosquito larvae. Resistance to temephos was first detected in Aedes aegypti larvae in Thailand approximately 25 years ago but the mechanism responsible for this resistance has not been determined. Principal Findings Bioassays on Ae. aegypti larvae from Thailand detected temephos resistance ratios ranging from 3.5 fold in Chiang Mai to nearly 10 fold in Nakhon Sawan (NS) province. Synergist and biochemical assays suggested a role for increased carboxylesterase (CCE) activities in conferring temephos resistance in the NS population and microarray analysis revealed that the CCE gene, CCEae3a, was upregulated more than 60 fold in the NS population compared to the susceptible population. Upregulation of CCEae3a was shown to be partially due to gene duplication. Another CCE gene, CCEae6a, was also highly regulated in both comparisons. Sequencing and in silico structure prediction of CCEae3a showed that several amino acid polymorphisms in the NS population may also play a role in the increased resistance phenotype. Significance Carboxylesterases have previously been implicated in conferring temephos resistance in Ae aegypti but the specific member(s) of this family responsible for this phenotype have not been identified. The identification of a strong candidate is an important step in the development of new molecular diagnostic tools for management of temephos resistant populations and thus improved control of dengue. PMID:24651719

Poupardin, Rodolphe; Srisukontarat, Wannaporn; Yunta, Cristina; Ranson, Hilary

2014-01-01

225

Effect of Aedes aegypti exposure to spatial repellent chemicals on BG-Sentinel™ trap catches  

PubMed Central

Background An integrated approach to reduce densities of adult Aedes aegypti inside homes is currently being evaluated under experimentally controlled field conditions. The strategy combines a spatial repellent (SR) treatment (applied indoors) with the Biogents Sentinel™ (BGS) mosquito trap positioned in the outdoor environment. In essence, when combined, the goal is to create a push-pull mechanism that will reduce the probability of human-vector contact. The current study measured BGS recapture rates of Ae. aegypti test cohorts that were exposed to either SR or control (chemical-free) treatments within experimental huts. The objective was to define what, if any, negative impact SR may have on BGS trap efficacy (i.e., reduced BGS collection). Methods Aedes aegypti females were exposed to SR compounds within experimental huts in the form of either treated fabric (DDT and transfluthrin) or mosquito coil (metofluthrin). Test cohorts were released within individual screen house cubicles, each containing 4 BGS traps, following SR exposure according to treatment. Two separate test cohorts were evaluated: (i) immediate release (IR) exposed from 06:00–12:00 hours and released at 12:00 hours and (ii) delayed release (DR) exposed from12:00–18:00 hours and released at 05:30 hours the following day. BGS recapture was monitored at 09:30, 13:30 and 15:30 hours and the cumulative recapture by time point quantified. Results Exposure of Ae. aegypti females to either DDT or metofluthrin did not significantly impact BGS capture as compared to cohorts of non-exposed females. This was true for both IR and DR exposure populations. IR cohorts exposed to transfluthrin resulted in significantly lower BGS recapture compared to matched controls but this effect was primarily due to high mosquito mortality during transfluthrin trials. Conclusion Our data indicate no more than minor and short-lived impacts (i.e., reduced attraction) on BGS trap catches following exposure to the pyrethroid compounds transfluthrin and metofluthrin and no change in recapture densities using DDT as compared to matched controls. These findings suggest a combined SR and BGS approach to vector control could function as a push-pull strategy to reduce Ae. aegypti adults in and around homes. PMID:23688176

2013-01-01

226

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus thuringiensis against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The present study reveals the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) against Aedes aegypti responsible for the diseases of public health importance. The Bt-AgNPs were characterized by using UV-visible spectrophotometer followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. A surface plasmon resonance spectrum of AgNps was obtained at 420 nm. The particle sizes were measured through SEM imaging ranging from 43.52 to 142.97 nm. The Bt-AgNPs has also given a characteristic peak at 3 keV in EDX image. Interestingly, the mortality rendered by Bt-AgNPs was comparatively high than that of the control against third-instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 0.10 ppm and LC90 0.39 ppm) in all the tested concentrations, viz. 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12, and 0.15 ppm. Hence, Bt-AgNPs would be significantly used as a potent mosquito larvicide against A. aegypti. PMID:24173811

Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C; Moorthi, P Vinayaga

2014-01-01

227

Contribution of midgut bacteria to blood digestion and egg production in aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae) (L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The insect gut harbors a variety of microorganisms that probably exceed the number of cells in insects themselves. These microorganisms can live and multiply in the insect, contributing to digestion, nutrition, and development of their host. Recent studies have shown that midgut bacteria appear to strengthen the mosquito's immune system and indirectly enhance protection from invading pathogens. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of these bacteria for mosquitoes has not been established to date. In this study, oral administration of antibiotics was employed in order to examine the contribution of gut bacteria to blood digestion and fecundity in Aedes aegypti. Results The antibiotics carbenicillin, tetracycline, spectinomycin, gentamycin and kanamycin, were individually offered to female mosquitoes. Treatment of female mosquitoes with antibiotics affected the lysis of red blood cells (RBCs), retarded the digestion of blood proteins and reduced egg production. In addition, antibiotics did not affect the survival of mosquitoes. Mosquito fertility was restored in the second gonotrophic cycle after suspension of the antibiotic treatment, showing that the negative effects of antibiotics in blood digestion and egg production in the first gonotrophic cycle were reversible. Conclusions The reduction of bacteria affected RBC lysis, subsequently retarded protein digestion, deprived mosquito from essential nutrients and, finally, oocyte maturation was affected, resulting in the production of fewer viable eggs. These results indicate that Ae. aegypti and its midgut bacteria work in synergism to digest a blood meal. Our findings open new possibilities to investigate Ae. aegypti-associated bacteria as targets for mosquito control strategies. PMID:21672186

2011-01-01

228

Differential transcription profiles in Aedes aegypti detoxification genes following temephos selection  

PubMed Central

The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of Dengue and Yellow Fever flaviviruses. The organophosphate insecticide temephos is a larvicide that is used globally to control Ae. aegypti populations; many of which have in turn evolved resistance. Target site alteration in the acetylcholine esterase of this species has not being identified. Instead, we tracked changes in transcription of metabolic detoxification genes using the Ae. aegypti ‘Detox Chip’ microarray during five generations of temephos selection. We selected for temephos resistance in three replicates in each of six collections, five from México, and one from Perú. The response to selection was tracked in terms of lethal concentrations (LC50). Uniform upregulation was seen in the epsilon class glutathione-S-transferase genes (eGSTs) in strains from México prior to laboratory selection, while eGSTs in the Iquitos Perú strain became upregulated following five generations of temephos selection. While expression of many esterase genes (CCE) increased with selection, no single esterase was consistently upregulated and this same pattern was noted in the cytochrome P450 genes (CYP) and in other genes involved in reduction or oxidation of xenobiotics. Bioassays using GST, CCE and CYP inhibitors suggest that various CCE instead of GSTs are the main metabolic mechanism conferring resistance to temephos. We show that temephos selected strains show no cross resistance to permethrin and that genes associated with temephos selection are largely independent of those selected with permethrin in a previous study. PMID:24299217

Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Strode, Clare; Flores, Adriana E.; Garcia-Luna, Selene; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C.

2014-01-01

229

Mobility properties of the Hermes transposable element in transgenic lines of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The Hermes transposable element has been used to genetically transform a wide range of insect species, including the mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a vector of several important human pathogens. Hermes integrations into the mosquito germline are characterized by the non-canonical integration of the transposon and flanking plasmid and, once integrated, Hermes is stable in the presence of its transposase. In an effort to improve the post-integration mobility of Hermes in the germline of Ae. aegypti, a transgenic helper Mos1 construct expressing Hermes transposase under the control of a testis-specific promoter was crossed to a separate transgenic strain containing a target Hermes transposon. In less than 1% of the approximately 1,500 progeny from jumpstarter lines analyzed, evidence of putative Hermes germline remobilizations were detected. These recovered transposition events occur through an aberrant mechanism and provide insight into the non-canonical cut-and-paste transposition of Hermes in the germ line of Ae. aegypti. PMID:20596755

Smith, Ryan C.

2010-01-01

230

Identification and Characterization of Heat Shock 70 Genes in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Heat shock genes are highly evolutionarily conserved and are expressed to varying degrees in all organisms in response to stress. Heat shock 70 (hsp70) genes have been well characterized in a number of organisms, most notably Drosophila melanogaster, but not as yet for any of the major arthropod-borne viral mosquito vectors. To identify hsp70 genes in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), basic local alignment searches of the Ae. aegypti genome were performed using D. melanogaster Hsp70 protein sequences as query. Two clusters of six previously unannotated AaHsp70 genes were identified and found to be organized into three pairs of nearly identical open reading frames, which mapped to two genomic scaffolds. Consistent with a designation as heat shock genes, no detectable level of expression of AaHsp70 genes was observed under normal rearing conditions (28°C), with robust expression observed with a heat shock of 37–39°C. Northern analysis showed heat-inducible expression of putative AaHsp70 genes at all life stages and in all tissues tested in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Monitoring of AaHsp70 gene expression levels in field-caught Ae. aegypti may serve as a general marker for stress. In addition, promoter sequences from AaHsp70 genes may be used to control the expression of transgenes in an inducible manner. PMID:19496419

GROSS, TIFFANY L.; MYLES, KEVIN M.; ADELMAN, ZACH N.

2009-01-01

231

Identification and Characterisation of Aedes aegypti Aldehyde Dehydrogenases Involved in Pyrethroid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald), to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid). Conclusions/Significance ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies. PMID:25047125

Lumjuan, Nongkran; Wicheer, Jureeporn; Leelapat, Posri; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya

2014-01-01

232

Temporal genetic structure of major dengue vector Aedes aegypti from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.  

PubMed

In recent years, high levels of Aedes aegypti infestation and several dengue outbreaks with fatal outcome cases have been reported in Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil. This situation made it important to understand the genetic structure and gene flow patterns among the populations of this vector in Manaus, vital pieces of information for their management and development of new control strategies. In this study, we used nine microsatellite loci to examine the effect of seasonality on the genetic structure and gene flow patterns in Ae. aegypti populations from four urban neighborhoods of Manaus, collected during the two main rainy and dry seasons. All loci were polymorphic in the eight samples from the two seasons, with a total of 41 alleles. The genetic structure analyses of the samples from the rainy season revealed genetic homogeneity and extensive gene flow, a result consistent with the abundance of breeding sites for this vector. However, the samples from the dry season were significantly structured, due to a reduction of Ne in two (Praça 14 de Janeiro and Cidade Nova) of the four samples analyzed, and this was the primary factor influencing structure during the dry season. Genetic bottleneck analyses suggested that the Ae. aegypti populations from Manaus are being maintained continuously throughout the year, with seasonal reduction rather than severe bottleneck or extinction, corroborating previous reports. These findings are of extremely great importance for designing new dengue control strategies in Manaus. PMID:24631342

Mendonça, Barbara Alessandra Alves; de Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; de Souza, Anete Pereira; Scarpassa, Vera Margarete

2014-06-01

233

Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

2014-01-01

234

Changes in the Genetic Structure of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations in Queensland, Australia, Across Two Seasons: Implications for Potential Mosquito Releases  

PubMed Central

Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes could be controlled if vector populations were replaced with strains that have reduced vector competency. Such a strategy is being developed for control of dengue virus which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Mosquitoes artificially infected with the bacterium, Wolbachia pipientis Hertig, are being assessed as candidates for release at the adult stage with the aim of replacement of the wild population. Wolbachia can reduce the capacity of Ae. aegypti to transmit dengue virus and has potential to be driven through the natural population via a system of cytoplasmic incompatibility. Deployment of benign mosquito strains will be influenced by population size and structure of wild-type Ae. aegypti in proposed release areas, as well as rates of gene flow among populations in the wet and dry tropical seasons. Mosquitoes from northern Queensland were screened with genetic markers to find an optimal locality for release of a benign strain of Ae. aegypti. The inland towns of Chillagoe and Charters Towers and the coastal town of Ingham had mosquito populations that were partly genetically isolated from mosquitoes in other areas across both seasons. These locations may be suitable release sites if it is important for the released strain to be restricted during initial phases of implementation. Smaller genetic differences were also evident among other regions and were consistent over two seasons (wet and dry). PMID:21936318

ENDERSBY, N. M.; HOFFMANN, A. A.; WHITE, V. L.; RITCHIE, S. A.; JOHNSON, P. H.; WEEKS, A. R.

2012-01-01

235

Cloning, Immunolocalization and Functional Analyses of Calcitonin Receptor 1 (AedaeGPRCAL1; Diuretic Hormone 31 Receptor) in Females of Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

E-print Network

, and hormones. The calcitonin-like diuretic hormone 31 (DH31) is known to elicit natriuresis from the Malpighian tubules (MTs) of mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti upon blood feeding. However, the contribution of DH31 cognate receptor, calcitonin...

Kwon, Hyeog Sun

2013-04-26

236

Mosquito larvicidal properties of Orthisiphon thymiflorus (Roth) Sleesen. (Family: Labiatae) against mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objective: To determine the larvicidal activity of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of Orthosiphon thymiflorus leaves against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Methods: Larvicidal activity was determined in laboratory bioassays using var...

237

Bioefficacy of Mentha piperita essential oil against dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti L  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the larvicidal and repellent potential of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of peppermint plant, Mentha piperita (M. piperita) against the larval and adult stages of Aedes aegypti (Ae. Aegypti). Methods The larvicidal potential of peppermint oil was evaluated against early fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti using WHO protocol. The mortality counts were made after 24 and 48 h, and LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The efficacy of peppermint oil as mosquito repellent was assessed using the human-bait technique. The measured area of one arm of a human volunteer was applied with the oil and the other arm was applied with ethanol. The mosquito bites on both the arms were recorded for 3 min after every 15 min. The experiment continued for 3 h and the percent protection was calculated. Results The essential oil extracted from M. piperita possessed excellent larvicidal efficiency against dengue vector. The bioassays showed an LC50 and LC90 value of 111.9 and 295.18 ppm, respectively after 24 h of exposure. The toxicity of the oil increased 11.8% when the larvae were exposed to the oil for 48 h. The remarkable repellent properties of M. piperita essential oil were established against adults Ae. aegypti. The application of oil resulted in 100% protection till 150 min. After next 30 min, only 1-2 bites were recorded as compared with 8-9 bites on the control arm. Conclusions The peppermint essential oil is proved to be efficient larvicide and repellent against dengue vector. Further studies are needed to identify the possible role of oil as adulticide, oviposition deterrent and ovicidal agent. The isolation of active ingredient from the oil could help in formulating strategies for mosquito control. PMID:23569733

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Warikoo, Radhika

2011-01-01

238

Ecological factors influencing Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) productivity in artificial containers in Salinas, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of environmental factors and immature density on the productivity of Aedes aegypti (L.) and explored the hypothesis that immature populations were under nutritional stress. In total, 1,367 containers with water in 624 premises were studied in Salinas, southern Puerto Rico (May-July 2004). We counted 3,632 pupae, and most female pupae (70%) were in five of 18 types of containers. These containers were unattended and influenced by local yards' environmental conditions. Pupal productivity was significantly associated with the number of trees per premise, water volume, and lower water temperatures. Larval and pupal abundance were larger in containers with leaf litter or algae. Pupal productivity and biomass of emerging females varied in containers with litter of different tree species. We found a significant and positive association between numbers of larvae and pupae of Ae. aegypti and a negative relationship between larval density and mass of emerging females. From multivariate analyses, we interpreted that 1) food limitation or competition existed in a number of containers; and 2) to a lesser extent, there was lack of negative larval density effects in containers with a larger water volume and lower temperature, where emerging females were not under nutritional stress. Corroborating evidence for food limitation or intraspecific competition effects came from our observations that females emerging in the field had an average body mass comparable with those females produced in the laboratory with the lowest feeding regime. Ae. aegypti larvae in Salinas are most likely influenced by resource limitation or competition and by rainfall in unmanaged containers in the absence of aquatic predators. Source reduction and improved yard management targeting unattended containers would eliminate most Ae. aegypti productivity and removal or control of shaded, larger containers would eliminate the production of the largest emerging mosquito females in the study area. PMID:16739405

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Clark, Gary G

2006-05-01

239

Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

2013-03-01

240

The Developmental Transcriptome of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti, an Invasive Species and Major Arbovirus Vector  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes are vectors of a number of important human and animal diseases. The development of novel vector control strategies requires a thorough understanding of mosquito biology. To facilitate this, we used RNA-seq to identify novel genes and provide the first high-resolution view of the transcriptome throughout development and in response to blood feeding in a mosquito vector of human disease, Aedes aegypti, the primary vector for Dengue and yellow fever. We characterized mRNA expression at 34 distinct time points throughout Aedes development, including adult somatic and germline tissues, by using polyA+ RNA-seq. We identify a total of 14,238 novel new transcribed regions corresponding to 12,597 new loci, as well as many novel transcript isoforms of previously annotated genes. Altogether these results increase the annotated fraction of the transcribed genome into long polyA+ RNAs by more than twofold. We also identified a number of patterns of shared gene expression, as well as genes and/or exons expressed sex-specifically or sex-differentially. Expression profiles of small RNAs in ovaries, early embryos, testes, and adult male and female somatic tissues also were determined, resulting in the identification of 38 new Aedes-specific miRNAs, and ~291,000 small RNA new transcribed regions, many of which are likely to be endogenous small-interfering RNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs. Genes of potential interest for transgene-based vector control strategies also are highlighted. Our data have been incorporated into a user-friendly genome browser located at www.Aedes.caltech.edu, with relevant links to Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org) PMID:23833213

Akbari, Omar S.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Amrhein, Henry; Williams, Brian; Diloreto, Race; Sandler, Jeremy; Hay, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

241

Discovery and Characterization of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Aedes aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels.  

PubMed

Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening 'hits', the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid) is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels can be developed using conventional drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, it reinforces the notion that the physical and chemical properties that determine a compound's bioavailability in vivo will be critical in determining the efficacy of Kir channel inhibitors as insecticides. PMID:25375326

Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F; Swale, Daniel R; Days, Emily; Weaver, C David; Lovell, Kimberly M; Konkel, Leah C; Engers, Darren W; Bollinger, Sean F; Hopkins, Corey; Piermarini, Peter M; Denton, Jerod S

2014-01-01

242

Discovery and Characterization of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Aedes aegypti Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever and malaria, which are transmitted by infected female mosquitoes, affect nearly half of the world's population. The emergence of insecticide-resistant mosquito populations is reducing the effectiveness of conventional insecticides and threatening current vector control strategies, which has created an urgent need to identify new molecular targets against which novel classes of insecticides can be developed. We previously demonstrated that small molecule inhibitors of mammalian Kir channels represent promising chemicals for new mosquitocide development. In this study, high-throughput screening of approximately 30,000 chemically diverse small-molecules was employed to discover potent and selective inhibitors of Aedes aegypti Kir1 (AeKir1) channels heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Of 283 confirmed screening ‘hits’, the small-molecule inhibitor VU625 was selected for lead optimization and in vivo studies based on its potency and selectivity toward AeKir1, and tractability for medicinal chemistry. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments of HEK293 cells, VU625 inhibits AeKir1 with an IC50 value of 96.8 nM, making VU625 the most potent inhibitor of AeKir1 described to date. Furthermore, electrophysiology experiments in Xenopus oocytes revealed that VU625 is a weak inhibitor of AeKir2B. Surprisingly, injection of VU625 failed to elicit significant effects on mosquito behavior, urine excretion, or survival. However, when co-injected with probenecid, VU625 inhibited the excretory capacity of mosquitoes and was toxic, suggesting that the compound is a substrate of organic anion and/or ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The dose-toxicity relationship of VU625 (when co-injected with probenecid) is biphasic, which is consistent with the molecule inhibiting both AeKir1 and AeKir2B with different potencies. This study demonstrates proof-of-concept that potent and highly selective inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels can be developed using conventional drug discovery approaches. Furthermore, it reinforces the notion that the physical and chemical properties that determine a compound's bioavailability in vivo will be critical in determining the efficacy of Kir channel inhibitors as insecticides. PMID:25375326

Raphemot, Rene; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Swale, Daniel R.; Days, Emily; Weaver, C. David; Lovell, Kimberly M.; Konkel, Leah C.; Engers, Darren W.; Bollinger, Sean F.; Hopkins, Corey; Piermarini, Peter M.; Denton, Jerod S.

2014-01-01

243

Microsatellite markers for population genetic studies in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Côte d'Ivoire: evidence for a microgeographic genetic differentiation of mosquitoes from Bouaké  

Microsoft Academic Search

In West Africa, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus, C., 1762. Zweyter Theil, enhalt Beschreibungen veschiedener wichtiger Naturalien. In: Hasselquist, F. (Ed.), Reise nach Palastina in den Jahren von 1749 bis 1752, Rostock, Germany, pp. 267–606) represents the principal vector of yellow fever. This study reports the use of microsatellite markers to characterise various A. aegypti populations from Côte d'Ivoire according

S. Ravel; J.-P. Hervé; S. Diarrassouba; A. Kone; G. Cuny

2002-01-01

244

Behavioral responses of catnip (Nepeta cataria l.)by two species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (l.) and Anopheles harrisoni harbach and manguin, in Thailand.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An investigation of the biological effect of catnip oil (Nepeta cataria L.) on the behavioral response of field collected Ae. aegypti and An. harrisoni were conducted using an automated excito-repellency test system. Aedes aegypti showed significant higher escape rates from the contact chamber at 5%...

245

Development and evaluation of a pyriproxyfen-treated device to control the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera:Culicidae).  

PubMed

The resurgence of dengue fever and the chikungunya epidemic make the control of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the vectors of these diseases, critically important. We developed and evaluated an Ae. aegypti control device that is visually-attractive to mosquitoes. This pyriproxyfen-treated device was evaluated for its impact on Ae. aegypti egg production and population dynamics in dengue-endemic areas in Thailand. The device consists of a "high rise" shaped ovitrap/ resting station covered with black cotton cloth. The device is easily collapsible and transportable. Ae. aegypti are generally drawn towards darker, shadier areas making this device physically attractive as a resting station to mosquitoes of all physiological stages. The results show this device suppressed Ae. aegypti populations after it was introduced into a village. The observed effect was primarily the result of the Ae. aegypti exposure to pyriproxyfen shortly after adult emergence or after taking a blood meal resulting in decreased egg production. We believe the device may be further improved physically and the formulation should be replaced to provide even better efficacy for controlling Ae. aegypti mosquito, populations. PMID:23691625

Ponlawat, Alongkot; Fansiri, Thanyalak; Kurusarttra, Somwang; Pongsiri, Arissara; McCardle, Patrick W; Evans, Brian P; Evans, Brain P; Richardson, Jason H

2013-03-01

246

A comparison of larval, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP surveillance for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti  

PubMed Central

In Brazil, the entomological surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is performed by government-mandated larval surveys. In this study, the sensitivities of an adult sticky trap and traditional surveillance methodologies were compared. The study was performed over a 12-week period in a residential neighbourhood of the municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. An ovitrap and a MosquiTRAP were placed at opposite ends of each neighbourhood block (60 traps in total) and inspections were performed weekly. The study revealed significant correlations of moderate strength between the larval survey, ovitrap and MosquiTRAP measurements. A positive relationship was observed between temperature, adult capture measurements and egg collections, whereas precipitation and frequency of rainy days exhibited a negative relationship. PMID:24402144

de Resende, Marcelo Carvalho; Silva, Ivoneide Maria; Ellis, Brett R; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

2013-01-01

247

Characterizing the Aedes aegypti Population in a Vietnamese Village in Preparation for a Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Control Strategy to Eliminate Dengue  

PubMed Central

Background A life-shortening strain of the obligate intracellular bacteria Wolbachia, called wMelPop, is seen as a promising new tool for the control of Aedes aegypti. However, developing a vector control strategy based on the release of mosquitoes transinfected with wMelPop requires detailed knowledge of the demographics of the target population. Methodology/Principal Findings In Tri Nguyen village (611 households) on Hon Mieu Island in central Vietnam, we conducted nine quantitative entomologic surveys over 14 months to determine if Ae. aegypti populations were spatially and temporally homogenous, and to estimate population size. There was no obvious relationship between mosquito (larval, pupal or adult) abundance and temperature and rainfall, and no area of the village supported consistently high numbers of mosquitoes. In almost all surveys, key premises produced high numbers of Ae. aegypti. However, these premises were not consistent between surveys. For an intervention based on a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti, release ratios of infected to uninfected adult mosquitoes of all age classes are estimated to be 1.8–6.7?1 for gravid females (and similarly aged males) or teneral adults, respectively. We calculated that adult female mosquito abundance in Tri Nguyen village could range from 1.1 to 43.3 individuals of all age classes per house. Thus, an intervention could require the release of 2–78 wMelPop-infected gravid females and similarly aged males per house, or 7–290 infected teneral female and male mosquitoes per house. Conclusions/Significance Given the variability we encountered, this study highlights the importance of multiple entomologic surveys when evaluating the spatial structure of a vector population or estimating population size. If a single release of wMelPop-infected Ae. aegypti were to occur when wild Ae. aegypti abundance was at its maximum, a preintervention control program would be necessary to ensure that there was no net increase in mosquito numbers. However, because of the short-term temporal heterogeneity, the inconsistent spatial structure and the impact of transient key premises that we observed, the feasibility of multiple releases of smaller numbers of mosquitoes also needs to be considered. In either case, fewer wMelPop-infected mosquitoes would then need to be released, which will likely be more acceptable to householders. PMID:19956588

Jeffery, Jason A. L.; Thi Yen, Nguyen; Nam, Vu Sinh; Nghia, Le Trung; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Kay, Brian H.; Ryan, Peter A.

2009-01-01

248

Transcription of detoxification genes following permethrin selection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Changes in gene expression before, during and after five generations of permethrin laboratory selection were monitored in six strains of Aedes aegypti: five F2 – F3 collections from the Yucatán Peninsula of México and one F2 from Iquitos, Perú. Three biological replicate lines were generated for each strain. The response to selection was measured as changes in the lethal and knockdown permethrin concentrations (LC50, KC50) and in the frequency of the Ile1,016 substitution in the voltage gated sodium channel (para) gene. Changes in expression of 290 metabolic detoxification genes were measured using the “Aedes Detox” microarray. Selection simultaneously increased the LC50, KC50 and Ile1,016 frequency. There was an inverse relationship between Ile1,016 frequency and the numbers of differentially transcribed genes. The Iquitos strain lacked the Ile1,016 allele and 51 genes were differentially transcribed following selection as compared to 10–18 genes in the Mexican strains. Very few of the same genes were differentially transcribed among field strains but ten cytochrome P450 genes were upregulated in more than one strain. Laboratory adaptation to permethrin in Ae. aegypti is genetically complex and largely conditioned by geographic origin and preexisting target site insensitivity in the para gene. The lack of uniformity in the genes that responded to artificial selection as well as differences in the direction of their responses challenges the assumption that one or a few genes control permethrin metabolic resistance. Attempts to identify one or a few metabolic genes that are predictably associated with permethrin adaptation may be futile. PMID:22032702

Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Salas, Ildefonso Fernandez; Strode, Clare; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C.

2011-01-01

249

Efficacy of various larvicides against Aedes aegypti immatures in the laboratory.  

PubMed

We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the instar stage, but not against pupae of Ae. aegypti (1.5-7.8% mortality). Aquatain AMF, on the other hand, was very effective at controlling the pupal stage (100% mortality), but had limited efficacy against small larvae (38.0% mortality) and large larvae (78.0% mortality). The larvicidal oil was effective against all immature stages (93.3-100% mortality). Therefore, we concluded that for effectively interrupting the dengue transmission cycle, larvicides that kill the pupal stage (Aquatain AMF or larvicidal oil) should be included in an emergency dengue control program in addition to Bti, pyriproxyfen, or temephos. PMID:23883850

Wang, Chih-Yuan; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Lee, Si-Jia; Lin, Cheo; Wu, Jhy-Wen; Wu, Ho-Sheng

2013-01-01

250

Natural habitats of Aedes Aegypti in the Caribbean--a review.  

PubMed

Natural breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in the Caribbean region were reviewed by conducting larval surveys in Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands and referring to records from the Mosquitoes of Middle America project. Twelve types of natural habitats were recorded: rock holes (9.7%), calabashes (2.4%), tree holes (19.5%), leaf axils (4.8%), bamboo joints (14.9%), papaya stumps (7.3%), coconut shells (4.8%), bromeliads (7.3%), ground pools (14.9%), coral rock holes (9.7%), crab holes (2.4%), and conch shells (7.3%), of which the coconut shell and calabash habitats were new to the Caribbean. The countries having the highest prevalence of natural habitats were Trinidad. Puerto Rico, and Jamaica, with 9 types (22.0%), 7 types (17.0%), and 6 types (14.6%), respectively. The distribution of natural habitats of Ae. aegypti in the Caribbean region is discussed in relation to vector control measures. PMID:9599318

Chadee, D D; Ward, R A; Novak, R J

1998-03-01

251

Iron Loaded Ferritin Secretion and Inhibition by CI-976 in Aedes aegypti larval cells  

PubMed Central

Ferritin is a multimer of 24 subunits of heavy and light chains. In mammals, iron taken into cells is stored in ferritin or incorporated into iron-containing proteins. Very little ferritin is found circulating in mammalian serum; most is retained in the cytoplasm. Female mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito, Diptera), require a blood meal for oogenesis. Mosquitoes receive a potentially toxic level of iron in the blood meal which must be processed and stored. We demonstrate by 59Fe pulse-chase experiments that cultured A. aegypti larval CCL-125 cells take up iron from culture media and store it in ferritin found mainly in the membrane fraction and secrete iron-loaded ferritin. We observe that in these larval cells ferritin co-localizes with ceramide-containing membranes in the absence of iron. With iron treatment, ferritin is found associated with ceramide-containing membranes as well as in cytoplasmic non-ceramide vesicles. Treatment of CCL-125 cells with iron and CI-976, an inhibitor of lysophospholipid acyl transferases, disrupts ferritin secretion with a concomitant decrease in cell viability. Interfering with ferritin secretion may limit the ability of mosquitoes to adjust to the high iron load of the blood meal and decrease iron delivery to the ovaries reducing egg numbers. PMID:19168145

Geiser, Dawn L.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Mayo, Jonathan J.; Winzerling, Joy J.

2009-01-01

252

Essential oils with insecticidal activity against larvae of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Insecticidal activity of the essential oils (EOs) isolated from Tagetes lucida, Lippia alba, Lippia origanoides, Eucalyptus citriodora, Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon flexuosus, Citrus sinensis, Swinglea glutinosa, and Cananga odorata aromatic plants, grown in Colombia (Bucaramanga, Santander), and of a mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides EOs were evaluated on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Rockefeller larvae. The EOs were extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of the EOs were identified using their linear retention indices and mass spectra. The lethal concentrations (LCs) of the EOs were determined between the third and fourth instar of A. aegypti. LC50 was determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. All essential oils tested showed insecticidal activity. The following values were obtained for C. flexuosus (LC50?=?17.1 ppm); C. sinensis (LC50?=?20.6 ppm); the mixture of L. alba and L. origanoides (LC50?=?40.1 ppm); L. alba (LC50?=?42.2 ppm); C. odorata (LC50?=?52.9 ppm); L. origanoides (LC50?=?53.3 ppm); S. glutinosa (LC50?=?65.7 ppm); T. lucida (LC50?=?66.2 ppm); E. citriodora (LC50?=?71.2 ppm); and C. citratus (LC50?=?123.3 ppm). The EO from C. flexuosus, with citral (geranial?+?neral) as main component, showed the highest larvicidal activity. PMID:24781026

Vera, Sharon Smith; Zambrano, Diego Fernando; Méndez-Sanchez, Stelia Carolina; Rodríguez-Sanabria, Fernando; Stashenko, Elena E; Duque Luna, Jonny E

2014-07-01

253

Impact of elevated CO2 background levels on the host-seeking behaviour of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes rely on carbon dioxide (CO2) to detect and orient towards their blood hosts. However, the variable and rapid fluctuations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations may have an impact on the host-seeking behaviour of mosquitoes. In this study, we analysed the effect of transient elevated background levels of CO2 on the host-seeking behaviour and the physiological characteristics of the CO2-sensitive olfactory receptor neurones (ORNs) in female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. We show that the take-off and source contact behaviour of A. aegypti is impeded at elevated background levels of CO2 as a result of masking of the stimulus signal. The mechanism underlying this masking during take-off behaviour is one of sensory constraint. We show that the net response of the CO2-ORNs regulates this CO2-related behaviour. Since these neurones themselves are not habituated or fatigued by the transient elevation of background CO2, we propose that habituation of second-order neurones in response to the elevated CO2-ORN activity could be one mechanism by which the net response is transduced by the olfactory system. The findings from this study may help to predict future shifts in mosquito-host interactions and consequently to predict vectorial capacity in the light of climate change. PMID:24198270

Majeed, Shahid; Hill, Sharon Rose; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

254

Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:592–608, 2014. PMID:23897410

Siju, KP; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

2014-01-01

255

Rhodopsin coexpression in UV photoreceptors of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. The two species express the rhodopsin orthologs Aaop8 and Agop8, respectively, in a large subset of these R7 photoreceptors that function as ultraviolet receptors. We show here that a divergent subfamily of mosquito rhodopsins, Aaop10 and Agop10, is coexpressed in these R7 photoreceptors. The properties of the A. aegypti Aaop8 and Aaop10 rhodopsins were analyzed by creating transgenic Drosophila expressing these rhodopsins. Electroretinogram recordings, and spectral analysis of head extracts, obtained from the Aaop8 strain confirmed that Aaop8 is an ultraviolet-sensitive rhodopsin. Aaop10 was poorly expressed and capable of eliciting only small and slow light responses in Drosophila photoreceptors, and electroretinogram analysis suggested that it is a long-wavelength rhodopsin with a maximal sensitivity near 500 nm. Thus, coexpression of Aaop10 rhodopsin with Aaop8 rhodopsin has the potential to modify the spectral properties of mosquito ultraviolet receptors. Retention of Op10 rhodopsin family members in the genomes of Drosophila species suggests that this rhodopsin family may play a conserved role in insect vision. PMID:24311804

Hu, Xiaobang; Leming, Matthew T; Whaley, Michelle A; O'Tousa, Joseph E

2014-03-15

256

Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the presence of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that converts uric acid to urea via an amphibian-like uricolytic pathway. For these studies, female mosquitoes were fed a sucrose solution containing 15NH4Cl, [5-15N]-glutamine, [15N]-proline, allantoin, or allantoic acid. At 24 h after feeding, the feces were collected and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. Specific enzyme inhibitors confirmed that mosquitoes incorporate 15N from 15NH4Cl into [5-15N]-glutamine and use the 15N of the amide group of glutamine to produce labeled uric acid. More importantly, we found that [15N2]-uric acid can be metabolized to [15N]-urea and be excreted as nitrogenous waste through an uricolytic pathway. Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase. The functional relevance of these genes in mosquitoes was shown by feeding allantoin or allantoic acid, which significantly increased unlabeled urea levels in the feces. Moreover, knockdown of urate oxidase expression by RNA interference demonstrated that this pathway is active in females fed blood or 15NH4Cl based on a significant increase in uric acid levels in whole-body extracts and a reduction in [15N]-urea excretion, respectively. These unexpected findings could lead to the development of metabolism-based strategies for mosquito control. PMID:18182492

Scaraffia, Patricia Y.; Tan, Guanhong; Isoe, Jun; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Wells, Michael A.; Miesfeld, Roger L.

2008-01-01

257

Discovery of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the presence of an alternate metabolic pathway for urea synthesis in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that converts uric acid to urea via an amphibian-like uricolytic pathway. For these studies, female mosquitoes were fed a sucrose solution containing (15)NH4Cl, [5-(15)N]-glutamine, [(15)N]-proline, allantoin, or allantoic acid. At 24 h after feeding, the feces were collected and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. Specific enzyme inhibitors confirmed that mosquitoes incorporate (15)N from (15)NH4Cl into [5-(15)N]-glutamine and use the (15)N of the amide group of glutamine to produce labeled uric acid. More importantly, we found that [(15)N2]-uric acid can be metabolized to [(15)N]-urea and be excreted as nitrogenous waste through an uricolytic pathway. Ae. aegypti express all three genes in this pathway, namely, urate oxidase, allantoinase, and allantoicase. The functional relevance of these genes in mosquitoes was shown by feeding allantoin or allantoic acid, which significantly increased unlabeled urea levels in the feces. Moreover, knockdown of urate oxidase expression by RNA interference demonstrated that this pathway is active in females fed blood or (15)NH4Cl based on a significant increase in uric acid levels in whole-body extracts and a reduction in [(15)N]-urea excretion, respectively. These unexpected findings could lead to the development of metabolism-based strategies for mosquito control. PMID:18182492

Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Tan, Guanhong; Isoe, Jun; Wysocki, Vicki H; Wells, Michael A; Miesfeld, Roger L

2008-01-15

258

Circadian clock of Aedes aegypti: effects of blood-feeding, insemination and RNA interference  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes are the culprits of some of the most important vector borne diseases. A species’ potential as a vector is directly dependent on their pattern of behaviour, which is known to change according to the female’s physiological status such as whether the female is virgin/mated and unfed/blood-fed. However, the molecular mechanism triggered by and/or responsible for such modulations in behaviour is poorly understood. Clock genes are known to be responsible for the control of circadian behaviour in several species. Here we investigate the impact mating and blood-feeding have upon the expression of these genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti . We show that blood intake, but not insemination, is responsible for the down-regulation of clock genes. Using RNA interference, we observe a slight reduction in the evening activity peak in the fourth day after dstim injection. These data suggest that, as in Drosophila , clock gene expression, circadian behaviour and environmental light regimens are interconnected in Ae. aegypti . PMID:24473806

Gentile, Carla; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno da S; Lima, José BP; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

2013-01-01

259

Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes Exhibit Decreased Repellency by DEET following Previous Exposure  

PubMed Central

DEET (N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide) is one of the most widely used mosquito repellents. Although DEET has been shown to be extremely effective, recent studies have revealed that certain individual insects are unaffected by its presence. A genetic basis for this has been shown in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, but, for the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, a decrease in response to DEET occurred shortly after previous exposure, indicating that non-genetic factors may also be involved in DEET “insensitivity”. In this study, we examined host-seeking behaviour and electrophysiological responses of A. aegypti after pre-exposure to DEET. We found that three hours after pre-exposure the mosquitoes showed behavioural insensitivity, and electroantennography revealed this correlated with the olfactory receptor neurons responding less to DEET. The change in behaviour as a result of pre-exposure to DEET has implications for the use of repellents and the ability of mosquitoes to overcome them. PMID:23437043

Stanczyk, Nina M.; Brookfield, John F. Y.; Field, Linda M.; Logan, James G.

2013-01-01

260

Susceptibility to Chlorpyrifos in Pyrethroid-Resistant Populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Mexico  

PubMed Central

Resistance to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos was evaluated in females from six strains of Aedes aegypti (L) that expressed high levels of cross resistance to eight pyrethroid insecticides. Relative to LC50 and LC90 at 24h of a susceptible New Orleans (NO) three strains were highly resistant to chlorpyrifos (Coatzacoalcos, resistance ratio (RRLC90) =11.97; Pozarica, RRLC90=12.98; and Cosoleacaque, RRLC50= 13.94 and RRLC90=17.57), one strain was moderately resistant (Veracruz, RR=5.92), and two strains were susceptible (Tantoyuca and Martinez de la Torre, RRLC50 and RRLC90 < 5) in CDC bottle bioassays. Furthermore, high levels of ?/?-esterase activity in the sample populations were correlated with resistance, suggesting that esterase activity may be a mechanism causing the development of organophosphate resistance in these populations. Overall, the populations in this study were less resistant to chlorpyrifos than to pyrethroids. Rotation of insecticides used in control activities is recommended to delay or minimize the occurrence of high levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos among local populations of Ae. aegypti. The diagnostic dose (DD) and diagnostic time (DT) for chlorpyrifos resistance monitoring was determined to be 85 ?g/ bottle and 30min, respectively, using the susceptible NO strain. PMID:24897857

Lopez, Beatriz; Ponce, Gustavo; Gonzalez, Jessica A.; Gutierrez, Selene M.; Villanueva, Olga K.; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Bobadilla, Cristina; Rodriguez, Iram P.; Black, William C.; Flores, Adriana E.

2014-01-01

261

Neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

For many insects, including mosquitoes, olfaction is the dominant modality regulating their behavioral repertoire. Many neurochemicals modulate olfactory information in the central nervous system, including the primary olfactory center of insects, the antennal lobe. The most diverse and versatile neurochemicals in the insect nervous system are found in the neuropeptides. In the present study, we analyzed neuropeptides in the antennal lobe of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a major vector of arboviral diseases. Direct tissue profiling of the antennal lobe by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry indicated the presence of 28 mature products from 10 different neuropeptide genes. In addition, immunocytochemical techniques were used to describe the cellular location of the products of up to seven of these genes within the antennal lobe. Allatostatin A, allatotropin, SIFamide, FMRFamide-related peptides, short neuropeptide F, myoinhibitory peptide, and tachykinin-related peptides were found to be expressed in local interneurons and extrinsic neurons of the antennal lobe. Building on these results, we discuss the possible role of neuropeptide signaling in the antennal lobe of Ae. aegypti. PMID:23897410

Siju, K P; Reifenrath, Anna; Scheiblich, Hannah; Neupert, Susanne; Predel, Reinhard; Hansson, Bill S; Schachtner, Joachim; Ignell, Rickard

2014-02-15

262

Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.  

PubMed

Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

2015-03-01

263

Undesirable Consequences of Insecticide Resistance following Aedes aegypti Control Activities Due to a Dengue Outbreak  

PubMed Central

Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of ?80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of both public and domestic intensification of chemical control due to a dengue outbreak. PMID:24676277

Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos; Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise

2014-01-01

264

Physiological and Morphological Aspects of Aedes aegypti Developing Larvae: Effects of the Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor Novaluron  

PubMed Central

Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes. PMID:22291942

Farnesi, Luana C.; Brito, José M.; Linss, Jutta G.; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Valle, Denise; Rezende, Gustavo L.

2012-01-01

265

Temephos Resistance in Aedes aegypti in Colombia Compromises Dengue Vector Control  

PubMed Central

Background Control and prevention of dengue relies heavily on the application of insecticides to control dengue vector mosquitoes. In Colombia, application of the larvicide temephos to the aquatic breeding sites of Aedes aegypti is a key part of the dengue control strategy. Resistance to temephos was recently detected in the dengue-endemic city of Cucuta, leading to questions about its efficacy as a control tool. Here, we characterize the underlying mechanisms and estimate the operational impact of this resistance. Methodology/Principal Findings Larval bioassays of Ae. aegypti larvae from Cucuta determined the temephos LC50 to be 0.066 ppm (95% CI 0.06–0.074), approximately 15× higher than the value obtained from a susceptible laboratory colony. The efficacy of the field dose of temephos at killing this resistant Cucuta population was greatly reduced, with mortality rates <80% two weeks after application and <50% after 4 weeks. Neither biochemical assays nor partial sequencing of the ace-1 gene implicated target site resistance as the primary resistance mechanism. Synergism assays and microarray analysis suggested that metabolic mechanisms were most likely responsible for the temephos resistance. Interestingly, although the greatest synergism was observed with the carboxylesterase inhibitor, DEF, the primary candidate genes from the microarray analysis, and confirmed by quantitative PCR, were cytochrome P450 oxidases, notably CYP6N12, CYP6F3 and CYP6M11. Conclusions/Significance In Colombia, resistance to temephos in Ae. aegypti compromises the duration of its effect as a vector control tool. Several candidate genes potentially responsible for metabolic resistance to temephos were identified. Given the limited number of insecticides that are approved for vector control, future chemical-based control strategies should take into account the mechanisms underlying the resistance to discern which insecticides would likely lead to the greatest control efficacy while minimizing further selection of resistant phenotypes. PMID:24069492

Grisales, Nelson; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Gomez, Santiago; Fonseca-Gonzalez, Idalyd; Ranson, Hilary; Lenhart, Audrey

2013-01-01

266

The Interactive Roles of Aedes aegypti Super-Production and Human Density in Dengue Transmission  

PubMed Central

Background A. aegypti production and human density may vary considerably in dengue endemic areas. Understanding how interactions between these factors influence the risk of transmission could improve the effectiveness of the allocation of vector control resources. To evaluate the combined impacts of variation in A. aegypti production and human density we integrated field data with simulation modeling. Methodology/Principal Findings Using data from seven censuses of A. aegypti pupae (2007–2009) and from demographic surveys, we developed an agent-based transmission model of the dengue transmission cycle across houses in 16 dengue-endemic urban ‘patches’ (1–3 city blocks each) of Armenia, Colombia. Our field data showed that 92% of pupae concentrated in only 5% of houses, defined as super-producers. Average secondary infections (R0) depended on infrequent, but highly explosive transmission events. These super-spreading events occurred almost exclusively when the introduced infectious person infected mosquitoes that were produced in super-productive containers. Increased human density favored R0, and when the likelihood of human introduction of virus was incorporated into risk, a strong interaction arose between vector production and human density. Simulated intervention of super-productive containers was substantially more effective in reducing dengue risk at higher human densities. Significance/Conclusions These results show significant interactions between human population density and the natural regulatory pattern of A. aegypti in the dynamics of dengue transmission. The large epidemiological significance of super-productive containers suggests that they have the potential to influence dengue viral adaptation to mosquitoes. Human population density plays a major role in dengue transmission, due to its potential impact on human-A. aegypti contact, both within a person's home and when visiting others. The large variation in population density within typical dengue endemic cities suggests that it should be a major consideration in dengue control policy. PMID:22953017

Padmanabha, Harish; Durham, David; Correa, Fabio; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; Galvani, Alison

2012-01-01

267

Comparative Genomics of Odorant Binding Proteins in Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus  

PubMed Central

About 1 million people in the world die each year from diseases spread by mosquitoes, and understanding the mechanism of host identification by the mosquitoes through olfaction is at stake. The role of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in the primary molecular events of olfaction in mosquitoes is becoming an important focus of biological research in this area. Here, we present a comprehensive comparative genomics study of OBPs in the three disease-transmitting mosquito species Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus starting with the identification of 110 new OBPs in these three genomes. We have characterized their genomic distribution and orthologous and phylogenetic relationships. The diversity and expansion observed with respect to the Aedes and Culex genomes suggests that the OBP gene family acquired functional diversity concurrently with functional constraints posed on these two species. Sequences with unique features have been characterized such as the “two-domain OBPs” (previously known as Atypical OBPs) and “MinusC OBPs” in mosquito genomes. The extensive comparative genomics featured in this work hence provides useful primary insights into the role of OBPs in the molecular adaptations of mosquito olfactory system and could provide more clues for the identification of potential targets for insect repellants and attractants. PMID:23292137

Manoharan, Malini; Ng Fuk Chong, Matthieu; Vaïtinadapoulé, Aurore; Frumence, Etienne; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Offmann, Bernard

2013-01-01

268

First report on invasion of yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.  

PubMed

The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and one Ae. aegypti male was collected from the cargo space of an international aircraft from Darwin via Manila on August 28, 2012. Larvicide treatment with 1.5% fenitrothion was conducted in 64 catch basins and one ditch in the 400-m buffer zone. Twenty-four large water tanks were also treated at least once with 0.5% pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator. No Ae. aegypti eggs or adults were found during the 1-month intensive vector survey after finding larvae and pupae in the larvitrap. We concluded that Ae. aegypti had failed to establish a population at Narita International Airport. PMID:23698478

Sukehiro, Nayu; Kida, Nori; Umezawa, Masahiro; Murakami, Takayuki; Arai, Naoko; Jinnai, Tsunesada; Inagaki, Shunichi; Tsuchiya, Hidetoshi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yoshio

2013-01-01

269

Effects of Irritant Chemicals on Aedes aegypti Resting Behavior: Is There a Simple Shift to Untreated “Safe Sites”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated “safe sites” contribute to overall impact.MethodsUsing a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of

Hortance Manda; Luana M. Arce; Tarra Foggie; Pankhil Shah; John P. Grieco; Nicole L. Achee

2011-01-01

270

A New Sporulation Sequence in Edhazardia aedis(Microsporidia: Culicosporidae), a Parasite of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a previously unrecognized sporulation sequence during the early development of the microsporidiumEdhazardia aedisis described from the mosquito,Aedes aegypti.This new information, together with the previous data on this species, has established that the developmental cycle ofE. aedisis characterized by four sporulation sequences, two in the parental host and two in the filial generation. This is the first report

M. A. Johnson; J. J. Becnel; A. H. Undeen

1997-01-01

271

Water Use Practices Limit the Effectiveness of a Temephos-Based Aedes aegypti Larval Control Program in Northern Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA five-year citywide control program based on regular application of temephos significantly reduced Aedes aegypti larval indices but failed to maintain them below target levels in Clorinda, northern Argentina. Incomplete surveillance coverage and reduced residuality of temephos were held as the main putative causes limiting effectiveness of control actions.MethodologyThe duration of temephos residual effects in household-owned water-holding tanks (the most

Fernando M. Garelli; Manuel O. Espinosa; Diego Weinberg; María A. Trinelli; Ricardo E. Gürtler

2011-01-01

272

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

2004-01-01

273

A GENETIC CORRELATION BETWEEN AGE AT PUPATION AND MELANIZATION IMMUNE RESPONSE OF THE YELLOW FEVER MOSQUITO AEDES AEGYPTI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. To investigate the evolutionary cost of an immune response, we selected six lines of the mosquito Aedes aegypti for earlier or later pupation and measured,the extent to which this selection procedure,changed,the mosquito’s ability to encapsulate and melanize a negatively charged Sephadex bead. After 10 generations of selection, the age at pupation in the two selection regimes differed by about

Jacob C. Koella; Christophe Boëte

2002-01-01

274

Virulence de l'entomophthorale Zoophthora radicans [zygomycetes] à l'égard des adultes de Aedes aegypti [Dipt.: Culicidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé  Les auteurs ont mis au point un procédé d'estimation de la virulence des Entomophthorales à l'égard des adultes du moustiqueAedes aegypti. Ce paramètre est estimé en termes de CL 50 de conidies\\/mm2. C'est la 1re fois qu'une telle méthodologie est appliquée à ces champignons vis-à-vis de Diptères. L'activité de 2 souches deZoophthora radicans isolées le même jour dans la même

J.-L. Dumas; B. Papierok

1989-01-01

275

Role of the yellow fever virus structural protein genes in viral dissemination from the Aedes aegypti mosquito midgut.  

PubMed

Live-attenuated virus vaccines are key components in controlling arboviral diseases, but they must not disseminate in or be transmitted by mosquito vectors. Although the cycles in which many mosquito-borne viruses are transmitted are well understood, the role of viral genetics in these processes has not been fully elucidated. Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an important arbovirus and the prototype member of the family Flaviviridae. Here, YFV was used in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as a model to investigate the genetic basis of infection and dissemination in mosquitoes. Viruses derived from infectious clones and chimeric viruses with defined sequential manipulations were used to investigate the influence of specific sequences within the membrane and envelope structural protein genes on dissemination of virus from the mosquito midgut. Substitution of domain III of the envelope protein from a midgut-restricted YFV into a wild-type YFV resulted in a marked decrease in virus dissemination, suggesting an important role for domain III in this process. However, synergism between elements within the flavivirus structural and non-structural protein genes may be necessary for efficient virus escape from the mosquito midgut. PMID:16963758

McElroy, Kate L; Tsetsarkin, Konstantin A; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Higgs, Stephen

2006-10-01

276

Exploring new thermal fog and ultra-low volume technologies to improve indoor control of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Control of the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti (L.), inside human habitations must be performed quickly and efficiently to reduce the risk of transmission during dengue outbreaks. As part of abroad study to assess the efficacy of dengue vector control tools for the U.S. Military, two pesticide delivery systems (ultra-low volume [ULV] and thermal fog) were evaluated for their ability to provide immediate control of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a contact insecticide inside simulated urban structures. An insect growth regulator was also applied to determine how well each sprayer delivered lethal doses of active ingredient to indoor water containers for pupal control. Mortality of caged Ae. aegypti, pesticide droplet size, and droplet deposition were recorded after applications. In addition, larval and pupal mortality was measured from treated water samples for 4 wk after the applications. The ULV and the thermal fogger performed equally well in delivering lethal doses of adulticide throughout the structures. The ULV resulted in greater larval mortality and adult emergence inhibition in the water containers for a longer period than the thermal fogger. Therefore, the ULV technology is expected to be a better tool for sustained vector suppression when combined with an effective insect growth regulator. However, during a dengue outbreak, either delivery system should provide an immediate knockdown of vector populations that may lower the risk of infection and allow other suppression strategies to be implemented. PMID:25118418

Harwood, James F; Farooq, Muhammad; Richardson, Alec G; Doud, Carl W; Putnam, John L; Szumlas, Daniel E; Richardson, Jason H

2014-07-01

277

Identifying the effective concentration for spatial repellency of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background Current efforts are underway to quantify the chemical concentration in a treated air space that elicits a spatial repellent (deterrent) response in a vector population. Such information will facilitate identifying the optimum active ingredient (AI) dosage and intervention coverage important for the development of spatial repellent tools – one of several novel strategies being evaluated for vector-borne disease control. This study reports initial findings from air sampling experiments conducted under field conditions to describe the relationship between air concentrations of repellent AIs and deterrent behavior in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Methods Air samples were taken inside and outdoors of experimental huts located in Pu Tuey Village, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand in conjunction with mosquito behavioral evaluations. A mark-release-recapture study design using interception traps was used to measure deterrency of Ae. aegypti against 0.00625% metofluthrin coils and DDT-treated fabric (2g/m2) within separate experimental trials. Sentinel mosquito cohorts were positioned adjacent to air sampling locations to monitor knock down responses to AI within the treated air space. Air samples were analyzed using two techniques: the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Compendium Method TO-10A and thermal desorption (TD). Results Both the USEPA TO-10A and TD air sampling methods were able to detect and quantify volatized AIs under field conditions. Air samples indicated concentrations of both repellent chemicals below thresholds required for toxic responses (mortality) in mosquitoes. These concentrations elicited up to a 58% and 70% reduction in Ae. aegypti entry (i.e., deterrency) into treated experimental huts using metofluthrin coils and DDT-treated fabric, respectively. Minimal knock down was observed in sentinel mosquito cohorts positioned adjacent to air sampling locations during both chemical evaluations. Conclusions This study is the first to describe two air sampling methodologies that are appropriate for detecting and quantifying repellent chemicals within a treated air space during mosquito behavior evaluations. Results demonstrate that the quantity of AI detected by the mosquito vector, Ae. aegypti, that elicits repellency is far lower than that needed for toxicity. These findings have important implications for evaluation and optimization of new vector control tools that function through mosquito behavior modification as opposed to mortality. PMID:23273133

2012-01-01

278

Unusual productivity of Aedes aegypti in septic tanks and its implications for dengue control.  

PubMed

Increased DEN-2 virus transmission in Puerto Rico during 2005 prompted the implementation of a rapid intervention programme to suppress Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) emergence, which in turn lead to the discovery of previously unknown breeding sites underground. Initially, the following control measures were applied in Playa/Playita (PP), a town of 1,400 households, to all areas where the number of pupae per person exceeded the expected threshold for dengue transmission; all containers likely to be aquatic habitats were turned over and containers too large to turn were treated with 1 p.p.m. methoprene. The impact of these interventions was evaluated by comparing the number of resting adult mosquitoes (by backpack aspiration and sweepnetting in bedrooms) pre-intervention, with numbers at 3 and 5 weeks post-intervention, and by evaluating pupal density at 4 weeks post-intervention in PP and in a nearby town, Coqui (CO; 1500 households), which was not treated. The pre-intervention and post-intervention densities of resting Ae. aegypti adults were significantly larger in the intervention town, although the density of pupae in surface containers was low and similar in both towns at 4 weeks post-intervention. At 3 weeks post-intervention, the density of resting adults decreased by only 18% of pre-intervention levels, but returned to pre-intervention levels 5 weeks after treatment. By contrast, the density of resting adults in CO steadily decreased to 48% and 61%, at 3 and 5 weeks after the initial surveys, respectively. Geographical Information Systems identified significant clustering of adult mosquitoes, which led to the discovery of underground aquatic habitats (septic tanks) that were producing large numbers of Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) in the treated town. We calculated that septic tanks could produce > 18 000 Ae. aegypti and approximately 170 000 Cx quinquefasciatus adults per day. Septic tanks are likely to be common and widespread in suburban and rural Puerto Rico, where, apparently, they can contribute significantly to the maintenance of island-wide dengue virus endemicity. PMID:18380655

Barrera, R; Amador, M; Diaz, A; Smith, J; Munoz-Jordan, J L; Rosario, Y

2008-03-01

279

Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies)  

PubMed Central

Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. Results The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies). Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71%) of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr) mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion These results suggest that the high level of insecticide resistance found in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from Martinique island is the consequence of both target-site and metabolic based resistance mechanisms. Insecticide resistance levels and associated mechanisms are discussed in relation with the environmental context of Martinique Island. These finding have important implications for dengue vector control in Martinique and emphasizes the need to develop new tools and strategies for maintaining an effective control of Aedes mosquito populations worldwide. PMID:19857255

Marcombe, Sébastien; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Darriet, Frederic; Reynaud, Stéphane; Bonnet, Julien; Strode, Clare; Brengues, Cecile; Yébakima, André; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe

2009-01-01

280

Population Dynamics of Aedes aegypti and Dengue as Influenced by Weather and Human Behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

281

Population dynamics of Aedes aegypti and dengue as influenced by weather and human behavior in San Juan, Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the influence of weather on Aedes aegypti dynamics in Puerto Rico suggested that rainfall was a significant driver of immature mosquito populations and dengue incidence, but mostly in the drier areas of the island. We conducted a longitudinal study of Ae. aegypti in two neighborhoods of the metropolitan area of San Juan city, Puerto Rico where rainfall is more uniformly distributed throughout the year. We assessed the impacts of rainfall, temperature, and human activities on the temporal dynamics of adult Ae. aegypti and oviposition. Changes in adult mosquitoes were monitored with BG-Sentinel traps and oviposition activity with CDC enhanced ovitraps. Pupal surveys were conducted during the drier and wetter parts of the year in both neighborhoods to determine the contribution of humans and rains to mosquito production. Mosquito dynamics in each neighborhood was compared with dengue incidence in their respective municipalities during the study. Our results showed that: 1. Most pupae were produced in containers managed by people, which explains the prevalence of adult mosquitoes at times when rainfall was scant; 2. Water meters were documented for the first time as productive habitats for Ae. aegypti; 3. Even though Puerto Rico has a reliable supply of tap water and an active tire recycling program, water storage containers and discarded tires were important mosquito producers; 4. Peaks in mosquito density preceded maximum dengue incidence; and 5. Ae. aegypti dynamics were driven by weather and human activity and oviposition was significantly correlated with dengue incidence. PMID:22206021

Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; MacKay, Andrew J

2011-12-01

282

Effects of inbreeding and genetic modification on Aedes aegypti larval competition and adult energy reserves  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic modification of mosquitoes offers a promising strategy for the prevention and control of mosquito-borne diseases. For such a strategy to be effective, it is critically important that engineered strains are competitive enough to serve their intended function in population replacement or reduction of wild mosquitoes in nature. Thus far, fitness evaluations of genetically modified strains have not addressed the effects of competition among the aquatic stages and its consequences for adult fitness. We therefore tested the competitive success of combinations of wild, inbred and transgenic (created in the inbred background) immature stages of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in the presence of optimal and sub-optimal larval diets. Results The wild strain of Ae. aegypti demonstrated greater performance (based on a composite index of survival, development rate and size) than the inbred strain, which in turn demonstrated greater performance than the genetically modified strain. Moreover, increasing competition through lowering the amount of diet available per larva affected fitness disproportionately: transgenic larvae had a reduced index of performance (95-119%) compared to inbred (50-88%) and wild type larvae (38-54%). In terms of teneral energy reserves (glycogen, lipid and sugar), adult wild type mosquitoes had more reserves directly available for flight, dispersal and basic metabolic functions than transgenic and inbred mosquitoes. Conclusions Our study provides a detailed assessment of inter- and intra-strain competition across aquatic stages of wild type, inbred, and transgenic mosquitoes and the impact of these conditions on adult energy reserves. Although it is not clear what competitive level is adequate for success of transgenic strains in nature, strong gene drive mechanisms are likely to be necessary in order to overcome competitive disadvantages in the larval stage that carryover to affect adult fitness. PMID:20925917

2010-01-01

283

Olfactory learning and memory in the disease vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Olfactory learning in blood-feeding insects, such as mosquitoes, could play an important role in host preference and disease transmission. However, standardised protocols allowing testing of their learning abilities are currently lacking, and how different olfactory stimuli are learned by these insects remains unknown. Using a Pavlovian conditioning paradigm, we trained individuals and groups of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to associate an odorant conditioned stimulus (CS) with a blood-reinforced thermal stimulus (unconditioned stimulus; US). Results showed, first, that mosquitoes could learn the association between L-lactic acid and the US, and retained the association for at least 24 h. Second, the success of olfactory conditioning was dependent upon the CS--some odorants that elicited indifferent responses in naïve mosquitoes, such as L-lactic acid and 1-octen-3-ol, were readily learned, whereas others went from aversive to attractive after training (Z-3-hexen-1-ol) or were untrainable (?-myrcene and benzyl alcohol). Third, we examined whether mosquitoes' ability to learn could interfere with the action of the insect repellent DEET. Results demonstrated that pre-exposure and the presence of DEET in the CS reduced the aversive effects of DEET. Last, the nature of the formed memories was explored. Experiments using cold-shock treatments within the first 6 h post-training (for testing anaesthesia-resistant memory) and a protein synthesis inhibitor (cycloheximide; to disrupt the formation of long-term memory) both affected mosquitoes' performances. Together, these results show that learning is a crucial component in odour responses in A. aegypti, and provide the first evidence for the functional role of different memory traces in these responses. PMID:24737761

Vinauger, Clément; Lutz, Eleanor K; Riffell, Jeffrey A

2014-07-01

284

Efficacy of dinotefuran, permethrin and pyriproxyfen combination spot-on against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes on dogs.  

PubMed

A spot-on formulation combining permethrin, dinotefuran and pyriproxyfen (Vectra 3D™ spot-on solution for dogs - one 10-25 kg pipette contains 196 mg dinotefuran, 1429 mg permethrin and 17 mg pyriproxyfen) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study designed to measure its efficacy to control Aedes aegypti (anti-feeding effect and mortality effect). The trial was performed according to Animal Welfare and Good Clinical Practice. Twelve dogs (five males and seven female, >3 years old, weighing 8.8-13.0 kg) were randomly allocated to treatment groups on pre-treatment mosquito counts: six dogs served as untreated controls, and six dogs were treated with the test formulation. Treatment consisted of applying a combination formulation to deliver at least 46.6 mg kg(-1) permethrin, 6.40 mg kg(-1) dinotefuran and 0.57 mg kg(-1) pyriproxyfen. The combination is designed to control fleas, ticks, sand flies and mosquitoes. Each dog was infested with approximately 100 adult unfed A. aegypti once before treatment (day 6) then at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Counts and engorgement determination of dead and live mosquitoes were performed after 1h exposure period. In the treated group (group A), the repellency effect of the product based on engorgement status (anti-feeding effect), was 91.5%, 94%, 94.7%, 94% and 87% at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-treatment. Mortality effect or insecticidal efficacy calculated at the end of the 1-h exposure was almost identical when calculated 24h after the 1-h exposure and remained above 93% until the end of the in-life phase. No adverse events were observed following treatment, including observations conducted 2, 4 and 24h after the last dog was treated. PMID:22709947

Franc, Michel; Genchi, Claudio; Bouhsira, Emilie; Warin, Stephan; Kaltsatos, Vassilios; Baduel, Laure; Genchi, Marc

2012-10-26

285

Bioactivity of seagrass against the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti larvae  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the larvicidal activity of the seagrass extracts. Methods Seagrass extracts, Syringodium isoetifolium (S. isoetifolium), Cymodocea serrulata and Halophila beccarii, were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. Batches of 25 early 4th instars larvae of Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (0.01 mg – 0.1 mg). After 24 h the mortality rate was identified with the formulae [(% of test mortality – % of control mortality)/(100 – % of control mortality)] × 100. Each experiment was conducted with three replicates and a concurrent control group. A control group consisted of 1 mL of DMSO and 199 mL of distilled water only. Results : The root extract of S. isoetifolium showed maximum larvicidal activity with minimum concentration of extract of LC50= 0.0?604 ± 0.0?040)µg/mL with lower confidence limit (LCL) – upper confidence limit (UCL) = (0.051–0.071) and LC90=0.0?972µg/mL followed by leaf extract of S. isoetifolium showed LC50= (0.062 ± 0.005)µg/mL. The regression equation of root and leaf extract of S. isoetifolium for 4th instar larvae were Y= 4.909 + 1.32x (R2= 0.909) and Y= 2.066 + 1.21x (R2 =0.897) respectively. The results of the preliminary phytochemical constituents shows the presence of saponin, steroids, terpenoid, phenols, protein and sugars. Conclusions From the present study the ethanolic extracts of seagrass of S. isoetifolium possesses lead compound for development of larvicidal activity. PMID:23569973

Ali, M Syed; Ravikumar, S; Beula, J Margaret

2012-01-01

286

Surveillance of Aedes aegypti: Comparison of House Index with Four Alternative Traps  

PubMed Central

Introduction The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, is an important target of vector control programs in tropical countries. Most mosquito surveillance programs are still based on the traditional household larval surveys, despite the availability of new trapping devices. We report the results of a multicentric entomological survey using four types of traps, besides the larval survey, to compare the entomological indices generated by these different surveillance tools in terms of their sensitivity to detect mosquito density variation. Methods The study was conducted in five mid-sized cities, representing variations of tropical climate regimens. Surveillance schemes using traps for adults (BG-Sentinel, Adultrap and MosquiTRAP) or eggs (ovitraps) were applied monthly to three 1 km2 areas per city. Simultaneously, larval surveys were performed. Trap positivity and density indices in each area were calculated and regressed against meteorological variables to characterize the seasonal pattern of mosquito infestation in all cities, as measured by each of the four traps. Results The House Index was consistently low in most cities, with median always 0. Traps rarely produced null indices, pointing to their greater sensitivity in detecting the presence of Ae. aegypti in comparison to the larval survey. Trap positivity indices tend to plateau at high mosquito densities. Despite this, both indices, positivity and density, agreed on the seasonality of mosquito abundance in all cities. Mosquito seasonality associated preferentially with temperature than with precipitation even in areas where temperature variation is small. Conclusions All investigated traps performed better than the House Index in measuring the seasonal variation in mosquito abundance and should be considered as complements or alternatives to larval surveys. Choice between traps should further consider differences of cost and ease-of-use. PMID:25668559

Codeço, Claudia T.; Lima, Arthur W. S.; Araújo, Simone C.; Lima, José Bento P.; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Honório, Nildimar A.; Galardo, Allan K. R.; Braga, Ima A.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Valle, Denise

2015-01-01

287

Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT. However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (? 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti. PMID:25242559

Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

2014-11-01

288

Intra-annual changes in abundance of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) epactius (Diptera: Culicidae) in high-elevation communities in Mexico.  

PubMed

We examined temporal changes in the abundance of the mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) epactius Dyar & Knab from June to October 2012 in one reference community at lower elevation (Rio Blanco; approximately 1,270 m) and three high-elevation communities (Acultzingo, Maltrata, and Puebla City; 1,670-2,150 m) in Veracruz and Puebla States, México. The combination of surveys for pupae in water-filled containers and trapping of adults, using BG-Sentinel traps baited with the BG-Lure, corroborated previous data from 2011 showing that Ae. aegypti is present at low abundance up to 2,150 m in this part of México. Data for Ae. aegypti adults captured through repeated trapping in fixed sites in Acultzingo--the highest elevation community (approximately 1,670 m) from which the temporal intra-annual abundance pattern for Ae. aegypti has been described--showed a gradual increase from low numbers in June to a peak occurrence in late August, and thereafter declining numbers in September. Ae. epactius adults were collected repeatedly in BG-Sentinel traps in all four study communities; this is the first recorded collection of this species with a trap aiming specifically to collect human-biting mosquitoes. We also present the first description of the temporal abundance pattern for Ae. epactius across an elevation gradient: peak abundance was reached in mid-July in the lowest elevation community (Rio Blanco) but not until mid-September in the highest elevation one (Puebla City). Finally, we present data for meteorological conditions (mean temperature and rainfall) in the examined communities during the study period, and for a cumulative measure of the abundance of adults over the full sampling period. PMID:25118405

Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Welsh-Rodriguez, Carlos; Monaghan, Andrew J; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Ochoa-Martinez, Carolina; Tapia-Santos, Berenice; Hayden, Mary H; Eisen, Lars

2014-07-01

289

Detection of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela by type-specific polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Virological surveillance of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti populations constitutes a powerful tool for early prediction of dengue outbreaks. We have standardized a protocol for viral RNA extraction from individual and pools of mosquitoes that permits a sensitive detection of dengue virus without RNA degradation or PCR inhibition when we apply a semi-nested RT-PCR. The limit of detection for each dengue serotype was 0.1 PFU. In a prospective field study conducted from November 2000 to December 2001, adult female A. aegypti mosquitoes from several municipalities with high dengue transmission in Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela were collected and screened for dengue viruses using RT-PCR. We analyzed a total of 296 A. aegypti pools (1,632 mosquitoes); of these, 154 pools (469 mosquitoes) were collected from houses with persons with clinical diagnosis of dengue (dengue houses), and 142 pools (1,163 mosquitoes) from adjacent residences (neighbour houses). From the dengue houses, eight mosquito pools (5.2%) were positive for DENV-1 (0.7%), DENV-3 (3.2%) and DENV-4 (1.3%) viruses. From the neighbour houses, 18 mosquito pools (12.7%) were positive for DENV-3 (12%) and DENV-4 (0.7%) viruses. From these 26 RT-PCR positive mosquito pools (containing 1-25 mosquitoes each), 22 pools (84.6%) were positive for DENV-3. The most prevalent serotype in the 2001 dengue outbreak was also DENV-3. The minimum infection rate in both A. aegypti collections, from dengue houses and neighbour houses was 17 and 15 per 1,000, respectively. The relevance of these results for dengue surveillance is discussed. PMID:15639750

Urdaneta, Ludmel; Herrera, Flor; Pernalete, Martha; Zoghbi, Normig; Rubio-Palis, Yasmín; Barrios, Roybel; Rivero, José; Comach, Guillermo; Jiménez, Matilde; Salcedo, Maria

2005-03-01

290

Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program. PMID:25368088

AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

2014-01-01

291

Chemical and biological insecticides select distinct gene expression patterns in Aedes aegypti mosquito.  

PubMed

Worldwide evolution of mosquito resistance to chemical insecticides represents a major challenge for public health, and the future of vector control largely relies on the development of biological insecticides that can be used in combination with chemicals (integrated management), with the expectation that populations already resistant to chemicals will not become readily resistant to biological insecticides. However, little is known about the metabolic pathways affected by selection with chemical or biological insecticides. Here we show that Aedes aegypti, a laboratory mosquito strain selected with a biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, Bti) evolved increased transcription of many genes coding for endopeptidases while most genes coding for detoxification enzymes were under-expressed. By contrast, in strains selected with chemicals, genes encoding detoxification enzymes were mostly over-expressed. In all the resistant strains, genes involved in immune response were under-transcribed, suggesting that basal immunity might be a general adjustment variable to compensate metabolic costs caused by insecticide selection. Bioassays generally showed no evidence for an increased susceptibility of selected strains towards the other insecticide type, and all chemical-resistant strains were as susceptible to Bti as the unselected parent strain, which is a good premise for sustainable integrated management of mosquito populations resistant to chemicals. PMID:25540155

Després, Laurence; Stalinski, Renaud; Faucon, Frédéric; Navratil, Vincent; Viari, Alain; Paris, Margot; Tetreau, Guillaume; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Riaz, Muhammad Asam; Bonin, Aurélie; Reynaud, Stéphane; David, Jean-Philippe

2014-12-01

292

Characterisation of novel Bacillus thuringiensis isolates against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephridae).  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis is successfully used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. Isolation and identification of new strains with a wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, new B. thuringiensis isolates were investigated to search for original strains active against diptera and able to produce novel toxins that could be used as an alternative for the commercial H14 strain. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed a remarkable diversity among the studied strains. Using the PCR method, cry4C/Da1, cry30Ea, cry39A, cry40 and cry54 genes were detected in four isolates. Three strains, BLB355, BLB196 and BUPM109, showed feeble activities against Aedes aegypti larvae. Interestingly, spore-crystal mixtures of BLB361, BLB30 and BLB237 were found to be active against Ceratitis capitata with an LC50 value of about 65.375, 51.735 and 42.972?gcm(-)(2), respectively. All the studied strains exhibited important mortality levels using culture supernatants against C. capitata larvae. This suggests that these strains produce a wide range of soluble factors active against C. capitata larvae. PMID:25433312

Elleuch, Jihen; Tounsi, Slim; Belguith Ben Hassen, Najeh; Lacoix, Marie Noël; Chandre, Fabrice; Jaoua, Samir; Zribi Zghal, Raida

2015-01-01

293

Studies on repellent activity of seed oils alone and in combination on mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to investigate the relative repellency of Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils on vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. The repellents were formulated into 3 groups: seed oils, their mixture and combination of seed oils with three carrier oils viz. olive, mustard and coconut oil. Different formulations of each oil were tested at the concentrations of 1% and 5% on human baits. Efficiency was assessed, based on the total protection time; biting rate and percent protection provided by each formulation. Results showed that 5% formulation of the Pongamia pinnata and Azadirachta indica seed oils, mixed in 1:1 ratio exhibited highest percentage repellency of 85%, protection time of 300 min and bite rate of 6%. 5% concentration of A. indica and P. pinnata seed oil in mustard oil base offered 86.36% and 85% protection respectively with total protection time of 230 and 240 min respectively. The study confirms that Azadirachta indica and Pongamia pinnata have mosquito-repellent potential. When mixed in different ratios or with some carrier oil their efficacy increases 2-fold in some cases. These formulations are very promising for topical use (> 5 hrs complete protection) and are comparable to the protection provided by advanced Odomos mosquito repellent cream available commercially and thus are recommended for field trial. PMID:25204067

Mukesh, Y; Savitri, P; Kaushik, R; Singh, N P

2014-09-01

294

Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40??g·mL?1 (11.1460??g·mL?1 and 25.8689??g·mL?1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40??g·mL?1 (29.018??g·mL?1 and 17.230??g·mL?1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277??g·mL?1 and 706.990??g·mL?1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

2014-01-01

295

Temporal abundance of Aedes aegypti in Manaus, Brazil, measured by two trap types for adult mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

A longitudinal study was conducted in Manaus, Brazil, to monitor changes of adult Aedes aegypti (L.) abundance. The objectives were to compare mosquito collections of two trap types, to characterise temporal changes of the mosquito population, to investigate the influence of meteorological variables on mosquito collections and to analyse the association between mosquito collections and dengue incidence. Mosquito monitoring was performed fortnightly using MosquiTRAPs (MQT) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps between December 2008-June 2010. The two traps revealed opposing temporal infestation patterns, with highest mosquito collections of MQTs during the dry season and highest collections of BGS during the rainy seasons. Several meteorological variables were significant predictors of mosquito collections in the BGS. The best predictor was the relative humidity, lagged two weeks (in a positive relationship). For MQT, only the number of rainy days in the previous week was significant (in a negative relationship). The correlation between monthly dengue incidence and mosquito abundance in BGS and MQT was moderately positive and negative, respectively. Catches of BGS traps reflected better the dynamic of dengue incidence. The findings help to understand the effects of meteorological variables on mosquito infestation indices of two different traps for adult dengue vectors in Manaus. PMID:25494470

Degener, Carolin Marlen; de Ázara, Tatiana Mingote Ferreira; Roque, Rosemary Aparecida; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Ohly, Jörg Johannes; Geier, Martin; Eiras, Álvaro Eduardo

2014-01-01

296

Characterization of an Enantioselective Odorant Receptor in the Yellow Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality) of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8) acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R)-(—)-enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). PMID:19753115

Bohbot, Jonathan D.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2009-01-01

297

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIANTS OF AEDES AEGYPTI COLLECTED FROM THE LEEWARD ISLAND OF ANTIGUA  

PubMed Central

Nineteen Aedes aegypti larvae were collected in rural Antigua, West Indies, from an 18-liter plastic bucket. The location was in a rural area at the northern end of Antigua bordering the coast of Dickenson Bay and approximately 50 m south of Halcyon Cove Beach (17°09?42.54?N, 61°50?44.50?W; elevation 16 m). Atypical morphology was noted in larvae and 3 reared adult females. Fourth instars showed a reduction in length of the lateral hair on the saddle (seta 1–X) with measurements ranging from 0.36 to 0.57 the length of the saddle. Two atypical female specimens displayed an abundance of dull white to gold scales that blanketed the abdomen. A 3rd specimen bore fine, golden scales on the mesonotum and bronze scales on the vertices of the head. These adult specimens demonstrated morphological characteristics that closely parallel described mutations, although the genetic basis for these characters was not confirmed. The remaining adults in the collection were morphologically typical. Adults and larvae were compared to field populations from Florida, Bahamas, and Antigua, as well as to the Rockefeller strain maintained at Rutgers University. PMID:22017096

VERNA, THOMAS N.; MUNSTERMANN, LEONARD E.

2012-01-01

298

Morphological variants of Aedes aegypti collected from the Leeward Island of Antigua.  

PubMed

Nineteen Aedes aegypti larvae were collected in rural Antigua, West Indies, from an 18-liter plastic bucket. The location was in a rural area at the northern end of Antigua bordering the coast of Dickenson Bay and approximately 50 m south of Halcyon Cove Beach (17 degrees 09'42.54"N, 61 degrees 50'44.50"W; elevation 16 m). Atypical morphology was noted in larvae and 3 reared adult females. Fourth instars showed a reduction in length of the lateral hair on the saddle (seta 1-X) with measurements ranging from 0.36 to 0.57 the length of the saddle. Two atypical female specimens displayed an abundance of dull white to gold scales that blanketed the abdomen. A 3rd specimen bore fine, golden scales on the mesonotum and bronze scales on the vertices of the head. These adult specimens demonstrated morphological characteristics that closely parallel described mutations, although the genetic basis for these characters was not confirmed. The remaining adults in the collection were morphologically typical. Adults and larvae were compared to field populations from Florida, Bahamas, and Antigua, as well as to the Rockefeller strain maintained at Rutgers University. PMID:22017096

Verna, Thomas N; Munstermann, Leonard E

2011-09-01

299

Fitness of Transgenic Mosquito Aedes aegypti Males Carrying a Dominant Lethal Genetic System  

PubMed Central

OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males—with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK—competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S.; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

2013-01-01

300

Fitness of transgenic mosquito Aedes aegypti males carrying a dominant lethal genetic system.  

PubMed

OX513A is a transgenic strain of Aedes aegypti engineered to carry a dominant, non-sex-specific, late-acting lethal genetic system that is repressed in the presence of tetracycline. It was designed for use in a sterile-insect (SIT) pest control system called RIDL® (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal gene) by which transgenic males are released in the field to mate with wild females; in the absence of tetracycline, the progeny from such matings will not survive. We investigated the mating fitness of OX513A in the laboratory. Male OX513A were as effective as Rockefeller (ROCK) males at inducing refractoriness to further mating in wild type females and there was no reduction in their ability to inseminate multiple females. They had a lower mating success but yielded more progeny than the wild-type comparator strain (ROCK) when one male of each strain was caged with a ROCK female. Mating success and fertility of groups of 10 males-with different ratios of RIDL to ROCK-competing for five ROCK females was similar, but the median longevity of RIDL males was somewhat (18%) lower. We conclude that the fitness under laboratory conditions of OX513A males carrying a tetracycline repressible lethal gene is comparable to that of males of the wild-type comparator strain. PMID:23690948

Massonnet-Bruneel, Blandine; Corre-Catelin, Nicole; Lacroix, Renaud; Lees, Rosemary S; Hoang, Kim Phuc; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; Reiter, Paul

2013-01-01

301

Resistance to malathion and deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from western Venezuela.  

PubMed

Resistance to the insecticides deltamethrin and malathion and the enzymes associated with metabolic resistance mechanisms were determined in four field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from western Venezuela during 2008 and 2010 using the bottle assay and the microplate biochemical techniques. For deltamethrin, mortality rates after 1 h exposure and after a 24-h recovery period were determined to calculate the 50% knock-downconcentration (KC50) and the lethal concentration (LC50), respectively. For malathion, mortality was recorded at 24 h to determine the LC50. For deltamethrin, resistance ratios of knock-down resistance and postrecovery were determined by calculating the RRKC50 and RRLC50, comparing the KC50 and LC50 values of the field populations and those of the susceptible New Orleans strain. Knock-down resistance to deltamethrin was moderate in the majority of the populations in 2008 (RRKC50 values were between 5- and 10-fold), and only one population showed high resistance in 2010 (RRKC50 > 10-fold). Moderate and high postrecovery resistance to deltamethrin was observed in the majority of the populations for 2008 and 2010, respectively. There was significantly increased expression of glutathione-S-tranferases and mixed-function oxidases. All populations showed low resistance to malathion in 2008 and 2010 with significantly higher levels of alpha-esterases for 2008 and 2010 and beta-esterases for 2008. PMID:24180108

Alvarez, Leslie C; Ponce, Gustavo; Oviedo, Milagros; Lopez, Beatriz; Flores, Adriana E

2013-09-01

302

Insecticide resistance mechanisms of Brazilian Aedes aegypti populations from 2001 to 2004.  

PubMed

In Brazil, Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos, used since 1967, was detected in several municipalities in 2000. Organophosphates were substituted by pyrethroids against adults and, in some localities, by Bti against larvae. However, high temephos resistance ratios were still detected between 2001 and 2004. Field-simulated assays confirmed a low temephos residual effect. Acethylcholinesterase and Mixed Function Oxidase profiles were not altered. In contrast, higher Esterase activity, studied with three substrates, was found in all examined populations collected in 2001. From 2001 to 2004, a slight reduction in alpha-Esterase (EST) and beta-EST activity together with a gradual increase of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA)-EST was noted. Gluthathione-S-transferase alteration was encountered only in the northeast region in 2001, spreading the entire country thereafter. In general, except for alpha-EST and beta-EST, only one enzyme class was altered in each mosquito specimen. Data are discussed in the context of historic application of insecticides in Brazil. PMID:17827362

Montella, Isabela Reis; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Braga, Ima Aparecida; Valle, Denise

2007-09-01

303

Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) flight tones: Frequency, harmonicity, spherical spreading, and phase relationships  

PubMed Central

Mosquito flight produces a tone as a side effect of wing movement; this tone is also a communication signal that is frequency-modulated during courtship. Recordings of tones produced by tethered flying male and female Aedes aegypti were undertaken using pairs of pressure-gradient microphones above and below, ahead and behind, and to the left and right over a range of distances. Fundamental frequencies were close to those previously reported, although amplitudes were lower. The male fundamental frequency was higher than that of the female and males modulated it over a wider range. Analysis of harmonics shows that the first six partials were nearly always within 1?Hz of integer multiples of the fundamental, even when the fundamental was being modulated. Along the front-back axis, amplitude attenuated as a function of distance raised to the power 2.3. Front and back recordings were out of phase, as were above and below, while left and right were in phase. Recordings from ahead and behind showed quadratic phase coupling, while others did not. Finally, two methods are presented for separating simultaneous flight tones in a single recording and enhancing their frequency resolution. Implications for mosquito behavior are discussed. PMID:25234901

Arthur, Benjamin J.; Emr, Kevin S.; Wyttenbach, Robert A.; Hoy, Ronald R.

2014-01-01

304

Pinpointing P450s Associated with Pyrethroid Metabolism in the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti: Developing New Tools to Combat Insecticide Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPyrethroids are increasingly used to block the transmission of diseases spread by Aedes aegypti such as dengue and yellow fever. However, insecticide resistance poses a serious threat, thus there is an urgent need to identify the genes and proteins associated with pyrethroid resistance in order to produce effective counter measures. In Ae. aegypti, overexpression of P450s such as the CYP9J32

Bradley J. Stevenson; Patricia Pignatelli; Dimitra Nikou; Mark J. I. Paine

2012-01-01

305

Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%). PMID:21120036

Swathi, S.; Murugananthan, G.; Ghosh, S. K.

2010-01-01

306

Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%). PMID:21120036

Swathi, S; Murugananthan, G; Ghosh, S K

2010-10-01

307

Diminished reproductive fitness associated with the deltamethrin resistance in an Indian strain of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The susceptible (SS) and resistant (DLR) strains of Aedes aegypti selected with deltamethrin and combination of deltamethrin and PBO (1:5) at the larval/adult stage were studied in the laboratory for their reproductive fitness in terms of fecundity, hatchability and longevity of gonotrophic cycles. The DLR strains exhibited 73-88% reduction in the duration of gonotrophic cycles as compared to their SS counterparts. There was a considerable decrease in egg production and hatchability rates in the selected strains of Ae. aegypti, as compared to that of the SS strain. Data indicate deltamethrin being an effective insecticide against Ae. aegypti and a possible correlation between the deltamethrin resistance and disadvantages during reproduction. The most drastic and significant effect was observed in DLR1b strains exhibiting 36.7% decrease in fecundity and 32.4% reduction in hatchability. Another important observation was diminished reproductive fitness in DLR2 strains. This suggests the usefulness of synergized deltamethrin selections in reducing the frequency of resistant individuals. A significant finding was to observe the reproductive disadvantage in adult-selected strains having negligible resistance to deltamethrin implicating the efficacy of deltamethrin as an adulticide rather than as a larvicide. Various probable reasons for the reduction in the reproductive potential and the possible resistance-management strategies of Ae. aegypti are discussed. PMID:19901902

Kumar, Sarita; Thomas, Anita; Samuel, Thomas; Sahgal, Arunima; Verma, Anita; Pillai, M K K

2009-08-01

308

Swarming mechanisms in the yellow fever mosquito: aggregation pheromones are involved in the mating behavior of Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Mosquitoes of various species mate in swarms comprised of tens of thousands of flying males. In this study, we examined Aedes aegypti swarming behavior and identified associated chemical cues. Novel evidence is provided that Ae. aegypti females aggregate by means of olfactory cues, such as aggregation pheromones. Isolation of Ae. aegypti aggregation pheromones was achieved by aeration of confined mosquitoes and collection of associated volatiles by glass filters. The collected volatiles were identified through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Three aggregation pheromones were collected and identified as 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene-1,4-dione (ketoisophorone) (CAS# 1125-21-9, t(R) = 18.75), 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione (the saturated analog of ketoisophorone) (CAS# 20547-99-3, t(R) = 20.05), and 1-(4-ethylphenyl) ethanone (CAS# 937-30-4, t(R) = 24.22). Our biological studies revealed that the identified compounds stimulated mosquito behavior under laboratory conditions. The mechanism of mosquito swarm formation is discussed in light of our behavioral study findings. A preliminary field trial demonstrated the potential application of the isolated aggregation pheromones in controlling Ae. aegypti. PMID:25424264

Fawaz, Emadeldin Y; Allan, Sandra A; Bernier, Ulrich R; Obenauer, Peter J; Diclaro, Joseph W

2014-12-01

309

Use of the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for bacteria detection in Aedes aegypti (Diptera:Culicidae) (L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Bacteria associated with insects can have a substantial impact on the biology and life cycle of their host. The checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique is a semi-quantitative technique that has been previously employed in odontology to detect and quantify a variety of bacterial species in dental samples. Here we tested the applicability of the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique to detect the presence of Aedes aegypti-associated bacterial species in larvae, pupae and adults of A. aegypti. Findings Using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique we could detect and estimate the number of four bacterial species in total DNA samples extracted from A. aegypti single whole individuals and midguts. A. aegypti associated bacterial species were also detected in the midgut of four other insect species, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Drosophila melanogaster, Bradysia hygida and Apis mellifera. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique can be employed to study the microbiota composition of mosquitoes. The method has the sensitivity to detect bacteria in single individuals, as well as in a single organ, and therefore can be employed to evaluate the differences in bacterial counts amongst individuals in a given mosquito population. We suggest that the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique is a straightforward technique that can be widely used for the characterization of the microbiota in mosquito populations. PMID:22185193

2011-01-01

310

Development of a Semi-Field System for Contained Field Trials with Aedes aegypti in Southern Mexico  

PubMed Central

Development of new genetic approaches to either interfere with the ability of mosquitoes to transmit dengue virus or to reduce vector population density requires progressive evaluation from the laboratory to contained field trials, before open field release. Trials in contained outdoor facilities are an important part of this process because they can be used to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of modified strains in settings that include natural environmental variations without releasing mosquitoes into the open field. We describe a simple and cost-effective semi-field system designed to study Aedes aegypti carrying a dominant lethal gene (fsRIDL) in semi-field conditions. We provide a protocol for establishing, maintaining, and monitoring stable Ae. aegypti population densities inside field cages. PMID:21813843

Facchinelli, Luca; Valerio, Laura; Bond, J. Guillermo; Wise de Valdez, Megan R.; Harrington, Laura C.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Casas-Martinez, M.; Scott, Thomas W.

2011-01-01

311

The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitos.  

PubMed

A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used as analysis tool to study the spatial distribution of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitos in Thailand. Global Positioning System (GPS) instruments were used to map villages involved in dengue epidemiological studies in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. Differentially processed GPS data, with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 meter, were incorporated into a GIS for analysis and mapping. Databases associated with a village GIS included village number, Aedes aegypti populations, and test results. Epidemiological surveillance for dengue infection through the detection of the dengue virus type(s) infecting Aedes mosquitos during epidemic periods constitutes a reliable sentinel system for dengue outbreaks. Various techniques were applied including: enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for the virologic surveillance of the type-specific detection of dengue viruses in artificially infected and in field-caught adult Aedes mosquitos. In laboratory experiments, all assays showed sufficient sensitively to detect one virus infected mosquito and the rapid RT-PCR clearly showed serotype-specificity with very high detection sensitivity. In the field study conducted from April to September 2000, female adult Aedes mosquitos were collected from selected dengue-sensitive areas in Chom Bung district, Ratchaburi Province and assayed by ELISA, IFA and RT-PCR with 18.3% (44/240), 28.98% (20/69) and 15% (3/20) positive for dengue virus, respectively. Geographic distribution of the virus-infected Aedes mosquitos and household locations were demonstrated by the GPS and the GIS. The development of disease mapping data coupled with RT-PCR laboratory-based surveillance of dengue virus infection can successfully serve as epidemiologic tools in an early warning system for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) epidemics. PMID:15916091

Sithiprasasna, Ratana; Patpoparn, Somboon; Attatippaholkun, Watcharee; Suvannadabba, Saravudh; Srisuphanunt, Mayuna

2004-12-01

312

Heritability and adaptive phenotypic plasticity of adult body size in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with implications for dengue vector competence  

PubMed Central

Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is particularly important to organisms with developmental cycles that undergo ontogenetic niche shifts that differentially subject individual life stages to heterogeneous and often stressful environmental conditions. The yellow fever and dengue fever vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, typically breeds in small water-filled containers that expose the developing aquatic larvae to competition for resources with conspecifics and high probabilities for habitat drying. Here we investigated the heritability (h2) and phenotypic plasticity among Aedes aegypti laboratory populations and field populations from Trinidad, West Indies. Heritability for body size was moderate or completely eroded among the laboratory populations, while field populations contained high genetic variation among both males and females. Norms of reactions based on optimum vs. deficient larval conditions for artificial sibling families representing Trinidad field populations suggested significant gene × environment interactions influence body size and that there may be sex specific differences in allocation of resources. Individuals reared under optimum laboratory conditions were significantly larger and showed much less variability in body size plasticity than their field reared cohorts, suggesting that exposure to environmental stress may be common for Aedes aegypti larval development and would undoubtedly impact other traits, including arbovirus vector competence among adult females, in a similar fashion. Broad genetic variance in body size and other characters is likely maintained by balancing selection. Our results also suggest the need for caution in translating conclusions from experiments with laboratory colonies to natural populations. These would likely be more informative to expected phenotypes under natural conditions if conducted over a range of conditions that simulate environmental stress. PMID:21070891

Schneider, Jennifer R.; Chadee, Dave D.; Mori, Akio; Romero-Severson, Jeanne; Severson, David W.

2010-01-01

313

Gustatory receptor neuron responds to DEET and other insect repellents in the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three gustatory receptor neurons were characterized for contact chemoreceptive sensilla on the labella of female yellow-fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti. The neuron with the smallest amplitude spike responded to the feeding deterrent, quinine, as well as N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide and other insect repellents. Two other neurons with differing spikes responded to salt (NaCl) and sucrose. This is the first report of a gustatory receptor neuron specific for insect repellents in mosquitoes and may provide a tool for screening chemicals to discover novel or improved feeding deterrents and repellents for use in the management of arthropod disease vectors.

Sanford, Jillian L.; Shields, Vonnie D. C.; Dickens, Joseph C.

2013-03-01

314

Comparative efficacy and persistency of permethrin in Olyset net and conventionally treated net against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the Olyset net was compared to a net treated conventionally with permethrin 10% emulsifiable concentrate at the World Health Organization recommended dose. The nets were assessed under laboratory conditions against the mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Knockdown efficacy for the Olyset net was assessed after the first 10 washings and then after the 15th and 20th washings. Data were not collected for the conventionally treated netting after 5 washings because the conventional treatment was no longer effective. The results of the study indicate permethrin effectively persisted on Olyset net for at least 20 washings, confirming the regeneration of pesticide after each wash. PMID:16646331

Jeyalakshmi, T; Shanmugasundaram, R; Murthy, P Balakrishna

2006-03-01

315

The AeAct-4 gene is expressed in the developing flight muscles of female Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Population reduction of mosquitoes is an effective method for controlling dengue fever and malaria transmission. Recent developments in control techniques include proposals to construct transgenic strains of mosquitoes carrying dominant, conditional-lethal genes under the control of sex- and stage-specific promoters. In order to identify such promoters, subtractive cDNA libraries derived from male and female pupal mRNA of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were constructed and screened. A cDNA clone, F49, corresponds to a gene expressed specifically in female pupae. Sequence analyses revealed that this gene belongs to the actin gene family, and therefore was designated Aedes Actin-4 (AeAct-4). Transcription analyses demonstrated that this gene is expressed predominantly in the indirect flight muscles and, to a lesser extent, the legs of developing female mosquitoes. The promoter of this gene may be a useful tool for developing conditional lethal strains of mosquitoes. PMID:15373813

Muñoz, D; Jimenez, A; Marinotti, O; James, A A

2004-10-01

316

Aedes aegypti pupal/demographic surveys in southern Mexico: consistency and practicality.  

PubMed

In interventions aimed at the control of the immature stages of Aedes aegypti (L.), the principal vector of the dengue viruses, attempts are often made to treat or manage all larval habitats in households. When there are resource-constraints, however, a concentration of effort on the types of container that produce the most pupae may be required. Identification of these 'key' container types requires surveys of the immature stages and particularly - since these give the best estimates of the numbers of adults produced - of the numbers of pupae in local containers. Although there has been no clearly defined or standardized protocol for the sampling of Ae. aegypti pupae for many years, a methodology for 'pupal/demographic' surveys, which may allow the risk of dengue outbreaks in a given setting to be estimated, has been recently described. The consistency and practicality of using such surveys has now been investigated in three cities in the Mexican state of Chiapas, Mexico. Using a combination of 'quadrat'- and transect-sampling methods, 600 houses in each city were each sampled twice. Containers within each study household were searched for pupae and larvae. Although 107,297 containers, belonging to 26 categories, were observed, only 16,032 were found to contain water and 96% and 92% of these 'wet' containers contained no pupae and no third- or fourth-instar larvae, respectively. Although the random 'quadrat' sampling gave similar results to sampling along transects, there were statistically significant differences in the numbers of pupae according to container type and locality. The most important containers for pupal production were found to be large cement wash basins, which were present in almost every household investigated and from which 84% (10,257/12,271) of all pupae were collected. A focus on this class of container could serve as the basis of a targeted intervention strategy. When traditional Stegomyia indices were calculated they appeared to be correlated with the assessments of pupal abundance. The methodology for pupal/demographic surveys appears to be practical and to give consistent results, although it remains to be seen if monitoring of pupal productivity can adequately reflect the impact of vector-control interventions. PMID:16630388

Arredondo-Jiménez, J I; Valdez-Delgado, K M

2006-04-01

317

Transcriptomic Profiling of Diverse Aedes aegypti Strains Reveals Increased Basal-level Immune Activation in Dengue Virus-refractory Populations and Identifies Novel Virus-vector Molecular Interactions  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV). While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector. PMID:23861987

Sim, Shuzhen; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Ramirez, José L.; Kang, Seokyoung; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M.; Mohammed, Hamish; Dimopoulos, George

2013-01-01

318

A Secure Semi-Field System for the Study of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background New contained semi-field cages are being developed and used to test novel vector control strategies of dengue and malaria vectors. We herein describe a new Quarantine Insectary Level-2 (QIC-2) laboratory and field cages (James Cook University Mosquito Research Facility Semi-Field System; MRF SFS) that are being used to measure the impact of the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis on populations of Aedes aegypti in Cairns Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The MRF consists of a single QIC-2 laboratory/insectary that connects through a central corridor to two identical QIC-2 semi-field cages. The semi-field cages are constructed of two layers of 0.25 mm stainless steel wire mesh to prevent escape of mosquitoes and ingress of other insects. The cages are covered by an aluminum security mesh to prevent penetration of the cages by branches and other missiles in the advent of a tropical cyclone. Parts of the cage are protected from UV light and rainfall by 90% shade cloth and a vinyl cover. A wooden structure simulating the understory of a Queenslander-style house is also situated at one end of each cage. The remainder of the internal aspect of the cage is covered with mulch and potted plants to emulate a typical yard. An air conditioning system comprised of two external ACs that feed cooled, moistened air into the cage units. The air is released from the central ceiling beam from a long cloth tube that disperses the airflow and also prevents mosquitoes from escaping the cage via the AC system. Sensors located inside and outside the cage monitor ambient temperature and relative humidity, with AC controlled to match ambient conditions. Data loggers set in the cages and outside found a <2°C temperature difference. Additional security features include air curtains over exit doors, sticky traps to monitor for escaping mosquitoes between layers of the mesh, a lockable vestibule leading from the connecting corridor to the cage and from inside to outside of the insectary, and screened (0.25 mm mesh) drains within the insectary and the cage. A set of standard operating procedures (SOP) has been developed to ensure that security is maintained and for enhanced surveillance for escaping mosquitoes on the JCU campus where the MRF is located. A cohort of male and female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were released in the cage and sampled every 3–4 days to determine daily survival within the cage; log linear regression from BG-sentinel trapping collections produced an estimated daily survival of 0.93 and 0.78 for females and males, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The MRF SFS allows us to test novel control strategies within a secure, contained environment. The air-conditioning system maintains conditions within the MRF cages comparable to outside ambient conditions. This cage provides a realistic transitional platform between the laboratory and the field in which to test novel control measures on quarantine level insects. PMID:21445333

Ritchie, Scott A.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Freeman, Anthony J.; Odell, Robin G.; Graham, Neal; DeJong, Paul A.; Standfield, Graeme W.; Sale, Richard W.; O'Neill, Scott L.

2011-01-01

319

[Establishment of the feeding methodology of Aedes aegypti (Diptera-Culicidae) in Swiss mice and evaluation of the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L (Asteraceae), in populations of Aedes aegypti].  

PubMed

The objectives here were to develop a procedure for feeding females of Aedes aegypti that does not cause stress in Swiss mice and to evaluate the toxicity and residual effect of essential oil from Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae) in Aedes aegypti populations. Two mice were anesthetized: one was used to observe the duration of sedation and the other was placed in a cage to feed the female mosquitoes. Essential oil was diluted in acetone and used in bioassays to assess the lethal concentrations in larvae from the Cities of Bauru (SP) and São José do Rio Preto (SP) that were sensitive and resistant to temephos, respectively. The data obtained were compared with the American Rockefeller strain. The procedure with mice was approved. There was no difference between the populations regarding susceptibility to Tagetes minuta, and the assays showed LC50 of 0.24, 0.25 and 0.21 ml/l and LC99.9 of 0.35, 0.39 and 0.42 ml/l, for Rockefeller, Bauru and São José do Rio Preto, respectively. The solution did not show any residual effect. PMID:20209346

Lima, Waldemir Pereira; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Zuccari, Débora Aparecida Pires de Campos; Dibo, Margareth Regina

2009-01-01

320

Susceptibility to insecticides and resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti from the Colombian Caribbean Region.  

PubMed

We determined the susceptibility to insecticides and the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in resistance in nine populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) of the Colombian Caribbean region. Bioassays were performed on larvae for susceptibility to temephos and on adults to the insecticides malathion, fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl, permethrin, deltamethrin, ?-cyhalothrin and cyfluthrin. The resistance ratio (RR) for each insecticide in the populations was determined, using the susceptible Rockefeller strain as a susceptible control. Additionally, we evaluated the response of the populations to the diagnostic dose (DD) of the organochlorine pesticide DDT. The following biochemical mechanisms associated with resistance were studied: ?-esterases, ?-esterases, mixed-function oxidases (MFO), glutathione s-transferases (GST) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (iAChE) as well as the presence of kdr I1,016 mutation and its frequency. All populations studied showed susceptibility to the organophosphates evaluated (RR?

Maestre-Serrano, Ronald; Gomez-Camargo, Doris; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Flores, Adriana E

2014-11-01

321

Evidence for gene duplication in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene (NaV), known as kdr mutations, are associated with pyrethroid and DDT insecticide resistance in a number of species. In the mosquito dengue vector Aedes aegypti, besides kdr, other polymorphisms allowed grouping AaNaV sequences as type ‘A’ or ‘B’. Here, we point a series of evidences that these polymorphisms are actually involved in a gene duplication event. Methodology: Four series of methods were employed: (i) genotypying, with allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR), of two AaNaV sites that can harbor kdr mutations (Ile1011Met and Val1016Ile), (ii) cloning and sequencing of part of the AaNaV gene, (iii) crosses with specific lineages and analysis of the offspring genotypes and (iv) copy number variation assays, with TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR. Results: kdr mutations in 1011 and 1016 sites were present only in type ‘A’ sequences, but never in the same haplotype. In addition, although the 1011Met-mutant allele is widely disseminated, no homozygous (1011Met/Met) was detected. Sequencing revealed three distinct haplotypes in some individuals, raising the hypothesis of gene duplication, which was supported by the genotype frequencies in the offspring of specific crosses. Furthermore, it was estimated that a laboratory strain selected for insecticide resistance had 5-fold more copies of the sodium channel gene compared with a susceptible reference strain. Conclusions and implications: The AaNaV duplication here found might be a recent adaptive response to the intense use of insecticides, maintaining together wild-type and mutant alleles in the same organism, conferring resistance and reducing some of its deleterious effects. PMID:24481195

Martins, Ademir Jesus; Brito, Luiz Paulo; Linss, Jutta Gerlinde Birggitt; Rivas, Gustavo Bueno da Silva; Machado, Ricardo; Bruno, Rafaela Vieira; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Valle, Denise; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio

2013-01-01

322

A model for the development of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti as a function of the available food.  

PubMed

We discuss the preimaginal development of the mosquito Aedes aegypti from the point of view of the statistics of developmental times and the final body-size of the pupae and adults. We begin the discussion studying existing models in relation to published data for the mosquito. The data suggest a developmental process that is described by exponentially distributed random times. The existing data show as well that the idea of cohorts emerging synchronously is verified only in optimal situations created at the laboratory but it is not verified in field experiments. We propose a model in which immature individuals progress in successive stages, all of them with exponentially distributed times, according to two different rates (one food-dependent and the other food-independent). This phenomenological model, coupled with a general model for growing, can explain the existing observations and new results produced in this work. The emerging picture is that the development of the larvae proceeds through a sequence of steps. Some of the steps depend on the available food. While food is in abundance, all steps can be thought as having equal duration, but when food is scarce, those steps that depend on food take considerably longer times. For insufficient levels of food, increase in larval mortality sets in. As a consequence of the smaller rates, the average pupation time increases and the cohort disperses in time. Dispersion, as measured by standard deviation, becomes a quadratic function of the average time indicating that cohort dispersion responds to the same causes than delays in pupation and adult emergence. During the whole developmental process the larva grows monotonically, initially at an exponential rate but later at decreasing rates, approaching a final body-size. Growth is stopped by maturation when it is already slow. As a consequence of this process, there is a slight bias favoring small individuals: Small individuals are born before larger individuals, although the tendency is very weak. PMID:25451964

Romeo Aznar, Victoria; De Majo, María Sol; Fischer, Sylvia; Francisco, Diego; Natiello, Mario A; Solari, Hernán G

2015-01-21

323

Molecular Genetic Analysis of Midgut Serine Proteases in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Digestion of blood meal proteins by midgut proteases provides anautogenous mosquitoes with the nutrients required to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Inhibition of protein digestion in the midgut of blood feeding mosquitoes could therefore provide a strategy for population control. Based on recent reports indicating that the mechanism and regulation of protein digestion in blood fed female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is more complex than previously thought, we used a robust RNAi knockdown method to investigate the role of four highly expressed midgut serine proteases in blood meal metabolism. We show by Western blotting that the early phase trypsin protein (AaET) is maximally expressed at 3 h post blood meal (PBM), and that AaET is not required for the protein expression of three late phase serine proteases, AaLT (late trypsin), AaSPVI (5G1), and AaSPVII. Using the trypsin substrate analog BApNA to analyze in vitro enzyme activity in midgut extracts from single mosquitoes, we found that knockdown of AaSPVI expression caused a 77.6% decrease in late phase trypsin-like activity, whereas, knockdown of AaLT and AaSPVII expression had no significant effect on BApNA activity. In contrast, injection of AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII dsRNA inhibited degradation of endogenous serum albumin protein using an in vivo protease assay, as well as, significantly decreased egg production in both the first and second gonotrophic cycles (p<0.001). These results demonstrate that AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII all contribute to blood protein digestion and oocyte maturation, even though AaSPVI is the only abundant midgut late phase serine protease that appears to function as a classic trypsin enzyme. PMID:19883761

Isoe, Jun; Rascón, Alberto A.; Kunz, Susan; Miesfeld, Roger L.

2009-01-01

324

Molecular genetic analysis of midgut serine proteases in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Digestion of blood meal proteins by midgut proteases provides anautogenous mosquitoes with the nutrients required to complete the gonotrophic cycle. Inhibition of protein digestion in the midgut of blood feeding mosquitoes could therefore provide a strategy for population control. Based on recent reports indicating that the mechanism and regulation of protein digestion in blood fed female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is more complex than previously thought, we used a robust RNAi knockdown method to investigate the role of four highly expressed midgut serine proteases in blood meal metabolism. We show by Western blotting that the early phase trypsin protein (AaET) is maximally expressed at 3 h post-blood meal (PBM), and that AaET is not required for the protein expression of three late phase serine proteases, AaLT (late trypsin), AaSPVI (5G1), and AaSPVII. Using the trypsin substrate analog BApNA to analyze in vitro enzyme activity in midgut extracts from single mosquitoes, we found that knockdown of AaSPVI expression caused a 77.6% decrease in late phase trypsin-like activity, whereas, knockdown of AaLT and AaSPVII expression had no significant effect on BApNA activity. In contrast, injection of AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII dsRNA inhibited degradation of endogenous serum albumin protein using an in vivo protease assay, as well as, significantly decreased egg production in both the first and second gonotrophic cycles (P < 0.001). These results demonstrate that AaLT, AaSPVI, and AaSPVII all contribute to blood protein digestion and oocyte maturation, even though AaSPVI is the only abundant midgut late phase serine protease that appears to function as a classic trypsin enzyme. PMID:19883761

Isoe, Jun; Rascón, Alberto A; Kunz, Susan; Miesfeld, Roger L

2009-12-01

325

Insecticide-driven patterns of genetic variation in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Martinique Island.  

PubMed

Effective vector control is currently challenged worldwide by the evolution of resistance to all classes of chemical insecticides in mosquitoes. In Martinique, populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have been intensively treated with temephos and deltamethrin insecticides over the last fifty years, resulting in heterogeneous levels of resistance across the island. Resistance spreading depends on standing genetic variation, selection intensity and gene flow among populations. To determine gene flow intensity, we first investigated neutral patterns of genetic variability in sixteen populations representative of the many environments found in Martinique and experiencing various levels of insecticide pressure, using 6 microsatellites. Allelic richness was lower in populations resistant to deltamethrin, and consanguinity was higher in populations resistant to temephos, consistent with a negative effect of insecticide pressure on neutral genetic diversity. The global genetic differentiation was low, suggesting high gene flow among populations, but significant structure was found, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance at the global scale. Then, we investigated adaptive patterns of divergence in six out of the 16 populations using 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNP outliers displaying levels of genetic differentiation out of neutral expectations were detected, including the kdr-V1016I mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Association tests revealed a total of seven SNPs associated with deltamethrin resistance. Six other SNPs were associated with temephos resistance, including two non-synonymous substitutions in an alkaline phosphatase and in a sulfotransferase respectively. Altogether, both neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic variation in mosquito populations appear to be largely driven by insecticide pressure in Martinique. PMID:24204999

Marcombe, Sébastien; Paris, Margot; Paupy, Christophe; Bringuier, Charline; Yebakima, André; Chandre, Fabrice; David, Jean-Philippe; Corbel, Vincent; Despres, Laurence

2013-01-01

326

Insecticide-Driven Patterns of Genetic Variation in the Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti in Martinique Island  

PubMed Central

Effective vector control is currently challenged worldwide by the evolution of resistance to all classes of chemical insecticides in mosquitoes. In Martinique, populations of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti have been intensively treated with temephos and deltamethrin insecticides over the last fifty years, resulting in heterogeneous levels of resistance across the island. Resistance spreading depends on standing genetic variation, selection intensity and gene flow among populations. To determine gene flow intensity, we first investigated neutral patterns of genetic variability in sixteen populations representative of the many environments found in Martinique and experiencing various levels of insecticide pressure, using 6 microsatellites. Allelic richness was lower in populations resistant to deltamethrin, and consanguinity was higher in populations resistant to temephos, consistent with a negative effect of insecticide pressure on neutral genetic diversity. The global genetic differentiation was low, suggesting high gene flow among populations, but significant structure was found, with a pattern of isolation-by-distance at the global scale. Then, we investigated adaptive patterns of divergence in six out of the 16 populations using 319 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNP outliers displaying levels of genetic differentiation out of neutral expectations were detected, including the kdr-V1016I mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Association tests revealed a total of seven SNPs associated with deltamethrin resistance. Six other SNPs were associated with temephos resistance, including two non-synonymous substitutions in an alkaline phosphatase and in a sulfotransferase respectively. Altogether, both neutral and adaptive patterns of genetic variation in mosquito populations appear to be largely driven by insecticide pressure in Martinique. PMID:24204999

Paupy, Christophe; Bringuier, Charline; Yebakima, André; Chandre, Fabrice; David, Jean-Philippe; Corbel, Vincent; Despres, Laurence

2013-01-01

327

Genetic Mapping of Specific Interactions between Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes and Dengue Viruses  

PubMed Central

Specific interactions between host genotypes and pathogen genotypes (G×G interactions) are commonly observed in invertebrate systems. Such specificity challenges our current understanding of invertebrate defenses against pathogens because it contrasts the limited discriminatory power of known invertebrate immune responses. Lack of a mechanistic explanation, however, has questioned the nature of host factors underlying G×G interactions. In this study, we aimed to determine whether G×G interactions observed between dengue viruses and their Aedes aegypti vectors in nature can be mapped to discrete loci in the mosquito genome and to document their genetic architecture. We developed an innovative genetic mapping strategy to survey G×G interactions using outbred mosquito families that were experimentally exposed to genetically distinct isolates of two dengue virus serotypes derived from human patients. Genetic loci associated with vector competence indices were detected in multiple regions of the mosquito genome. Importantly, correlation between genotype and phenotype was virus isolate-specific at several of these loci, indicating G×G interactions. The relatively high percentage of phenotypic variation explained by the markers associated with G×G interactions (ranging from 7.8% to 16.5%) is consistent with large-effect host genetic factors. Our data demonstrate that G×G interactions between dengue viruses and mosquito vectors can be assigned to physical regions of the mosquito genome, some of which have a large effect on the phenotype. This finding establishes the existence of tangible host genetic factors underlying specific interactions between invertebrates and their pathogens in a natural system. Fine mapping of the uncovered genetic loci will elucidate the molecular mechanisms of mosquito-virus specificity. PMID:23935524

Diancourt, Laure; Caro, Valérie; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Richardson, Jason H.; Jarman, Richard G.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Lambrechts, Louis

2013-01-01

328

Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC50 and LC90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24056567

Govindarajan, M.; Rajeswary, M.; Sivakumar, R.

2013-01-01

329

Residual effects of TMOF-Bti formulations against 1st instar Aedes aegypti Linnaeus larvae outside laboratory  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and residual effects of trypsin modulating oostatic factor-Bacillus thuringiensis israeliensis (TMOF-Bti) formulations against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) (L.) larvae at UKM Campus Kuala Lumpur. Methods Twenty first instar Ae. aegypti larvae were added in each bucket containing 4 L of water supplied with crushed dried leaf powder as their source of food. Combination of TMOF-Bti in rice husk formulation with the following weights viz 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg, respectively in duplicate was distributed in the buckets; while TMOF-Bti in wettable powder formulation each weighing viz 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg, respectively in duplicate was also placed in the buckets. The control buckets run in duplicate with 4 L of water and 20 first instar Ae. aegypti larvae. All buckets were covered with mosquito netting. Larval mortality was recorded after 24 hours and weekly for five weeks. A new batch of 20 1st instar larvae Ae. aegypti was introduced into each bucket weekly without additional TMOF-Bti rice husk formulation or wettable powder. The experiment was repeated for four times. Results The result of the study showed that all formulations were very effective on the first two weeks by giving 100% larval mortality for all concentrations applied. The TMOF (2%) + Bti (2%) had a good residual effect until the end of 3rd week, TMOF (4%) + Bti (4%) until 4th week, wettable powder TMOF (20%) + Bti (20%) until the third week. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded that the TMOF-Bti formulations can be utilized in dengue vector control. PMID:23569922

Saiful, AN; Lau, MS; Sulaiman, S; Hidayatulfathi, O

2012-01-01

330

Mosquito Larvicidal Potential of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) Leaves Extracts against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi larvae  

PubMed Central

Background: We aimed to extract the ingredients from leaves of Gossypium hirsutum (Bt cotton) using different solvents and evaluate for potential use to control different larval stages of mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of ingredients from Go. hirsutum (Bt) plant extract was carried out and their inhibitory action against mosquito larvae was determined using mosquito larvicidal assay. Results: LC50 values of water, ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts for Ae. aegypti were 211.73±21.49, 241.64±19.92, 358.07±32.43, 401.03±36.19 and 232.56±26.00, 298.54±21.78, 366.50±30.59, 387.19±31.82 for 4th instar of An. stephensi, respectively. The water extract displayed lowest LC50 value followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane. Owing to the comparatively better activity of water extract, its efficacy was further evaluated for mosquito larvicidal activity, which exhibited LC50 values of 133.95±12.79, 167.65±11.34 against 2nd and 3rd instars of Ae. aegypti and 145.48±11.76, 188.10±12.92 against 2nd and 3rd instars of An. stephensi, respectively. Crude protein from the water extract was precipitated using acetone and tested against 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi. It revealed further decrease in LC50 values as 105.72±25.84, 138.23±23.18, 126.19±25.65, 134.04±04 and 137.88±17.59, 154.25±16.98 for 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars of Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. Conclusion: Leaves extracts of Go. hirsutum (Bt) is potential mosquito larvicide and can be used as a potent alternative to chemical insecticides in integrated pest management.

Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Borase, Hemant P; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Narkhade, Chandrakant P; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

2014-01-01

331

Expression Profile of Genes during Resistance Reversal in a Temephos Selected Strain of the Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti is one of the most important disease vectors because it transmits two major arboviruses, dengue and yellow fever, which cause significant global morbidity and mortality. Chemical insecticides form the cornerstone of vector control. The organophosphate temephos a larvicide recommended by WHO for controlling Ae. aegypti, however, resistance to this compound has been reported in many countries, including Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of this study was to identify genes implicated in metabolic resistance in an Ae. aegypti temephos resistant strain, named RecR, through microarray analysis. We utilized a custom ‘Ae. aegypti detox chip’ and validated microarray data through RT-PCR comparing susceptible and resistant individuals. In addition, we analyzed gene expression in 4th instar larvae from a reversed susceptible strain (RecRev), exposed and unexposed to temephos. The results obtained revealed a set of 13 and 6 genes significantly over expressed in resistant adult mosquitoes and larvae, respectively. One of these genes, the cytochrome P450 CYP6N12, was up-regulated in both stages. RT-PCR confirmed the microarray results and, additionally, showed no difference in gene expression between temephos exposed and unexposed RecRev mosquitoes. This suggested that the differences in the transcript profiles among the strains are heritable due to a selection process and are not caused by immediate insecticide exposure. Reversal of temephos resistance was demonstrated and, importantly, there was a positive correlation between a decrease in the resistance ratio and an accompanying decrease in the expression levels of previously over expressed genes. Some of the genes identified here have also been implicated in metabolic resistance in other mosquito species and insecticide resistant populations of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions/Significance The identification of gene expression signatures associated to insecticide resistance and their suppression could greatly aid the development of improved strategies of vector control. PMID:22870187

Strode, Clare; de Melo-Santos, Maria; Magalhães, Tereza; Araújo, Ana; Ayres, Contancia

2012-01-01

332

Dengue Vector Dynamics (Aedes aegypti) Influenced by Climate and Social Factors in Ecuador: Implications for Targeted Control  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral disease, is now the fastest spreading tropical disease globally. Previous studies indicate that climate and human behavior interact to influence dengue virus and vector (Aedes aegypti) population dynamics; however, the relative effects of these variables depends on local ecology and social context. We investigated the roles of climate and socio-ecological factors on Ae. aegypti population dynamics in Machala, a city in southern coastal Ecuador where dengue is hyper-endemic. Methods/Principal findings We studied two proximate urban localities where we monitored weekly Ae. aegypti oviposition activity (Nov. 2010-June 2011), conducted seasonal pupal surveys, and surveyed household to identify dengue risk factors. The results of this study provide evidence that Ae. aegypti population dynamics are influenced by social risk factors that vary by season and lagged climate variables that vary by locality. Best-fit models to predict the presence of Ae. aegypti pupae included parameters for household water storage practices, access to piped water, the number of households per property, condition of the house and patio, and knowledge and perceptions of dengue. Rainfall and minimum temperature were significant predictors of oviposition activity, although the effect of rainfall varied by locality due to differences in types of water storage containers. Conclusions These results indicate the potential to reduce the burden of dengue in this region by conducting focused vector control interventions that target high-risk households and containers in each season and by developing predictive models using climate and non-climate information. These findings provide the region's public health sector with key information for conducting time and location-specific vector control campaigns, and highlight the importance of local socio-ecological studies to understand dengue dynamics. See Text S1 for an executive summary in Spanish. PMID:24324542

Stewart Ibarra, Anna M.; Ryan, Sadie J.; Beltrán, Efrain; Mejía, Raúl; Silva, Mercy; Muñoz, Ángel

2013-01-01

333

Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

2012-01-01

334

Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to establish the properties of Carica papaya leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad on larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti. The medicinal plants were collected from the area around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. C. papaya leaf was washed with tap water and shade-dried at room temperature. An electrical blender powdered

Kalimuthu Kovendan; Kadarkarai Murugan; Arjunan Naresh Kumar; Savariar Vincent; Jiang-Shiou Hwang

335

Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti , the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The

Dana Chaiyasit; Wej Choochote; Eumporn Rattanachanpichai; Udom Chaithong; Prasong Chaiwong; Atchariya Jitpakdi; Pongsri Tippawangkosol; Doungrat Riyong; Benjawan Pitasawat

2006-01-01

336

ECDYSTEROID TITERS AND DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ECDYSONE-REGULATED GENES DURING METAMORPHOSIS OF THE YELLOW FEVER MOSQUITO, AEDES AEGYPTI (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ecdysteroid titers and expression profiles of ecdysone-regulated genes were determined during the last instar larval and during the pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Three peaks of ecdysteroids occurring at approximately 24, 30-33 and 45-48 hrs after ecdysis to the fourth instar l...

337

Aedes aegypti, Dengue and Re-urbanization of Yellow Fever in Brazil and other South American Countries - Past and Present Situation and Future Perspectives By  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue (DEN) and yellow fever (YF) viruses are two important arboviruses causing human disease. Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF\\/DHF) reemerged in the Americas after Aedes aegypti had reinfested most tropical and subtropical regions in the hemisphere. The number of DF\\/DHF cases being reported are increasing each year; and in South America only Chile and Uruguay have not reported

Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos; Amélia P. A. T. Rosa; Francisco P. Pinheiro; Sueli G. Rodrigues; Ana C. R. Cruz; Jorge F. S. T. Rosa

338

Three Novel Families of Miniature Inverted-Repeat Transposable Elements are Associated with Genes of the Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three novel families of transposable elements, Wukong, Wujin, and Wuneng, are described in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Their copy numbers range from 2,100 to 3,000 per haploid genome. There are high degrees of sequence similarity within each family, and many structural but not sequence similarities between families. The common structural characteristics include small size, no coding potential, terminal

Zhijian Tu

1997-01-01

339

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of 1-undec-10-enoyl-piperidines as adulticides against the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.), is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. Using insecticide is one of the major ways to control this medically important insect pest. However, few new insecticides have been developed for mosquito control. As part of our collabo...

340

Infection of Aedes albopictus with chikungunya virus rectally administered by enema.  

PubMed

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5' green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 10(6.95) tissue culture infective dose(50) (TCID(50))/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3 dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14 dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Nuckols, John T; Ziegler, Sarah A; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J; Vanlandingham, Dana L; Klowden, Marc J; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A; Higgs, Stephen

2013-02-01

341

Infection of Aedes albopictus with Chikungunya Virus Rectally Administered by Enema  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical areas of Africa, Asia, and the islands of the Indian Ocean. In 2007 and 2009, CHIKV was transmitted outside these tropical areas and caused geographically localized infections in people in Italy and France. To temporally and spatially characterize CHIKV infection of Ae. albopictus midguts, a comparison of viral distribution in mosquitoes infected per os or by enema was conducted. Ae. albopictus infected with CHIKV LR 5? green fluorescent protein (GFP) at a titer 106.95 tissue culture infective dose50 (TCID50)/mL, were collected and analyzed for virus dissemination by visualizing GFP expression and titration up to 14 days post inoculation (dpi). Additionally, midguts were dissected from the mosquitoes and imaged by fluorescence microscopy for comparison of midgut infection patterns between orally- and enema-infected mosquitoes. When virus was delivered via enema, the anterior midgut appeared more readily infected by 3?dpi, with increased GFP presentation observed in this same location of the midgut at 7 and 14?dpi when compared to orally-infected mosquitoes. This work demonstrates that enema delivery of virus is a viable technique for use of mosquito infection. Enema injection of mosquitoes may be an alternative to intrathoracic inoculation because the enema delivery more closely models natural infection and neither compromises midgut integrity nor involves a wound that can induce immune responses. Furthermore, unlike intrathoracic delivery, the enema does not bypass midgut barriers to infect tissues artificially in the hemocoel of the mosquito. PMID:23249139

Ziegler, Sarah A.; Huang, Yan-Jang Scott; McAuley, Alex J.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Klowden, Marc J.; Spratt, Heidi; Davey, Robert A.; Higgs, Stephen

2013-01-01

342

Biological Differences between Brackish and Fresh Water-Derived Aedes aegypti from Two Locations in the Jaffna Peninsula of Sri Lanka and the Implications for Arboviral Disease Transmission  

PubMed Central

The mainly fresh water arboviral vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) can also undergo pre-imaginal development in brackish water of up to 15 ppt (parts per thousand) salt in coastal areas. We investigated differences in salinity tolerance, egg laying preference, egg hatching and larval development times and resistance to common insecticides in Ae. aegypti collected from brackish and fresh water habitats in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti were more tolerant of salinity than fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti and this difference was only partly reduced after their transfer to fresh water for up to five generations. Brackish water-derived Ae. aegypti did not significantly discriminate between 10 ppt salt brackish water and fresh water for oviposition, while fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti preferred fresh water. The hatching of eggs from both brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti was less efficient and the time taken for larvae to develop into pupae was prolonged in 10 ppt salt brackish water. Ae. aegypti isolated from coastal brackish water were less resistant to the organophosphate insecticide malathion than inland fresh water Ae. aegypti. Brackish and fresh water-derived Ae. aegypti however were able to mate and produce viable offspring in the laboratory. The results suggest that development in brackish water is characterised by pertinent biological changes, and that there is restricted genetic exchange between coastal brackish and inland fresh water Ae. aegypti isolates from sites 5 km apart. The findings highlight the need for monitoring Ae. aegypti developing in coastal brackish waters and extending vector control measures to their habitats. PMID:25170879

Ramasamy, Ranjan; Jude, Pavilupillai J.; Veluppillai, Thabothiny; Eswaramohan, Thampoe; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

2014-01-01

343

Insecticidal potency of bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis SV2 and Serratia nematodiphila SV6 against larvae of mosquito species Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

The tremendous worldwide efforts to isolate novel mosquito larvicidal bacteria with improved efficacy present significant promise to control vector-borne diseases of public health importance. In the present study, two native bacterial isolates, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt SV2) and Serratia species (SV6) were evaluated for mosquito larvicidal potential against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus with reference to B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) H 14. The native Gram-positive, spore-forming Bt SV2 isolate showed 100% mortality against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, in parallel to Bti H14 strain. After 24 h, Bt SV2 showed 98%, 89%, and 80.67%, and Bti H14 showed 92%, 98.33%, and 60% mortality against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. Serratia SV6 showed highest activity against Culex quinquefasciatus (100%) followed by Anopheles stephensi (95%) and Aedes aegypti (91%) after 48 h of exposure. The Gram-negative Serratia SV6 showed delayed toxicity compared to Bti H14 and Bt SV2 against early fourth instars of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The relative mortality of all treatments after 12-h exposures showed the varied toxicity with respect to exposure time, bacterial treatment, and mosquito species. Genetic relatedness of the strains was confirmed on the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions based on alignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences which indicated a strong clustering of the strain SV2 with B. thuringiensis and the strain SV6 with Serratia nematodiphila. In conclusion, the native isolate B. thuringiensis SV2 showed significant toxicity while Serratia SV6 showed less and delayed toxicity against several mosquito species compared with BtiH14. They may be used as novel bacterial insecticidal agents in mosquito vector-borne disease control. To our knowledge, this is the first report on mosquito larvicidal potential of Serratia species. PMID:22065062

Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Patil, Satish V; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Salunkhe, Rahul B

2012-05-01

344

Co-occurrence of Point Mutations in the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel of Pyrethroid-Resistant Aedes aegypti Populations in Myanmar  

PubMed Central

Background Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined high pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti larvae at all collection sites in Yangon City, by using a simplified knockdown bioassay. We showed that V1016G and S989P mutations were widely distributed, with high frequencies (84.4% and 78.8%, respectively). By contrast, we were unable to detect I1011M (or I1011V) or L1014F mutations. F1534C mutations were also widely distributed, but with a lower frequency than the V1016G mutation (21.2%). High percentage of co-occurrence of the homozygous V1016G/S989P mutations was detected (65.7%). Additionally, co-occurrence of homozygous V1016G/F1534C mutations (2.9%) and homozygous V1016G/F1534C/S989P mutations (0.98%) were detected in the present study. Conclusions/Significance Pyrethroid insecticides were first used for malaria control in 1992, and have since been constantly used in Myanmar. This intensive use may explain the strong selection pressure toward Aedes aegypti, because this mosquito is generally a domestic and endophagic species with a preference for indoor breeding. Extensive use of DDT for malaria control before the use of this chemical was banned may also explain the development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti. PMID:25077956

Kawada, Hitoshi; Oo, Sai Zaw Min; Thaung, Sein; Kawashima, Emiko; Maung, Yan Naung Maung; Thu, Hlaing Myat; Thant, Kyaw Zin; Minakawa, Noboru

2014-01-01

345

Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85–87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78–300 s, P < 0.0001) when feeding on mice compared with controls (15–56 s), feeding success was reduced, and those feeding took smaller blood meals. However, no differences in feeding success or blood meal size were found in membrane feeding experiments using defibrinated human blood. Salivary gland extracts from transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency. PMID:24778255

Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, José Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric

2014-01-01

346

Immunotoxicity activity from various organic solvents extract of Allium genus from South Korea against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

Species of the Allium genus, used in functional foods for the treatment of improving gastritis and heart failures, were collected and petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained by sonication. The Allium thumbergii chloroform extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 2.4 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 6.3 ?g/mL. The Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum petroleum ether extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of A. aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 1.2 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 2.1 ?g/mL. Also, the Allium sacculiferum chloroform extracts have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of A. aegypti L. with an LC(50) value of 1.8 ?g/mL and an LC(90) value of 4.7 ?g/mL. The above data indicate that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum petroleum ether extracts. PMID:21158696

Lim, Jung-Dae; Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-09-01

347

Overlapping genes of Aedes aegypti: evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects  

PubMed Central

Background Although gene overlapping is a common feature of prokaryote and mitochondria genomes, such genes have also been identified in many eukaryotes. The overlapping genes in eukaryotes are extensively rearranged even between closely related species. In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). The overlapping gene pairs of A. aegypti were further compared with orthologs of other selected insects to conduct several hypothesis driven investigations relating to the evolution and rearrangement of overlapping genes. Results The results show that as much as ~10% of the predicted genes of A. aegypti and A. gambiae are localized in positional overlapping manner. Furthermore, the study shows that differential abundance of introns and simple sequence repeats have significant association with positional rearrangement of overlapping genes between the two species. Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. Our data further shows that synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have differential but non-significant effect on overlapping localization of orthologous genes in other insect genomes. Conclusion Gene overlapping in insects may be a species-specific evolutionary process as evident from non-dependency of gene overlapping with species phylogeny. Based on the results, our study suggests that overlapping genes may have played an important role in genome evolution of insects. PMID:23777277

2013-01-01

348

Close encounters: contributions of carbon dioxide and human skin odour to finding and landing on a host in Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

In a wind-tunnel study, the upwind flight and source location of female Aedes aegypti to plumes of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and odour from human feet is tested. Both odour sources are presented singly and in combination. Flight upwind along the plumes is evident for both CO2 and odour from human feet when the odours are presented alone. Likewise, both odour sources are located by more than 70% of mosquitoes in less than 3 min. When both CO2 and odour from human feet are presented simultaneously in two different choice tests (with plumes superimposed or with plumes separated), there is no evidence that females orientate along the plume of CO2 and only a few mosquitoes locate its source. Rather, the foot odour plume is navigated and the source of foot odour is located by over 80% of female Ae. aegypti. When a female is presented a plume of CO2 within a broad plume of human foot odour of relatively low concentration, the source of CO2 is not located; instead, flight is upwind in the diffuse plume of foot odour. Although upwind flight by Ae. aegypti at long range is presumably induced by CO2 and the threshold of response to skin odours is lowered, our findings suggest that once females have arrived near a prospective human host, upwind orientation and landing are largely governed by the suite of odours from a human foot, while orientation is no longer influenced by CO2. PMID:24839345

Lacey, Emerson S; Ray, Anandasankar; Cardé, Ring T

2014-03-01

349

Expression profiling and comparative analyses of seven midgut serine proteases from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Aedes aegypti utilizes blood for energy production, egg maturation and replenishment of maternal reserves. The principle midgut enzymes responsible for bloodmeal digestion are endoproteolytic serine-type proteases within the S1.A subfamily. While there are hundreds of serine protease-like genes in the A. aegypti genome, only five are known to be expressed in the midgut. We describe the cloning, sequencing and expression profiling of seven additional serine proteases and provide a genomic and phylogenetic assessment of these findings. Of the seven genes, four are constitutively expressed and three are transcriptionally induced upon blood feeding. The amount of transcriptional induction is strongly correlated among these genes. Alignments reveal that, in general, the conserved catalytic triad, active site and accessory catalytic residues are maintained in these genes and phylogenetic analysis shows that these genes fall within three distinct clades; trypsins, chymotrypsins and serine collagenases. Interestingly, a previously described trypsin consistently arose with other serine collagenases in phylogenetic analyses. These results suggest that multiple gene duplications have arisen within the S1.A subfamily of midgut serine proteases and/or that A. aegypti has evolved an array of proteases with a broad range of substrate specificities for rapid, efficient digestion of bloodmeals. PMID:20100490

Brackney, Doug E; Isoe, Jun; W C, Black; Zamora, Jorge; Foy, Brian D; Miesfeld, Roger L; Olson, Ken E

2010-07-01

350

Sublethal effect of pyriproxyfen released from a fumigant formulation on fecundity, fertility, and ovicidal action in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity ofAe. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population. PMID:24724294

Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

2014-03-01

351

Role of UPR Pathway in Defense Response of Aedes aegypti against Cry11Aa Toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis  

PubMed Central

The insecticidal Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis that disrupt insect-midgut cells. Cells can trigger different survival mechanisms to counteract the effects of sub-lytic doses of pore forming toxins. Particularly, two signaling pathways have been demonstrated to play a role in the defense mechanism to other toxins in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. These are the unfolded protein response (UPR) and the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP) pathways, which are proposed to facilitate membrane repair responses. In this work we analyzed the role of these pathways in Aedes aegypti response to intoxication with Cry11Aa toxin. We show that UPR is activated upon toxin ingestion. The role of these two pathways was analyzed in vivo by using RNA interference. We silenced the expression of specific proteins in A. aegypti larvae. Gene silencing of Ire-1 and Xbp-1 proteins from UPR system, resulted in hypersensitive to Cry11Aa toxin action. In contrast, silencing of Cas-1, Scap and S2P from SREBP pathway had no affect on Cry11Aa toxicity in A. aegypti larvae. However, the role of SREBP pathway requires further studies to be conclusive. Our data indicate that the UPR pathway is involved in the insect defense against Cry toxins. PMID:23594997

Bedoya-Pérez, Leidy P.; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Flores-Escobar, Biviana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

2013-01-01

352

The impact of temperature on the bionomics of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti, with special reference to the cool geographic range margins.  

PubMed

The mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.), which occurs widely in the subtropics and tropics, is the primary urban vector of dengue and yellow fever viruses, and an important vector of chikungunya virus. There is substantial interest in how climate change may impact the bionomics and pathogen transmission potential of this mosquito. This Forum article focuses specifically on the effects of temperature on the bionomics of Ae. aegypti, with special emphasis on the cool geographic range margins where future rising temperatures could facilitate population growth. Key aims are to: 1) broadly define intra-annual (seasonal) patterns of occurrence and abundance of Ae. aegypti, and their relation to climate conditions; 2) synthesize the existing quantitative knowledge of how temperature impacts the bionomics of different life stages of Ae. aegypti; 3) better define the temperature ranges for which existing population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti are likely to produce robust predictions; 4) explore potential impacts of climate warming on human risk for exposure to Ae. aegypti at its cool range margins; and 5) identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its geographic range now and in the future. We first outline basic scenarios for intra-annual occurrence and abundance patterns for Ae. aegypti, and then show that these scenarios segregate with regard to climate conditions in selected cities where they occur. We then review how near-constant and intentionally fluctuating temperatures impact development times and survival of eggs and immatures. A subset of data, generated in controlled experimental studies, from the published literature is used to plot development rates and survival of eggs, larvae, and pupae in relation to water temperature. The general shape of the relationship between water temperature and development rate is similar for eggs, larvae, and pupae. Once the lower developmental zero temperature (10-14 degrees C) is exceeded, there is a near-linear relationship up to 30 degrees C. Above this temperature, the development rate is relatively stable or even decreases slightly before falling dramatically near the upper developmental zero temperature, which occurs at -38-42 degrees C. Based on life stage-specific linear relationships between water temperature and development rate in the 15-28 degrees C range, the lower developmental zero temperature is estimated to be 14.0 degrees C for eggs, 11.8 degrees C for larvae, and 10.3 degrees C for pupae. We further conclude that available population dynamics models for Ae. aegypti, such as CIMSiM and Skeeter Buster, likely produce robust predictions based on water temperatures in the 16-35 degrees C range, which includes the geographic areas where Ae. aegypti and its associated pathogens present the greatest threat to human health, but that they may be less reliable in cool range margins where water temperatures regularly fall below 15 degrees C. Finally, we identify knowledge or data gaps that hinder our ability to predict risk of human exposure to Ae. aegypti at the cool margins of its range, now and in the future, based on impacts on mosquito population dynamics of temperature and other important factors, such as water nutrient content, larval density, presence of biological competitors, and human behavior. PMID:24897844

Eisen, Lars; Monaghan, Andrew J; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Steinhoff, Daniel F; Hayden, Mary H; Bieringer, Paul E

2014-05-01

353

La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus. PMID:23270172

Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

2012-11-01

354

Insecticidal and genotoxic potential of two semi-synthetic derivatives of dillapiole for the control of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The effects of two semi-synthetic dillapiole derivatives, ethyl-ether dillapiole and n-butyl ether dillapiole, on eggs and larvae of Aedes aegypti were studied in view of the need for expansion and renovation of strategic action to control this mosquito - the vector of Dengue virus -, which currently shows a high resistance to chemical insecticides. Eggs and third-instar larvae of A. aegypti that had been exposed to different concentrations of these two compounds showed toxicity and susceptibility, with 100% mortality. Classical cytogenetic assays showed genotoxicity caused by the two compounds in A. aegypti from the cumulative effect of nuclear abnormalities, indicating that these derivatives may be potential alternatives to control A. aegypti. PMID:25308546

Domingos, Pedro Rauel Cândido; da Silva Pinto, Ana Cristina; dos Santos, Joselita Maria Mendes; Rafael, Míriam Silva

2014-09-15

355

Effects of marking methods and fluorescent dusts on Aedes aegypti survival  

PubMed Central

Background Tracking the movement of mosquitoes and understanding dispersal dynamics is essential for the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases. A variety of marking techniques have been used, including dusts and dyes. Methods In this study, Aedes aegypti were marked using fluorescent dusts (‘DayGlo’: A-19 Horizon Blue & A-13-N Rocket Red; ‘Brian Clegg’: pink, blue & red), fluorescent paints (‘Brian Clegg’: blue, red & yellow) and metallic gold dust (‘Brian Clegg’). Dusting methods were those previously used in mark-release-recapture experiments, including application with a bulb duster, creation of a dust storm or shaking in a bag. Results Results showed marking mosquitoes using a dust storm allowed relatively high survival, compared to unmarked controls (Males: ?2?=?3.24, df?=?4, p?=?0.07; Females: ?2?=?3.24, df?=?4, p?=?0.04), and high marking efficiency. Using a bulb duster showed high survival in male mosquitoes (?2?=?12.59, df?=?4, p?

2014-01-01

356

Wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Veracruz state Mexico.  

PubMed

Seven F1 strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and z-cypermethrin. The New Orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. Mortality rates after a 1 h exposure and after a 24 h recovery period were determined. The resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (RR(KC50)) of the F1 and New Orleans strains indicated high levels of knockdown resistance. The RR(KC50) with alpha-cypermethrin varied from 10 to 100 among strains indicating high levels of knockdown resistance. Most of the strains had moderate resistance to d-phenothrin. Significant but much lower levels of resistance were detected for lambda-cyalothrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin. For zeta-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, only one strain exhibited resistance with RR(KC50) values of 10- and 21-fold, respectively. None of the strains showed RR(KC50) >10 with deltamethrin, and moderate resistance was seen in three strains, while the rest were susceptible. Mosquitoes from all strains exhibited some recovery from all pyrethroids except d-phenothrin. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between RR(LC50) and RR(KC50). Both were highly correlated (R2 = 0.84-0.97) so that the slope could be used to determine how much additional pyrethroid was needed to ensure lethality. Slopes ranged from 0.875 for d-phenothrin (RR(LC50) approximately equal to RR(KC50)) to 8.67 for lambda-cyalothrin (-8.5-fold more insecticide needed to kill). Both RR(LC50) and RR(KC50) values were highly correlated for all pyrethroids except bifenthrin indicating strong cross-resistance. Bifenthrin appears to be an alternative pyrethroid without strong cross-resistance that could be used as an alternative to the current widespread use of permethrin in Mexico. PMID:23786088

Flores, Adriana E; Ponce, Gustavo; Silva, Brenda G; Gutierrez, Selene M; Bobadilla, Cristina; Lopez, Beatriz; Mercado, Roberto; Black, William C

2013-04-01

357

Field Validation of a Transcriptional Assay for the Prediction of Age of Uncaged Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Northern Australia  

PubMed Central

Background New strategies to eliminate dengue have been proposed that specifically target older Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the proportion of the vector population that is potentially capable of transmitting dengue viruses. Evaluation of these strategies will require accurate and high-throughput methods of predicting mosquito age. We previously developed an age prediction assay for individual Ae. aegypti females based on the transcriptional profiles of a selection of age responsive genes. Here we conducted field testing of the method on Ae. aegypti that were entirely uncaged and free to engage in natural behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced “free-range” test specimens by releasing 8007 adult Ae. aegypti inside and around an isolated homestead in north Queensland, Australia, and recapturing females at two day intervals. We applied a TaqMan probe-based assay design that enabled high-throughput quantitative RT-PCR of four transcripts from three age-responsive genes and a reference gene. An age prediction model was calibrated on mosquitoes maintained in small sentinel cages, in which 68.8% of the variance in gene transcription measures was explained by age. The model was then used to predict the ages of the free-range females. The relationship between the predicted and actual ages achieved an R2 value of 0.62 for predictions of females up to 29 days old. Transcriptional profiles and age predictions were not affected by physiological variation associated with the blood feeding/egg development cycle and we show that the age grading method could be applied to differentiate between two populations of mosquitoes having a two-fold difference in mean life expectancy. Conclusions/Significance The transcriptional profiles of age responsive genes facilitated age estimates of near-wild Ae. aegypti females. Our age prediction assay for Ae. aegypti provides a useful tool for the evaluation of mosquito control interventions against dengue where mosquito survivorship or lifespan reduction are crucial to their success. The approximate cost of the method was US$7.50 per mosquito and 60 mosquitoes could be processed in 3 days. The assay is based on conserved genes and modified versions are likely to support similar investigations of several important mosquito and other disease vectors. PMID:20186322

Hugo, Leon E.; Cook, Peter E.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Rapley, Luke P.; Kay, Brian H.; Ryan, Peter A.; Ritchie, Scott A.; O'Neill, Scott L.

2010-01-01

358

Larvicidal activity of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) (Family: Rubiaceae) leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia leaf extract was tested for larvicidal activity against three medically important mosquito vectors such as malarial vector Anopheles stephensi, dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. From the leaf, 1-kg powder was macerated with 3.0 L of hexane, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water sequentially for a period of 72 h each and filtered. The yield of extracts was hexane (13.56 g), chloroform (15.21 g), acetone (12.85 g), methanol (14.76 g), and water (12.92 g), respectively. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary vacuum evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The M. citrifolia leaf extract at 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 ppm caused a significant mortality of three mosquito species. Hexane, chloroform, acetone, and water caused moderate considerable mortality; however, the highest larval mortality was methanolic extract, observed in three mosquito vectors. The larval mortality was observed after 24-h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The third larvae of Anopheles stephensi had values of LC(50) = 345.10, 324.26, 299.97, 261.96, and 284.59 ppm and LC(90) = 653.00, 626.58, 571.89, 505.06, and 549.51 ppm, respectively. The Aedes aegypti had values of LC(50) = 361.75, 343.22, 315.40, 277.92, and 306.98 ppm and LC(90) = 687.39, 659.02, 611.35, 568.18, and 613.25 ppm, respectively. The Culex quinquefasciatus had values of LC(50) = 382.96, 369.85, 344.34, 330.42, and 324.64 ppm and LC(90) = 726.18, 706.57, 669.28, 619.63, and 644.47 ppm, respectively. The results of the leaf extract of M. citrifolia are promising as good larvicidal activity against the mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. This is a new eco-friendly approach for the control of vector control programs. Therefore, this study provides first report on the larvicidal activities against three species of mosquito vectors of this plant extracts from India. PMID:22740293

Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Shanthakumar, Shanmugam Perumal; Vincent, Savariar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

2012-10-01

359

Cloning and functional characterization of inward-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels from Malpighian tubules of the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

PubMed Central

Inward-rectifying K+ (Kir) channels play critical physiological roles in a variety of vertebrate cells/tissues, including the regulation of membrane potential in nerve and muscle, and the transepithelial transport of ions in osmoregulatory epithelia, such as kidneys and gills. It remains to be determined whether Kir channels play similar physiological roles in insects. In the present study, we sought to 1) clone the cDNAs of Kir channel subunits expressed in the renal (Malpighian) tubules of the mosquito Aedes aegypti, and 2) characterize the electrophysiological properties of the cloned Kir subunits when expressed heterologously in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. Here, we reveal that three Kir subunits are expressed abundantly in Aedes Malpighian tubules (AeKir1, AeKir2B, and AeKir3); each of their full-length cDNAs was cloned. Heterologous expression of the AeKir1 or the AeKir2B subunits in Xenopus oocytes elicits inward-rectifying K+ currents that are blocked by barium. Relative to the AeKir2B-expressing oocytes, the AeKir1-expressing oocytes 1) produce larger macroscopic currents, and 2) exhibit a modulation of their conductive properties by extracellular Na+. Attempts to functionally characterize the AeKir3 subunit in Xenopus oocytes were unsuccessful. Lastly, we show that in isolated Aedes Malpighian tubules, the cation permeability sequence of the basolateral membrane of principal cells (Tl+ > K+ > Rb+ > NH4+) is consistent with the presence of functional Kir channels. We conclude that in Aedes Malpighian tubules, Kir channels contribute to the majority of the barium-sensitive transepithelial transport of K+. PMID:23085358

Piermarini, Peter M.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Schepel, Matthew; Kosse, Christin; Beyenbach, Klaus W.

2013-01-01

360

Bromeliad-inhabiting mosquitoes in an urban botanical garden of dengue endemic Rio de Janeiro--are bromeliads productive habitats for the invasive vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus?  

PubMed

Immatures of both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus have been found in water-holding bromeliad axils in Brazil. Removal of these plants or their treatment with insecticides in public and private gardens have been undertaken during dengue outbreaks in Brazil despite uncertainty as to their importance as productive habitats for dengue vectors. From March 2005-February 2006, we sampled 120 randomly selected bromeliads belonging to 10 species in a public garden less than 200 m from houses in a dengue-endemic neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 2,816 mosquito larvae and pupae was collected, with an average of 5.87 immatures per plant per collection. Culex (Microculex) pleuristriatus and Culex spp of the Ocellatus Group were the most abundant culicid species, found in all species of bromeliads; next in relative abundance were species of the genus Wyeomyia. Only two individuals of Ae. aegypti (0.07%) and five of Ae. albopictus(0.18%) were collected from bromeliads. By contrast, immatures of Ae. aegypti were found in manmade containers in nearly 5% of nearby houses. These results demonstrate that bromeliads are not important producers of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and, hence, should not be a focus for dengue control. However, the results of this study of only one year in a single area may not represent outcomes in other urban localities where bromeliads, Ae. aegypti and dengue coincide in more disturbed habitats. PMID:20140379

Mocellin, Márcio Goulart; Simões, Taynãna César; Nascimento, Teresa Fernandes Silva do; Teixeira, Maria Lucia França; Lounibos, Leon Philip; Oliveira, Ricardo Lourenço de

2009-12-01

361

The salivary gland-specific apyrase of the mosquito Aedes aegypti is a member of the 5'-nucleotidase family.  

PubMed Central

The saliva of hematophagous insects contains a variety of pharmacologically active substances that counteract the normal hemostatic response to injury in vertebrate hosts. The yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, secretes an apyrase that inhibits ADP-dependent platelet aggregation. Apyrase was purified as an active enzyme from adult female salivary glands and subjected to tryptic digestion, and the resulting peptides were sequenced. The amino acid sequences obtained match the conceptual translation product of a cDNA clone isolated from an adult female salivary gland library. Sequence comparisons indicate similarities with a ubiquitous family of 5'-nucleotidases. The mosquito protein differs from other members of the family by lacking a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic domain. The apparent conversion of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in a common metabolic event at the cellular level to a gene involved in the antihemostatic response of mosquitoes illustrates one way this particular insect has adapted to the challenges of bloodfeeding. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7846038

Champagne, D E; Smartt, C T; Ribeiro, J M; James, A A

1995-01-01

362

Isolation and identification of mosquito (Aedes aegypti ) biting deterrent fatty acids from male inflorescences of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg).  

PubMed

Dried male inflorescences of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis , Moraceae) are burned in communities throughout Oceania to repel flying insects, including mosquitoes. This study was conducted to identify chemicals responsible for mosquito deterrence. Various crude extracts were evaluated, and the most active, the hydrodistillate, was used for bioassay-guided fractionation. The hydrodistillate and all fractions displayed significant deterrent activity. Exploratory GC-MS analysis revealed more than 100 distinctive peaks, and more than 30 compounds were putatively identified, including a mixture of terpenes, aldehydes, fatty acids, and aromatics. A systematic bioassay-directed study using adult Aedes aegypti females identified capric, undecanoic, and lauric acid as primary deterrent constituents. A synthetic mixture of fatty acids present in the most active fraction and individual fatty acids were all significantly more active than N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). These results provide support for this traditional practice and indicate the potential of male breadfruit flowers and fatty acids as mosquito repellents. PMID:22420541

Jones, A Maxwell P; Klun, Jerome A; Cantrell, Charles L; Ragone, Diane; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Brown, Paula N; Murch, Susan J

2012-04-18

363

Use of anti-Aedes aegypti salivary extract antibody concentration to correlate risk of vector exposure and dengue transmission risk in Colombia.  

PubMed

Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an "Ae. aegypti-free" area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence. PMID:24312537

Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C; Cardenas, Lucio D; Christofferson, Rebecca C; Chisenhall, Daniel M; Wesson, Dawn M; McCracken, Michael K; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N

2013-01-01

364

Use of Anti-Aedes aegypti Salivary Extract Antibody Concentration to Correlate Risk of Vector Exposure and Dengue Transmission Risk in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Norte de Santander is a region in Colombia with a high incidence of dengue virus (DENV). In this study, we examined the serum concentration of anti-Aedes salivary gland extract (SGE) antibodies as a biomarker of DENV infection and transmission, and assessed the duration of anti-SGE antibody concentration after exposure to the vector ceased. We also determined whether SGE antibody concentration could differentiate between positive and negative DENV infected individuals and whether there are differences in exposure for each DENV serotype. We observed a significant decrease in the concentration of IgG antibodies at least 40 days after returning to an “Ae. aegypti-free” area. In addition, we found significantly higher anti-SGE IgG concentrations in DENV positive patients with some difference in exposure to mosquito bites among DENV serotypes. We conclude that the concentration of IgG antibodies against SGE is an accurate indicator of risk of dengue virus transmission and disease presence. PMID:24312537

Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Cardenas, Lucio D.; Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Chisenhall, Daniel M.; Wesson, Dawn M.; McCracken, Michael K.; Carvajal, Daisy; Mores, Christopher N.

2013-01-01

365

The effect of temperature and humidity on dengue virus propagation in Aedes aegypti mosquitos.  

PubMed

The effect of temperature and relative humidity on dengue virus propagation in the mosquito as one of the possible contributing factors to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks was studied. Ae. aegypti mosquitos were reared under standard conditions and inoculated intrathoracically with dengue virus. Virus propagation in the mosquitos was determined at the temperature and relative humidity of all 3 seasons of Yangon and for the simulated temperature and relative humidity of Singapore. The virus propagation was detected by direct fluorescent antibody technique (DFAT) with mosquito head squash and the virus titer was determined by plaque forming unit test (PFUT) in baby hamster kidney-21 cells. The results show that the infected mosquitos kept under the conditions of the rainy season and under the simulated conditions of Singapore had a significantly higher virus titer (p=<0.05) when compared with the other 2 seasons of Yangon. So it is thought that the temperature and relative humidity of the rainy season of Yangon and that of Singapore favors dengue virus propagation in the mosquito and is one of the contributing factors to the occurence of DHF outbreaks. PMID:9886113

Thu, H M; Aye, K M; Thein, S

1998-06-01

366

Linking Oviposition Site Choice to Offspring Fitness in Aedes aegypti: Consequences for Targeted Larval Control of Dengue Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Current Aedes aegypti larval control methods are often insufficient for preventing dengue epidemics. To improve control efficiency and cost-effectiveness, some advocate eliminating or treating only highly productive containers. The population-level outcome of this strategy, however, will depend on details of Ae. aegypti oviposition behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings We simultaneously monitored female oviposition and juvenile development in 80 experimental containers located across 20 houses in Iquitos, Peru, to test the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti oviposit preferentially in sites with the greatest potential for maximizing offspring fitness. Females consistently laid more eggs in large vs. small containers (??=?9.18, p<0.001), and in unmanaged vs. manually filled containers (??=?5.33, p<0.001). Using microsatellites to track the development of immature Ae. aegypti, we found a negative correlation between oviposition preference and pupation probability (??=??3.37, p<0.001). Body size of emerging adults was also negatively associated with the preferred oviposition site characteristics of large size (females: ??=??0.19, p<0.001; males: ??=??0.11, p?=?0.002) and non-management (females: ??=??0.17, p<0.001; males: ??=??0.11, p<0.001). Inside a semi-field enclosure, we simulated a container elimination campaign targeting the most productive oviposition sites. Compared to the two post-intervention trials, egg batches were more clumped during the first pre-intervention trial (??=??0.17, P<0.001), but not the second (??=?0.01, p?=?0.900). Overall, when preferred containers were unavailable, the probability that any given container received eggs increased (??=?1.36, p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance Ae. aegypti oviposition site choice can contribute to population regulation by limiting the production and size of adults. Targeted larval control strategies may unintentionally lead to dispersion of eggs among suitable, but previously unoccupied or under-utilized containers. We recommend integrating targeted larval control measures with other strategies that leverage selective oviposition behavior, such as luring ovipositing females to gravid traps or egg sinks. PMID:22563512

Wong, Jacklyn; Morrison, Amy C.; Stoddard, Steven T.; Astete, Helvio; Chu, Yui Yin; Baseer, Imaan; Scott, Thomas W.

2012-01-01

367

Effect of Insecticide Resistance on Development, Longevity and Reproduction of Field or Laboratory Selected Aedes aegypti Populations  

PubMed Central

Aedes aegypti dispersion is the major reason for the increase in dengue transmission in South America. In Brazil, control of this mosquito strongly relies on the use of pyrethroids and organophosphates against adults and larvae, respectively. In consequence, many Ae. aegypti field populations are resistant to these compounds. Resistance has a significant adaptive value in the presence of insecticide treatment. However some selected mechanisms can influence important biological processes, leading to a high fitness cost in the absence of insecticide pressure. We investigated the dynamics of insecticide resistance and its potential fitness cost in five field populations and in a lineage selected for deltamethrin resistance in the laboratory, for nine generations. For all populations the life-trait parameters investigated were larval development, sex ratio, adult longevity, relative amount of ingested blood, rate of ovipositing females, size of egglaying and eggs viability. In the five natural populations, the effects on the life-trait parameters were discrete but directly proportional to resistance level. In addition, several viability parameters were strongly affected in the laboratory selected population compared to its unselected control. Our results suggest that mechanisms selected for organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance caused the accumulation of alleles with negative effects on different life-traits and corroborate the hypothesis that insecticide resistance is associated with a high fitness cost. PMID:22431967

Bellinato, Diogo Fernandes; Peixoto, Alexandre Afranio; Valle, Denise; Lima, José Bento Pereira

2012-01-01

368

Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.  

PubMed

New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys. PMID:19058645

Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

2008-11-01

369

Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. The identification of the rate-limiting binding steps of Cry toxins that are used for insect control in the field, such as those of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, should provide targets for improving insecticides against important insect pests. Previous studies showed that Cry11Aa binds to cadherin receptor fragment CR7-11 (cadherin repeats 7-11) with high affinity. Binding to cadherin has been proposed to facilitate Cry toxin oligomer formation. In the present study, we show that Cry4Ba binds to CR7-11 with 9-fold lower binding affinity compared with Cry11Aa. Oligomerization assays showed that Cry4Ba is capable of forming oligomers when proteolytically activated in vitro in the absence of the CR7-11 fragment in contrast with Cry11Aa that formed oligomers only in the presence of CR7-11. Pore-formation assays in planar lipid bilayers showed that Cry4Ba oligomers were proficient in opening ion channels. Finally, silencing the cadherin gene by dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) showed that silenced larvae were more tolerant to Cry11Aa in contrast with Cry4Ba, which showed similar toxic levels to those of control larvae. These findings show that cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Cry4Ba toxicity to A. aegypti larvae. PMID:22329749

Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Reyes, Esmeralda Z; Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Gómez, Isabel; Evans, Amy M; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

2012-05-01

370

Large indoor cage study of the suppression of stable Aedes aegypti populations by the release of thiotepa-sterilised males  

PubMed Central

The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. In this study, we determined the efficacy of thiotepa-sterilised males in reducing the target Aedes aegypti populations. Treated male pupae were released weekly into large laboratory cages at a constant ratio of either 5:1 or 2:1 sterile-to-fertile males. A two-to-one release ratio reduced the hatch rate of eggs laid in the cage by approximately a third and reduced the adult catch rate by approximately a quarter, but a 5:1 release drove the population to elimination after 15 weeks of release. These results indicate that thiotepa exposure is an effective means of sterilising Ae. aegypti and males thus treated are able to reduce the reproductive capacity of a stable population under laboratory conditions. Further testing of the method in semi-field enclosures is required to evaluate the mating competitiveness of sterile males when exposed to natural environmental conditions. If proven effective, SIT using thiotepa-sterilised males may be incorporated into an integrated programme of vector control to combat dengue in Cuba. PMID:24863972

Gato, René; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Bruzon, Rosa Y; Companioni, Ariamys; Menendez, Zulema; González, Aileen; Rodríguez, Misladys

2014-01-01

371

Effect of peridomestic environments on repeated infestation by preadult Aedes aegypti in urban premises in Nha Trang City, Vietnam.  

PubMed

To determine the effect of peridomestic environments on Aedes aegypti infestation in urban premises, we conducted two consecutive surveys in the hot-dry and cool-wet seasons. Most Ae. aegypti pupae (79%) were recovered from premises where preadult forms (larvae and/or pupae) had been detected in both surveys. Hence, repeated infestation appears to be a useful parameter to identify premises associated with a high potential risk of dengue transmission. Multivariate analysis revealed that not only the persistent presence of containers discarded outdoors, wells, large plastic buckets, jars, and concrete toilet basins in the premises (adjusted odds ratios [aORs] = 63.3, 23.3, 22.5, 6.6, and 5.6, respectively) but also the presence of six or more residents was significantly associated with repeated infestation (aOR = 6.1). Premises with six or more residents along with specific container types from which a large number of pupae were recovered should be targeted in dengue-control programs. PMID:19815880

Tsuzuki, Ataru; Vu, Trong Duoc; Higa, Yukiko; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Takagi, Masahiro

2009-10-01

372

Immunotoxicity activity of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene from the Paulownia coreana Uyeki. against Aedes aegypti L.  

PubMed

The flower parts of Paulownia coreana were extracted and the major essential oils composition and immunotoxicity effects were studied. The analyses were conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed that the essential oils of P. coreana. The P. coreana essential oil (PCEO) yield was 0.175%, and GC/MS analysis revealed that its major constituents were benzyl alcohol (13.72%), phenol, 3,4-dimethoxy-methyl ester (3.64%), phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-popenyl)-methyl ester (6.24%), 1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene (8.32%), tricosane (3.28%), and pentacosane (3.26%). The essential oil had a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an LC(50) value of 31.64?ppm and an LC(90) value of 56.43?ppm. 1,2,4-Trimethoxybenzene was the most toxic among the major components with an LC(50) value near 23.1?ppm. The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural immunotoxicity agents against A. aegypti. PMID:20476845

Chung, Ill-Min; Moon, Hyung-In

2011-03-01

373

Estimation of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) population size and adult male survival in an urban area in Panama  

PubMed Central

Traditional mosquito control strategies rely heavily on the use of chemical insecticides. However, concerns about the efficiency of traditional control methods, environmental impact and emerging pesticide resistance have highlighted the necessity for developing innovative tools for mosquito control. Some novel strategies, including release of insects carrying a dominant lethal gene (RIDL®), rely on the sustained release of modified male mosquitoes and therefore benefit from a thorough understanding of the biology of the male of the species. In this report we present the results of a mark-release-recapture study aimed at: (i) establishing the survival in the field of laboratory-reared, wild-type male Aedes aegypti and (b) estimating the size of the local adult Ae. aegypti population. The study took place in Panama, a country where recent increases in the incidence and severity of dengue cases have prompted health authorities to evaluate alternative strategies for vector control. Results suggest a life expectancy of 2.3 days for released male mosquitoes (confidence interval: 1.78-2.86). Overall, the male mosquito population was estimated at 58 males/ha (range 12-81 males/ha), which can be extrapolated to an average of 0.64 pupae/person for the study area. The practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25410991

Neira, Marco; Lacroix, Renaud; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Kaiser, Paul E; Young, Josue; Pineda, Lleysa; Black, Isaac; Sosa, Nestor; Nimmo, Derric; Alphey, Luke; McKemey, Andrew

2014-01-01

374

Phylogeography of Aedes aegypti (Yellow Fever Mosquito) in South Florida: mtDNA Evidence for Human-Aided Dispersal  

PubMed Central

The invasive dengue vector Aedes aegypti has persisted for > 200 years in South Florida in the United States. We tested the hypotheses that Florida’s landscape creates dispersal barriers and corridors and that long-distance human-aided dispersal structures populations of Ae. aegypti. We evaluated the phylogeography of 362 individuals from Florida’s East and West Coasts with a 760-bp (418- and 342-bp fragments of ND5 and ND4, respectively) mitochondrial sequence. Populations from these two coasts were not significantly differentiated, suggesting that limited urbanization in central Florida is not a strong barrier to gene flow. Evidence for long-distance dispersal between Ft. Lauderdale and the West and Ft. Myers and the East indicates the importance of human-aided dispersal. West Coast populations showed no genetic differentiation, indicating that West Coast rivers and bays did not significantly impede gene flow. Phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes showed two distinct matrilines with no geographic patterns, suggesting multiple introductions or balancing selection. PMID:23918216

Damal, Kavitha; Murrell, Ebony G.; Juliano, Steven A.; Conn, Jan E.; Loew, Sabine S.

2013-01-01

375

Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping of quantitative trait loci for malaria parasite susceptibility in the mosquito Aedes aegypti  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of the mosquito Aedes aegypti to the malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum was investigated as a quantitative trait using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP). Two F{sub 2} populations of mosquitoes were independently prepared from pairwise matings between a highly susceptible and a refractory strain of A. aegypti. RFLP were tested for association with oocyst development on the mosquito midgut. Two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified that significantly affect susceptibility. One QTL, pgs [2,LF98], is located on chromosome 2 and accounted for 65 and 49% of the observed phenotypic variance in the two populations, respectively. A second QTL, pgs[3,MalI], is located on chromosome 3 and accounted for 14 and 10% of the observed phenotypic variance in the two populations, respectively. Both QTL exhibit a partial dominance effect on susceptibility, wherein the dominance effect is derived from the refractory parent. No indication of epistasis between these QTL was detected. Evidence suggests that either a tightly linked cluster of independent genes or a single locus affecting susceptibility to various mosquito-borne parasites and pathogens has evolved near the LF98 locus; in addition to P. gallinaceum susceptibility, this general genome region has previously been implicated in susceptibility to the filaria nematode Brugia malayi and the yellow fever virus. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Severson, D.W.; Thathy, V.; Mori, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

376

Analysis of whole body ammonia metabolism in Aedes aegypti using [15N]-labeled compounds and mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We have established a protocol to study the kinetics of incorporation of 15N into glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) in Aedes aegypti females. Mosquitoes were fed 3% sucrose solutions containing either 80 mM 15NH4Cl or 80 mM glutamine labeled with 15N in either the amide nitrogen or in both amide and amine nitrogens. In some experiments, specific inhibitors of glutamine synthetase or glutamate synthase were added to the feeding solutions. At different times post feeding, which varied between 0 and 96 h, the mosquitoes were immersed in liquid nitrogen and then processed. These samples plus deuterium labeled internal standards were derivatized as dimethylformamidine isobutyl esters or isobutyl esters. The quantification of 15N-labeled and unlabeled amino acids was performed by using mass spectrometry techniques. The results indicated that the rate of incorporation of 15N into amino acids was rapid and that the label first appeared in the amide side chain of Gln and then in the amino group of Gln, Glu, Ala and Pro. The addition of inhibitors of key enzymes related to the ammonia metabolism confirmed that mosquitoes efficiently metabolize ammonia through a metabolic route that mainly involves glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GltS). Moreover, a complete deduced amino acid sequence for GltS of Ae. aegypti was determined. The sequence analysis revealed that mosquito glutamate synthase belongs to the category of NADH-dependent GltS. PMID:16876704

Scaraffia, Patricia Y; Zhang, Qingfen; Wysocki, Vicki H; Isoe, Jun; Wells, Michael A

2006-08-01

377

Residual treatment of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in containers using pyriproxyfen slow-release granules (Sumilarv 0.5G).  

PubMed

The residual efficacy of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti (L.) was examined by treating 2-liter buckets with a range of rates of Sumilarv 0.5G (100, 10, 1, and 0.1 mg product/liter or nominal dose of 500, 50, 5, and 0.5 ppb active ingredient) under semifield conditions. Approximately every 2 wk, pupal emergence inhibition (EI) was measured by using Cairns colony Ae. aegypti. Pooled water samples from the five replicate buckets were analyzed for active pyriproxyfen by using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. A strong dose-response in EI was exhibited, with the 0.1 mg/liter giving approximately 50% EI for only the initial week, whereas the 10 and 100 mg/liter doses produced EI > 90% for 8 and 40 wk, respectively. Measurable levels of active ingredient were detected in the 100, 10, and 1 mg/liter treatments, with measured starting concentrations of just 1-2-1.4% of the delivered (active ingredient) dose. Pyriproxyfen was detected in the 100 mg/liter treatment through the entire course of the trial (60 wk). PMID:24180124

Ritchie, Scott A; Paton, Chris; Buhagiar, Tamara; Webb, Garry A; Jovic, Vladan

2013-09-01

378

Synergistic actions of formamidine insecticides on the activity of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Formamidines are unique insecticides and acaricides that elicit multiple effects in controlling insects. Here, we tested two formamidines, amitraz, and chlordimeform, for their synergistic actions on type II pyrethroids and neonicotinoids to increase their larvicidal actions on the fourth instars of Aedes aegypti L. An organophosphate insecticide was used as a negative control. After 24 h, the synergism of formamidines was highest on imidacloprid, followed by two type II pyrethroids, deltamethrin and fenvalerate. After 48 h, the synergism of formamidines on imidacloprid decreased, remained unchanged on type II pyrethroids, and increased noticeably on two of the newer type neonicotinoids, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam. By 72 h, synergism of formamidines on dinotefuran reached the maximum, while that on imidacloprid was at a minimum. Both formamidines did not show synergistic effects on permethrin or fenitrothion. In all cases, the synergistic effects of amitraz on the two major classes of larvicides were greater than for chlordimeform. These results indicate that amitraz is a promising synergist that shows the potential to increase the efficacy of certain members of type II pyrethroids as well as neonicotinoids to control Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:23270169

Ahmed, M A I; Matsumura, F