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Sample records for aegle marmelos unripe

  1. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. However, despite its traditional usage as an anti-diarrhoeal there is limited information regarding its mode of action in infectious forms of diarrhoea. Hence, we evaluated the hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos for its antimicrobial activity and effect on various aspects of pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. Methods The decoction was assessed for its antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities. The effect of the decoction on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells were assessed as a measure of its effect on colonization. The effect of the decoction on production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid receptor (GM1) were assessed by GM1-enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay whereas its effect on production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction showed cidal activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viability of none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. It significantly reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells. The extract also affected production of CT and binding of both LT and CT to GM1. However, it had no effect on ST. Conclusion The decoction of the unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos, despite having limited antimicrobial activity, affected the bacterial colonization to gut epithelium and production and action of certain enterotoxins. These observations suggest the varied possible modes of action of A. marmelos in infectious forms of diarrhoea thereby validating its mention in the ancient Indian texts and continued use by local communities for the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:19930633

  2. Antioxidant properties and stability of aegle marmelos leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vanitha P; Urooj, Asna

    2013-02-01

    Aegle marmelos (AM) leaves were extracted with methanol (ME), ethanol (EE), water (WE) and analyzed for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power and in vitro inhibition by Fenton's reagent-induced oxidation of lipid system. Stability of extracts to pH (4, 7 and 9) and temperature (100 °C, 15 min.) was studied. The three extracts showed varying degree of efficacy in each assay in a dose dependent manner. The inhibition of MDA formation in Linseed oil by EE (47%) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than WE (28%) and ME (23%) but less than α- Tocopherol (80%). WE showed maximum stability to high temperature. The antioxidant activity of EE at pH 4 was significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with WE and ME. At pH 7, the antioxidant activity of all the three extracts remained unchanged. Data indicates that potential exists for the utilization of Aegle marmelos as a natural antioxidant. PMID:24425898

  3. Aegle marmelos fruit extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Krushna, Gadham Setty Saayi; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hussain, Shaik Althaf; Devi Kodidhela, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a major public health concern and the leading cause of death throughout the world. The present study investigates the ability of Aegle marmelos fruit extract to prevent pathological changes and oxidative stress after isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats. In vitro studies showed that Aegle marmelos fruit extract possesses antioxidant activity. Administration of isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight) to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, however, cardiac tissue analyses showed decreased activity of the above enzymes compared to experimental control rats. Further, isoproterenol administration significantly increased plasma and cardiac tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and lowered the activities of cardiac tissue superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase when compared to control groups. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit extract at a dose of 150 mg/kg body weight for a period of 45 days significantly prevented the observed alterations. Our data suggest that Aegle marmelos fruit extract exerts its protective effect by decreasing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and elevating antioxidants status in isoproterenol treated rats. Both biochemical and histopathological results in the isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction model emphasize the beneficial action of Aegle marmelos fruit extract as a cardioprotective agent. PMID:22573921

  4. Biological activities of crude extracts and chemical constituents of Bael, Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.

    PubMed

    Maity, Pallab; Hansda, Dhananjay; Bandyopadhyay, Uday; Mishra, Dipak Kumar

    2009-11-01

    Bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr.) is an important medicinal plant of India. Leaves, fruits, stem and roots of A. marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its' medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysenteric, demulcent, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds purified from bael have been proven to be biologically active against several major diseases including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical studies indicate the therapeutic potential of crude extracts of A. marmelos in the treatment of many microbial diseases, diabetes and gastric ulcer. This review covers the biological activities of some isolated chemical constituents of A. marmelos and preclinical studies on some crude extracts and pure compounds to explore novel bioactive compounds for therapeutic application. PMID:20099458

  5. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  6. Phytochemical Evaluation, Antimicrobial Activity, and Determination of Bioactive Components from Leaves of Aegle marmelos

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Farina; Bajpai, Preeti; Pathak, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic value of Aegle marmelos Correa (Rutaceae), commonly known as ‘‘Bael,” has been recognized as a component of traditional medication for the treatment of various human ailments. The plant, though, being highly explored, still lacks sufficient evidences for the best variety possessing the highest degree of medicinal values. The present study is focused on phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts of 18 varieties/accessions of A. marmelos. The crude extracts of A. marmelos revealed the presence of several biologically active phytochemicals with the highest quantity of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in Pant Aparna variety. The antibacterial efficacy was investigated against pathogenic bacterial strains and the highest inhibitory activity of aqueous extract was obtained against S. epidermidis, whereas methanolic extract was found to be most potent against S. aureus at 40 mg/mL concentration. However, in aqueous : ethanol, the best results were observed against E. aerogenes followed by K. pneumonia and S. epidermidis. The MIC of aqueous and methanol extract of Aegle marmelos ranged from 10 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL whereas in aqueous : ethanol it ranged between 40 mg/mL and 160 mg/mL. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, fatty acid methyl esters, terpenoids, phenolics, and steroids that can be postulated for antibacterial activity. PMID:24900969

  7. Therapeutic Potential of the Medicinal Plant Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Correa: Insight.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology. According to the Indian conventional system of medicine, A. marmelos can successfully treat many diseases and conditions; for example, its extracts have been found to reduce the intensities of hepatic lipid peroxidation and augment the levels of hepatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. The essential oils present in the foliage (leaves), fruits, and bark of A. marmelos provide strong antifungal action. A. marmelos is thus cytoprotective, works against ulcers and diarhea, promotes skin and bone healing, and acts as a hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and anticancer agent. Such qualities have been well documented with scientific evidence. PMID:27279580

  8. Detoxifying effect of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on hematological parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    PubMed Central

    Vinodhini, Rajamanickam

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos on common carp exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of combined heavy metals (5 ppm) under laboratory conditions. The fish were treated with Nelumbo nucifera (500 mg/kg bwt) and Aegle marmelos (500 mg/kgbwt) for 30 days as a dietary supplement. The blood biochemical parameters of the fish were evaluated by analyzing the level of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration, glucose, cholesterol, iron and copper. The findings of the present investigation showed significant increase in hemoglobin (p<0.001), RBC (p<0.01) and PCV (p<0.01) of herbal drug-treated groups compared with metal-exposed fish. Conversely, glucose and cholesterol level in blood of common carp showed significant reduction compared with heavy-metal-exposed groups. All the values measured in Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos treated fish were restored comparably to control fish. Our results confirmed that Nelumbo nucifera and Aegle marmelos provide a detoxification mechanism for heavy metals in common carp. PMID:21331178

  9. Safety evaluation of aqueous extracts from Aegle marmelos and Stevia rebaudiana on reproduction of female rats.

    PubMed

    Saenphet, Kanokporn; Aritajat, Salika; Saenphet, Supap; Manosroi, Jeeradej; Manosroi, Aranya

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of a Thai medicinal plant, Aegle marmelos, and a non-caloric sweetener, Stevia rebaudiana, on the reproduction of female rats. Female rats were treated orally with aqueous extract of A. marmelos (6%) and S. rebaudiana at various concentrations (0, 0.2, 1, or 10%) for 60 days (1 ml/day) before mating. The control rats received only distilled water. At the end of the treatment period, treated females were mated with untreated males and the effects on reproduction were examined at day 14 of pregnancy. No notable abnormalities were observed in any of the pregnant rats. The number of corpus lutea, implanted and dead fetuses, as well as the sizes of the fetuses in the treated rats were not significantly different from those of the controls. Based on these results, it may be concluded that aqueous extracts of A. marmelos and S. rebaudiana at the concentrations used in this study do not alter the reproduction of female rats. PMID:17547081

  10. Aegle marmelos fruit pectin for food and pharmaceuticals: Physico-chemical, rheological and functional performance.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Manish; Kumar, Vineet; Rana, Vikas; Tiwary, A K

    2013-04-01

    Pectin is used in a number of foods as a gelling agent, thickener, texturizer, emulsifier and stabilizer. Bael fruit, obtained from Aegle marmelos, is a rich source of pectin. Bael fruit pectin (BFP) was extracted from ripe Bael fruits. The process yielded 15% (w/w) pure BFP. The swelling index decreased in the following order: water>pH 7.4>pH 6.8>pH 1.2>HCl (0.1N). Galacturonic acid content of 87.8%, degree of esterification of 47.2%, 17.3% methoxy groups, 0.29% acetyl groups and equivalent weight of 1209.5, indicate it to be a good gelling agent and easily amenable to derivatization. BFP exhibited a significant concentration-dependent prolongation of prothrombin time. The absence of hemagglutinating activity and antinutritional factors coupled with the activity to confer better emulsion capacity, stability and antimicrobial activity gives BFP a clear edge over commercial citrus pectin (CP) for exploitation as an additive in food and pharmaceuticals. PMID:23499073

  11. Gastric Mucosal Protection by Aegle Marmelos Against Gastric Mucosal Damage: Role of Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Purnima; Dutta, Shubha R.; Guha, Debjani

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells in gastric mucosa inhibits gastric acidity by increasing the gastric mucus secretion. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) ripe fruit pulp (250 mg/kg body weight) on mean ulcer index (MUI), EC cells, 5-HT content, and adherent mucosal thickness of ulcerated gastric tissue in adult albino rats. Material and Methods: Ulceration was induced by using aspirin (500 mg/kg, p.o.), cerebellar nodular lesion and applying cold-restraint stress. Results: In all cases increased MUI in gastric tissue along with decreased EC cell count was observed with concomitant decrease of 5-HT content and adherent mucosal thickness (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with AM for 14 days decreased MUI, increased EC cell count, and 5-HT content as well as adherent mucosal thickness in all ulcerated group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: AM produces gastric mucosal protection mediated by increased EC cell count and 5-HT levels. PMID:25672237

  12. Bioprospecting Endophytic Fungi and Their Metabolites from Medicinal Tree Aegle marmelos in Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Soundari, Arockiamjeyasundar Parimala Gnana; Karthiyaini, Damodharan; Preeth, Kathirvel

    2015-01-01

    The increasing emergence of lead drugs for the resistance produced by the pathogenic strains and arrival of new diseases have initiated the need for searching novel metabolites with best anticancer and antimicrobial properties than the existing one. With this view, the investigation was conducted for the isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of potential endophytic fungi of Aegle marmelos, a medicinal tree used for more than three decades, for curing various disorders. A total of 169 endophytic fungal strains obtained from sampling and among those 67 were pigmented strains. Upon antagonistic screening, five endophytic fungal strains exhibited antagonistic potentiality by inhibiting the pathogens. These five potent strains were characterized at molecular level by sequencing the amplified internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS 4 regions of rDNA and they were grouped under order Pleosporales, Eurotiales, and Capnodiales. The metabolites from the respective strains were produced in fungal culturing media and extracted using polar solvents. Further, the extracts of five endophytes manifested antimicrobial activity against tested clinical pathogens and Alternaria alternata (FC39BY), Al. citrimacularis (FC8ABr), and Curvularia australiensis (FC2AP) exhibited significant antimicrobial profile against 9 of 12 tested pathogens, showing broad spectrum activity. The antioxidant levels of all the five endophytes revealed the highest activity at least concentrations, and major activity was unveiled by the members of order Pleosporales FC2AP and FC8ABr. This research explains the value of endophytic fungal extracts and its significance of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. PMID:26539047

  13. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis leaf extract on glucose tolerance in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (Charles foster).

    PubMed

    Sachdewa, A; Raina, D; Srivastava, A K; Khemani, L D

    2001-01-01

    In an effort to test the hypoglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos and Hibiscus rosa sinensis in glucose induced hyperglycemic rats, their alcoholic leaf extracts were studied. Both the groups of animals receiving either. A. marmelos or H. rosa sinensis leaf extract for seven consecutive days, at an oral dose equivalent to 250 mg kg-1 showed significant improvements in their ability to utilize the external glucose load. Average blood glucose lowering caused by A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 67% and 39% respectively, which shows that former significantly (p < 0.001) improves the glucose tolerance curve. The magnitude of this effect showed time related variation with both the plants. Efficacy of A. marmelos and H. rosa sinensis was 71% and 41% of glybenclamide, respectively. These data throw some light on the possible mechanism of hypoglycemic activity of both the plants. The mechanism of action could be speculated partly to increased utilization of glucose, either by direct stimulation of glucose uptake or via the mediation of enhanced insulin secretion. PMID:11480352

  14. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in mice and its prevention by Aegle marmelos (an Indian medicinal plant) fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Annapurna; Jahan, Swafiya; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the chemopreventive potential of the Aegle marmelos plant on mouse skin tumorigenesis initiated by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by croton oil. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor multiplicity, and the cumulative number of papillomas, along with a significant increase in the average latent period, was recorded in mice treated orally with A. marmelos extract (AME) at peri - and post-initiation phases (i.e., 7 days before DMBA application and continued until the end of the experiment) of papillomagenesis as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Furthermore, a significant increase in catalase activity, reduced glutathione and total proteins, and a depleted level of lipid peroxidation were observed in liver and skin of AME-treated animals as compared with the carcinogen-treated controls. Thus, the oral administration of AME, at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt per day per animal, was found to be significantly effective in reducing skin tumors against chemical carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:22126618

  15. Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae), commonly known as bael, is used to treat fevers, abdomen pain, palpitation of the heart, urinary troubles, melancholia, anorexia, dyspepsia, diabetes and diarrhea in Indian traditional systems of medicine. The object of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant oxidative stress of umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside (UFG) from stem bark of Aegle marmelos Correa. in STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat. Methods Diabetes was induced in rat by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg). The rat was divided into the following groups; I – normal control, II – diabetic control, III – UFG (10 mg/kg), IV – UFG (20 mg/kg), V – UFG (40 mg/kg), VI – Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o., once a daily dose). Diabetes was measured by change the level blood glucose, plasma insulin and the oxidative stress were assessed in the liver by estimation of the level of antioxidant markers i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antihyperlipidemic effect was measured by estimation of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) cholesterol. However in a study, the increased body weight was observed and utilization of glucose was in the oral glucose tolerance test. Result Daily oral administration of different dose of UFG for 28 days showed significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in fasting blood glucose level and improve plasma insulin level as compared to the diabetic control group. Also it significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the level of glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of hexokinase. UFG treatment decreased liver MDA and increased the level of SOD, GPx and CAT. UFG treatment of lipids it’s increased the level of cholesterol

  16. Pharmacological rational of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos L. as an anti-nociceptive agent in different painful conditions.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiq-ur; Imran, Hina; Taqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Sohail, Tehmina; Yaqeen, Zahra; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat

    2015-03-01

    The aim of study is to investigate central and peripheral analgesic effects of methanolic extract of dry ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos Linn. Corea (Am. Cr) by two methods, tail flick test and acetic acid induced writhing test at 100, 250 and 500mg/kg doses in animal models. Analgesic activity against tail flick test revealed that Am. Cr induced significant increase in latency period in dose dependent manner i.e. 65.38% at 100mg/kg, 395.37% at 250mg/kg (p<0.01) and 459.25% at 500mg/kg (p<0.01) body weight at 1hr after drug delivery while at 2hr effect decreased i.e. 61.53% at 100mg/kg, 161.11% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 165.74% (p<0.01) at 500mg/kg but interestingly again there is an elongation in latency period at 3hr i.e. 106.15% at 100mg/kg dose, 251.85% (p<0.01) at 250mg/kg and 293.51% (p<0.05) at 500mg/kg respectively. The standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 5mg/kg continuously increased the latency period but less significantly as compared to the test substance i.e. 79.43%, 113.08% and 222.42% (p<0.05) respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test produced highest significant activity at the dose of 100mg/kg i.e. 89.83% (p<0.01) as compared to Diclofenic sodium (standard drug) at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight i.e 63.63% (p<0.01). It is concluded that dry ripe fruit of A. marmelos possesses significant dual analgesic activities i.e. central and peripheral. PMID:25730807

  17. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Kaith, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  18. Effects of marmin, a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa, on contraction of the guinea pig-isolated trachea.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Anas, Yance; Arsito, Puguh Novi; Wibowo, Joko Tri; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah

    2011-10-01

    Marmin or 7-(6',7'-dihydroxygeranyl-oxy)coumarin is a compound isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa. In the study, we examined the effects of marmin on the contraction of guinea pig-isolated trachea stimulated by several inducers, namely histamine, metacholine, compound 48/80. We also evaluated its action against contraction induced by extracellular or intracellular calcium ion. The possibility of marmin to potentiate the relaxation effect of isoprenaline was also studied. Marmin added in the organ bath at 10 min prior to the agonist inhibited the contraction elicited by histamine and metacholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, marmin antagonized the histamine-induced contraction in competitive manner. Marmin mildly potentiated the relaxation effect of isoprenaline. In the study, marmin abrogated the contraction of tracheal smooth muscle induced by compound 48/80, an inducer of histamine release. Besides, marmin successfully inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Marmin also inhibited two phases of contraction which were consecutively induced by metacholine and CaCl(2) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution. Based on the results we concluded that marmin could inhibit contraction of the guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle, especially by interfering histamine receptor, inhibiting the histamine release from mast, inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release from the intracellular store and the Ca(2+) influx through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. PMID:21959801

  19. Effects of aegeline, a main alkaloid of Aegle Marmelos Correa leaves, on the histamine release from mast cells.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Riyanto, Sugeng; Sukari, Mohamad Aspollah; Maeyama, Kazutaka

    2011-07-01

    Aegeline or N-[2-hydroxy-2(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-3-phenyl-2-propenamide is a main alkaloid isolated from Aegle marmelos Correa collected in Yogyakarta Indonesia. In our study, we investigated the effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cell. The study was performed by using (1) rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, and (2) rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). DNP(24)-BSA, thapsigargin, ionomycin, compound 48/80 and PMA were used as inducers for histamine release from mast cell. In our study, aegeline inhibited the histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells induced by DNP(24)-BSA. Indeed, aegeline showed strong inhibition when RBL-2H3 cells induced by Ca(2+) stimulants such as thapsigargin and ionomycin. Aegeline is suggested to influence the intracellular Ca(2+) pool only since could not inhibit the (45)Ca(2+) influx into RBL-2H3 cells. Aegeline showed weak inhibitory effects on the histamine release from RPMCs, even though still succeed to inhibit when the histamine release induced by thapsigargin. These findings indicate that aegeline altered the signaling pathway related to the intracellular Ca(2+) pool in which thapsigargin acts. Based on the results, the inhibitory effects of aegeline on the histamine release from mast cells depended on the type of mast cell and also involved some mechanisms related to intracellular Ca(2+) signaling events via the same target of the action of thapsigargin or downstream process of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in mast cells. PMID:21715270

  20. Aegle marmelos Mediated Green Synthesis of Different Nanostructured Metal Hexacyanoferrates: Activity against Photodegradation of Harmful Organic Dyes.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Vidhisha; Shanker, Uma; Kaith, B S

    2016-01-01

    Prussian blue analogue potassium metal hexacyanoferrate (KMHCF) nanoparticles Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3 (FeHCF), K2Cu3[Fe(CN)6]2 (KCuHCF), K2Ni[Fe(CN)6]·3H2O (KNiHCF), and K2Co[Fe(CN)6] (KCoHCF) have been synthesized using plant based biosurfactant Aegle marmelos (Bael) and water as a green solvent. It must be emphasized here that no harmful reagent or solvent was used throughout the study. Plant extracts are easily biodegradable and therefore do not cause any harm to the environment. Hence, the proposed method of synthesis of various KMHCF nanoparticles followed a green path. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). MHCF nanoparticles were used for the photocatalytic degradation of toxic dyes like Malachite Green (MG), Eriochrome Black T (EBT), Methyl Orange (MO), and Methylene Blue (MB). Under optimized reaction conditions, maximum photocatalytic degradation was achieved in case of KCuHCF nanoparticles mediated degradation process (MG: 96.06%, EBT: 83.03%, MB: 94.72%, and MO: 63.71%) followed by KNiHCF (MG: 95%, EBT: 80.32%, MB: 91.35%, and MO: 59.42%), KCoHCF (MG: 91.45%, EBT: 78.84%, MB: 89.28%, and MO: 58.20%). PMID:27034896

  1. Simultaneous determination of aegeline and six coumarins from different parts of the plant Aegle marmelos using UHPLC-PDA-MS and chiral separation of aegeline using HPLC-ToF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fast UHPLC-PDA method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of one alkaloid, aegeline, and six coumarins namely: umbelliferone; scopoletin; marmesinin; 8-hydroxypsoralen angelicin and marmelosin from leaf, fruit, root and bark of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa (Rutaceae). The method was validate...

  2. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aegle marmelos (Bael) Fruit Extract and Its Application to Prevent Adhesion of Bacteria: A Strategy to Control Microfouling

    PubMed Central

    Nithya Deva Krupa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Marine biofilms formed due to adhesion of bacteria and other microorganisms on submerged surfaces are generally considered to be a major form of microfouling. Subsequent attachment of larvae of higher organisms like barnacles, mussels, and so forth, on marine biofilms, causes macrofouling. Several approaches have been used to prevent micro- and macrofouling. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are known to exhibit strong inhibitory and antimicrobial activity. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is rapidly gaining importance due to its growing success. Hence, the present study is focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using fruit extract of Aegle marmelos and its characterization through UV-Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Further isolation and identification of marine biofilm forming bacteria were carried out through 16S rDNA analysis. The antimicrofouling effect of the biosynthesized AgNPs was tested against marine biofilm forming bacteria and the results suggested that it could effectively inhibit biofilm formation. This preliminary study has proved that AgNPs may be used as antimicrofouling agent for the prevention of biofouling in the early stages. PMID:25258620

  3. Aegeline from Aegle marmelos stimulates glucose transport via Akt and Rac1 signaling, and contributes to a cytoskeletal rearrangement through PI3K/Rac1.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Ishrat, Nayab; Singh, Rohit; Narender, Tadigoppula; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-09-01

    Aegeline is an alkaloidal-amide, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos and have shown antihyperglycemic as well as antidyslipidemic activities in the validated animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here we delineate, aegeline enhanced GLUT4 translocation mediated 2-deoxy-glucose uptake in both time and concentration-dependent manner. 2-deoxy-glucose uptake was completely stymied by the transport inhibitors (wortmannin and genistein) in C2C12 myotubes. Pharmacological inhibition of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) suggest that both Akt and Rac1 operate aegeline-stimulated glucose transport via distinct parallel pathways. Moreover, aegeline activates p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and cofilin (an actin polymerization regulator). Rac1 inhibitor (Rac1 inhib II) and PAK1 inhibitor (IPA-3) completely blocked aegeline-induced phosphorylation of cofilin and p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (PAK1). In summary, these findings suggest that aegeline stimulates the glucose transport through Akt and Rac1 dependent distinct parallel pathways and have cytoskeletal roles via stimulation of the PI3-kinase-Rac1-PAK1-cofilin pathway in the skeletal muscle cells. Therefore, multiple targets of aegeline in the improvement of insulin sensitivity of the skeletal muscle cells may be suggested. PMID:26102565

  4. Dry and ripe fruit of Aegle marmelos. L: A potent source of antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitors and free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiqur; Imran, Hina; Iqbal, Lubna; STaqvi, Syed Intasar Hussain; Fatima, Nudrat; Yaqeen, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    The antioxidant, lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging capacity of the crude extract, aqueous and some organic fractions of dry and ripe fruit of Aeglemarmelos. L were studied to understand the protective and therapeutic role for the use of the fruit as a remedy in different ailments. All the tested fractions and extracts showed to possess significant antioxidant, free radical scavenging capacity and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential. However, chloroform and aqueous fractions showed significant ability to quench radicals, to reduce ferric chloride and to inhibit soyabean lipoxygenase. Their antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibition was estimated by IC50 values, for antioxidant ranging from 88-65% activity at concentration of 5-0.15μ/mL and similarly for lipoxygenase inhibition ranging from 89-69% at various concentrations of 5-0.15μ/mL, in chloroform and aqueous fractions respectively. The scavenger molecules in the dry and ripe fruit of A. marmelos may attribute to therapeutic and protective effect during different progressive stages of ailments. PMID:27393425

  5. Periplogenin-3-O- -D-glucopyranosyl -(1-->6)- -D-glucopyaranosyl- -(1-->4) -D-cymaropyranoside, isolated from Aegle marmelos protects doxorubicin induced cardiovascular problems and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sunanda; Kar, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a common chemotherapeutic anticancer drug. Its use is associated with adverse effects including cardiotoxicity. Several therapeutics interventions have been attempted to reduce the toxicity and to improve the efficacy of the drug. However, on phytochemicals very few investigations have been made. In the present study we have evaluated the potential of a cardenolide, periplogenin, isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos in protecting the doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rats. Doxorubicin induced cardiac and hepatotoxicity were characterized by marked biochemical changes including an increase in serum creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), and tissue LPO, with a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). It also increased the levels of different serum lipids, but decreased the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Cotherapy of the test cardenolide and doxorubicin for 4 weeks reversed all these adverse effects. However, out of three different concentrations (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg p.o.) of the test periplogenin, 25 mg/kg appeared to be most effective. When its efficacy was compared with that of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) the isolated compound exhibited a better therapeutic potential. The isolated periplogenin from the leaves of A. marmelos could potentially inhibit doxorubicin-induced cardiovascular problems in rats. However, its moderate dose was found to be most effective. PMID:19426248

  6. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  7. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-09-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  8. Development and application of acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for chemical warfare nerve and sulfur mustard agents.

    PubMed

    Watson, Annetta; Opresko, Dennis; Young, Robert; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios. PMID:16621779

  9. Development and Application of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Chemical Warfare Nerve and Sulfur Mustard Agents.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, Annetta Paule; Opresko, Dennis M; Young, Robert A; Hauschild, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    Acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) have been developed for the chemical warfare agents GB, GA, GD, GF, VX, and sulfur mustard. These AEGLs were approved by the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances after Federal Register publication and comment, and judged as scientifically valid by the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology Subcommittee on AEGLs. AEGLs represent general public exposure limits for durations ranging from 10 min to 8 h, and for three levels of severity (AEGL-1, AEGL-2, AEGL-3). Mild effects are possible at concentrations greater than AEGL-1, while life-threatening effects are expected at concentrations greater than AEGL-3. AEGLs can be applied to various civilian and national defense purposes, including evacuation and shelter-in-place protocols, reentry levels, protective clothing specifications, and analytical monitoring requirements. This report documents development and derivation of AEGL values for six key chemical warfare agents, and makes recommendations for their application to various potential exposure scenarios.

  10. Comparative Effect of Crude and Commercial Enzyme on the Juice Recovery from Bael Fruit (Aegle marmelos Correa) Using Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anurag; Sharma, H. K.; Kumar, Sanjay; Upadhyay, Ashutosh; Mishra, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of incubation time, incubation temperature, and crude enzyme concentration was observed on the yield, viscosity, and clarity of the juice obtained from bael fruit pulp. The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions from the study were incubation time 475 min, incubation temperature 45°C, and crude enzyme concentration 0.20 mL/25 g bael fruit pulp. The recovery, viscosity, and clarity of the juice under these conditions were 82.9%, 1.41 cps, and 21.32%T, respectively. The variables, clarity, and yield were found as principal components for comparing different samples of the juice treated with enzyme. PMID:26904592

  11. Phospholipid Profile of the Stomach and Duodenum of Normal Rabbits Fed with Supplements of Unripe Pawpaw (Carica papaya) and Unripe Plantain (Musa sapientum) Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyamremu, G. E.; Asagba, S. O.; Osagie, V. E.; Ojeaburu, S. I.; Lolodi, O.

    This study reports the effect of unripe pawpaw and/or unripe plantain extracts on the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum of normal rabbits. Supplementation of chow with unripe pawpaw or plantain extract significantly reduced (p< 0.05) the weight gained by rabbits compared with the control. The total phospholipids content in the stomach and duodenum were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. In the stomach and duodenum, phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and sphingomyelin (SGM) were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in the test groups compared to the control. Pawpaw occasioned a decrease in the PE/PC ratio in both tissues as against an increase observed in the SGM/PC ratio. The results presented suggests that unripe pawpaw meal and unripe plantain extract alter the phospholipid profile of the stomach and duodenum in ways which may affect membrane fluidity of these tissues and would have profound effect on the gastro-duodenal mucosa and thus have implication(s) for gastric and duodenal ulcers in rabbits.

  12. Synthesis of the glycosidic precursor of isomeric marmelo lactones, volatile components of the quince fruit, Cydonia oblonga.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroki; Kitahara, Takeshi

    2002-04-01

    The glucosidic precursor of marmelo lactones was synthesized by employing a common intermediate which had been used for the synthesis of the glucosidic precursor of marmelo oxides. The synthesis was performed by modifying the former procedure. Monochloroacetyl was adopted to protect both the glucose and aglycon hydroxyl groups for selective transesterification in the presence of the glycosyl ester. Glycosylation of the aglycon carboxyl group with 1-alpha-bromopermonochloroacetylglucose and final selective alcoholysis yielded the target glucoside. PMID:12036045

  13. Pasta with unripe banana flour: physical, texture, and preference study.

    PubMed

    Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Islas-Hernandez, José J; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Rendón-Villalobos, Rodolfo; Utrilla-Coello, Rubí G; Angulo, Ofelia; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Banana is a starchy food that contains a high proportion of undigestible compounds such as resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Products with low glycemic response such as pasta are considered favorable to health. The objective of this study was to use unripe banana flour to make spaghetti with low-carbohydrates digestibility and evaluate its physical and texture characteristics, as well as consumer preference. Formulations with 100% durum wheat semolina (control) and formulations with 3 semolina: banana flour ratios (85: 15, 70: 30, and 55: 45) were prepared for spaghetti processing. The use of banana flour decreased the lightness and diameter of cooked spaghetti, and increased the water absorption of the product. Hardness and elasticity of spaghetti were not affected by banana flour, but adhesiveness and chewiness increased as the banana flour level in the blend rose. Spaghettis prepared in the laboratory (control and those with banana flour) did not show differences in preference by consumers. In general, the preference of spaghettis with different banana flour level was similar. The addition of a source of undigestible carbohydrates (banana flour) to spaghetti is possible without affecting the consumer preference. PMID:19723232

  14. In vitro colonic fermentation and glycemic response of different kinds of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Goñi, Isabel; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Lajolo, Franco M

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed to study the in vitro colonic fermentation profile of unavailable carbohydrates of two different kinds of unripe banana flour and to evaluate their postprandial glycemic responses. The unripe banana mass (UBM), obtained from the cooked pulp of unripe bananas (Musa acuminata, Nanicão variety), and the unripe banana starch (UBS), obtained from isolated starch of unripe banana, plantain type (Musa paradisiaca) in natura, were studied. The fermentability of the flours was evaluated by different parameters, using rat inoculum, as well as the glycemic response produced after the ingestion by healthy volunteers. The flours presented high concentration of unavailable carbohydrates, which varied in the content of resistant starch, dietary fiber and indigestible fraction (IF). The in vitro colonic fermentation of the flours was high, 98% for the UBS and 75% for the UBM when expressed by the total amount of SCFA such as acetate, butyrate and propionate in relation to lactulose. The increase in the area under the glycemic curve after ingestion of the flours was 90% lower for the UBS and 40% lower for the UBM than the increase produced after bread intake. These characteristics highlight the potential of UBM and UBS as functional ingredients. However, in vivo studies are necessary in order to evaluate the possible benefit effects of the fermentation on intestinal health. PMID:20839056

  15. What is the role of unripe Rubus coreanus extract on penile erection?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Kim, Hye Kyung; Kim, Sung Zoo; Chae, Han Jung; Cui, Wan Shou; Lee, Sung Won; Jeon, Ju Hong; Park, Jong Kwan

    2011-07-01

    The effect of unripe Rubus coreanus extract on rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated. Penises were obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg). The pre-contracted penis with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 μM) was treated with various concentrations of an extract of unripe R. coreanus (0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL). The change in penile tension was recorded, cyclic nucleotides in the perfusate and the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the perfused PCC were measured by western blotting. The interaction between unripe R. coreanus and sildenafil was also evaluated. The PCC relaxation induced by the extracts of R. coreanus was in a concentration-dependent manner and enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. The perfusion of penile cavernous tissue with the unripe R. coreanus extract increased cGMP and cAMP in the tissue and in the perfusate and the expression of eNOS and nNOS in the tissue. The unripe R. coreanus extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP system and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate. PMID:21254274

  16. Carica papaya (Paw-Paw) unripe fruit may be beneficial in ulcer.

    PubMed

    Ezike, A C; Akah, P A; Okoli, C O; Ezeuchenne, N A; Ezeugwu, S

    2009-12-01

    The anti-ulcer potentials of aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts of whole unripe Carica papaya fruit were evaluated using ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. The effect of the extracts on small intestinal propulsion was also investigated. The extracts significantly reduced the ulcer index in both experimental models (P < .05) compared to the control group. ME showed a better protection against indomethacin-induced ulcers, whereas AE was more effective against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The extracts also significantly (P < .05) inhibited intestinal motility, with ME showing greater activity. Oral administration of AE and ME up to 5,000 mg/kg did not produce lethality or signs of acute toxicity in mice after 24 hours. The extracts of unripe C. papaya contain terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, and steroids. The cytoprotective and antimotility properties of the extracts may account for the anti-ulcer property of the unripe fruit. PMID:20041780

  17. Gluten-free spaghetti with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize: physicochemical, texture and sensory properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the physicochemical, textural and sensorial characteristics of gluten-free spaghetti elaborated with unripe plantain, chickpea and maize flours. Luminosity (L*) of the uncooked gluten-free spaghetti was not significantly different from control sampl...

  18. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous - aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  19. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  20. Theoretical and functional complexity of white variegation of unripe fleshy fruits.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-10-01

    In many plant species, the bright colors of ripe fruit serve to attract frugivores to enable efficient seed dispersal. Here I show that the fleshy fruit of several dozens of species originating from Asia (southeastern, eastern and central), the Middle East, Africa, America (South, Central and North), Australia, Polynesia and Micronesia, with fruit usually larger than 1 cm, have white or light green spots while they are still unripe. In many of these species, while the spots are conspicuous, the unripe fruit is known to be poisonous, bitter or sour. I propose that this fruit syndrome may signal frugivores that the fruit is still unripe. Similarly to the succulent leaves of window-plants, these spots form windows that enable light to penetrate deeper into the photosynthetic layers in the developing fruit. This seems to be a solution to overcome the limitations of light harvest because of the high volume to surface ratio of developing fleshy fruits. The white or whitish variegation in these unripe fleshy fruits may serve at least five functions: 1) Windows for photosynthesis, 2) camouflage, 3) signaling to frugivores that they are not ripe (possibly sometimes a type of mutualism with frugivores), 4) signaling to frugivores that they are poisonous--aposematism, and 5) mimicking insect eggs to reduce egg laying. All these functions may be partly or fully simultaneous. Because these white spots appear in plants of diverse geographical and taxonomic origin, it is probably an old adaptation, and such a syndrome has appeared and been selected for many times. PMID:23921545

  1. Chemotypes of essential oil of unripe galls of Pistacia atlantica Desf. from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Sifi, Ibrahim; Gourine, Nadhir; Gaydou, Emile M; Yousfi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of unripe galls (from male and female plants) of a total number of 52 samples of Pistacia atlantica collected from different regions in Algeria were analysed by GC/MS and GC. The yields of the extraction of the EO by hydrodistillation vary from low to high values (0.08-1.89% v/w). The results of both methods of principal component analysis and hierarchical ascendant classification revealed the presence of two different chemotypes: α-pinene chemotype and α-pinene/sabinene/terpinen-4-ol chemotype. PMID:25707439

  2. Chemical analysis of a polysaccharide of unripe (green) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Krishnendu; Ghosh, Kaushik; Ojha, Arnab K; Islam, Syed S

    2009-11-01

    A polysaccharide (PS-I) isolated from the aqueous extract of the unripe (green) tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) consists of D-galactose, D-methyl galacturonate, D-arabinose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation study, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC). On the basis of above-mentioned experiments the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide (PS-I) was established as: [structure: see text]. PMID:19765690

  3. HPLC-DAD Phenolic Characterization and Antioxidant Activities of Ripe and Unripe Sweet Orange Peels

    PubMed Central

    Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade; Obafaye, Rebeccah Olajumoke; Salawu, Sule Ola; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of unripe and ripe sweet orange peels were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography separation method with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The in vitro antioxidant properties and the EC50 (concentration required to obtain a 50% antioxidant effect) values were also determined. The predominant phenolic compounds were quercitrin, rutin, and quercetin with values of 18.77 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 18.65 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 10.39 ± 0.01 mg/mL respectively in unripe orange peel and 22.61 ± 0.01 mg/mL, 17.93 ± 0.03 mg/mL, and 14.03 ± 0.02 mg/mL respectively in ripe orange peel. The antioxidant properties revealed 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) scavenging ability of both unripe and ripe orange peels respectively as 14.68 ± 0.01 and 16.89 ± 0.02 mmol TEAC/g, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Properties (FRAP) as 70.69 ± 0.01 and 91.38 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/100g, total phenol content as 5.27 ± 0.03 and 9.40 ± 0.01 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and total flavonoid content as 3.30 ± 0.30 and 4.20 ± 0.02 mg quercetin equivalent/g. The antioxidant assays showed enhanced potency of extract from ripe orange peel with EC50 values of 2.71 ± 0.03 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 0.67 ± 0.03 mg/mL for hydroxyl radicals (OH*), 0.57 ± 0.02 mg/mL for Fe2+ chelation, and 0.63 ± 0.06 mg/mL for malondialdehyde (MDA), and was more potent than unripe orange peel. PMID:26783839

  4. Profiles and α-amylase inhibition activity of proanthocyanidins in unripe Manilkara zapota (chiku).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyu; Liu, Tingting; Song, Lixia; Huang, Dejian

    2012-03-28

    Proanthocyanidins in unripe Manilkara zapota (chiku) were isolated using solvent extraction followed by Sephadex LH-20 fractionation with a yield of 0.9%. HPLC analysis using a diol column revealed well-resolved oligomers ranging from dimer to hexamer. The majority of the proanthocyanidins are composed of higher-degree oligomers appearing as one large peak in the chromatogram. Analysis of the proanthocyanidins using LC/MS showed that (epi)gallocatechins were the dominant extension unit in the proanthocyanidins. In agreement with this result, thiolysis treatment of the proanthocyanidins using mercaptoacetic acid produced thioether derivatives of (epi)gallocatechins as the major product and (epi)gallocatechin gallate derivatives as the minor product. The mean of the degree of polymerization was estimated to be 9.0. From MALDI-TOF MS, B-type gallocatechin oligomers up to decamer could be detected. The unripe chiku proanthocyanidins are thus good starting material for preparation of (epi)gallocatechin derivatives. The proanthocyanidins was shown to inhibit α-amylase with an IC(50) value of 4.2 ± 0.2 μg/mL and inhibit α-glucosidase with an IC(50) of 16.6 ± 0.3 μg/mL. PMID:22394060

  5. Use of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) in the management of diabetes and hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    PubMed Central

    Okafor, Polycarp

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study aims to investigate the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) on markers of hepatic dysfunction in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Blood glucose; relative liver weight (RLW); relative kidney weight (RKW); relative heart weight (RHW); relative pancreatic weight (RPW); serum and hepatic serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); serum amylase, lipase, total, and conjugated bilirubin; and chemical analysis of the test feed were determined using standard techniques. Results The diabetic rats had significant alteration (P < 0.05) of blood glucose; RLW; RKW; RPW; serum and hepatic AST, ALT, and ALP; serum total and conjugated bilirubin; and serum lipase activities compared with nondiabetic while these parameters were significantly improved (P < 0.05) in the rats fed unripe plantain. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the RHW of the rats in the three groups, as well as significant decreases (P < 0.05) in the amylase levels of the diabetic rats compared with the nondiabetic, but there was nonsignificant increase (P > 0.05) in the amylase levels of the rats fed unripe plantain compared with the nondiabetic rats. The test and standard rat feeds contained considerable amount of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, phenols, and crude fiber. Conclusion Amelioration of acute pancreatitis by unripe plantain could play a key role in its management of diabetes and related complications. PMID:25838921

  6. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  7. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:22980888

  8. Physico-chemical, sensory, and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain.

    PubMed

    Agu, Helen Obioma; Okoli, Ndidiamaka Azuka

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of cereal foods such as biscuit has become very popular globally. Partial replacement of wheat flour with beniseed and unripe plantain flours rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals will increase nutrient, diversify utilization of beniseed and unripe plantain, and increase biscuit variety. Wheat composite biscuit was produced from wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain flours. The composite flour was mixed in the proportion of 100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10, and 50:40:10% of wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain, respectively. The physical, sensory, chemical, and microbial properties of the biscuits were determined. The physical properties ranged from 6.80 g to 8.30 g for weight, spread ratio 6.93-7.38, and break strength 500-690 g. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in taste, crispness, flavor and texture of the biscuits while significant differences (P < 0.05) existed in color and overall acceptability. The proximate composition of the biscuits ranged from 1.84% to 2.55% for moisture, protein 8.03-9.26%, fat 30.07-35.81%, ash 2.94-3.68%, crude fiber 0.47-0.80%, carbohydrate 48.74-55.96%, and energy 526.53-554.21 kcal/100 g. The microbial count of the best biscuit after 20 days of storage was 4.0 × 10(3) cfu/g for bacteria and mould contained 5.0 × 10(4) cfu/g. This study forms a basis for new product development for the biscuit food industry. PMID:25473504

  9. Physico-chemical, sensory, and microbiological assessments of wheat-based biscuit improved with beniseed and unripe plantain

    PubMed Central

    Agu, Helen Obioma; Okoli, Ndidiamaka Azuka

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of cereal foods such as biscuit has become very popular globally. Partial replacement of wheat flour with beniseed and unripe plantain flours rich in protein, vitamins, and minerals will increase nutrient, diversify utilization of beniseed and unripe plantain, and increase biscuit variety. Wheat composite biscuit was produced from wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain flours. The composite flour was mixed in the proportion of 100:0:0, 80:10:10, 70:20:10, 60:30:10, and 50:40:10% of wheat, beniseed, and unripe plantain, respectively. The physical, sensory, chemical, and microbial properties of the biscuits were determined. The physical properties ranged from 6.80 g to 8.30 g for weight, spread ratio 6.93–7.38, and break strength 500–690 g. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in taste, crispness, flavor and texture of the biscuits while significant differences (P < 0.05) existed in color and overall acceptability. The proximate composition of the biscuits ranged from 1.84% to 2.55% for moisture, protein 8.03–9.26%, fat 30.07–35.81%, ash 2.94–3.68%, crude fiber 0.47–0.80%, carbohydrate 48.74–55.96%, and energy 526.53–554.21 kcal/100 g. The microbial count of the best biscuit after 20 days of storage was 4.0 × 103 cfu/g for bacteria and mould contained 5.0 × 104 cfu/g. This study forms a basis for new product development for the biscuit food industry. PMID:25473504

  10. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts of unripe Musa paradisiaca on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shodehinde, Sidiqat Adamson; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare antioxidant activities of the aqueous extracts of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca), assess their inhibitory action on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro and to characterize the main phenolic constituents of the plantain products using gas chromatography analysis. Methods Aqueous extracts of plantain products (raw, elastic pastry, roasted and boiled) flour of 0.1 g/mL (each) were used to determine their total phenol, total flavonoid, 1,1 diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging ability. The inhibitory effect of the extracts on sodium nitroprusside induced lipid peroxidation was also determined. Results The results revealed that all the aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activity. The boiled flour had highest DPPH and OH radical scavenging ability while raw flour had the highest Fe2+ chelating ability, sodium nitroprusside inhibitory effect and vitamin C content. The antioxidant results showed that elastic pastry had the highest total phenol and total flavonoid content. Characterization of the unripe plantain products for polyphenol contents using gas chromatography showed varied quantity of apigenin, myricetin, luteolin, capsaicin, isorhaemnetin, caffeic acid, kampferol, quercetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, shogaol, glycitein and gingerol per product on the spectra. Conclusions Considering the antioxidant activities and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation of unripe plantain, this could justify their traditional use in the management/prevention of diseases related to stress. PMID:23730557

  11. Colonic Fermentation of Unavailable Carbohydrates from Unripe Banana and its Influence over Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Dan, Milana C T; Cardenette, Giselli H L; Sardá, Fabiana A H; Giuntini, Eliana Bistriche; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Carpinelli, Ângelo R; Lajolo, Franco M; Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the colonic fermentation of unavailable carbohydrates from unripe banana (mass - UBM - and starch - UBS) over parameters related to glucose and insulin response in rats. Wistar male rats were fed either a control diet, a UBM diet (5 % resistant starch - RS) or a UBS diet (10 % RS) for 28 days. In vivo (oral glucose tolerance test) and in vitro (cecum fecal fermentation, pancreatic islet insulin secretion) analyses were performed. The consumption of UBM and UBS diets by Wistar rats for 28 days improved insulin/glucose ratio. Also, pancreatic islets isolated from the test groups presented significant lower insulin secretion compared to the control group, when the same in vitro glucose stimulation was done. Total short chain fatty acids produced were higher in both experimental groups in relation to the control group. These findings suggest that UBM and UBS diets promote colonic fermentation and can influence glycemic control, improving insulin sensitivity in rats. PMID:26092708

  12. Effects of particle size distribution on some physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour.

    PubMed

    Savlak, Nazlı; Türker, Burcu; Yeşilkanat, Nazlıcan

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of particle size distribution on physical, chemical and functional properties of unripe banana flour for the first time. A pure triploid (AAA group) of Musa acuminata subgroup Cavendish (°Brix;0.2, pH;4.73, titratable acidity; 0.56g/100g malic acid, total solids; 27.42%) which was supplied from Gazipaşa, Antalya, Turkey from October 2014 to October 2015 was used. Size fractions of <212, 212-315, 316-500 and 501-700μm were characterized for their physical, functional and antioxidant properties. Particle size significantly effected color, water absorbtion index and wettability. L(∗) value decreased, a(∗) and b(∗) values decreased by increasing particle size (r(2)=-0.94, r(2)=0.72, r(2)=0.73 respectively). Particles under 212μm had the lowest rate of wettability (83.40s). A negative correlation between particle size and wettability (r(2)=-0.75) and positive correlation between particle size and water absorption index (r(2)=0.94) was observed. PMID:27451170

  13. Characterization of a human glycoprotein with a potential role in sperm-egg fusion: cDNA cloning, immunohistochemical localization, and chromosomal assignment of the gene (AEGL1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Masaru; Fujimoto, Seiichiro; Takano, Hiroko

    1996-03-05

    Acidic epididymal glycoprotein (AEG), thus far identified only in rodents, is one of the sperm surface proteins involved in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of cDNA encoding a human glycoprotein related to AEG. Although this protein, designated ARP (AEG-related protein), is not the ortholog of rodent AEG, it resembles AEG in that it is an epididymal secretory glycoprotein that binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head. The fact that no AEG mRNA can be detected in the human epididymis suggests that ARP might be the functional counterpart of rodent AEG. The gene encoding ARP (AEGL1) was mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to 6p21.1-p21.2. This result indicates that AEGL1 and the mouse gene for AEG are located in the chromosomal segments with conserved syntenies. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  14. In vivo interaction between ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and the pulp of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).

    PubMed

    Sv, Nwafor; Co, Esimone; Ca, Amadi; Cs, Nworu

    2003-01-01

    The absorption of quinolone antibiotics is seriously impaired by polyvalent cations due to the formation of unabsorbable complexes. M. paradisiaca Linn. (Musaceae), an important staple food in most parts of the world, has been demonstrated to contain many polyvalent cations. The aim of the work was to study the influence of concurrent administration of M. paradisiaca and ciprofloxacin HCI on the pharmacokinetic profiles of ciprofloxacin. The study was carried out in two phases in five healthy male rabbits. Phase one involved oral administration of ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg) to rabbits, withdrawing blood from the marginal ear vein at 1, 2, 4, and 24 h intervals and checking the serum ciprofloxacin concentration. After a one-week drug "wash-out" period, the second phase started with concurrent oral administration of M. paradisiaca (800 mg/kg) and ciprofloxacin (40 mg/kg). Blood was again withdrawn and analyzed for serum ciprofloxacin content. Antimicrobial activity of the serum was also assessed and expressed as reciprocal serum inhibitory titer. Co-administration of both agents resulted in significant (P<0.05) decrease in serum concentration of ciprofloxacin at all the time interval except at the 24th hour. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were also decreased: area under the curve (81.53%), peak serum concentration (94.37%), elimination rate constant (42.35%); while increase in half-life (81.08%) and clearance rate (69.64%) were noted. Antimicrobial study showed that the antimicrobial potency against E. coli was also decreased by such concurrent administration. The pharmacokinetic parameters and antimicrobial activities of ciprofloxacin were significantly decreased when it was given concurrently with pulp of unripe plantain. Complex formation between the drug and the polyvalent cations present in plantain, leading to decrease in absorption and hence bioavailability, may be responsible for the observed antagonistic interactions. PMID:14743965

  15. Isolation, purification and structural characterization of an acetylated heteroglycan from the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Subhas; Das, Debsankar; Roy, Sadhan K; Islam, Syed S

    2012-06-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide isolated from the hot water extract of the unripe fruits of Manilkara zapota L. was found to consist of 3-O-acyl-L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, 3-O-acetyl-D-methyl galacturonate in a molar proportion of nearly 1:1:1. Structural investigation of the polysaccharide was carried out using total hydrolysis, methylation analysis; periodate oxidation followed by GLC-MS, and NMR experiments. On the basis of the above experiments it is concluded that the following repeating unit is present in the polysaccharide. PMID:22560630

  16. Influence of the composition of unripe genipap (Genipa americana L.) fruit on the formation of blue pigment.

    PubMed

    Bentes, Adria de S; de Souza, Hugo A L; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Lopes, Alessandra S; de Faria, Lênio J G

    2015-06-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of unripe genipap fruits and the proximate and amino acid compositions of the endocarp and mesocarp of the unripe fruits were determined, placing special emphasis on the possible role of the protein-amino acid fraction on the formation of the typical blue pigment of the matrix. The two parts of the fruit analyzed have low energy (49.88 kcal/100 g for mesocarp and 43.48 kcal/100 g for endocarp) and high fiber content (7.88 % for mesocarp and 16.76 % for endocarp). The endocarp showed protein content (3.19 %) five times higher than the mesocarp (0.62 %), which may explain in part the greater amounts of blue pigment formed in the endocarp when compared to the mesocarp. Furthermore, the pH found in mesocarp (4.49) and endocarp (5.21) is within the optimum range for the formation of the blue pigment. A significant color change (ΔE (*)  = 26.45) was observed in endocarp during its exposure to the air for 2 h. Free aspartic and glutamic acids and cystine were the predominant amino acids in the mesocarp, while glutamic and aspartic acids and leucine were predominant in the endocarp. According to the results, the formation of blue pigment does not cause any change in the amino acid composition. PMID:26028777

  17. Bioactive comparison of main components from unripe fruits of Rubus chingii Hu and identification of the effective component.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian-Tian; Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-07-01

    Dried and unripe fruit of Rubus chingii Hu, known as "Fu-pen-zi" in Chinese, has been used as a food and tonic in China for a long time. In order to analyze its effective ingredients, polysaccharides, flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids were extracted from the unripe fruits and their contents were determined. The in vitro antioxidant, anticomplementary and anticancer activities against human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells of the four major constituents were investigated. Results showed that total flavonoids exhibited an obvious antioxidant activity, which was very close to ascorbic acid. The anticomplementary and anticancer activities of flavonoids were also the best among the four chemical compositions. Therefore, extraction process optimization of flavonoids was conducted using response surface methodology. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 72.8 °C, ethanol concentration 30.67%, extraction time 2.66 h, and a liquid/solid ratio of 19.54 : 1. In addition, total flavonoids were subsequently separated by column chromatography and the major flavonoid was identified as tiliroside. Further experimental data revealed that tiliroside treatment could suppress the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of A549 cells. PMID:26053738

  18. Ameliorative Potentials of Cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) on the Relative Tissue Weights of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, C. O.; Iroaganachi, M.; Eleazu, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the ameliorating potentials of cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta L.) and unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca L.) incorporated feeds on the renal and liver growths of diabetic rats, induced with 55 and 65 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin. Method. The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity (SPGR) in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The chemical composition and antioxidant screening of the test feeds were carried out using standard techniques. Results. Administration of the test feeds for 21 days to the diabetic rats of groups 4 and 5, resulted in 58.75% and 38.13% decreases in hyperglycemia and amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, glucose, SPGR, and relative kidney weights. The diabetic rats administered cocoyam incorporated feeds, had 2.71% and 19.52% increases in weight and growth rates, the diabetic rats administered unripe plantain incorporated feeds had 5.12% and 29.52% decreases in weight and growth rates while the diabetic control rats had 28.69%, 29.46%, 248.9% and 250.14% decreases in weights and growth rates. The cocoyam incorporated feeds contained higher antioxidants, minerals and phytochemicals except alkaloids than unripe plantain feed. Conclusion. Cocoyam and unripe plantain could be useful in the management of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23971053

  19. The mannose-binding lectin gene FaMBL1 is involved in the resistance of unripe strawberry fruits to Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    Guidarelli, Michela; Zoli, Lisa; Orlandini, Alessandro; Bertolini, Paolo; Baraldi, Elena

    2014-10-01

    The fungal pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum is the causal agent of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) anthracnose. Although the fungus can infect strawberry fruits at both unripe and ripe stages, the symptoms appear only on red ripe fruits. On white unripe fruits, the pathogen becomes quiescent as melanized appressoria after 24 h of interaction. Previous transcriptome analysis has indicated that a mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene is the most up-regulated gene in 24-h-infected white strawberries, suggesting a role for this gene in the low susceptibility of unripe stages. A time course analysis of the expression of this MBL gene, named FaMBL1 (Fragaria × ananassa MBL 1a), was undertaken to monitor its expression profile in white and red fruits at early interaction times: FaMBL1 was expressed exclusively in white fruit after 24 h, when the pathogen was quiescent. Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation was used to silence and overexpress the FaMBL1 gene in 24-h-infected white and red strawberries, respectively. FaMBL1-silenced unripe fruits showed an increase in susceptibility to C. acutatum. These 24-h-infected tissues contained subcuticular hyphae, indicating pathogen penetration and active growth. In contrast, overexpression of FaMBL1 in ripe fruits decreased susceptibility; here, 24-h-infected tissues showed a high percentage of ungerminated appressoria, suggesting that the growth of the pathogen had slowed. These data suggest that FaMBL1 plays a crucial role in the resistance of unripe strawberry fruits to C. acutatum. PMID:24690196

  20. Nitrogen-doped carbon dots originating from unripe peach for fluorescent bioimaging and electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-11-15

    This paper reports the robust hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen doped carbon dots (N-CDs) using the unripe fruit of Prunus persica (peach) as the carbon precursor and aqueous ammonia as the nitrogen source. The optical properties of synthesized N-CDs were characterized by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. The synthesized N-CDs were emitted blue light when excitated with a portable UV lamp. The materials with the optical properties were characterized further by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The mean size of the N-CDs was approximately 8nm, as calculated from the HRTEM image. The d-spacing of N-CDs, calculated using Bragg law, was approximately 0.21nm, which was consistent with the interlayer distance calculated from the HRTEM image. FT-IR spectroscopy and XPS revealed the presence of the phytoconstituents functionalities of peach fruit over the N-CDs surface and a high level of nitrogen doping on carbon dots (CDs) was confirmed by XPS studies. These results suggest that the unripe fruit extract of peach is an ideal candidate for the preparation of N-CDs. The resulting N-CDs showed excellent optical properties in water. The synthesized N-CDs exhibited a high fluorescence quantum yield and low cytotoxicity, and can be used as fluorescence imaging probes. In addition, the N-CDs were catalytically activite towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The N-CDs exhibited good catalytic activity in an alkaline medium (0.1M KOH) with a remarkable ORR of approximately 0.72V vs reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and O2 reduction follows mainly a 2 electron pathway by being reduced to hydrogen peroxide. The 2-electron reduction pathway is used in industry for H2O2 production. PMID:27479911

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. "Dashehari") unravels ripening associated genes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-01-01

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety "Dashehari" This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in "Dashehari" mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the "Dashehari" variety. PMID:27586495

  2. Polyphenols Variation in Fruits of the Susceptible Strawberry Cultivar Alba during Ripening and upon Fungal Pathogen Interaction and Possible Involvement in Unripe Fruit Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Nagpala, Ellaine Grace; Guidarelli, Michela; Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Bertolini, Paolo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Baraldi, Elena

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit contains high concentrations of health-promoting phenolic compounds, playing important roles for the fruit ontogenic tolerance to fungi. In the highly susceptible cultivar Alba, the two major strawberry fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea, displayed disease symptoms only at red ripe stages because immature fruits are tolerant to diseases. We analyzed and compared the variation of 47 polyphenols in the surface of unripe and ripe Alba fruits upon 24 and 48 h of C. acutatum and B. cinerea infection or mock inoculation. Significant alteration in phenolic content was detected only in white infected fruit, with differences specific for each pathogen. The expression analysis of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and shikimate pathway genes showed in only a few cases correlation with the relative metabolite abundance. The alteration in phenolic content and the lack of consistency with gene expression data are discussed in light of previously reported metabolome data of different susceptible and resistant strawberry genotypes. PMID:26895094

  3. Antiobesity Effects of Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel and Its Constituents: An In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dool-Ri; Kim, Yujin; Choi, Eun-jin; Hunmi-Lee; Jung, Myung-A; Bae, Donghyuck; Jo, Ara; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Sunoh

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC) and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB) was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:26904142

  4. Anti-allergic effect of a combination of Citrus unshiu unripe fruits extract and prednisolone on picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tadashi; Shiura, Takehumi; Masuda, Megumi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Kawase, Atsushi; Iwaki, Masahiro; Gato, Takeshi; Fumuro, Masahiko; Sasaki, Katsuaki; Utsunomiya, Naoki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2008-04-01

    Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of unripe fruits of Citrus unshiu (CU-ext) on type IV allergic reaction was examined by inhibitory activity of ear swelling of picryl chloride-induced contact dermatitis (PC-CD) in mice. Oral administration of CU-ext and subcutaneous administration of prednisolone showed inhibition of ear swelling during both induction and effector phases of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of CU-ext (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) during induction phase of PC-CD were more potent than those of CU-ext alone and prednisolone alone. Successive oral administration of hesperidin, a major flavanone glycoside of CU-ext, inhibited ear swelling during induction phase of PC-CD. The inhibitory activities of combinations of hesperidin (p.o.) and prednisolone (s.c.) were more potent than those of hesperidin alone and prednisolone alone. These results indicated that the combinations of prednisolone and CU-ext or hesperidin exerted a synergistic effect. PMID:18404324

  5. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. “Dashehari”) unravels ripening associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K.; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety “Dashehari” This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in “Dashehari” mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the “Dashehari” variety. PMID:27586495

  6. Antiobesity Effects of Unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel and Its Constituents: An In Vitro and In Vivo Characterization of the Underlying Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dool-Ri; Kim, Yujin; Choi, Eun-Jin; Hunmi-Lee; Jung, Myung-A; Bae, Donghyuck; Jo, Ara; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Sunoh

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objective of the present study was to perform a bioguided fractionation of unripe Rubus coreanus Miquel (uRC) and evaluate the lipid accumulation system involvement in its antiobesity activity as well as study the uRC mechanism of action. Results. After the fractionation, the BuOH fraction of uRC (uRCB) was the most active fraction, suppressing the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, after an oral administration for 8 weeks in HFD-induced obese mice, uRCB (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) produced a significant decrease in body weight, food efficiency ratio, adipose tissue weight and LDL-cholesterol, serum glucose, TC, and TG levels. Similarly, uRCB significantly suppressed the elevated mRNA levels of PPARγ in the adipose tissue in vivo. Next, we investigated the antiobesity effects of ellagic acid, erycibelline, 5-hydroxy-2-pyridinemethanol, m-hydroxyphenylglycine, and 4-hydroxycoumarin isolated from uRCB. Without affecting cell viability, five bioactive compounds decreased the lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 cells and the mRNA expression levels of key adipogenic genes such as PPARγ, C/EBPα, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Conclusion. These results suggest that uRC and its five bioactive compounds may be a useful therapeutic agent for body weight control by downregulating adipogenesis and lipogenesis. PMID:26904142

  7. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  8. Phytochemical constituents of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dhandapani, R; Sabna, B

    2008-04-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardie glycoside distribution in seven medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Aegle marmelos, Cynodon dactylon, Eclipta prostrata, Moringa pterygosperma, Pongamia pinnata, Sida acuta and Tridax procumbens. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557280

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of unripe papaya.

    PubMed

    Osato, J A; Santiago, L A; Remo, G M; Cuadra, M S; Mori, A

    1993-01-01

    The meat, seed and pulp of Carica papaya Linn., a popular traditional medicinal herb grown in the tropics, was shown by the agar-cup method to be bacteriostatic against several enteropathogens such as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The same parts of papaya were unequivocably demonstrated by electron spin resonance spectrometry to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (5.8 x 10(14) spins/ml), hydroxyl (5.1 x 10(14) spins/ml) and superoxide (1.2 x 10(14) spins/ml) radicals with the seed giving the highest activity at concentrations (IC50) of 2.1, 10.0 and 8.7 mg/ml, respectively. The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity in the meat, seed and pulp amounts to about 32, 98 and 33 units/ml; comparable to those of soybean paste miso, rice bran and baker's yeast. Vitamin C, malic acid, citric acid and glucose are some of the possible antioxidative components in papaya. Our study correlates the bacteriostatic activity of papaya with its scavenging action on superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which could be part of the cellular metabolism of such enteropathogens. This is indicative of the pathophysiological role of these reactive oxygen species in gastrointestinal diseases and papaya's ability to counteract the oxidative stress. PMID:8412504

  10. Screening of Herbal-Based Bioactive Extract Against Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Monalisa; Roy, Ranita; Tiwari, Vishvanath

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is grouped in the ESKAPE pathogens by Infectious Disease Society of America, which is linked to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and increased costs. The high level of acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of these bacteria makes it an urgent requirement to find a suitable alternative to carbapenem, a commonly prescribed drug for Acinetobacter infection. In this study, methanolic extracts of six medicinal plants were subjected to phytochemical screening and their antimicrobial activity was tested against two strains of A. baumannii (ATCC 19606, carbapenem-sensitive strain, and RS 307, carbapenem-resistant strain). Synergistic effect of the plant extracts and antibiotics was also tested. Bael or Aegle marmelos contains tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, alkaloids, coumarine, steroid, and quinones. Flowers of madar or Calotropis procera possess tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, quinone, anthraquinone, anthocyanin, coumarin, and steroid. An inhibitory growth curve was seen for both the bacterial strains when treated with A. marmelos, Curcuma longa, and leaves and flowers of C. procera. Antibiotics alone showed a small zone of inhibition, but when used with herbal extracts they exhibited larger zone of inhibition. Synergistic effect of A. marmelos and imipenem was the best against both the strains of A. baumannii. From this study, it can be concluded that extracts from A. marmelos and leaves and flowers of C. procera exhibited the most effective antibacterial activity. These herbal extracts may be used to screen the bioactive compound against the carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. PMID:26910023

  11. Studies of the anticancer potential of plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Ather, Arjumand; Wilke, Diego Veras; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Maria Elisabete Amaral; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico

    2005-05-13

    The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of 11 plants used in Bangladeshi folk medicine. The extracts were tested for cytotoxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay, sea urchin eggs assay, hemolysis assay and MTT assay using tumor cell lines. The extract of Oroxylum indicum showed the highest toxicity on all tumor cell lines tested, with an IC(50) of 19.6 microg/ml for CEM, 14.2 microg/ml for HL-60, 17.2 microg/ml for B-16 and 32.5 microg/ml for HCT-8. On the sea urchin eggs, it inhibited the progression of cell cycle since the frist cleavage (IC(50)=13.5 microg/ml). The extract of Aegle marmelos exhibited toxicity on all used assays, but in a lower potency than Oroxylum indicum. In conclusion, among all tested extracts, only the extracts of Oroxylum indicum, Moringa oleifera and Aegles marmelos could be considered as potential sources of anticancer compounds. Further studies are necessary for chemical characterization of the active principles and more extensive biological evaluations. PMID:15848015

  12. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  13. Bactericidal Effect of Selected Antidiarrhoeal Medicinal Plants on Intracellular Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Birdi, Tannaz J.; Brijesh, S.; Daswani, Poonam G.

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli continue to be a cause of global concern. Medicinal plants have been gaining popularity as promising antidiarrhoeal agents. In the present study, four antidiarrhoeal plants, viz. Aegle marmelos, Cyperus rotundus, Psidium guajava and Zingiber officinale were screened against a heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli strain. Decoctions of these plants were studied for their effect on intracellular killing of the bacterial strain using murine monocytic cell line, J774. [3H] thymidine release assay was used to evaluate the apoptotic/necrotic effect. All plants at concentrations <1% enhanced intracellular killing of the bacteria by J774 cells. However, at higher concentrations, the decoctions induced apoptosis in J774 cells. The study demonstrates that these plants could control diarrhoea caused by heat-stable toxin-producing enterotoxigenic E. coli through their immunomodulatory effect. PMID:25035535

  14. Formulation development and in vitro antioxidant studies of Churnas containing natural sweetener and nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Salunkhe, V R; Bhise, S B

    2009-04-01

    Gymnema sylvestre, Curcuma longa, Azadiracta indica, Aegle marmelos, Salacia chinensis, Emblica officinalis were used as active components and Stevia rebaudiana as natural sweetener with nutraceuticalfor development of Churnas. The free radical scavengingpotential of Churnas was studied by using different antioxidant models of screening. The hydroalcoholic extract of sweet and bitter Churnas at 500μg/ ml showed maximum scavenging of the riboflavin NET system, DPPH and total antioxidant capacity. However, the extract showed only moderate scavenging activity of nitric oxide radicals and iron chelation. This could be due to higher phenolic content in the extract. Sweetness potency of Churna was found to be appropriate sweet, acceptable and palatable. These observations can be useful for the justifications of various ingredients and therapeutic applications of the Churnas. PMID:22557329

  15. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. PMID:26471559

  16. The evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain Indian medicinal plants in vitro: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2004-01-01

    The plant extracts of 17 commonly used Indian medicinal plants were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as an NO donor in vitro. Most of the plant extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity. The potency of scavenging activity was in the following order: Alstonia scholaris > Cynodon dactylon > Morinda citrifolia > Tylophora indica > Tectona grandis > Aegle marmelos (leaf) > Momordica charantia > Phyllanthus niruri > Ocimum sanctum > Tinospora cordifolia (hexane extract) = Coleus ambonicus > Vitex negundo (alcoholic) > T. cordifolia (dichloromethane extract) > T. cordifolia (methanol extract) > Ipomoea digitata > V. negundo (aqueous) > Boerhaavia diffusa > Eugenia jambolana (seed) > T. cordifolia (aqueous extract) > V. negundo (dichloromethane/methanol extract) > Gingko biloba > Picrorrhiza kurroa > A. marmelos (fruit) > Santalum album > E. jambolana (leaf). All the extracts evaluated exhibited a dose-dependent NO scavenging activity. The A. scholaris bark showed its greatest NO scavenging effect of 81.86% at 250 microg/mL, as compared with G. biloba, where 54.9% scavenging was observed at a similar concentration. The present results suggest that these medicinal plants might be potent and novel therapeutic agents for scavenging of NO and the regulation of pathological conditions caused by excessive generation of NO and its oxidation product, peroxynitrite. PMID:15383230

  17. Geese Are Swans and Swans Are Geese or Selecting Unripe Fruits Instead of Ripe Fruits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    Procedural evaluations of limits of functions provide invariably better understanding of the limits than the approximations using a calculator. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that better understanding can be promoted if mathematical understanding precedes the impulse to use calculators. The note clarifies the stages when the…

  18. Cloning and Structure-Function Analyses of Quinolone- and Acridone-producing Novel Type III Polyketide Synthases from Citrus microcarpa*

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takahiro; Shimokawa, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Takashi; Kinjo, Keishi; Kato, Ryohei; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ikuro

    2013-01-01

    Two novel type III polyketide synthases, quinolone synthase (QNS) and acridone synthase (ACS), were cloned from Citrus microcarpa (Rutaceae). The deduced amino acid sequence of C. microcarpa QNS is unique, and it shared only 56–60% identities with C. microcarpa ACS, Medicago sativa chalcone synthase (CHS), and the previously reported Aegle marmelos QNS. In contrast to the quinolone- and acridone-producing A. marmelos QNS, C. microcarpa QNS produces 4-hydroxy-N-methylquinolone as the “single product” by the one-step condensation of N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. However, C. microcarpa ACS shows broad substrate specificities and produces not only acridone and quinolone but also chalcone, benzophenone, and phloroglucinol from 4-coumaroyl-CoA, benzoyl-CoA, and hexanoyl-CoA, respectively. Furthermore, the x-ray crystal structures of C. microcarpa QNS and ACS, solved at 2.47- and 2.35-Å resolutions, respectively, revealed wide active site entrances in both enzymes. The wide active site entrances thus provide sufficient space to facilitate the binding of the bulky N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA within the catalytic centers. However, the active site cavity volume of C. microcarpa ACS (760 Å3) is almost as large as that of M. sativa CHS (750 Å3), and ACS produces acridone by employing an active site cavity and catalytic machinery similar to those of CHS. In contrast, the cavity of C. microcarpa QNS (290 Å3) is significantly smaller, which makes this enzyme produce the diketide quinolone. These results as well as mutagenesis analyses provided the first structural bases for the anthranilate-derived production of the quinolone and acridone alkaloid by type III polyketide synthases. PMID:23963450

  19. Botanicals to control soft rot bacteria of potato.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Khan, A A; Ali, M E; Mian, I H; Akanda, A M; Abd Hamid, S B

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from eleven different plant species such as jute (Corchorus capsularis L.), cheerota (Swertia chiraita Ham.), chatim (Alstonia scholaris L.), mander (Erythrina variegata), bael (Aegle marmelos L.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), onion (Allium cepa), garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadiracta indica), lime (Citrus aurantifolia), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were tested for antibacterial activity against potato soft rot bacteria, E. carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc) P-138, under in vitro and storage conditions. Previously, Ecc P-138 was identified as the most aggressive soft rot bacterium in Bangladeshi potatoes. Of the 11 different plant extracts, only extracts from dried jute leaves and cheerota significantly inhibited growth of Ecc P-138 in vitro. Finally, both plant extracts were tested to control the soft rot disease of potato tuber under storage conditions. In a 22-week storage condition, the treated potatoes were significantly more protected against the soft rot infection than those of untreated samples in terms of infection rate and weight loss. The jute leaf extracts showed more pronounced inhibitory effects on Ecc-138 growth both in in vitro and storage experiments. PMID:22701096

  20. Evaluation of Aromatic Plants and Compounds Used to Fight Multidrug Resistant Infections

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100 μg of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  1. Evaluation of aromatic plants and compounds used to fight multidrug resistant infections.

    PubMed

    Perumal Samy, Ramar; Manikandan, Jayapal; Al Qahtani, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays a vital role for primary health care in India, where it is widely practiced to treat various ailments. Among those obtained from the healers, 78 medicinal plants were scientifically evaluated for antibacterial activity. Methanol extract of plants (100  μ g of residue) was tested against the multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Forty-seven plants showed strong activity against Burkholderia pseudomallei (strain TES and KHW) and Staphylococcus aureus, of which Tragia involucrata L., Citrus acida Roxb. Hook.f., and Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa ex Roxb. showed powerful inhibition of bacteria. Eighteen plants displayed only a moderate effect, while six plants failed to provide any evidence of inhibition against the tested bacteria. Purified compounds showed higher antimicrobial activity than crude extracts. The compounds showed less toxic effect to the human skin fibroblasts (HEPK) cells than their corresponding aromatic fractions. Phytochemical screening indicates that the presence of various secondary metabolites may be responsible for this activity. Most of the plant extracts contained high levels of phenolic or polyphenolic compounds and exhibited activity against MDR pathogens. In conclusion, plants are promising agents that deserve further exploration. Lead molecules available from such extracts may serve as potential antimicrobial agents for future drug development to combat diseases caused by the MDR bacterial strains as reported in this study. PMID:24223059

  2. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    PubMed

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  3. Ovicidal and Oviposition Deterrent Activities of Medicinal Plant Extracts Against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Reegan, Appadurai Daniel; Gandhi, Munusamy Rajiv; Paulraj, Micheal Gabriel; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of five medicinal plant extracts namely Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Limonia acidissima (Linn.), Sphaeranthus indicus (Linn.), Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (burm.f), and Chromolaena odorata (Linn.) against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Three solvents, namely hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, were used for the preparation of extracts from each plant. Methods Four different concentrations—62.5 parts per million (ppm), 125 ppm, 250 ppm, and 500 ppm—were prepared using acetone and tested for ovicidal and oviposition deterrent activities. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the significance of the treatments and means were separated by Tukey's test of comparison. Results Among the different extracts of the five plants screened, the hexane extract of L. acidissima recorded the highest ovicidal activity of 79.2% and 60% at 500 ppm concentration against the eggs of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Similarly, the same hexane extract of L. acidissima showed 100% oviposition deterrent activity at all the tested concentrations against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti adult females. Conclusion It is concluded that the hexane extract of L. acidissima could be used in an integrated mosquito management program. PMID:25737834

  4. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  5. Potential xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-07-01

    Xanthine oxidase is considered as a potential target for treatment of hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia is predisposing factor for gout, chronic heart failure, atherosclerosis, tissue injury, and ischemia. To date, only two inhibitors of xanthine oxidase viz. allopurinol and febuxostat have been clinically approved for used as drugs. In the process of searching for new xanthine oxidase inhibitors, we screened culture filtrates of 42 endophytic fungi using in vitro qualitative and quantitative XO inhibitory assays. The qualitative assay exhibited potential XO inhibition by culture filtrates of four isolates viz. #1048 AMSTITYEL, #2CCSTITD, #6AMLWLS, and #96 CMSTITNEY. The XO inhibitory activity was present only in the chloroform extract of the culture filtrates. Chloroform extract of culture filtrate #1048 AMSTITYEL exhibited the highest inhibition of XO with an IC50 value of 0.61 μg ml(-1) which was better than allopurinol exhibiting an IC50 of 0.937 μg ml(-1) while febuxostat exhibited a much lower IC50 of 0.076 μg ml(-1). Further, molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify #1048 AMSTITYEL as Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae. This is the first report of an endophytic Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae from Aegle marmelos exhibiting potential XO Inhibitory activity. PMID:24801403

  6. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%). PMID:26264423

  7. Food and feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus Linn.) in Kuldiha Wild Life Sanctuary, Odisha, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Kalpana K; Patra, A K; Paramanik, D S

    2013-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) with food reference was studied in Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary in Odisha during 2007 to 2009. Though the study area houses a good number of plant species only 71 species were identified as elephant fodder plants. The food trail of elephant was observed as twig breaking, bark peeling, branch breaking, stem twisting uprooting and flower plucking in different regions of study area during different seasons. Alteration of predominantly browsing strategy with that of grazing around the year was related to seasonal variation of food plants. Consumption of tree species (56%) was highest as compared to shrubs (20%), herbs (14%) and climbers (10%). A high degree of variation in dicot- monocot ratio (61:10)) was marked during identification of elephant fodder plant by direct observation. Microscopic analysis of dung showing a high degree of variation in average dicot- monocot ratio suggested that the food plant selection of elephant was highly opportunistic and seasonal. The elephants extensively fed on the plant species like Careya arborea, Kydia calycina, Helicteres isora, Mallotus philippinensis, Aegle marmelos, Zizyphus mauritiona, Bauhinia racemosa, Bauhinia vahlii, Mimosa pudica, Asparagus racemosus, Smilax zeylanica and Diosporea species. They were fond of Madhuca indica (Mahula) flowers in winter and fruits of Mangifera indica (Mango) in summer. They were never found feeding on Tectona grandis and Eucalyptus maculate inside the study area. PMID:24006812

  8. Isolation and biological evaluation of novel Tetracosahexaene hexamethyl, an acyclic triterpenoids derivatives and antioxidant from Justicia adhatoda.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Sandeep; Dhankhar, Seema; Ruhil, Sonam; Balhara, Meenakshi; Malik, Vinay; Chhillar, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Forty five extracts fraction of nine selected Indian medicinal plants, based on their use in traditional systems of medicine were analyzed for their antioxidant potential. All the extracts were investigated for phenol content value calculated in Gallic acid equivalents (% of GAE) and antioxidant potential. Moreover, total phenolic content (% dw equivalents to gallic acid) of all plant extracts were found in the range of 3.04 to 24.03, which correlated with antioxidant activity. The findings indicated a promising antioxidant activity of crude extracts fractions of three plants (Justicia adhatoda, Capparis aphylla and Aegle marmelos) and required the further exploration for their effective utilization. Results indicated that petroleum ether fraction of J. adhatoda out of three plants also possesses the admirable antioxidant abilities with high total phenolic content. Following, in vitro antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, twelve fractions of petroleum ether extract of J. adhatoda were isolated by silica gel column chromatography. One fraction (Rf value: 0.725) showed the noticeable antioxidant activity with ascorbic acid standard in hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. The molecular structures elucidations of purified antioxidant compound were carried out using spectroscopic studies ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS). This compound was reported from this species for the first time. The results imply that the J. adhatoda might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 2,6,10,14,18,22-Tetracosahexaene, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl is an antioxidant ingredient in J. adhatoda. PMID:25001112

  9. Fetal Hemoglobin Inducers from the Natural World: A Novel Approach for Identification of Drugs for the Treatment of {beta}-Thalassemia and Sickle-Cell Anemia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Nicoletta; Zuccato, Cristina; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this review is to present examples of lead compounds identified from biological material (fungi, plant extracts and agro-industry material) and of possible interest in the field of a pharmacological approach to the therapy of beta-thalassemia using molecules able to stimulate production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adults. Concerning the employment of HbF inducers as potential drugs for pharmacological treatment of beta-thalassemia, the following conclusions can be reached: (i) this therapeutic approach is reasonable, on the basis of the clinical parameters exhibited by hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin patients, (ii) clinical trials (even if still limited) employing HbF inducers were effective in ameliorating the symptoms of beta-thalassemia patients, (iii) good correlation of in vivo and in vitro results of HbF synthesis and gamma-globin mRNA accumulation indicates that in vitro testing might be predictive of in vivo responses and (iv) combined use of different inducers might be useful to maximize HbF, both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present three examples of HbF inducers from the natural world: (i) angelicin and linear psoralens, contained in plant extracts from Angelica arcangelica and Aegle marmelos, (ii) resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and several plant extracts and (iii) rapamycin, isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. PMID:18955291

  10. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  11. Purification and characterization of macrodontain I, a cysteine peptidase from unripe fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) harms (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    López, L M; Sequeiros, C; Natalucci, C L; Brullo, A; Maras, B; Barra, D; Caffini, N O

    2000-03-01

    A new papain-like cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms, a species closely related to pineapple (Ananas comosus L.), has been purified and characterized. The enzyme, named macrodontain I, is the main proteolytic component present in fruit extracts and was purified by acetone fractionation followed by anion-exchange chromatography. Separation was improved by selecting both an adequate pH value and a narrow saline gradient. Optimum pH range (more than 90% of maximum activity with casein) was achieved at pH 6.1-8.5. Homogeneity of the enzyme was confirmed by bidimensional electrophoresis and mass spectroscopy (MS). Molecular mass of the enzyme was 23,459 (MS) and its isoelectric point was 6.1. The alanine, glutamine, and tyrosine derivatives were strongly preferred when the enzyme was assayed on N-alpha-CBZ-l-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters. The N-terminal sequence of macrodontain (by comparison with the N-terminus of 30 plant proteases with more than 50% homology) showed a great deal of sequence similarity to the other pineapple-stem-derived cysteine endopeptidases, being 85.7, 85. 2, and 77.8% identical to comosain, stem bromelain, and ananain, respectively. It seems clear that the Bromeliaceae endopeptidases are more closely related to each other than to other members of the papain family, suggesting relatively recent divergence. PMID:10686143

  12. Gluten-free spaghetti made with chickpea, unripe plantain, and maize flours: functional and chemical properties and starch digestibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten containing pasta has a primary role in human nutrition and is a traditional food that it is easy to store, cook and handle. The worldwide increased in genetically susceptible individuals to gluten and related cereal proteins, demand the development of gluten-free food products. The use of dif...

  13. Useful ethnophytomedicinal recipes of angiosperms used against diabetes in South East Asian Countries (India, Pakistan & Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Marwat, Sarfaraz Khan; Rehman, Fazalur; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khakwani, Abdul Aziz; Ullah, Imdad; Khan, Kaleem Ullah; Khan, Inam Ullah

    2014-09-01

    This paper is based on data recorded from various literatures pertaining to ethnophytomedicinal recipes used against diabetes in South East Asia (India, Pakistan and Srilanka). Traditional plant treatments have been used throughout the world for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. In total 419 useful phytorecipes of 270 plant species belonging to 74 Angiospermic families were collected. From the review it was revealed that plants showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belong to the families, Cucurbitaceae (16 spp.), Euphorbiaceae (15 spp.), Caesalpiniaceae and Papilionaceae (13 spp. each), Moraceae (11 spp.), Acanthaceae (10 spp.), Mimosaceae (09 spp.), Asteraceae, Malvaceae and Poaceae (08 spp. each), Hippocrateaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (07 spp. each), Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Verbenaceae (06 spp. each), Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Lamiaceae, Myrtaceae, Solanaceae (05 spp.each). The most active plants are Syzigium cumini (14 recipes), Phyllanthus emblica (09 recipes), Centella asiatica and Momordica charantia (08 recipes each), Azadirachta indica (07 recipes), Aegle marmelos, Catharanthus roseus, Ficus benghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Gymnema sylvestre (06 recipes each), Allium cepa, A. sativum, Andrographis paniculata, Curcuma longa (05 recipes each), Citrullus colocynthis, Justicia adhatoda, Nelumbo nucifera, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Ziziphus mauritiana and Wattakaka volubilis (4 recipes each). These traditional recipes include extracts, leaves, powders, flour, seeds, vegetables, fruits and herbal mixtures. Data inventory consists of botanical name, recipe, vernacular name, English name. Some of the plants of the above data with experimentally confirmed antidiabetic properties have also been recorded. More investigations must be carried out to evaluate the mechanism of action of diabetic medicinal plants. Toxicity of these plants should also be explained. Scientific validation of these recipes may help in discovering new drugs from

  14. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

  15. Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

    2009-05-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID

  16. Green leafy porridges: how good are they in controlling glycaemic response?

    PubMed

    Anuruddhika Subhashinie Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage; Ekanayake, Sagarika

    2013-03-01

    Green leafy porridges made with leaf water extracts, rice and coconut milk are common Sri Lankan dietary remedies for diabetes. Though water and ethanolic extracts of most leaves elicit hypoglycaemic effects, data are not available on the efficacy when leaf extracts are incorporated into porridges. Thus, an effort was made to evaluate the proximate compositions and glycaemic index (GI) of some commonly consumed green leafy porridges. The GI of rice porridge and coconut milk porridge were measured to evaluate the effect of other ingredients other than the leaf extracts. Rice was the main contributor to carbohydrate (56-68% on dry weight) and water was the main component in porridges (89-93%). Fat and total dietary fibre contents ranged between 2.5-27% and 5-10%, respectively. The GI of all porridges was low (GI ≤ 55), except Cassia auriculata which had a high GI of 77 ± 12. The GIs of coconut milk, Aerva lanata, Hemidesmus indicus, Scoparia dulcis, Asparagus racemosus, Cephalandra indica, Cardiospermum halicacabum, Murraya koenigii and Aegle marmelos were 31 ± 5, 32 ± 5, 40 ± 8, 39 ± 8, 37 ± 4, 49 ± 8, 46 ± 8, 44 ± 8 and 50 ± 8, respectively. All porridges had a low or medium glycaemic loads ( ≤ 19). However, peak blood glucose reductions of ≥ 25% were observed in all leafy and coconut milk porridges, except in C. auriculata and Atlantia zeylanica, when compared with the glucose control. Therefore, green leafy porridges, except Cassia, can be recommended as breakfast meals for diabetics due to their low GI, peak blood glucose reduction and presence of other nutrients in green leaves. PMID:22849311

  17. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  18. In vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial properties of ethyl acetate extract of Aegle tamilnadensis Abdul Kader (Rutaceae) leaf.

    PubMed

    R, Pratap Chandran; S, Nishanth Kumar; S, Manju; S, Abdul Kader; B S, Dileep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition, antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis leaves. The extract recorded strong α-glucosidase inhibition with an IC50 value of 100 μg/ml. The antioxidant potential of the extract was evaluated by nitric oxide radical inhibition, lipid peroxidation inhibition, ferric thiocyanate, and ABTS radical scavenging assay, and the extract recorded significant antioxidant activity. The ferric thiocyanate activity of extract was superior to butylated hydroxyl anisol (BHA), the standard antioxidant agent. The anticancer activity of the extract was evaluated against (1) breast cancer cell lines (MDAM B-231), (2) cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa), and (3) lung cancer cell line (A 549) using MTT assay, and significant activity was recorded against A 549 with an IC50 value of 64 μg/ml. Further studies on the morphology, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry confirm the extract-induced apoptosis in A 549. This extract also recorded significant anti-tuberculosis activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis. The current study suggests that the ethyl acetate extract of A. tamilnadensis is a potential source of natural α-glucosidase inhibitor and antioxidant for protection as well as prevention of life-threatening diseases like cancer. PMID:25380641

  19. Extruded/injection-molded composites containing unripe plantain flour, ethylene vinyl-alcohol and glycerol: Evaluation of color, mechanical property and biodegradability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded/injection-molded composites were produced from plantain flour blended with ethylene vinyl-alcohol (EVA) and glycerol. Scanning electron microscopy showed composites had a smooth surface and excellent compatibility between plantain flour, EVA and glycerol. The impact of increased plantain fl...

  20. 75 FR 14153 - National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...A meeting of the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC/AEGL Committee) will be held on April 13-15, 2010, in San Francisco, CA. At this meeting, the NAC/AEGL Committee will address, as time permits, the various aspects of the acute toxicity and the development of Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for the following chemicals: 1,3-......

  1. Holocene vegetation and climatic variations in Central India: A study based on multiproxy evidences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, M. S.; Sharma, Anupam; Phartiyal, Binita; Kumar, Kamlesh

    2013-11-01

    Palynology, texture, mineralogy, geochemistry, and magnetic susceptibility analysis of a 2 m deep sediment core from Padauna Swamp, southeastern Madhya Pradesh infers that between 8600 and 7500 cal yr BP a warm and relatively less-humid climate prevailed with open tree-savannahs dominated by grasses followed by sedges, Artemisia and members of Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae with scanty trees viz., Schrebera, Aegle marmelos and Sterculia urens. This is well supported by lower organic to carbonate carbon ratio, coarser texture having relatively low CIA and magnetic susceptibility values and presence of some primary minerals. Between 7500 and 6250 cal yr BP the tree-savannahs were succeeded by open mixed deciduous forests with the invasion of a few more trees viz., Madhuca indica, Holoptelea, Emblica officinalis, Mitragyna parvifolia and members of Anacardiaceae in response to onset of a warm and humid climate. A considerable rise in organic carbon generated from the degradation of plentiful biomass along with increase in clay content with signs of kaolinite and increase in immobile over mobile elements with slightly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values also suggest climatic amelioration. The presence of ruderal plants such as Artemisia, Cannabis sativa and Cheno/Am further infers initiation of human activities in the region. Between 6250 and 2800 cal yr BP, the mixed deciduous forests became more diverse and dense, subduing grasses and other herbaceous elements. Sporadic incursion of Shorea robusta (Sal) in forest floristic was recorded around 5000 cal yr BP. The overall change in the vegetation mosaic reflects that a warm and more-humid climate prevailed in the region, probably on account of invigoration of southwest monsoon. This observation is further corroborated by other proxy data showing a spurt in organic/inorganic carbon ratio, increase in clay content with matured mineralogy, significantly higher CIA and magnetic susceptibility values. Since 2800 cal

  2. 75 FR 62534 - Request for Nominations to the National Advisory Committee for the Development of Acute Exposure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... list of 85 chemicals for AEGL development was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 1997 (62 FR... organization may nominate qualified individuals for possible service on the NAC/AEGL Committee in the area of... name, occupation, organization, position, current business address, email address, and...

  3. "The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge": the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors' offspring.

    PubMed

    Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified "cause-effect" paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of "Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual's susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce.The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the "second" and "third" generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed.Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense. PMID:24661388

  4. “The mothers have eaten unripe grapes and the children's teeth are set on edge”: the potential inter-generational effects of the Holocaust on chronic morbidity in Holocaust survivors’ offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has evolved in the last decades from the simplified “cause-effect” paradigm to a multi-factorial framework of causality. The concept of “Fetal Origin of Adult Diseases” (FOAD) is a good example: it suggests that preconception circumstances and fetal exposures as well as infancy and early childhood experiences may eventually change an individual’s susceptibility to adult morbidity through fetal programming and epigenetic changes. The FOAD concept was supported, between others, by well-designed cohort studies carried out on non-Jewish World War II (WWII) survivors, exposed to hunger during the War years. However, data on late physical morbidity of Jewish WWII survivors are still scarce. The current paper presents some cohorts addressing the FOAD hypothesis in relation to the long-term impact of early exposures to hunger and their main results. It stresses the need for the establishing of a similar cohort in Israel, in order to study the long-term effects of the Holocaust on the health of Holocaust child survivors and on that of the “second” and “third” generations. A framework for such a cohort in Israel is also proposed. Establishing a cohort of this character in Israel should be a national priority and policy. First, taking special care of Holocaust survivors is a somewhat neglected national obligation. Second, if the population of Holocaust survivors and their offspring is indeed a high risk group for late chronic morbidity, higher awareness may lead to better primary prevention and to tailored secondary prevention programs. Third, the population at stack is unique and its contribution to the consolidation of the FOAD theory and its translational applications may be of foremost importance, in the global and national sense. PMID:24661388

  5. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  6. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some fruits.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Upadhyay, Garima; Pushpangadan, P; Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    Phenols, a major group of antioxidant phytochemicals, have profound importance due to their biological and free radical scavenging activities. To identify their potential sources extracts of some fruits and their different parts were studied for total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant (AOA) and free radical scavenging activities (FRSA). The amount of TPC varied from 10.5 (Carissa carandus, fruit peel) to 343.2 mg/g (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) and AOA from 20.3% (Musa paradisiacal, fruits) to 96.7% (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits). Fruits of Caesalpinia Mexicana, Acacia auriculiformis, fruit pericarp green fibres of Cocus nucifera, and fruits of Emblica officinalis were found to have high TPC (73.1-343.2 mg/g) and high AOA (68.5-96.7%). Promising fruits were studied for their FRSA and reducing power (RP) measured by DPPH assay where the fruits of Caesalpinia mexicana, fruit pericarp fibres of Cocus nucifera, fruits of Emblica officinalis showed very low IC50 ranging from 0.009 to 0.016 mg/ml, EC50 from 0.39 to 0.70 mg/mg DPPH and reasonably high values (142.1-256.3) of anti radical power (ARP), indicating their strong FRSA and reducing power (RP) as evident by their low ASE/ml values (0.42-1.08). They also showed better inhibition of lipid peroxidation measured by using ferric thiocyanate assay and by using egg yolk compared to the reference standard quercetin. The ferrous and ferric ion chelating capacity of the promising fruits and their underutilized parts in terms of IC50 varied from 0.12 (Emblica officinalis, fruits) to 2.44 mg/ml (Mangifera indica, Seed kernel) and 0.22 (Caesalpinia Mexicana, fruits) to 2.59 mg/ml (Litchi chinensis, fruit peel) respectively. Fruit pulp, peel and seeds of Litchi chinensis with reasonable amount of phenols (48.3, 43.9, 50.1 mg/ml) showed low ARP (23.5, 38.3, 33.8) and ASE/ml (3.13, 2.18, 2.62) respectively in contrast to Aegle marmelos with comparatively lower phenols (35.1 mg/g) exhibited good ARP (57.4) and RP (1.67 ASE

  7. 75 FR 44249 - Proposed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... October 31, 1995 (60 FR 55376) (FRL-4987-3) of the establishment of the NAC/AEGL Committee with the stated... Perchloryl fluoride 7616-94-6 Perfluoroisobutylene 382-21-8 Phosgene 75-44-5 Phosgene oxime...

  8. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    DOEpatents

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  9. Evaluation of risk assessment guideline levels for the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX.

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Army has estimated acute lethality guideline levels for inhalation of the chemical warfare agents mustard, GB, and VX. These levels are expressed as dosages measured in milligram-minutes per cubic meter (mg-min/m3). The National Advisory Council has also proposed acute emergency guideline levels (AEGLs) for the agents. The AEGLs are threshold exposure limits for the general public for mild effects, serious adverse effects, and lethality. They are expressed as air concentrations (in units of mg/m3) and are applicable to emergency exposure periods ranging from 10 min to 8 h. The report discusses strengths and deficiencies in the levels, important parameters (i.e., exposure time, breathing rate) that need to be explicitly addressed in deriving the guideline levels, and possible impacts that could result from using AEGLs instead of guideline dosages in future assessments.

  10. Soil quality influences efficacy of Melia azedarach (Sapindales: Meliaceae), fruit extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hexane extract of chinaberry, Melia azedarach L., unripe fruits obtained from different municipalities of Goias state in Brazil were evaluated on the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini), engorged females. Hexanic extracts were assayed in decreasing concentrations from 0....

  11. Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Two Closely Related Species, Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl., from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sivasothy, Yasodha; Nagoor, Noor Hasima; Jamil, Natasha; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the unripe and ripe fruits of Alpinia mutica Roxb. and Alpinia latilabris Ridl. were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. The oils were principally monoterpenic in nature. The unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. mutica were characterized by camphor (21.0% and 15.8%), camphene (16.6% and 10.2%), β-pinene (8.6% and 13.5%), and trans,trans-farnesol (8.0% and 11.2%), respectively. The oils of the unripe and ripe fruits were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum. 1,8-Cineole (34.2% and 35.9%) and β-pinene (20.2% and 19.0%) were the two most abundant components in the unripe and ripe fruit oils of A. latilabris. The oil of the unripe fruits elicits moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes while Candida glabrata was moderately sensitive to the oil of the ripe fruits. PMID:24987733

  12. Antioxidant activity and protective effect of banana peel against oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocyte at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Shanthy; Anjum, Shadma; Dwivedi, Priyanka; Rai, Gyanendra Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Phytochemicals such as polyphenols and carotenoids are gaining importance because of their contribution to human health and their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, and cytoprotective activities and their therapeutic properties. Banana peel is a major by-product in pulp industry and it contains various bioactive compounds like polyphenols, carotenoids, and others. In the present study, effect of ripening, solvent polarity on the content of bioactive compounds of crude banana peel and the protective effect of peel extracts of unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe banana fruit on hydrogen peroxide-induced hemolysis and their antioxidant capacity were investigated. Banana (Musa paradisica) peel at different stages of ripening (unripe, ripe, leaky ripe) were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned in order of polarity with water, ethyl acetate, chloroform (CHCl₃), and hexane sequentially. The antioxidant activity of the samples was evaluated by the red cell hemolysis assay, free radical scavenging (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical elimination) and superoxide dismutase activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent assay was used to estimate the phenolic content of extracts. The findings of this investigation suggest that the unripe banana peel sample had higher antioxidant potency than ripe and leaky ripe. Further on fractionation, ethyl acetate and water soluble fractions of unripe peel displayed high antioxidant activity than CHCl₃ and hexane fraction, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavenging capacity and the content of phenolic compound were found in unripe, ripe, and leaky ripe stages of banana peel. PMID:21369778

  13. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: an approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Mary T; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-06-15

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire. PMID:18078713

  14. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  15. Impact of spatiotemporal fluctuations in airborne chemical concentration on toxic hazard assessment.

    PubMed

    Bogen, K T; Gouveia, F J

    2008-03-21

    Models widely used to assess atmospheric chemical-dispersion hazards for emergency response rely on acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) or similar concentration guidelines to map geographic areas potentially affected by corresponding levels of toxic severity. By ignoring substantial, random variability in concentration over time and space, such standard methods routinely underestimate the size of potentially affected areas. Underestimation due to temporal fluctuation - applicable to chemicals like hydrogen cyanide (HCN) for which peak concentrations best predict acute toxicity - becomes magnified by spatial fluctuation, defined as heterogeneity in average concentration at each location relative to standard-method predictions. The combined impact of spatiotemporal fluctuation on size of assessed threat areas was studied using a statistical-simulation assessment method calibrated to Joint Urban 2003 Oklahoma City field-tracer data. For a hypothetical 60-min urban release scenario involving HCN gas, the stochastic method predicted that lethal/severe effects could occur in an area 18 or 25 times larger than was predicted by standard methods targeted to a 60-min AEGL, assuming wind speeds > or =2.0 or < or =1.5m/s, respectively. The underestimation doubled when the standard method was targeted to a 10-min AEGL. Further research and field data are needed for improved stochastic methods to assess spatiotemporal fluctuation effects. PMID:17706864

  16. Identification of an endocytosis motif in an intracellular loop of Wntless protein, essential for its recycling and the control of Wnt protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Gasnereau, Isabelle; Herr, Patrick; Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Basler, Konrad; Gleeson, Paul A

    2011-12-16

    The secretion of Wnt signaling proteins is dependent upon the transmembrane sorting receptor, Wntless (Wls), which recycles between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Loss of Wls results in impairment of Wnt secretion and defects in development and homeostasis in Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the mouse. The sorting signals for the internalization and trafficking of Wls have not been defined. Here, we demonstrate that Wls internalization requires clathrin and dynamin I, components of the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. Moreover, we have identified a conserved YXXϕ endocytosis motif in the third intracellular loop of the multipass membrane protein Wls. Mutation of the tyrosine-based motif YEGL to AEGL (Y425A) resulted in the accumulation of human mutant Wls on the cell surface of transfected HeLa cells. The cell surface accumulation of Wls(AEGL) was rescued by the insertion of a classical YXXϕ motif in the cytoplasmic tail. Significantly, a Drosophila Wls(AEGL) mutant displayed a wing notch phenotype, with reduced Wnt secretion and signaling. These findings demonstrate that YXXϕ endocytosis motifs can occur in the intracellular loops of multipass membrane proteins and, moreover, provide direct evidence that the trafficking of Wls is required for efficient secretion of Wnt signaling proteins. PMID:22027831

  17. Tomato golden 2-like (GLK) transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fr...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya. The food-grade product is obtained by repeated filtration of the crude latex or an aqueous solution of latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  19. Effect of harvest maturity on quality of fresh-cut pear salad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texture of an unripe pear is firm and crisp, similar to an apple. However, at the crisp stage, the flavor of pears is flat. This study evaluated the effect of harvest maturity on the quality of fresh-cut pear salad. Fruit were harvested at commercial maturity and one month delayed. After 2 and 5 mon...

  20. Changes in protein profile during coagulation of latex from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Silva, L G; Garcia, O; Lopes, M T; Salas, C E

    1997-05-01

    We describe the changes in peptide composition by SDS-PAGE analysis of latex from Carica papaya collected at various times after incision of the unripe fruit. The data show that during latex coagulation several peptides are processed in an orderly fashion. PMID:9283628

  1. Evaluating the performance of sampling plans to detect hypoglycin A in ackee fruit shipments imported into the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is a toxic amino acid that is naturally produced in unripe ackee fruit. In 1973 the FDA placed a worldwide import alert on ackee fruit, which banned the product from entering the U.S. The FDA has considered establishing a regulatory limit for HGA and lifting the ban, which will re...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya. The food-grade product is... an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may be used in a liquid or dry...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1585 - Papain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1585 Papain. (a) Papain (CAS Reg. No. 9001-73-4) is a proteolytic enzyme derived from Carica papaya L. Crude latex containing the enzyme is collected from slashed unripe papaya... latex or by precipitation from an aqueous solution of latex. The resulting enzyme preparation may...

  6. Biologic Propensities and Phytochemical Profile of Vangueria madagascariensis J. F. Gmelin (Rubiaceae): An Underutilized Native Medicinal Food Plant from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Vangueria madagascariensis (VM), consumed for its sweet-sour fruits, is used as a biomedicine for the management of diabetes and bacterial infections in Africa. The study aims to assess the potential of VM on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, glucose movement, and antimicrobial activity. The antioxidant properties were determined by measuring the FRAP, iron chelating activity, and abilities to scavenge DPPH, HOCl, ∙OH, and NO radicals. Leaf decoction, leaf methanol, and unripe fruit methanol extracts were observed to significantly inhibit α-amylase. Active extracts against α-glucosidase were unripe fruit methanol, unripe fruit decoction, leaf decoction, and ripe fruit methanol, which were significantly lower than acarbose. Kinetic studies revealed a mixed noncompetitive type of inhibition. Leaf methanolic extract was active against S. aureus and E. coli. Total phenolic content showed a strong significant positive correlation (r = 0.88) with FRAP. Methanolic leaf extract showed a more efficient NO scavenging potential and was significantly lower than ascorbic acid. Concerning ∙OH-mediated DNA degradation, only the methanol extracts of leaf, unripe fruit, and ripe fruit had IC50 values which were significantly lower than α-tocopherol. Given the dearth of information on the biologic propensities of VM, this study has established valuable primary information which has opened new perspectives for further pharmacological research. PMID:24812627

  7. On China's Education Marketization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ru, Ning

    2005-01-01

    The education market emerged in China since 1990s, which triggered heated debate among education circle. This paper explores the development forms which education market took on, analyses its pros and cons and investigates the measures should be adopted to revamp the holes of the unripe education market. (Contains 6 footnotes.)

  8. Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Germek, Valerija Majetić; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bučar-Miklavčič, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-06-26

    The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits). PMID:23718881

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of Rubus coreanus Miquel through inhibition of NF-κB and MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Eun; Cho, Soo-Muk; Park, Eunkyo; Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Yuri; Auh, Joong Hyuck; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lim, Sohee

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Rubus Coreanus Miquel (RCM), used as a traditional Korean medicine, reduces chronic inflammatory diseases such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its mechanism has not been elucidated. In this study, we examine the anti-inflammatory effects of RCM and their possible mechanisms using RAW 264.7 cells. MATERIALS/METHODS Unripe RCM ethanol extract (UE), unripe RCM water extract (UH), ripe RCM ethanol extract (RE), and ripe RCM water extract (RH) were prepared. Inflammatory response was induced with LPS treatment, and expression of pro-inflammatory mediators (iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and NO and PGE2 productions were assessed. To determine the anti-inflammatory mechanism of RCM, we measured NF-κB and MAPK activities. RESULTS UE and UH treatment significantly reduced NF-κB activation and JNK and p38 phosphorylation and reduced transcriptional activities decreased iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expressions, and NO and PGE2 productions. RE and RH treatments reduced IL-1β and IL-6 expressions through suppressions of JNK and p38 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we showed that RCM had anti-inflammatory effects by suppression of pro-inflammatory mediator expressions. Especially, unripe RCM showed strong anti-inflammatory effects through suppression of NF-κB and MAPK activation. These findings suggest that unripe RCM might be used as a potential functional material to reduce chronic inflammatory responses. PMID:25324928

  10. Biodegradable Composites Based on Starch/EVOH/Glycerol Blends and Coconut Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unripe coconut fibers were used as fillers in a biodegradable polymer matrix of starch/Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH)/glycerol. The effects of fiber content on the mechanical, thermal and structural properties were evaluated. The addition of coconut fiber into starch/EVOH/glycerol blends reduced the ...

  11. Astringent Mouthfeel as a Consequence of Lubrication Failure.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuanhong; Lee, Haeshin; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Herein, we systematically investigate the origin of astringent mouthfeel when we eat unripe fruits, drink coffee or tea, from the perspective of lubrication by simulating the dynamic weak interaction on the tongue with model protein (mucoprotein, MP) and polyphenolic compounds (tannic acid, TA). Astringency was due to the protein-mediated lubrication failure when encountering polyphenolic molecules that normally exist, for example in unripe fruits, coffee, tea. The underlying molecular mechanism of oral tribology is widely present in nature and enables us to engineer a tongue-like polyacrylamide composite hydrogel that exhibits high TA sensitivity and to develop a scientific strategy for catching slippery fish using TA-containing gloves. These results provide novel and useful insights into the failure of biological boundary lubrication on soft tissue surface with the adsorbed proteins. PMID:27059282

  12. Effect of papaya (Carica papaya linn) on pregnancy and estrous cycle in albino rats of Wistar strain.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, M; Rajasekharasetty, M R

    1978-01-01

    The antifertility effects of Carica papaya were investigated by feeding adult cycling and pregnant rats with different components of its fruits. No attempt was made to force-feed the animals. The results indicate that unripe fruits of papaya interrupt estrous cycle and induce abortions. The abortifacient property seems to decrease as the fruit becomes stale or ripe. Exogenous progesterone counteracts partially the adverse effects on pregnancy and the surviving foeti are without any distinct malformations. PMID:680941

  13. Disruption of snRNP biogenesis factors Tgs1 and pICln induces phenotypes that mirror aspects of SMN-Gemins complex perturbation in Drosophila, providing new insights into spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Borg, Rebecca M; Fenech Salerno, Benji; Vassallo, Neville; Bordonne, Rémy; Cauchi, Ruben J

    2016-10-01

    The neuromuscular disorder, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), results from insufficient levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Together with Gemins 2-8 and Unrip, SMN forms the large macromolecular SMN-Gemins complex, which is known to be indispensable for chaperoning the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). It remains unclear whether disruption of this function is responsible for the selective neuromuscular degeneration in SMA. In the present study, we first show that loss of wmd, the Drosophila Unrip orthologue, has a negative impact on the motor system. However, due to lack of a functional relationship between wmd/Unrip and Gemin3, it is likely that Unrip joined the SMN-Gemins complex only recently in evolution. Second, we uncover that disruption of either Tgs1 or pICln, two cardinal players in snRNP biogenesis, results in viability and motor phenotypes that closely resemble those previously uncovered on loss of the constituent members of the SMN-Gemins complex. Interestingly, overexpression of both factors leads to motor dysfunction in Drosophila, a situation analogous to that of Gemin2. Toxicity is conserved in the yeast S. pombe where pICln overexpression induces a surplus of Sm proteins in the cytoplasm, indicating that a block in snRNP biogenesis is partly responsible for this phenotype. Importantly, we show a strong functional relationship and a physical interaction between Gemin3 and either Tgs1 or pICln. We propose that snRNP biogenesis is the pathway connecting the SMN-Gemins complex to a functional neuromuscular system, and its disturbance most likely leads to the motor dysfunction that is typical in SMA. PMID:27388936

  14. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo.

    PubMed

    Horta, Roberta Nunes; Kahl, Vivian Francilia Silva; Sarmento, Merielen da Silva; Nunes, Marisa Fernanda Silva; Porto, Carem Rejane Maglione; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Silva, Juliana Da

    2016-03-01

    Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron. PMID:27007905

  15. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities. PMID:27080855

  16. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  17. Uniquely Regulated Proteinase Inhibitor I Gene in a Wild Tomato Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, Vincent P. M.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1991-01-01

    A uniquely regulated proteinase inhibitor I gene was isolated from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon peruvianum (L.) Mill. (LA 107) and characterized. The inhibitor gene is wound-inducible in leaves and is expressed in unripe fruit during development. The gene (λ clone 1) is present on a 15.5 kilobase pair Sal 1-SalI genomic DNA fragment. Southern blot analysis of L. peruvianum genomic DNA shows only one strongly hybridizing DNA fragment to probes derived from λ clone 1. S1 nuclease protection experiments and Northern analyses confirm that this gene is both wound-inducible in leaves and developmentally regulated in young unripe fruit. These observations are supported by comparisons of the 5′-flanking DNA sequences of the L. peruvianum inhibitor I gene with known elicitor responsive cis-acting sequences. The transcriptional regulation of the λ clone 1 inhibitor I gene in leaves of wounded plants and in developing unripe fruit indicates that the gene contains unique complex regulating elements. These elements respond to both environmental and developmental tissue-specific signals that can regulate proteinase inhibitor synthesis to protect the tissues of this wild species of tomato against predators and pathogens. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668426

  18. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Roberta Nunes; Kahl, Vivian Francilia Silva; Sarmento, Merielen da Silva; Nunes, Marisa Fernanda Silva; Porto, Carem Rejane Maglione; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Silva, Juliana Da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron. PMID:27007905

  19. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers’ plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening. PMID:26539204

  20. Chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Hymenaea courbaril fruit peel.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, José Cláudio D; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Lavor, Patrícia L; Veras, Helenicy N H; Ferreira, Yana S; Lima, Michele A A; Arriaga, Angela M C; Lemos, Telma L G; Lima, Jefferson Q; de Jesus, Hugo C R; Alves, Péricles B; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2010-12-01

    The chemical compositions of the essential oils from the peel of ripe and unripe fruits of Hymenaea courbaril L., obtained by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the essential oil from the peel of the ripe fruits were the sesquiterpenes alpha-copaene (11.1%), spathulenol (10.1%) and beta-selinene (8.2%), while germacrene-D (31.9%), beta-caryophyllene (27.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%) were the major compounds in the oil from unripe fruits. The essential oils were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae and showed LC50 values of 14.8 +/- 0.4 microg/mL and 28.4 +/- 0.3 microg/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit peel oils, respectively. From the peel of the ripe fruits, the diterpenes zanzibaric acid and isoozic acid were isolated, along with the sesquiterpene caryolane-1,9beta-diol. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this sesquiterpene in the genus. The structures of all compounds isolated were identified on the basis of their spectral data (IR, MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR) and by comparison with literature spectral data. PMID:21299135

  1. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O.; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS* scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  2. Phytochemical fingerprints of lime honey collected in serbia.

    PubMed

    Gašić, Uroš; Šikoparija, Branko; Tosti, Tomislav; Trifković, Jelena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Natić, Maja; Tešić, Živoslav

    2014-01-01

    Composition of phenolic compounds and the sugar content were determined as the basis for characterization of lime honey from Serbia. Particular attention was given to differences in phytochemical profiles of ripe and unripe lime honey and lime tree nectar. Melissopalynological analysis confirmed domination of Tilia nectar in all analyzed samples. Phenolic acids, abscisic acid, flavonoids, and flavonoid glycosides were determined by means of ultra-HPLC coupled with a hybrid mass spectrometer (UHPLC-OrbiTrap). Sugar content was determined using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with amperometric detection. Similar phenolic compounds characterized unripe and ripe honeys, while the lime tree nectar profile showed notable differences. Compared to lime tree nectar, a high amount of chrysin, pinocembrin, and galangin were detected in both ripe and unripe lime honey. Fructose and glucose were the major constituents of all investigated samples, and amounts were within the limits established by European Union legislation. Sucrose content in the nectar sample was up to two-fold higher when compared to all honey samples. Isomaltose and gentiobiose with turanose content were different in analyzed production stages of lime honey. PMID:25902974

  3. Regulation of gene expression by ethylene during Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit development.

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, J E; Cordes, S; Read, E; Fischer, R L

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of gene expression by the plant hormone ethylene by cloning mRNAs that accumulate in unripe tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum) exposed to exogenous ethylene. The response to exogenous ethylene is rapid; within 30-120 min we detect an increase in the cloned mRNA concentrations. DNA sequence analysis indicates that one of the ethylene-inducible genes is related to a gene encoding wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor I. We have measured ethylene production during fruit development and detect low basal levels in unripe fruit and much higher levels in ripening fruit. Blot hybridization experiments show that expression of the cloned genes is developmentally regulated by ethylene during fruit ripening: the mRNAs produced by these genes are more abundant in ripe fruit than in unripe fruit, and this mRNA accumulation is repressed by a competitive inhibitor of ethylene action, norbornadiene. However, during fruit development some of the cloned mRNAs begin to accumulate when ethylene production is at a basal level, whereas other mRNAs begin to accumulate later when the endogenous ethylene concentration increases, suggesting that gene expression during fruit development can be activated by ethylene in two ways. In some cases gene expression is primarily activated by an increase in sensitivity to basal ethylene levels, whereas in other cases it may be regulated by an increase in ethylene concentration. Images PMID:3472237

  4. Insights into molecular and metabolic events associated with fruit response to post-harvest fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Noam; Fortes, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    Due to post-harvest losses more than 30% of harvested fruits will not reach the consumers' plate. Fungal pathogens play a key role in those losses, as they cause most of the fruit rots and the customer complaints. Many of the fungal pathogens are already present in the unripe fruit but remain quiescent during fruit growth until a particular phase of fruit ripening and senescence. The pathogens sense the developmental change and switch into the devastating necrotrophic life style that causes fruit rotting. Colonization of unripe fruit by the fungus initiates defensive responses that limit fungal growth and development. However, during fruit ripening several physiological processes occur that correlate with increased fruit susceptibility. In contrast to plant defenses in unripe fruit, the defense posture of ripe fruit entails a different subset of defense responses that will end with fruit rotting and losses. This review will focus on several aspects of molecular and metabolic events associated with fleshy fruit responses induced by post-harvest fungal pathogens during fruit ripening. PMID:26539204

  5. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  6. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Ogunruku, Omodesola O; Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O

    2014-01-01

    Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ABTS(*) scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher (P < 0.05) ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe(2+) and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. PMID:26904640

  7. Expression of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase during the induced accumulation of the antifungal diene in avocado fruits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejun; Beno-Moualem, Delila; Kobiler, Ilana; Leikin-Frenkel, Alicia; Lichter, Amnon; Prusky, Dov

    2004-11-01

    SUMMARY The preformed (Z,Z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (AFD) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe fruit. One of the genes encoding Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase (avfad12) was hypothesized to take part in the biosynthesis of AFD, and its expression pattern and enzymatic activity were determined in relation to the content of AFD. Using avfad12-3 as a probe, high levels of expression were detected in young fruits and leaves, where the level of AFD was highest. In contrast, Northern analysis of RNA from mature leaves and fruits showed no transcripts from the avfad12 gene family and lower AFD content. The transcripts from the avfad12 gene family, the enzymatic activity of Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase, and the level of AFD in unripe-resistant fruits increased transiently when the fruits were inoculated with C. gloeosporioides or exposed to ethylene (40 microL/L), low temperature (4 degrees C) or 1 mm H(2)O(2), but ripe fruits were not affected. The effect of H(2)O(2) on the transcripts from the avfad12 gene family is of specific importance, because reactive oxygen species were produced by unripe-resistant host fruit soon after inoculation of C. gloeosporioides. In addition, the fungus itself produced H(2)O(2) in culture medium at pH 5.0, which is similar to the pH of unripe-resistant fruit, but not at pH 7.0. Treatments that enhanced Delta(12) fatty acid desaturase activity increased the concentration of the AFD precursor, linoleic acid, and its incorporation into AFD; these treatments also caused a delay in decay development. The present results demonstrate temporal relationships among the transcripts from the avfad12 gene family, the synthesis of the precursor of AFD (linoleic acid), the AFD content and quiescence of C. gloeosporioides in unripe fruits. PMID:20565631

  8. Inventory- or Consequence-Based Evaluation of Hazardous Chemicals: Recommendations for DOE Facility Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-09

    Two different methods are in use for establishing the safety of facilities, processes, or operations involving hazardous chemicals. One sets inventory limits using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) threshold quantity (TQ), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Air Act Amendment threshold quantity (CAA-TQ), threshold planning quantity (TPQ) or reportable quantity (RQ), values published in the Federal Register. The second method uses toxicological consequence estimates at different receptor points (e.g., facility boundary, 100 m, site boundary) of concentration limits established for this purpose. These include such parameters as EPA acute exposure guidance level (AEGL), emergency response planning guideline (ERPG), and immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) values. Estimating the potential downwind concentrations of all chemicals on the OSHA Process Safety Management regulation TQ list compared these two methods. EPA CAA-TQ, TPQ, and RQ, values were extracted for these chemicals. Only 61 of the 128 unique chemicals with TQs also have CAA-TQs, 60 have TPQs, and 78 have RQs. Only 8 of 60 TQs are less than TPQ values for that chemical. Conservative release fractions (at 25 degrees C), and dispersion conditions were used to calculate potential airborne concentrations at 100 m downwind of the assumed release of TQ quantities of each chemical. These calculations were repeated for all chemicals on the TQ list that also had CAA-TQs, TPQs or RQs. These concentrations were compared with ERPG values wherever possible. Every TPQ to ERPG ratio was greater than unity. For RQs, none of 24 RQ to ERPG-1, 6 of 33 RQ to ERPG-2, and 11 of 33 RQ to ERPG-3, ratios were less than ten and only one was less than unity. In other words, severe health consequences could result from potential releases of many of these chemicals. These results demonstrate the undesirability of using regulatory quantities established for different purposes to include these

  9. Changes in Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and Enzymes Activities of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Adebowale, Adeyemi Philips; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe

    2016-06-01

    Snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) has been cultivated and used as a replacement for Lycopersicum esculentum in many Asian and African diets. Matured T. cucumerina fruits were harvested at different ripening stages and separated into coats and pulps for analyses to determine their suitability for use in culinary. They were analyzed for the nutritional composition and antioxidant potential using different biochemical assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] and antioxidative enzymes activities. The nutritional composition revealed that T. cucumerina contains over 80% water and is very rich in fiber, thus it can serve as a good natural laxative. The lycopene and β-carotene contents were especially high in the ripe pulp with values of 21.62±1.22 and 3.96±0.14 mg/100 g, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was highest in the pulp of unripe fruit with a value of 56.58±1.08 mg/100 g and significantly (P<0.05) decreased as ripening progressed. The antioxidant potential of the fruits for the 3 assays showed that unripe pulp> ripe coat> ripe pulp> unripe coat. There were decreases in the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities, with the exception of catalase, as ripening progressed in the fruits. These decreased activities may lead to the softening of the fruit during ripening. Harnessing the antioxidative potential of T. cucumerina in culinary through consumption of the coats and pulps will alleviate food insecurity and help maintain good health among many dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. PMID:27390724

  10. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  11. Changes in Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Properties, and Enzymes Activities of Snake Tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) during Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Badejo, Adebanjo Ayobamidele; Adebowale, Adeyemi Philips; Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe

    2016-01-01

    Snake tomato (Trichosanthes cucumerina) has been cultivated and used as a replacement for Lycopersicum esculentum in many Asian and African diets. Matured T. cucumerina fruits were harvested at different ripening stages and separated into coats and pulps for analyses to determine their suitability for use in culinary. They were analyzed for the nutritional composition and antioxidant potential using different biochemical assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing antioxidant power] and antioxidative enzymes activities. The nutritional composition revealed that T. cucumerina contains over 80% water and is very rich in fiber, thus it can serve as a good natural laxative. The lycopene and β-carotene contents were especially high in the ripe pulp with values of 21.62±1.22 and 3.96±0.14 mg/100 g, respectively. The ascorbic acid content was highest in the pulp of unripe fruit with a value of 56.58±1.08 mg/100 g and significantly (P<0.05) decreased as ripening progressed. The antioxidant potential of the fruits for the 3 assays showed that unripe pulp> ripe coat> ripe pulp> unripe coat. There were decreases in the antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) activities, with the exception of catalase, as ripening progressed in the fruits. These decreased activities may lead to the softening of the fruit during ripening. Harnessing the antioxidative potential of T. cucumerina in culinary through consumption of the coats and pulps will alleviate food insecurity and help maintain good health among many dwellers in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. PMID:27390724

  12. In vitro antibacterial, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some essential oils.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Upma; Ojha, Swati; Tripathi, N N; Singh, Pooja

    2015-11-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of 16 essential oils was investigated by disc diffusion method against two Gram positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria, Shigella flexneri and Escherichia coli. Oils of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum basilicum showed highest antibacterial activity. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive than Gram negative. Antioxidant activities were tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and ABTS radical cation decolourization assay while Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content. In DPPH assay, highest antioxidant activity was observed in 0. basilicum oil followed by Azeratum conyzoides, A. marmelos and C. citratus, with percent inhibition and IC50 value ranging from 66.11-71.93% and 14.10-17.92 µl ml(-1) respectively. In ABTS assay, similar results were obtained but with higher percent inhibition which ranged from 67.48-76.23% and lower IC50 value (12.12-17.21 µ ml(-1)). Moreover, radical scavenging activity of essential oils was lower than that observed for the synthetic antioxidant BHA and BHT. The total phenolic content of the essential oils as GAE in mg 100 µl(-1) of EO was found to be highest in O. basilicum (0.406) oil followed byA. conyzoides (0.322), A. marmelos (0.238) and C. citratus (0.231). The results provide evidence that the oils of C. citratus and O. basilicum can be further commended for treatment of infections caused by these bacterial pathogens and are potential source of natural antioxidants having appreciable amount of total phenolic content. PMID:26688969

  13. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  14. Tuber borchii fruit body: 2-dimensional profile and protein identification.

    PubMed

    Pierleoni, Raffaella; Buffalini, Michele; Vallorani, Luciana; Guidi, Chiara; Zeppa, Sabrina; Sacconi, Cinzia; Pucci, Piero; Amoresano, Angela; Casbarra, Annarita; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2004-04-01

    The formation of the fruit body represents the final phase of the ectomycorrhizal fungus T. borchii life cycle. Very little is known concerning the molecular and biochemical processes involved in the fructification phase. 2-DE maps of unripe and ripe ascocarps revealed different protein expression levels and the comparison of the electropherograms led to the identification of specific proteins for each developmental phase. Associating micropreparative 2-DE to microchemical approaches, such as N-terminal sequencing and 2-D gel-electrophoresis mass-spectrometry, proteins playing pivotal roles in truffle physiology were identified. PMID:15081280

  15. Detecting of Fruit Ripeness in the Orchard, Packing House and Retail Store of the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, S.; Buratti, S.; Mannino, S.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose based on MOS type chemical sensors has been used to detect fruit ripeness. Different varieties of fruit classified in three different classes as unripe, ripe and overripe, were analysed. Starting from 10 sensors it was found that only one (W5S) is relevant to discriminate among fruit on the basis of their ripeness. The discrimination ability of the sensor array was studied separately for each fruit variety, as well as for the whole set. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to classify fruits in an objective and simple way.

  16. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  17. Characterization of typo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivities of babaco latex lipase in aqueous and organic media.

    PubMed

    Cambon, E; Rodriguez, J A; Pina, M; Arondel, V; Carriere, F; Turon, F; Ruales, J; Villeneuve, P

    2008-04-01

    The unripe fruit of babaco (Vasconcellea x heilbornii; syn. Carica pentagona) contains a latex, similar to that in Carica papaya, which exhibits lipolytic activity. Herein, the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and typoselectivity in both hydrolysis and acyltransfer reactions of babaco latex lipases were studied and compared to those of Carica papaya latex. In hydrolysis, both biocatalysts are 1,3-regioselective with ratios for 1,2-2,3-diacylglycerols/1,3-diacylglycerol of 6.5 and 21 for babaco and papaya, respectively. In contrast, papaya latex had a slight sn-3 stereopreference. Babaco latex displayed a higher activity on triacylglycerols with short chain and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:18038267

  18. Antibacterial substance from Carica papaya fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Emeruwa, A C

    1982-01-01

    Ripe and unripe Carica papaya fruits (epicarp, endocarp, seeds and leaves) were extracted separately and purified. All the extracts except that of leaves produced very significant antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella flexneri. The MIC of the substance was small (0.2-0.3 mg/ml) for gram-positive bacteria and large (1.5-4 mg/ml) for gram-negative bacteria. The substance was bactericidal and showed properties of a protein. Other proteins previously found in C. papaya did not show antibacterial activity. PMID:7097295

  19. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits.

    PubMed

    Fayek, Nesrin M; Monem, Azza R Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y; Meselhy, Meselhy R

    2013-04-01

    β-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  20. Morinda citrifolia L. fruit extracts modulates H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human liposarcoma SW872 cells.

    PubMed

    Ruhomally, Z; Somanah, J; Bahorun, T; Neergheen-Bhujun, V S

    2016-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. commonly known as noni is used by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of pharmacological activities of its metabolites. In Mauritius, the fruits of M. citrifolia are used in folk medicine against a number of indications. The present study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity of ripe and unripe noni fruit at both biochemical and cellular levels. Using an array of established assay systems, the fruit antioxidant propensity was assessed in terms of its radical scavenging, iron reducing and metal chelating potentials. Ascorbic acid, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the fruits were also determined. The ascorbic acid content of ripe noni was 76.24 ± 1.13 mg/100 g while total phenolics of ripe and unripe fruit extracts were 748.40 ± 8.85 μg and 770.34 ± 2.27 μg GAE g(-1) FW respectively. Both the ripe and unripe extracts of M. citrifolia were potent scavengers of nitric oxide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The ferric reducing capacity ranged from 11.26 ± 0.33 to 11.90 ± 0.20 mM Fe(2+) g(-1) FW while the IC50 values for the iron (II) chelating power were 0.50 ± 0.01 and 1.74 ± 0.01 g FW/mL for the ripe and unripe fruit extracts respectively. Cellular studies additionally demonstrated that noni were able to dose-dependently counteract accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress, a potential obesogenic factor within human liposarcoma SW872 cells as well as significantly restore cell death within the concentration range of 0.106-0.813 g/mL. Results reported herein suggest noni as an interesting source of prophylactic antioxidants modulated by its polyphenol composition. PMID:27419097

  1. New triterpenoid acyl derivatives and biological study of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen fruits

    PubMed Central

    Fayek, Nesrin M.; Monem, Azza R. Abdel; Mossa, Mohamed Y.; Meselhy, Meselhy R.

    2013-01-01

    β-amyrin-3-(3’-dimethyl) butyrate, a new natural compound was isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota (L.) Van Royen, in addition to lupeol-3-acetate and 4-caffeoylquinic acid (cryptochlorogenic acid). The structures of these compounds were identified using different spectral methods (IR, MS, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR). The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the unripe fruits, in addition to their aqueous homogenate exhibited antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities. PMID:23798877

  2. Investigations on a novel inductive concept frequency technique for the grading of oil palm fresh fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-01-01

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits. PMID:23435051

  3. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress. PMID:25724149

  4. Premature and ectopic anthocyanin formation by silencing of anthocyanidin reductase in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Thilo C; Mirbeth, Beate; Rentsch, Judith; Sutter, Corina; Ring, Ludwig; Flachowsky, Henryk; Habegger, Ruth; Hoffmann, Thomas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Schwab, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is a fruit crop with a distinct biphasic flavonoid biosynthesis. Whereas, in the immature receptacle, high levels of proanthocyanidins accumulate, which are associated with herbivore deterrence and pathogen defense, the prominent color-giving anthocyanins are primarily produced in ripe 'fruits' helping to attract herbivores for seed dispersal. Here, constitutive experimental down-regulation of one branch of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis was performed. As a result, the proportion of epicatechin monomeric units within the proanthocyanidin polymer chains was reduced, but this was not the case for the epicatechin starter unit. Shortened chain lengths of proanthocyanidins were also observed. All enzymatic activities for the production of color-giving anthocyanins were already present in unripe fruits at levels allowing a striking red anthocyanin phenotype in unripe fruits of the RNAi silencing lines. An immediately recognizable phenotype was also observed for the stigmata of flowers, which is another epicatechin-forming tissue. Thus, the down-regulation of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) induced a redirection of the proanthocyanidin pathway, leading to premature and ectopic anthocyanin biosynthesis via enzymatic glycosylation as the alternative pathway. This redirection is also seen in flavonol biosynthesis, which is paralleled by higher pollen viability in silencing lines. ANRi transgenic lines of strawberry provide a versatile tool for the study of the biological functions of proanthocyanidins. PMID:24117941

  5. Gluten-free snacks using plantain-chickpea and maize blend: chemical composition, starch digestibility, and predicted glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Flores-Silva, Pamela C; Rodriguez-Ambriz, Sandra L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A

    2015-05-01

    An increase in celiac consumers has caused an increasing interest to develop good quality gluten-free food products with high nutritional value. Snack foods are consumed worldwide and have become a normal part of the eating habits of the celiac population making them a target to improve their nutritive value. Extrusion and deep-frying of unripe plantain, chickpea, and maize flours blends produced gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber contents (13.7-18.2 g/100 g) and low predicted glycemic index (28 to 35). The gluten-free snacks presented lower fat content (12.7 to 13.6 g/100 g) than those reported in similar commercial snacks. The snack with the highest unripe plantain flour showed higher slowly digestible starch (11.6 and 13.4 g/100 g) than its counterpart with the highest chickpea flour level (6 g/100 g). The overall acceptability of the gluten-free snacks was similar to that chili-flavored commercial snack. It was possible to develop gluten-free snacks with high dietary fiber content and low predicted glycemic index with the blend of the 3 flours, and these gluten-free snacks may also be useful as an alternative to reduce excess weight and obesity problems in the general population and celiac community. PMID:25866197

  6. Medicinal properties of the Jamaican pepper plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2012-12-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as "organically grown" berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets. PMID:23140298

  7. Influence of ripeness and drying process on the polyphenols and tocopherols of Pistacia vera L.

    PubMed

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Fallico, Biagio

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights, for the first time, the changes in the phenolics fraction (anthocyanins, flavonoids and stilbenes) and tocopherols of unpeeled Pistacia vera L. var. bianca with ripening, and the effect of the sun-drying process. The total polyphenol levels in pistachios, measured as mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), were: 201 +/- 10.1, 349 +/- 18.3 and 184.7 +/- 6.2 mg GAE/100 g DM in unripe, ripe and dried ripe samples, respectively. Most phenolics in ripe pistachios were found to be anthocyanins. They increased with ripening, while the sun drying process caused a susbtantial loss. Flavonoids found in all pistachio samples were daidzein, genistein, daidzin, quercetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, genistin and naringenin, which decreased both with ripening and drying. Before the drying process both unripe and ripe pistachios showed a higher content of trans-resveratrol than dried ripe samples. gamma-Tocopherol was the major vitamin E isomer found in pistachios. The total content (of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols) decreased, both during ripening and during the drying process. These results suggested that unpeeled pistachios can be considered an important source of phenolics, particularly of anthocyanins. Moreover, in order to preserve these healthy characteristics, new and more efficient drying processes should be adopted. PMID:19924070

  8. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D.; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T.; Rogers, Hilary J.; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction. PMID:25614658

  9. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE Transcription Factors Reveal Molecular Gradients That Function during Fruit Development and Ripening[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong V.; Vrebalov, Julia T.; Gapper, Nigel E.; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits. PMID:24510723

  10. Detection of three wound-induced proteins in papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Wintjens, René; Looze, Yvan; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2004-03-01

    The effects of routine mechanical wounding for latex collection from unripe fruits of the tropical Carica papaya tree were investigated. For that purpose, the protein composition of three different latexes was analyzed. The first one, commercially available, was provided in the form of a spray-dried powder, the second one was harvested from fully grown but unripe papaya fruits that are regularly tapped for latex production and the last one, was obtained from similar fruits wounded for the first time. Repeated mechanical wounding was found to profoundly affect the protein content of the latex inducing, among others, activation of papain. Regularly tapped latexes also accumulated several low molecular weight proteins not yet identified, as well as three proteins identified as a trypsin inhibitor, a class-II chitinase and a glutaminyl cyclase on the basis of their enzymatic or inhibitory activities and chromatographic elution profiles. This latter was found here, for the first time, to be a wound-induced protein. The roles of these proteins in the plant defense mechanism are discussed. PMID:15003415

  11. Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper Plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Lokeshwar, Bal L.

    2014-01-01

    The Caribbean tropical tree, Pimenta dioica has been used for a variety of human endeavors, such as in perfumery industry, food spice, as a natural pesticide, and in folk medicine. Discovered in Jamaica during the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the dried unripe berries of P. dioica also known as Allspice can be found in all continents with unique names in over 50 languages. Systematic investigation of aromatic constituents of Pimenta leaves and its unripe berries, Allspice, have resulted in discovery of many and novel aromatic compounds, mostly glycosides and polyphenols that show antibacterial, hypotensive, anti-neuralgic and analgesic properties. Recent studies have shown two of the known compounds isolated from Allspice, Eugenol and Gallic acid have selective antiproliferative and anti-tumor properties on human cancer cells and their animal models. New characterization of novel compounds such as Ericifolin from the aqueous extract of Allspice berries show potent anti-prostate cancer and anti-breast cancer properties that can be verified in vitro as well as in vivo. Considering its purity, mostly available as “organically grown” berries, availability at low cost, wide acceptance in culinary delights of many cultures world-wide, Allspice may have an additional space in most households, in their medicine cabinets. PMID:23140298

  12. Teratogenic effect of the water extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on the Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Uche-Nwachi, Edward O; McEwen, Carol

    2010-01-01

    It has been reported that the water extract of the whole unripe fruit of Momordica charantia can significantly reduce blood glucose levels. However the safety of its use during pregnancy has not been fully investigated. The aim of this investigation is to determine the safety of this extract during pregnancy. The water extract of the unripe fruit was given to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats on days 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of gestation. The litter size was determined for each group and the litters were examined for gross malformations. The gross and histological examinations of various organs of the litters were also carried out. Results show that 8.65% of the litters from experimental animals were malformed as against 1.62% of control. It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in man. PMID:21304609

  13. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangkyu; Park, Ae Ran; Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  14. Developmentally Regulated Sesquiterpene Production Confers Resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Ripe Pepper Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Im, Soonduk; Han, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Sungbeom; Back, Kyoungwhan; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR) and squalene synthase (SS) genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS), belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC) family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA), resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits. PMID:25286411

  15. Characterization of antioxidants and change of antioxidant levels during storage of Manilkara zapota L.

    PubMed

    Shui, Guanghou; Wong, Shih Peng; Leong, Lai Peng

    2004-12-29

    Antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables play an important role via their protective effects against the onset of aging-related chronic diseases. Our previous research has indicated that unripe ciku fruits (Manilkara zapota L.) are an excellent source of antioxidants, with over 3000 mg of L-ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) per 100 g of fresh sample. In this study, 24 antioxidants in an extract of ciku king were characterized through a free radical spiking test. Their chemical structures were proposed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and tandem MS (HPLC/MSn). The antioxidant capacity of ciku king fruits was mainly attributed to polyphenolics with basic blocks of gallocatechin or catechin or both. The changes of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolics content (TPC) of ciku king fruits with storage time were also investigated. It was found that the TAC and TPC decreased significantly as the fruits gradually changed from the unripe to the overripe stage. The best time for one to consume ciku king fruits at a flavorful stage with high amounts of antioxidants with AEAC values ranging from 600 to 1200 mg per 100 g fresh sample is suggested. The change of the content of major antioxidant peaks was also consistent with changes of antioxidant levels during storage. PMID:15612764

  16. Investigations on a Novel Inductive Concept Frequency Technique for the Grading of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Ahmad, Desa; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2013-01-01

    From the Malaysian harvester's perspective, the determination of the ripeness of the oil palm (FFB) is a critical factor to maximize palm oil production. A preliminary study of a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is presented. To optimize the functionality of the sensor, the frequency characteristics of air coils of various diameters are investigated to determine their inductance and resonant characteristics. Sixteen samples from two categories, namely ripe oil palm fruitlets and unripe oil palm fruitlets, are tested from 100 Hz up to 100 MHz frequency. The results showed the inductance and resonant characteristics of the air coil sensors display significant changes among the samples of each category. The investigations on the frequency characteristics of the sensor air coils are studied to observe the effect of variations in the coil diameter. The effect of coil diameter yields a significant 0.02643 MHz difference between unripe samples to air and 0.01084 MHz for ripe samples to air. The designed sensor exhibits significant potential in determining the maturity of oil palm fruits. PMID:23435051

  17. Changes in the content and biosynthesis of phytoalexins in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Kamo, T; Hirai, N; Tsuda, M; Fujioka, D; Ohigashi, H

    2000-10-01

    Changes in the phytoalexin content in unripe fruit of banana, Musa acuminata, were analyzed after various treatments. The results show that level of hydroxyanigorufone started to increase 1-2 day after either wounding or inoculation with conidia of Colletotrichum musae. Inoculation followed by wounding induced the formation of many other phenylphenalenones. The accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone decreased, after its transient maximum, on ripening by exposure of the wounded fruit to ethylene. The level of production of hydroxyanigorufone in ripe fruit treated by wounding and/or by inoculation was much lower than that in unripe fruit. 2-Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), inhibited the accumulation of hydroxyanigorufone in wounded fruit, and the PAL activity increased after wounding and ethylene treatment, respectively. Feeding experiments with [1-(13)C] and [2-(13)C]cinnamic acids, and [2-(13)C]malonate show that two molecules of cinnamic acid and one of malonate were incorporated into each molecule of hydroxyanigorufone. The phytoalexins isolated from fruit to which deuterated hydroxyanigorufone and irenolone had been administered revealed that 2-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,8-naphthalic anhydride was biosynthesized from hydroxyanigorufone rather than from irenolone. PMID:11129580

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits. PMID:25613692

  19. A validated method for quantifying hypoglycin A in whole blood by UHPLC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Moreau, Cécile; Boyer, Baptiste; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Habyarimana, Jean; Gault, Gilbert; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-26

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) is the toxic principle in ackee (Blighia sapida Koenig), a nutritious and readily available fruit which is a staple of the Jamaican working-class and rural population. The aril of the unripe fruit has high concentrations of HGA, the cause of Jamaican vomiting sickness, which is very often fatal. HGA is also present in the samara of several species of maple (Acer spp.) which are suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy in Europe, often fatal for horses. The aim of this study was to develop a method for quantifying HGA in blood that would be sensitive enough to provide toxicological evidence of ackee or maple poisoning. Analysis was carried out using solid-phase extraction (HILIC cartridges), dansyl derivatization and UHPLC-HRMS/MS detection. The method was validated in whole blood with a detection limit of 0.35 μg/L (range: 0.8-500 μg/L). This is the first method applicable in forensic toxicology for quantifying HGA in whole blood. HGA was quantified in two serum samples from horses suffering from atypical myopathy. The concentrations were 446.9 and 87.8 μg/L. HGA was also quantified in dried arils of unripe ackee fruit (Suriname) and seeds of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) (France). The concentrations were 7.2 and 0.74 mg/g respectively. PMID:25531872

  20. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Rubus coreanus in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Hong; Oh, Sun-Mee; Lim, Soon Sung; Lee, Yeon Sil; Shin, Hyun-Kyung; Oh, Yang-Seok; Choe, Nong-Hoon; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Kim, Jin-Kyung

    2006-12-01

    Foods of plant origin, especially fruits and vegetables, draw increased attention because of their potential benefits to human health. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four different extracts obtained from the fruits of Rubus coreanus (aqueous and ethanol extracts of unripe and ripe fruits). Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract of unripe fruits of R. coreanus (URCE) suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We also demonstrated that URCE by itself is a potent inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin, a specific HO-1 inhibitor, suppressed the URCE-induced reductions in the production of NO and PGE(2) as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). Our data suggest that URCE exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages via activation of the HO-1 pathway and helps to elucidate the mechanism underlying the potential therapeutic value of R. coreanus extracts. PMID:17049489

  1. Chemical recognition of fruit ripeness in spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, Omer; Orts Garri, Rosa; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa; Schulz, Stefan; Heymann, Eckhard W.; Ayasse, Manfred; Laska, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Primates are now known to possess well-developed olfactory sensitivity and discrimination capacities that can play a substantial role in many aspects of their interaction with conspecifics and the environment. Several studies have demonstrated that olfactory cues may be useful in fruit selection. Here, using a conditioning paradigm, we show that captive spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) display high olfactory discrimination performance between synthetic odor mixtures mimicking ripe and unripe fruits of two wild, primate-consumed, Neotropical plant species. Further, we show that spider monkeys are able to discriminate the odor of ripe fruits from odors that simulate unripe fruits that become increasingly similar to that of ripe ones. These results suggest that the ability of spider monkeys to identify ripe fruits may not depend on the presence of any individual compound that mark fruit ripeness. Further, the results demonstrate that spider monkeys are able to identify ripe fruits even when the odor signal is accompanied by a substantial degree of noise. PMID:26440380

  2. Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Capacity from Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Nagendra; Yang, Bao; Kong, Kin Weng; Khoo, Hock Eng; Sun, Jian; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Romli, Zulfiki Bin

    2013-01-01

    Nypa fruticans Wurmb. is one of the important underutilized fruit of Malaysia, which lacks scientific attention. Total phenolics, flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacities from endosperm extracts of Nypa fruticans (unripe and ripe fruits) were evaluated. Endosperm extract of unripe fruits (EEU) exhibited the highest phenolics (135.6 ± 4.5 mg GAE/g), flavonoid content (68.6 ± 3.1 RE/g), and antioxidant capacity. Free radical scavenging capacity of EEU as assessed by 2-2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals showed inhibitory activity of 78 ± 1.2% and 85 ± 2.6%, respectively. Beta carotene bleaching coefficient of EEU was higher (2550 ± 123), when compared to endosperm extract of ripe fruits (1729 ± 172). Additionally, EEU exhibited high antioxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Eight phenolic compounds from Nypa fruticans endosperm extracts were identified and quantified by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, and kaempferol were the major phenolic compounds. Thus this fruit could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:23710209

  3. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated. PMID:26452865

  4. Use of portable devices and confocal Raman spectrometers at different wavelength to obtain the spectral information of the main organic components in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit samples, in two ripening stages, ripe (red) and unripe (green), collected from a cultivar in the North of Spain (Barrika, Basque Country), were analyzed directly, without any sample pretreatment, with two different Raman instruments (portable spectrometer coupled to a micro-videocamera and a confocal Raman microscope), using two different laser excitation wavelengths (514 and 785 nm, only for the confocal microscope). The combined use of these laser excitation wavelengths allows obtaining, in a short period of time, the maximum spectral information about the main organic compounds present in this fruit. The major identified components of unripe tomatoes were cutin and cuticular waxes. On the other hand, the main components on ripe tomatoes were carotenes, polyphenoles and polysaccharides. Among the carotenes, it was possible to distinguish the presence of lycopene from β-carotene with the help of both excitation wavelengths, but specially using the 514 nm one, which revealed specific overtones and combination tones of this type of carotene.

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Solanum trilobatum fruits extract and its antibacterial, cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line MCF 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramar, Manikandan; Manikandan, Beulaja; Marimuthu, Prabhu Narayanan; Raman, Thiagarajan; Mahalingam, Anjugam; Subramanian, Palanisamy; Karthick, Saravanan; Munusamy, Arumugam

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized silver nanoparticles by a simple and eco-friendly method using unripe fruits of Solanum trilobatum. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to unripe fruits extract were reduced and stabilized over long time resulting in biosynthesis of surface functionalized silver nanoparticles. The bio-reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested for its antibacterial activity against few human pathogenic bacteria including Gram-positive (Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. In addition, we also demonstrated anticancer activity of these nanoparticles in vitro against human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) using MTT, nuclear morphology assay, Western blot and RT-PCR expression. These results taken together show the potential applications of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using S. trilobatum fruits.

  6. Foraging and ranging behavior during a fallback episode: Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii compared.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Haag, Livia; Mitra-Setia, Tatang; van Schaik, Carel P; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2009-12-01

    Periodic episodes of food scarcity may highlight the adaptive value of certain anatomical traits, particularly those that facilitate the acquisition and digestion of exigent fallback foods. To better understand the selective pressures that favored the distinctive dental and locomotor morphologies of gibbons and orangutans, we examined the foraging and ranging behavior of sympatric Hylobates albibarbis and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii during an episode of low fruit availability at Tuanan, Kalimantan Tengah, Indonesia. We found that Hylobates ranged 0.5 km day(-1) or 33% farther than did Pongo, but the overall daily ranging of both species did not vary as fruit availability decreased by as much as 50%. Among gibbons, we observed dietary switching to fallback foods; in particular, there was a progressively greater reliance on figs, liana products, and unripe fruit. Orangutans relied heavily on unripe fruit and fracture-resistant bark and pith tissues. Despite these divergent fallback patterns, the stiffness of fruit mesocarp consumed by Hylobates and Pongo did not differ. We discuss canine and molar functional morphology with respect to dietary mechanics. Next, to contextualize these results, we discuss our findings with respect to forest structure. The rain forests of Southeast Asia have been described as having open, discontinuous canopies. Such a structure may inform our understanding of the ranging behavior and distinctive locomotion of apes in the region, namely richochetal brachiation and quadrumanous clambering. Our approach of integrating behavioral ecology with physical measures of food may be a powerful tool for understanding the functional adaptations of primates. PMID:19890870

  7. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:26787565

  8. Hector Berlioz and other famous artists with opium abuse.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Paul L

    2010-01-01

    The effect of opium on the creativity and productivity of a famous composer of classical music, an essayist, and poets including Hector Berlioz, Thomas De Quincy, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats, and Jean Cocteau, is described. Opium is a narcotic drug prepared from the juice of the unripe seed capsules of the opium poppy. It contains alkaloids such as morphine, codeine, and papaverine. Medically it is used to relieve pain and produce sleep. It is used as an intoxicant. Alcohol and opium were commonly relied on in the 19th century, especially by artists, to stimulate creativity and relieve stress. These artists described the effect of opium on their creativity and productivity. PMID:20375523

  9. Identification and characterisation of a nuclear localisation signal in the SMN associated protein, Gemin4

    SciTech Connect

    Lorson, Monique A.; Dickson, Alexa M.; Shaw, Debra J.; Todd, Adrian G.; Young, Elizabeth C.; Morse, Robert; Wolstencroft, Catherine; Lorson, Christian L.; Young, Philip J.

    2008-10-10

    Gemin4 is a ubiquitously expressed multifunctional protein that is involved in U snRNP assembly, apoptosis, nuclear/cytoplasmic transportation, transcription, and RNAi pathways. Gemin4 is one of the core components of the Gemin-complex, which also contains survival motor neuron (SMN), the seven Gemin proteins (Gemin2-8), and Unrip. Mutations in the SMN1 gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Although the functions assigned to Gemin4 predominantly occur in the nucleus, the mechanisms that mediate the nuclear import of Gemin4 remain unclear. Here, using a novel panel of Gemin4 constructs we identify a canonical nuclear import sequence (NLS) in the N-terminus of Gemin4. The Gemin4 NLS is necessary and independently sufficient to mediate nuclear import of Gemin4. This is the first functional NLS identified within the SMN-Gemin complex.

  10. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    PubMed

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant. PMID:27144542

  11. A Fruit-Specific Putative Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Gene Is Differentially Expressed in Strawberry during the Ripening Process1

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Enriqueta; Portero-Robles, Ignacio; Medina-Escobar, Nieves; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Luis Caballero, José

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding a putative dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene has been isolated from a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cv Chandler) DNA subtractive library. Northern analysis showed that the corresponding gene is predominantly expressed in fruit, where it is first detected during elongation (green stages) and then declines and sharply increases when the initial fruit ripening events occur, at the time of initiation of anthocyanin accumulation. The transcript can be induced in unripe green fruit by removing the achenes, and this induction can be partially inhibited by treatment of de-achened fruit with naphthylacetic acid, indicating that the expression of this gene is under hormonal control. We propose that the putative dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene in strawberry plays a main role in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin during color development at the late stages of fruit ripening; during the first stages the expression of this gene could be related to the accumulation of condensed tannins. PMID:9625725

  12. Preliminary functional characterization, cloning and primary sequence of Fastuosain, a cysteine peptidase isolated from fruits of Bromelia fastuosa.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Hamilton; Leopoldino, Andréia M; Tajara, Eloiza H; Greene, Lewis J; Faça, Vitor M; Mateus, Rogério P; Ceron, Carlos R; de Souza Judice, Wagner A; Julianod, Luiz; Bonilla-Rodriguez, Gustavo O

    2006-01-01

    The present work reports the characterization of Fastuosain, a novel cysteine protease of 25kDa, purified from the unripe fruits of Bromelia fastuosa, a wild South American Bromeliaceae. Proteolytic activity, measured using casein and synthetic substrates, was dependent on the presence of thiol reagents, having maximum activity at pH 7.0. The present work reports cDNA cloning of Fastuosain; cDNA was amplified by PCR using specific primers. The product was 1096pb long. Mature fastuosain has 217 residues, and with the proregion has a total length of 324 residues. Its primary sequence showed high homology with ananain(74%), stem bromelain (66%) and papain (44%). PMID:16454675

  13. Corynespora cassiicola leaf spot of pawpaw (Carica papaya L.) in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluma, H O; Amuta, E U

    1999-01-01

    Leaf spot of pawpaw is hereby reported for the first time in Nigeria. The symptom is characterized by a papery center surrounded by a yellow halo. The causal organism is Corynespora cassiicola. Ripe fruits and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were significantly more susceptible to infection than unripe fruits and adaxial surfaces of leaves. Growth and sporulation of the fungus on several media was investigated. The organism grew faster on malt-extract agar (MEA) derived media and slowest on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) supplemented with thiamine. Sporulation was highest on Czapek-dox agar (CDA) plus biotin and lowest on PDA and PDA + thiamine. Reasons for increased susceptibility of ripe fruit are discussed. PMID:10560625

  14. The natural way. A tropical contraceptive.

    PubMed

    1994-05-18

    It's not news for the women of the Indian subcontinent. For generations, they've been well aware that papaya and pregnancy don't mix. But now researchers at Britain's University of Sussex have proven the contraceptive qualities of the tropical fruit. "Women in Sri Lanka use papaya fruit as contraceptives because they are cheap and natural," says Tharmalingam Senthilomohan. "If they want to become pregnant, they simply avoid eating them." His findings: abortion can be induced by eating unripe papaya for three consecutive days. And daily consumption of ripe fruit can be an effective contraceptive. Senthilomohan has two theories on what gives papaya its contraceptive qualities. The tropical fruit contains an enzyme called papain which suppresses progesterone, a sex hormone needed to prepare the uterus for conception and to maintain the pregnancy. Another possibility is that papain, which can be used to tenderize meat, may break down a membrane vital to the development of the fetus. PMID:12288101

  15. Chymopapain. Chromatographic purification and immunological characterization.

    PubMed

    Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1984-10-01

    Chymopapain (EC 3.4.22.6) was purified from commercially available spray-dried latex of papaya (Carica papaya) fruit by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and fast protein chromatography on the Mono S cation-exchange column. Multiple forms of chymopapain separated chromatographically were shown to be immunologically identical. A major form was isolated and found to be homogeneous by several criteria, and fully active, and its N-terminal amino acid was identified as tyrosine. Latex from fresh unripe papaya fruit contained predominantly one form of chymopapain, and it is concluded that chymopapain is a single enzyme distinct from the other cysteine proteinases of C. papaya latex. PMID:6437389

  16. Detection of platypus-type L/D-peptide isomerase activity in aqueous extracts of papaya fruit.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kensuke; Koh, Jennifer M S; Crossett, Ben; Torres, Allan M; Kuchel, Philip W

    2012-09-01

    Peptide isomerase catalyses the post-translational isomerisation of the L: - to the D: -form of an amino acid residue around the N/C-termini of substrate peptides. To date, some peptide isomerases have been found in a limited number of animal secretions and cells. We show here that papaya extracts have weak peptide isomerase activity. The activity was detected in each 30-100 kDa fraction of the flesh and the seed extracts of unripe and ripe papaya fruit. The definitive activity was confirmed in the ripe papaya extracts, but even then it was much less active than that of the other peptide isomerases previously reported. The activity was markedly inhibited by methanol, and partly so by amastatin and diethyl pyrocarbonate. This is the first report of peptide isomerase activity in a plant and suggests that perhaps every living organism may have some peptide isomerase activity. PMID:22648682

  17. Papain reduces gastric acid secretion induced by histamine and other secretagogues in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Cho, C H; Han, P W

    1984-04-01

    We studied the effect of papain on rats' gastric acid secretion and found that: 1. Feeding of latex of unripe papaya fruit significantly reduced gastric acid secretion induced by methacholine; 2. Feeding of crystalline papain in doses of 3.2 mg/kg reduced gastric acid secretion induced by histamine, methacholine and tetragastrin; 3. The reduction of gastric acid secretion was observed as early as 2 hours after papain feeding, lasted up to 48 hours, and waned within 96 hours; 4. Intraperitoneal injection of papain had no effect on acid secretion. These results led us to believe tha the effect of papain on gastric acid secretion is a local one acting directly on the gastric mucosa, and this local effect of a single dose of papain is reversible, causing no permanent damage to the mucosa. PMID:6400589

  18. Effects of mechanical wounding on Carica papaya cysteine endopeptidases accumulation and activity.

    PubMed

    Azarkan, Mohamed; Dibiani, Rachid; Baulard, Céline; Baeyens-Volant, Danielle

    2006-05-30

    The mechanical wounding impact on the Carica papaya latex protein pattern was investigated by analyzing three latexes. A first one commercially available, a second harvested from unripe but fully grown fruits, both obtained from regularly tapped fruits. A third one was collected from similar fruits but wounded for the first time. The results demonstrated both quantitative and qualitative changes in the protein content and in the enzymatic activity. Repeated wounding results in either, accumulation or activation (or both of them) of papain, chymopapain and caricain. Furthermore, new cysteine protease activity was found to transiently accumulate in the latex collected from newly wounded fruits. The possible implication of this enzymatic material in the papaya cysteine endopeptidases pro-forms activation is discussed. PMID:16580724

  19. Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Jaspreet; Sivakami, S; Shahani, S; Suthar, A C; Banavalikar, M M; Biyani, M K

    2003-09-01

    Momordica charantia (L.) (Cucurbitaceae) commonly known as bitter gourd or karela is a medicinal plant, used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, one of which is diabetes mellitus. In this study, various extract powders of the fresh and dried whole fruits were prepared and their blood glucose lowering effect compared by administrating them orally to diabetic rats. The aqueous extract powder of fresh unripe whole fruits at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight was found to reduce fasting blood glucose by 48%, an effect comparable to that of glibenclamide, a known synthetic drug. This extract was tested for nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and lipid profile. The extract did not show any signs of nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as judged by histological and biochemical parameters. Thus the aqueous extract powder of Momordica charantia, an edible vegetable, appears to be a safe alternative to reducing blood glucose. PMID:12902059

  20. The menace of free radicals its concept and management in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N; Kumar, A

    2000-01-01

    This is a comprehensive review of menace of free radicals and its concept and management in Ayurveda. This article highlights the various exogenous and endogenous factors responsible for the production of free radicals with special reference to the formation of unriped and purified metabolites (ama) during the metabolic activities at different levels of digestion. The purpose of this paper is to review the management of free radicals which can be designed with reference to diet and digestion biorhythms, behaviour, emotions and sense. Ayurvedic concept of free radicals scavenger, revitalisation, role of clarified butter and pollution control thereby maintaining the optimal health status by involving minimum of sophisticated technology thus guiding the individual to lead a harmonious life in unison with nature. PMID:12577899

  1. Micropropagation and cryopreservation of garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Keller, E R Joachim; Senula, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a very important medicinal and spice plant. It is conventionally propagated by daughter bulbs ("cloves") and bulbils from the flower head. Micropropagation is used for speeding up the vegetative propagation mainly using the advantage to produce higher numbers of healthy plants free of viruses, which have higher yield than infected material. Using primary explants from bulbs and/or bulbils (shoot tips) or unripe inflorescence bases, in vitro cultures are initiated on MS-based media containing auxins, e.g., naphthalene acetic acid, and cytokinins, e.g., 6-γ-γ-(dimethylallylaminopurine) (2iP). Rooting is accompanying leaf formation. It does not need special culture phases. The main micropropagation methods rely on growth of already formed meristems. Long-term storage of micropropagated material, cryopreservation, is well-developed to maintain germplasm. The main method is vitrification using the cryoprotectant mixture PVS3. PMID:23179713

  2. An intelligent procedure for watermelon ripeness detection based on vibration signals.

    PubMed

    Abbaszadeh, Rouzbeh; Moosavian, Ashkan; Rajabipour, Ali; Najafi, Gholamhassan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an efficient procedure for ripeness detection of watermelon was presented. A nondestructive method was used based on vibration response to determine the internal quality of watermelon. The responses of samples to vibration excitation were optically recorded by a Laser Doppler (LD) vibrometer. Vibration data was collected from watermelons of two qualities, namely, ripe and unripe. Vibration signals were transformed from time-domain to frequency-domain by fast Fourier transform (FFT). Twenty nine features were extracted from the FFT amplitude and phase angle of the vibration signals. K-nearest neighbor (KNN) analysis was applied as a classifier in decision-making stage. The experimental results showed that the usage of the FFT amplitude of the vibration signals gave the maximum classification accuracy. This method allowed identification at a 95.0 % level of efficiency. Hence, the proposed method can reliably detect watermelon ripeness. PMID:25694721

  3. Changes in physicochemical characteristics and free amino acids of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Qin; Hu, Qing-Ping; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2015-05-15

    In this study, changes in physicochemical characteristics associated with fruit quality and free amino acids were investigated during maturation of hawthorn fruits. Significant differences in these parameters were found during maturation. The color turned progressively from mature green to semi-red, to reach bright red; the shape changed gradually from oval to round or approached round; the size, weight, and edible part (flesh/core ratio) of hawthorns increased while the density of intact fruits did not change. The content of moisture, total soluble sugars, soluble pectin, reduced ascorbic acid, total ascorbic acid, fructose, and sucrose increased while crude protein content decreased significantly. The levels of starch, sucrose, titratable acidity, protopectin, pectin, total free amino acids, and total essential amino acids initially increased and then decreased gradually during maturation. The outcomes of this study provide additional and useful information for fresh consumption and processing as well as utilization of dropped unripe hawthorn fruits. PMID:25577050

  4. Determination of fatty acid composition and quality characteristics of oils from palm fruits using solvent extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmin, Hasimah; Lazim, Azwan Mat; Awang, Roila

    2015-09-01

    Palm oil contains about 45% of saturated palmitic acid and 39% of mono-unsaturated oleic acid. Investigations made in the past to trace the fatty acid composition in palm revealed that ripeness of fresh fruit bunch (FFB) affect oil composition. However, there is no evidence that processing operations affect oil composition, although different stage of processing does affect the quality of oil extracted. An improved method for sterilizing the oil palm fruits by dry heating, followed by oil extraction has been studied. This method eliminates the use of water, thus, increasing the extraction of lipid soluble. The objective of this study is to determine the possibility production of palm oil with different fatty acid composition (FAC) as well as the changes in quality from conventional milling. The unripe and ripe FFB were collected, sterilized and extracted using different method of solvent extraction. Preliminary data have shown that variation in FAC will also alter the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted.

  5. Larvicidal activity of the extracts from different parts of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum against important mosquito vectors in the arid region.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Kumar, Suresh

    2009-03-01

    Larvicidal efficacy of the aqueous and methanol extracts from green unripe and yellow ripe fruits, seeds, leaves and roots of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the important mosquito vectors prevalent in the arid region. Studies were carried out on late 3rd orearly 4th instarlarvae of these species using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data LC50 and LC90 values along with their fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/heterogeneity of the response have been determined bylog probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for aqueous extracts for green unripe and yellow ripe fruits were 112.7, 498.2 and 846.3 mg l(-1) and 104.7, 267.7and 832.2 mg l(-1) for Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. However, the 24 hr LC50 values formethanol extracts of yellow ripe fruits and seeds were 51.6, 52.2, 118.3 and 157.1 mg l(-1) and 66.9, 73.7, 123.8 and 154.9 mg l(-1) for the above four vector species respectively. The results showed that larvae of anophelines were much more susceptible as compared to culicines to both the aqueous and methanol extracts from fruits and seeds of the plant tested. The methanol extracts were found 2-5 times more effective as compared to the aqueous extracts. The chi-square values calculated during the analysis did not show any heterogeneity of the response. Experiments conducted with aqueous and methanol extracts from leaves and roots of this plant species didn't show any larvicidal activity against any of the mosquito species tested. The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides. PMID:20121022

  6. Corrective effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake on biochemical and genotoxical parameters in mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; da Silva, Juliana; Daumann, Francine; Dajori, Ana Luiza Formentin; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; de Lira, Fabio; Campos, Fernanda; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Côrrea, Dione Silva; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Acerola contains high levels of vitamin C and rutin and shows the corresponding antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress on the other hand is an important factor in the development of obesity. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and antigenotoxic effects of acerola juice in different stages of maturity (unripe, ripe and industrial) and its main pharmacologically active components vitamin C and rutin, when given as food supplements to obese mice. Initial HPLC analyses confirmed that all types of acerola juice contained high levels of vitamin C and rutin. DPPH tests quantified the antioxidant properties of these juices and revealed higher antioxidant potentials compared to pure vitamin C and rutin. In an animal test series, groups of male mice were fed on a standard (STA) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The latter consisted of a variety of supermarket products, rich in sugar and fat. This CAF diet increased the feed efficiency, but also induced glucose intolerance and DNA damage, which was established by comet assays and micronucleus tests. Subsequently, CAF mice were given additional diet supplements (acerola juice, vitamin C or rutin) for one month and the effects on bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, and brain were examined. The results indicated that food supplementation with ripe or industrial acerola juice led to a partial reversal of the diet-induced DNA damage in the blood, kidney, liver and bone marrow. For unripe acerola juice food supplementation, beneficial effects were observed in blood, kidney and bone marrow. Food supplementation with vitamin C led to decreased DNA damage in kidney and liver, whereas rutin supplementation led to decreased DNA damage in all tissue samples observed. These results suggest that acerola juice helps to reduce oxidative stress and may decrease genotoxicity under obesogenic conditions. PMID:24296107

  7. The Renaissance of Transcervical Balloon Catheters for Cervical Ripening and Labour Induction

    PubMed Central

    Rath, W.; Kehl, S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to rising rates of labour induction in industrialised countries, safe and effective methods of induction have once again become a focus of interest and research. Prostaglandins are effective for cervical ripening and induction of uterine contractions. They do, however, cause overstimulation of the uterus in up to 20 % of cases, sometimes causing changes in fetal heart rate. Transcervical balloon catheters provide an alternative to prostaglandins for labour induction and have been used for this purpose for almost 50 years. This induction method has experienced a recent renaissance in clinical practice that is reflected in an annually rising number of publications on its use. Balloon catheters allow gentle ripening of the cervix without causing uterine overstimulation. The two catheters available are the Foley catheter (off-label use) and the double balloon catheter, which is licensed for use in induction of labour. Both are as effective as prostaglandins, and do not increase the risk of infection to mother or child. Catheter induction also requires less monitoring compared to prostaglandins resulting in improved patient satisfaction. Balloon catheters provide a useful and promising option to achieve vaginal delivery despite failed prostaglandin induction. Intravenous oxytocin is nevertheless required in up to 85 % of cases for adequate induction/augmentation of contractions. Balloon catheters, vaginal PGE2 and misoprostol are equally effective in the context of an unripe/unfavourable cervix, the rate of uterine hyperstimulation being significantly lower, and the need for oxytocin significantly higher for catheters. Balloon catheters are increasingly being used in combination or sequentially with oral/vaginal misoprostol, although there is currently inadequate published data on the subject. International guidelines recommend the use of balloon catheters for labour induction with an unripe cervix (also following previous caesarean section) as an alternative to

  8. Improvement in Sensitivity of an Inductive Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Misron, Norhisam; Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Lee, Yeoh Kian; Sidek, Roslina Mohd; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-01-01

    Among palm oil millers, the ripeness of oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) is determined through visual inspection. To increase the productivity of the millers, many researchers have proposed with a new detection method to replace the conventional one. The sensitivity of such a sensor plays a crucial role in determining the effectiveness of the method. In our preliminary study a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunches is proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on an inductive sensor is further investigated to improve its sensitivity. This paper investigates the results pertaining to the effects of the air coil structure of an oil palm fruit sensor, taking consideration of the used copper wire diameter ranging from 0.10 mm to 0.18 mm with 60 turns. The flat-type shape of air coil was used on twenty samples of fruitlets from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples are tested with frequencies ranging from 20 Hz to 120 MHz. The sensitivity of the sensor between air to fruitlet samples increases as the coil diameter increases. As for the sensitivity differences between ripe and unripe samples, the 5 mm air coil length with the 0.12 mm coil diameter provides the highest percentage difference between samples and it is amongst the highest deviation value between samples. The result from this study is important to improve the sensitivity of the inductive oil palm fruit sensor mainly with regards to the design of the air coil structure. The efficiency of the sensor to determine the maturity of the oil palm FFB and the ripening process of the fruitlet could further be enhanced. PMID:24496313

  9. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets. PMID:23096010

  10. The Use of Nonaqueous Fractionation to Assess the Ionic Composition of the Apoplast during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, A. J.; Parker, R.; Selvendran, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    We have examined the possibility that pectin solubilization and cell separation in fruit may be due to organic acids disrupting calcium bridges between pectic polysaccharides. With fruit from a wild tomato (Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium [Dunal]) we demonstrated the validity of a nonaqueous fractionation method to obtain reliable estimates of the ionic content of the apoplast. In unripe fruit no organic acids were associated with the cell wall, which contained 67% of the total calcium and 47% of the magnesium. In ripe fruit 4% of the malate, 10% of the citrate, and 15% of the oxalate were estimated to be in the cell wall, together with 84% of the calcium and 52% of the magnesium. In contrast to the cultivated tomato, we did not find a consistent decrease in the degree of methyl esterification between unripe and ripe fruit, and an overall average of 75% was observed. In the cell walls of ripe fruit the ratio of calcium:magnesium:organic acid:unesterified uronic acid, on the basis of charge, was 15:4:4:16. The use of a computer program to predict the proportions of different ionic species in complex mixtures suggested that in ripe fruit 70% of the unesterified uronic acid would be complexed with calcium. Our results show that organic acids do not accumulate in the cell wall sufficiently to disrupt calcium cross-linking, nor is the calcium removed from the wall into the cell. We therefore conclude that organic acids do not contribute to cell separation during the ripening of tomato fruit. PMID:12228573

  11. The DDX6-4E-T interaction mediates translational repression and P-body assembly.

    PubMed

    Kamenska, Anastasiia; Simpson, Clare; Vindry, Caroline; Broomhead, Helen; Bénard, Marianne; Ernoult-Lange, Michèle; Lee, Benjamin P; Harries, Lorna W; Weil, Dominique; Standart, Nancy

    2016-07-27

    4E-Transporter binds eIF4E via its consensus sequence YXXXXLΦ, shared with eIF4G, and is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein found enriched in P-(rocessing) bodies. 4E-T inhibits general protein synthesis by reducing available eIF4E levels. Recently, we showed that 4E-T bound to mRNA however represses its translation in an eIF4E-independent manner, and contributes to silencing of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs. Here, we address further the mechanism of translational repression by 4E-T by first identifying and delineating the interacting sites of its major partners by mass spectrometry and western blotting, including DDX6, UNR, unrip, PAT1B, LSM14A and CNOT4. Furthermore, we document novel binding between 4E-T partners including UNR-CNOT4 and unrip-LSM14A, altogether suggesting 4E-T nucleates a complex network of RNA-binding protein interactions. In functional assays, we demonstrate that joint deletion of two short conserved motifs that bind UNR and DDX6 relieves repression of 4E-T-bound mRNA, in part reliant on the 4E-T-DDX6-CNOT1 axis. We also show that the DDX6-4E-T interaction mediates miRNA-dependent translational repression and de novo P-body assembly, implying that translational repression and formation of new P-bodies are coupled processes. Altogether these findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of 4E-T in gene regulation, important in development and neurogenesis. PMID:27342281

  12. Limits to the host range of the highly polyphagous tephritid fruit fly Anastrepha ludens in its natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Birke, A; Acosta, E; Aluja, M

    2015-12-01

    Anastepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a highly polyphagous fruit fly that is able to develop in a wide range of hosts. Understanding the limits of this pest's host range could provide valuable information for pest management and plant breeding for pest resistance. Previous studies have shown that guavas (Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.), are not attacked under natural conditions by A. ludens. To understand this phenomenon, guavas were exposed to natural infestation by A. ludens and to other fruit fly species that infest guavas in nature (Anastrepha striata Schiner, Anastepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Anastepha obliqua (Macquart)). Once the susceptible phenological stage of guavas was determined, fruit infestation levels were compared between A. ludens and A. striata. Choice and non-choice tests were performed under field-cage conditions. Under field conditions, guavas were susceptible to A. striata and A. fraterculus attack all the way from when fruit was undeveloped to when fruit began to ripen. No infestation by A. ludens was recorded under natural conditions. Similar results were obtained when forced exposures were performed, indicating that unripe guavas were preferred by A. striata over ripe fruit, and that infestation rates were higher at early fruit maturity stages. Under forced oviposition conditions, A. ludens larvae were unable to develop in unripe guavas but did so in fully ripe fruit. However, A. ludens fitness parameters were dramatically affected, exhibiting reduced survival and reduced pupal weight compared to conspecifics that developed in a natural host, grapefruit. We confirm that P. guajava should not be treated as a natural host of this pestiferous species, and suggest that both behavioral aspects and the fact that larvae are unable to adequately develop in this fruit, indeed represent clear limits to A. ludens's broad host range. PMID:26343267

  13. Gene expression of ascorbic acid biosynthesis related enzymes of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2009-04-01

    The Smirnoff-Wheeler (SW) pathway has been proven to be the only significant source of l-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C) in the seedlings of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. It is yet uncertain whether the same pathway holds for all other plants and their various organs as AsA may also be synthesized through alternative pathways. In this study, we have cloned some of the genes involved in the SW-pathway from acerola (Malpighia glabra), a plant containing enormous amount of AsA, and examined the expression patterns of these genes in the plant. The AsA contents of acerola leaves were about 8-fold more than that of Arabidopsis with 5-700-fold higher mRNA abundance in AsA-biosynthesizing genes. The unripe fruits have the highest AsA content but the accumulation was substantially repressed as the fruit transitions to maturation. The mRNAs encoding these genes showed correlation in their expression with the AsA contents of the fruits. Although very little AsA was recorded in the seeds the mRNAs encoding all the genes, with the exception of the mitochondrially located L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, were clearly detected in the seeds of the unripe fruits. In young leaves of acerola, the expression of most genes were repressed by the dark and induced by light. However, the expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase similar to that encoded by A. thaliana VTC1 was induced in the dark. The expressions of all the genes surged after 24h following wounding stress on the young leaves. These findings will advance the investigation into the molecular factors regulating the biosynthesis of abundant AsA in acerola. PMID:18952318

  14. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California.

    PubMed

    Moral, Juan; Muñoz-Díez, Concepción; González, Nazaret; Trapero, Antonio; Michailides, Themis J

    2010-12-01

    Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, β-tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in Spain. Moreover, the sexual stage of this last species was also found attacking olive branches in California. In pathogenicity tests using unripe fruit and branches of olive, D. seriata isolates were the least aggressive on the fruit and branches while N. mediterraneum isolates were the most aggressive on both tissues. Isolates of B. dothidea which cause dalmatian disease on fruit were not pathogenic on branches and only weakly aggressive on fruit. These results, together with the close association between the presence of dalmatian disease symptoms and the wound created by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), suggest that the fly is essential for the initiation of the disease on fruit. Isolates recovered from dalmatian disease symptoms had an optimum of 26°C for mycelial growth and 30°C for conidial germination, suggesting that the pathogen is well adapted to high summer temperatures. In contrast, the range of water activity in the medium for growth of dalmatian isolates was 0.93 to 1 MPa, which was similar to that for the majority of fungi. This study resolved long-standing questions of identity and pathogenicity of species within the family Botryosphaeriaceae attacking olive trees in Spain and California. PMID:20731532

  15. Food mechanical properties, feeding ecology, and the mandibular morphology of wild orangutans.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Erin R; Zulfa, Astri; Hardus, Madeleine; Wich, Serge A; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Taylor, Andrea B

    2014-10-01

    Bornean orangutan mandibular morphology has been functionally linked to the exploitation of hard and tough foods, based on evidence that Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii spends a greater percentage of time feeding on bark, seeds and vegetation compared with Pongo abelii (Sumatran orangutans) and the assumption that these tissues are more challenging to process than fruit pulp. We measured and compared toughness (R) and Young's modulus (E) of ripe and unripe foods exploited by P. abelii and P. p. wurmbii. Additionally, we recorded and compared the percentage of time these orangutans fed on plants/plant parts of varying degrees of R and E. Compared with P. abelii, P. p. wurmbii consumed significantly tougher and more displacement limited (R/E)(0.5) fruit parts, leaves and inner bark, and spent a significantly greater percentage of time feeding on immature leaves, unripe fruit and other vegetation. Modulus did not vary as expected between species, likely because we failed to capture the high-end range of modulus values for tissues consumed by P. p. wurmbii. Notably, P. p. wurmbii spent ∼40% of its feeding time on the toughest foods consumed (between 1000 and 4000 J m(-2)). Thus, the hypothesis that mandibular robusticity in P. p. wurmbii is functionally linked to feeding on tough foods is supported and is likely related to countering relatively larger external forces and/or repetitive loads required to process the toughest tissues. The importance of elastic modulus on morphological divergence awaits future studies capturing the full range of this material property for P. p. wurmbii. Finally, phenophase and fruit availability influence orangutan species differences in food material properties and percentage of time spent feeding on various foods, emphasizing the importance of incorporating these variables in future studies of feeding ecology and craniodental morphology in extant taxa. PMID:25038032

  16. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Materials/methods Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. Results The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes. PMID:24495336

  17. Several Well-observed Asteroidal Occultations in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timerson, Brad; Durech, J.; Abramson, H.; Brooks, J.; Caton, D.; Clark, D.; Conard, S.; Cooke, B.; Dunham, D. W.; Dunham, J.; Edberg, S.; Ellington, C.; Faircloth, J.; Herchak, S.; Iverson, E.; Jones, R.; Lucas, G.; Lyzenga, G.; Maley, P.; Martinez, L.; Menke, J.; Mroz, G.; Nolan, P.; Peterson, R.; Preston, S.; Rattley, G.; Ray, J.; Scheck, A.; Stamm, J.; Stanton, R.; Suggs, R.; Tatum, R.; Thomas, W.

    2011-10-01

    During 2010 IOTA observers in North America reported about 190 positive observations for 106 asteroid occultation events. For several asteroids, this included observations with multiple chords. For two events, an inversion model was available. An occultation by 16 Psyche on 2010 August 21 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 235.4 x 230.4 km. On 2010 December 24, an occultation by 93 Minerva produced a best-fit ellipse of 179.4 x 133.4 km. An occultation by 96 Aegle on 2010 October 29 yielded a best-fit ellipse of 124.9 x 88.0 km. An occultation by 105 Artemis on 2010 June 24 showed a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 x 92.0 km. An occultation by 375 Ursula on 2010 December 4 produced a best-fit ellipse of 125.0 km x 135.0 km. Of note are two events not summarized in this article. On 2010 August 31, an occultation by 695 Bella yielded a new double star. That event will be summarized in the JDSO. Finally, on 2010 April 6, an occultation of zeta Ophiuchi by 824 Anastasia was observed by 65 observers at 69 locations. Unfortunately a large shift in the path yielded only 4 chords. Results of that event, and all the events mentioned here, can be found on the North American Asteroidal Occultation Results web page.

  18. Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Prasad, R N V

    2002-08-01

    Using controlled in vivo and in vitro pharmacological methods, we evaluated the safety of papaya (Carica papaya) consumption in pregnancy with reference to its common avoidance during pregnancy in some parts of Asia. Ripe papaya (Carica papaya L. (Caricaecae) blend (500 ml/l water) was freely given to four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats at different stages of gestation (days 1-5, 6-11, 12-17 and 1-20). The control group received water. The effect of ripe papaya juice and crude papaya latex on pregnant and non-pregnant rats' uteri was also evaluated using standard isolated-organ-bath methods. The daily volumes (ml) of ripe papaya blend consumed by the treated group were significantly (P<0.05) more than water consumed by the control (control 40.3 (sd 11.6) v. treated 64 (sd 19.0)). There was no significant difference in the number of implantation sites and viable fetuses in the rats given ripe papaya relative to the control. No sign of fetal or maternal toxicity was observed in all the groups. In the in vitro study, ripe papaya juice (0.1-0.8 ml) did not show any significant contractile effect on uterine smooth muscles isolated from pregnant and non-pregnant rats; conversely, crude papaya latex (0.1-3.2 mg/ml) induced spasmodic contraction of the uterine muscles similar to oxytocin (1-64 mU/ml) and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (0.028-1.81 microm). The response of the isolated rat uterine smooth muscles to 0.2 mg crude papaya latex/ml was comparable to 0.23 microm prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 32 mU oxytocin/ml. In the 18-19 d pregnant rat uterus, the contractile effect of crude papaya latex was characterized by tetanic spasms. The results of the present study suggest that normal consumption of ripe papaya during pregnancy may not pose any significant danger. However, the unripe or semi-ripe papaya (which contains high concentration of the latex that produces marked uterine contractions) could be unsafe in pregnancy. Though evaluation of potentially toxic agents often

  19. Assessing the impact of the duration and intensity of inhalation exposure on the magnitude of the variability of internal dose metrics in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Valcke, Mathieu; Krishnan, Kannan

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the exposure duration and intensity on the human kinetic adjustment factor (HKAF). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to compute target dose metrics (i.e. maximum blood concentration (C(max)) and amount metabolized/L liver/24  h (Amet)) in adults, neonates (0-30 days), toddlers (1-3 years), and pregnant women following inhalation exposure to benzene, styrene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,4-dioxane. Exposure scenarios simulated involved various concentrations based on the chemical's reference concentration (low) and six of U.S. EPA's Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) (high), for durations of 10  min, 60  min, 8  h, and 24  h, as well as at steady-state. Distributions for body weight (BW), height (H), and hepatic CYP2E1 content were obtained from the literature or from P3M software, whereas blood flows and tissue volumes were calculated from BW and H. The HKAF was computed based on distributions of dose metrics obtained by Monte Carlo simulations [95th percentile in each subpopulation/median in adults]. At low levels of exposure, ranges of C(max)-based HKAF were 1-6.8 depending on the chemical, with 1,4-dioxane exhibiting the greatest values. At high levels of exposure, this range was 1.1-5.2, with styrene exhibiting the greatest value. Neonates were always the most sensitive subpopulation based on C(max), and pregnant women were most sensitive based on Amet in the majority of the cases (1.3-2.1). These results have shown that the chemical-specific HKAF varies as a function of exposure duration and intensity of inhalation exposures, and sometimes exceeds the default value used in risk assessments. PMID:22084919

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of the neotropical butterfly subtribe Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Danainae: Ithomiini).

    PubMed

    de-Silva, Donna Lisa; Day, Julia J; Elias, Marianne; Willmott, Keith; Whinnett, Alaine; Mallet, James

    2010-06-01

    The Oleriina is one of the most speciose subtribes of the neotropical nymphalid butterfly tribe Ithomiini. They are widely distributed across the Andes and Amazonian lowlands and like other ithomiines they are involved in complex mimicry rings. This subtribe is of particular interest because it contains the most diverse ithomiine genus, Oleria, as well as two genera, Megoleria and Hyposcada, that feed on hostplants not utilized elsewhere in the tribe. Here we present the first comprehensive species-level phylogeny for the Oleriina, representing 83% of recognised species in the group, and based on 6698bp from eight mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (nc) genes. Topologies are largely congruent for ncDNA and the concatenated dataset and the genera Oleria, Hyposcada and Megoleria are recovered and well-supported, although strongly discordant genealogy between mtDNA and ncDNA suggest possible introgression among Hyposcada and Megoleria. A fourth clade containing the type species of Ollantaya is consistently recovered, and this recently synonymized name is resurrected. Clear subdivisions within Oleria separate the genus into four species groups, onega, amalda, makrena and aegle, which also correspond to differing biogeographic and elevation range characteristics. Unlike other ithomiine genera, the Oleriina show homogeneity in mimetic wing pattern, in sharp contrast to the emerging paradigm that mimetic shifts have enhanced diversification in the tribe. Our results show a potentially more important role for geographic isolation in the diversification of the Oleriina compared to other Ithomiini studied to date and provide a framework for more detailed biogeographical studies, in addition to a rare opportunity for comparative analyses with other neotropical groups. PMID:20079859

  1. Antioxidant and enzymatic responses to oxidative stress induced by pre-harvest water supply reduction and ripening on mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Cogshall') in relation to carotenoid content.

    PubMed

    Rosalie, Rémy; Joas, Jacques; Deytieux-Belleau, Christelle; Vulcain, Emmanuelle; Payet, Bertrand; Dufossé, Laurent; Léchaudel, Mathieu

    2015-07-20

    The effects of a reduction in water supply during fruit development and postharvest fruit ripening on the oxidative status and the antioxidant defense system were studied in the mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Cogshall. Changes in non-enzymatic (ascorbate) and enzymatic (SOD, CAT, APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR) antioxidants, as well as oxidative parameters (H2O2 and MDA) and major carotenoids, were measured in unripe and ripe fruits from well-irrigated and non-irrigated trees. Under non-limiting water supply conditions, ripening induced oxidation as a result of the production of ROS and decreased ascorbate content. Antioxidant enzymatic systems were activated to protect fruit tissues and to regenerate the ascorbate pool. The carotenoid pool, mainly represented by β-carotene and esterified violaxanthine isomers, accumulated naturally during mango ripening. The suppression of irrigation decreased fruit size and induced accumulation of ABA and of its storage form, ABA-GE, in fruit pulp from the earliest harvest. It also increased oxidation, which was observable by the high levels of ascorbate measured at the early stages at harvest, and by the delay in the time it took to reach the pseudo constant carotene-to-xanthophyll ratio in ripe fruits. Nevertheless, differences between the irrigation treatments on the antioxidant system in ripe fruits were not significant, mainly because of the drastic changes in this system during ripening. PMID:26232564

  2. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M L; Singh, P

    2015-09-01

    The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  3. Volatiles emission patterns of different plant organs and pollen of Citrus limon.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Tebano, Marianna; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2007-04-18

    The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized. PMID:17397661

  4. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. PMID:25497800

  5. Metabolomic-Based Strategy for Fingerprinting of Sambucus nigra L. Berry Volatile Terpenoids and Norisoprenoids: Influence of Ripening and Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Ângelo C; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Silvestre, Armando J D; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2016-07-01

    The integration of plant metabolomics to support preharvest fruit development studies can provide important insights into the biochemical mechanisms involved and lately support producers on harvesting management. A metabolomic-based strategy for fingerprinting of volatile terpenoids and norisoprenoids from Sambucus nigra L. berries from three cultivars, through ripening, was established. From 42 monoterpenic, 20 sesquiterpenic, and 14 norisoprenoid compounds, 48 compounds are reported for the first time as S. nigra berries components. Chemometric tools revealed that ripening was the factor that influenced more the volatile fraction profile and physicochemical parameters (pH, TS, and TSS), followed by cultivar. For the unripe stages, a higher overall content of the studied metabolites was observed, which gradually decreased over the ripening stages, being consistent for the three cultivars. These trends were mainly ruled by limonene, p-cymene, aromadendrene, β-caryophyllene, and dihydroedulan, which might therefore be used by producers as an additional simple decision making tool in conjunction with physicochemical parameters. PMID:27348582

  6. Cucurbitane glycosides derived from mogroside IIE: structure-taste relationships, antioxidant activity, and acute toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Ziming; Lu, Fenglai; Liu, Jinglei; Song, Yunfei; Li, Dianpeng

    2014-01-01

    Mogroside IIE is a bitter triterpenoid saponin which is the main component of unripe Luo Han Guo fruit and a precursor of the commercially available sweetener mogroside V. In this study, we developed an enzymatic glycosyl transfer method, by which bitter mogroside IIE could be converted into a sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture. The reactant concentration, temperature, pH and buffer system were studied. New saponins with the α-glucose group were isolated from the resulting mixtures, and the structures of three components of the extract were determined. The structure-taste relationships of these derivatives were also studied together with those of the natural mogrosides. The number and stereoconfiguration of glucose groups present in the mogroside molecules were found to be the main factor to determine the sweet or bitter taste of a compound. The antioxidant and food safety properties were initially evaluated by their radical scavenging ability and via 7 day mice survival tests, respectively. The results showed that the sweet triterpenoid saponin mixture has the same favorable physiological and safety characteristics as the natural mogrosides. PMID:25140446

  7. Essential oil composition and acaricidal activity of Schinus terebinthifolius from Atlantic Forest of Pernambuco, Brazil against Tetranychus urticae.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Aline Fonseca; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes; de Moraes, Marcílio Martins; Ramos, Clécio Souza

    2012-01-01

    The compositions of the essential oils from unripe (UFr) and ripe (RFr) fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major compound identified in both oils was limonene (UFr = 44.1 +/- 1.3%; RFr = 31.8 +/- 1.2%), followed by alpha-phellandrene (15.7 +/- 0.4%) in the UFr oil and thujene (21.7 +/- 0.9%) in the RFr oil. Repellent and toxicity activities of the two oils were also evaluated, and the results compared with eugenol. The UFr oil was more active in the fumigation tests (LC50 = 1.46 microL/L of air), whereas the RFr oil was more active in the sealed dishes (SD) than open dishes (OD) contact assay (LC50 = 3.04 microL/cm2) and not significantly different from eugenol. Both oils exhibited significant repellent activity comparable with that of eugenol. The results suggest that the repellent activity of these oils in association with its toxicity could be a great advantage for the integrated management of T. urticae. PMID:22428266

  8. Insights into cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of five Juniperus species.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nilufer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-09-01

    In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves, ripe fruits, and unripe fruits of Juniperus communis ssp. nana, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus foetidissima, and Juniperus excelsa were investigated in the present study. Cholinesterase inhibition of the extracts was screened using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The extracts had low or no inhibition towards AChE, whereas the leaf aqueous extract of J. foetidissima showed the highest BChE inhibition (93.94 ± 0.01%). The leaf extracts usually exerted higher antioxidant activity. We herein describe the first study on anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity by the methods of ferrous ion-chelating, superoxide radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays of the mentioned Juniperus species. PMID:21708212

  9. Investigation of the Blood Glucose Lowering Potential of the Jamaican Momordica charantia (Cerasee) Fruit in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, A; McKoy, M-L; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Momordica charantia (MC) fruit has been documented to possess antidiabetic properties. However, these studies were not without controversy surrounding the blood glucose-lowering ability and the mechanism of action in diabetes therapy. In an effort to evaluate such claims in the Jamaican MC species known as cerasee, aqueous extracts of the unripe fruit were studied in normal and diabetic rats. Normal male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups (n = 6) orally administered distilled water, 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution, the aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight), respectively prior to assessment of fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentration. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted in normoglycaemic rats orally administered distilled water, 10% DMSO solution, glibenclamide (15 mg/kg body weight) or aqueous extracts of the fruit (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight). Blood glucose concentration was also monitored in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats administered the aqueous extract (250 mg/kg body weight) or water vehicle after an overnight fast. The aqueous extracts showed no hypoglycaemic or antidiabetic activity. However, the administration of the aqueous extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) resulted in significant improvement in glucose tolerance of glucose-primed normoglycaemic rats during the OGTT. These data suggest that the glucose-lowering mechanism of the Jamaican MC fruit species likely involves altered glucose absorption across the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26624580

  10. A novel green approach for the preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers from white coir.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Diego M; Almeida, Jessica S; Dias, Amanda F; Figueirêdo, Maria Clea B; Morais, João Paulo S; Feitosa, Judith P A; de F Rosa, Morsyleide

    2014-09-22

    The aim of this work was to optimize the extraction of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW) from unripe coconut husk fibers (CHF). The CHF was delignified using organosolv process, followed by alkaline bleaching (5% (w/w) H2O2+4% (w/w) NaOH; 50°C, 90 min). The CHF was subsequently hydrolyzed with 30% (v/v) sulfuric acid (60°C, 360 min). The process yielded a partially delignified acetosolv cellulose pulp and acetic black liquor, from which the lignin was recovered. The CNW from the acetosolv pulp exhibited an average length of 172±88 nm and a diameter of 8±3 nm, (aspect ratio of 22±8). The surface charge of the CNW was -33 mV, indicating a stable aqueous colloidal suspension. The nanocrystals presented physical characteristics close to those extracted from cellulose pulp made by CHF chlorine-pulping. This approach offers the additional advantage of extracting the lignin as an alternative to eradication. PMID:24906779

  11. Contribution of transcript stability to a conserved procyanidin-induced cytokine response in γδT cells1

    PubMed Central

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F.; Holderness, Jeff; Graff, Jill C.; Hedges, Jodi F.; Freedman, Brett; Graff, Joel W.; Jutila, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    γδ T cells function in innate and adaptive immunity and are primed for secondary responses by procyanidin components of unripe apple peel (APP). Here we investigate the effects of APP and purified procyanidins on γ δ T cell gene expression. A microarray analysis was performed on bovine γ δ T cells treated with APP; increases in transcripts encoding GM-CSF, IL-8, and IL-17, but not markers of TCR stimulation such as IFNγ , were observed. Key responses were confirmed in human, mouse, and bovine cells by RT-PCR and/or ELISA, indicating a conserved response to procyanidins. In vivo relevance of the cytokine response was shown in mice following intraperitoneal injection of APP, which induced production of CXCL1/KC and resulted in neutrophil influx to the blood and peritoneum. In the human γ δ T cell-line, MOLT-14, GM-CSF and IL-8 transcripts were increased and stabilized in cells treated with crude APP or purified procyanidins. The ERK1/2 MAPK pathway was activated in APP-treated cells, and necessary for transcript stabilization. Our data describe a unique γ δ T cell inflammatory response during procyanidin treatment and suggest that transcript stability mechanisms could account, at least in part, for the priming phenotype. PMID:21307878

  12. Genetic Interactions between the Members of the SMN-Gemins Complex in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Borg, Rebecca M.; Bordonne, Rémy; Vassallo, Neville; Cauchi, Ruben J.

    2015-01-01

    The SMN-Gemins complex is composed of Gemins 2–8, Unrip and the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Limiting levels of SMN result in the neuromuscular disorder, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which is presently untreatable. The most-documented function of the SMN-Gemins complex concerns the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Despite multiple genetic studies, the Gemin proteins have not been identified as prominent modifiers of SMN-associated mutant phenotypes. In the present report, we make use of the Drosophila model organism to investigate whether viability and motor phenotypes associated with a hypomorphic Gemin3 mutant are enhanced by changes in the levels of SMN, Gemin2 and Gemin5 brought about by various genetic manipulations. We show a modifier effect by all three members of the minimalistic fly SMN-Gemins complex within the muscle compartment of the motor unit. Interestingly, muscle-specific overexpression of Gemin2 was by itself sufficient to depress normal motor function and its enhanced upregulation in all tissues leads to a decline in fly viability. The toxicity associated with increased Gemin2 levels is conserved in the yeast S. pombe in which we find that the cytoplasmic retention of Sm proteins, likely reflecting a block in the snRNP assembly pathway, is a contributing factor. We propose that a disruption in the normal stoichiometry of the SMN-Gemins complex depresses its function with consequences that are detrimental to the motor system. PMID:26098872

  13. Differential expression of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase during fruit development establishes the different B-ring hydroxylation patterns of flavonoids in Fragaria × ananassa and Fragaria vesca.

    PubMed

    Thill, Jana; Miosic, Silvija; Gotame, Tek Prasad; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Gosch, Christian; Veberic, Robert; Preuss, Anja; Schwab, Wilfried; Stampar, Franci; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2013-11-01

    Flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) was studied for the first time in different Fragaria species. The cDNA clones isolated from unripe and ripe fruits of Fragaria x ananassa (garden strawberry) and Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) showed high similarity (99% at the amino acid level) to the publically available F. vesca genome sequence and no significant differences could be identified between species and developmental stages of the fruits. In contrast, the genomic F3'H clones showed differences in the non-coding regions and 5'-flanking elements. The recombinant F3'Hs were functionally active and showed high specificity for naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, and kaempferol, whereas apigenin was only a minor substrate. During fruit development, a clear difference in the F3'H expression was observed between F. × ananassa and F. vesca. While a drastic decline of F3'H expression occurred during fruit ripening in F. × ananassa, F3'H in F. vesca was highly expressed in all stages. This was reflected by the anthocyanin composition, which showed a prevalence of pelargonidin in ripe fruits of F. × ananassa, whereas F. vesca had a high content of cyanidin. Screening of 17 berry species for their anthocyanin and flavonol composition showed that the prevalence of monohydroxylated anthocyanins makes garden strawberry unique among all other fruit species indicating that selection of bright red color during strawberry breeding, which consumers typically associate with freshness and ripeness, has selected phenotypes with a special biochemical background. PMID:23623754

  14. De-novo RNA Sequencing and Metabolite Profiling to Identify Genes Involved in Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Korean Black Raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Yeonggil; Kumar, Ritesh; Han, Xiao; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-01-01

    The Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel, KB) on ripening is usually consumed as fresh fruit, whereas the unripe KB has been widely used as a source of traditional herbal medicine. Such a stage specific utilization of KB has been assumed due to the changing metabolite profile during fruit ripening process, but so far molecular and biochemical changes during its fruit maturation are poorly understood. To analyze biochemical changes during fruit ripening process at molecular level, firstly, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the transcriptome of KB fruits. Over 4.86 Gb of normalized cDNA prepared from fruits was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 2000, and assembled into 43,723 unigenes. Secondly, we have reported that alterations in anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins are the major factors facilitating variations in these stages of fruits. In addition, up-regulation of F3′H1, DFR4 and LDOX1 resulted in the accumulation of cyanidin derivatives during the ripening process of KB, indicating the positive relationship between the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and the anthocyanin accumulation. Furthermore, the ability of RcMCHI2 (R. coreanus Miquel chalcone flavanone isomerase 2) gene to complement Arabidopsis transparent testa 5 mutant supported the feasibility of our transcriptome library to provide the gene resources for improving plant nutrition and pigmentation. Taken together, these datasets obtained from transcriptome library and metabolic profiling would be helpful to define the gene-metabolite relationships in this non-model plant. PMID:24505466

  15. Determination of pesticide residues in samples of green minor crops by gas chromatography and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walorczyk, Stanisław; Drożdżyński, Dariusz; Kierzek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    A method was developed for pesticide analysis in samples of high chlorophyll content belonging to the group of minor crops. A new type of sorbent, known as ChloroFiltr, was employed for dispersive-solid phase extraction cleanup (dispersive-SPE) to reduce the unwanted matrix background prior to concurrent analysis by gas chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS). Validation experiments were carried out on green, unripe plants of lupin, white mustard and sorghum. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg kg(-1) fell in the range between 68 and 120% (98% on average) and 72-104% (93% on average) with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 2 and 19% (7% on average) and 3-16% (6% on average) by GC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS technique, respectively. Because of strong enhancement or suppression matrix effects (absolute values >20%) which were exhibited by about 80% of the pesticide and matrix combinations, acceptably accurate quantification was achieved by using matrix-matched standards. Up to now, the proposed method has been successfully used to study the dissipation patterns of pesticides after application on lupin, white mustard, soya bean, sunflower and field bean in experimental plot trials conducted in Poland. PMID:25476298

  16. Changes in flavonoids and nonphenolic pigments during on-tree maturation and postharvest pericarp browning of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) as shown by HPLC-MSn.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Mareike; Carle, Reinhold; Sruamsiri, Pittaya; Neidhart, Sybille

    2011-04-27

    Polyphenols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids were characterized by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) in the pericarp of unripe to over-ripe 'Hong Huey' and 'Chacapat' litchi fruit at harvest and during subsequent storage (5 °C, 90% RH, 21 days). (-)-Epicatechin and A-type procyanidins always predominated quantitatively. Besides these ortho-diphenolic compounds, minor novel litchi flavonoids included monohydroxylated structures. Chlorophyll degradation by 73-92% and 7-38-fold anthocyanin accumulation affected pericarp color throughout the last 15-20 days of on-tree maturation. Postharvest, anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin largely degraded within the first 3 days, accompanied by severe pericarp browning. Without packaging of the fruit, desiccation initially accelerated polyphenol oxidase-induced oxidation of (-)-epicatechin, but then hindered its further progress. Constant levels of the monohydroxylated (epi)afzelechin indicated no involvement of peroxidase. Acting as antioxidants, anthocyanins retarded (-)-epicatechin degradation. Hence, pinkish-red fruit with a molar ratio of cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside to (-)-epicatechin of >3:100 retained flavonoids best. However, brown polymers masked remaining red pigments. PMID:21413696

  17. Caregiver knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding vitamin A intake by Dominican children.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jordan P; Mills, Timothy A; Reicks, Marla

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major concern in the Dominican Republic. Successful educational interventions are based on needs assessment data specific to the population for which behavioural change is desired. The purpose of this study was to establish a foundation for nutrition education efforts for caregivers of young children to prevent VAD in the Dominican Republic. A cross-sectional survey was administered to caregivers (N = 151) from rural/peri-urban villages in five provinces to assess vitamin A knowledge and attitudes, frequency of consumption of foods rich in vitamin A by an index child (age range 3-9 years), and food-related practices contributing to vitamin A intake. Caregiver knowledge regarding vitamin A was low in all villages regardless of differences in socio-economic status and level of education. A majority of the caregivers (67%) reported having a garden, but produce from the garden was thought mainly to provide a financial benefit vs. a nutritional benefit for the family. Several vegetables rich in vitamin A used as seasoning, mango, and unripe banana and plantain were commonly consumed by children as reported by caregivers. Educational interventions should focus on basic vitamin A knowledge regarding sources as well as symptoms of deficiency. Education should also emphasize increasing the variety of foods rich in provitamin A carotenoids grown in home gardens. PMID:17238936

  18. Composition and enantiomeric analysis of the essential oil of the fruits and the leaves of Pistacia vera from Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsokou, Anastasia; Georgopoulou, Katerina; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios; Tsitsa, Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    The essential oils of the fruits and the leaves of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Fresh unripe pistachio fruits were richer in essential oil (0.5%, w/w) than the leaves (0.1%, w/w). Twenty one compounds were identified in the essential oil of the fruits and the major components were (+)-alpha-pinene (54.6%) and terpinolene (31.2%). The enantiomeric ratio of the major constituents of the essential oil of the fruits was determined using chiral GC/MS and it was found that the (+)/(-)-alpha-pinene ratio was 99.5:0.5, (+)/(-)-limonene 80:20, (+)/(-)-beta-pinene 96:4, and (+)/(-)-alpha-terpineol 0:100. Thirty three compounds were identified in the essential oil of the leaves and the major components were found to be alpha-pinene (30.0%), terpinolene (17.6%) and bornyl acetate (11.3%). PMID:17876292

  19. Characterization of Sensory Properties of Flavanols - A Molecular Dynamic Approach.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Gallego, Raúl; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; Brás, Natércia F; Gomes, Paula; de Freitas, Victor; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2015-07-01

    In this work, sensations elicited by catechin and procyanidins in comparison with those elicited by gallocatechin and prodelphinidins were evaluated by means of a sensory panel. To obtain further insights into the mechanisms of action, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance (STD NMR) experiments have been performed. Results showed clear differences between the 2 types of flavanols. Dihydroxylated B-ring flavanols were more astringent, bitter, dry, rough, unripe, and persistent than trihydroxylated B-ring ones. Besides, these last compounds were smoother, more velvety, and viscous. MD simulations and STD NMR experiments support results obtained from tasting panel. MD results suggested that catechin binds to a human salivary proline-rich peptide IB714 faster than gallocatechin and this interaction is maintained longer. IB714 can interact with 2 catechin molecules concurrently while only interacts with 1 gallocatechin molecule. Accordingly, STD NMR experiments showed a greater affinity of catechin than gallocatechin for the peptide (K D = 2.7 and 25.7, respectively). Results indicate that the number of hydroxyl substituents present in B-ring of the flavanic nucleus is decisive for the interaction with salivary proteins and the development of astringency perception. PMID:25934978

  20. Nutritional evaluation of outer fleshy coat of Terminalia catappa fruit in two varieties.

    PubMed

    Dikshit, Madhurima; Samudrasok, Rupali Krishna

    2011-02-01

    The nutritional potential of outer (50-55%) fleshy edible cover of Terminalia catappa fruit was selected for investigation in search of a new source of nutrients. Two different varieties, red and yellow in their ripe and unripe stages, were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition along with phytochemicals. In the results (per 100 g sample), the red variety has shown to be a rich source of protein (1.95 g vs. 1.65 g) while the yellow variety has shown a high content of carbohydrate and ash (12.03 g vs. 6.14 g and 1.21 g vs. 0.70 g). Of the phytochemicals, β-carotene and vitamin C were found to be present in high amount in the red variety (2,090 μg vs. 754 μg and 138.6 mg vs. 105.4 mg), wherein the former increased while the latter decreased with ripening of the fruit. The results of the study show that the edible outer cover of tropical almond can contribute significantly to the nutrient intake. PMID:20707766

  1. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  2. Antibacterial effects of Carica papaya fruit on common wound organisms.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, G; Hewitt, H; Wint, Y; Obiefuna, P C; Wint, B

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate antibacterial activity of ripe and unripe Carica papaya on selected micro-organisms. Cultures of micro-organisms were routinely maintained in nutrient agar slants at 4 degrees C. Extracts of immature, mature and ripe Carica papaya fruit were obtained by separately grinding factions of the epicarp, endocarp and seeds and filtering them through gauze. Sensitivity tests were conducted by adding 0.06 ml of extract to agar wells (6 mm diameter) prepared from 20 ml agar seeded with 10(6) cells/ml suspension of one of the eight organisms per plate. The inoculated plates were allowed to equilibrate at 4 degrees C for 1 hour, incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours, and zones of inhibition measured in millimetres. Anti-bacterial activity was expressed in terms of the radius of zone of inhibition. Seed extracts from the fruit showed inhibition in the following order: B cereus > E coli > S faecalis > S aureus > P vulgaris > S flexneri. No significant difference was found in bacterial sensitivity between immature, mature and ripe fruits. No inhibition zone was produced by epicarp and endocarp extracts. Carica papaya seeds contain anti-bacterial activity that inhibits growth of gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. Observed activity was independent of stage of fruit maturity. Carica papaya has antibacterial effects that could be useful in treating chronic skin ulcers to promote healing. PMID:15040064

  3. Influence of host fruit and conspecifics on the release of the sex pheromone By Toxotrypana curvicauda males (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Robledo, Norma; Arzuffi, René

    2012-04-01

    The release of tephritid sex pheromones depends significantly on the age of the male, the social context (presence of conspecifics) and chemical context (host volatiles). In this study, the influence of host fruit and conspecific (males and females) on the emission of the pheromonal compound 2-methyl-6-vinylpyrazine (2,6 mvp) by Toxotrypana curvicauda (Gerstaecker) males was investigated under laboratory conditions. Males were divided into one control group (nonexposed to treatment) and five experimental groups were placed 1 hr before volatile collection with: 1) host fruit (unripe papaya), 2) two females, 3) two males, 4) host fruit plus two females, and 5) host fruit plus two males. The volatiles were sampled by means of solid phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with a focus on 2,6 mvp. Males emitted volatiles from the first day after adult emergence. The maximum peak and the temporal pattern of 2,6 mvp release were modified by the presence of host fruit and conspecific males or females. On day 5, males in the presence of fruit maintained a constant release of 2,6 mvp while the presence of conspecific caused a decrease of pheromone release. The release of 2,6 mvp was increased significantly in males exposed to both types of stimuli simultaneously. The stimuli (fruit and conspecifics) modified the release of 2,6 mvp, however the effect depended on male age. PMID:22507013

  4. Tomato transcriptome and mutant analyses suggest a role for plant stress hormones in the interaction between fruit and Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Vincenti, Estefania; Powell, Ann L. T.; Cantu, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Fruit–pathogen interactions are a valuable biological system to study the role of plant development in the transition from resistance to susceptibility. In general, unripe fruit are resistant to pathogen infection but become increasingly more susceptible as they ripen. During ripening, fruit undergo significant physiological and biochemical changes that are coordinated by complex regulatory and hormonal signaling networks. The interplay between multiple plant stress hormones in the interaction between plant vegetative tissues and microbial pathogens has been documented extensively, but the relevance of these hormones during infections of fruit is unclear. In this work, we analyzed a transcriptome study of tomato fruit infected with Botrytis cinerea in order to profile the expression of genes for the biosynthesis, modification and signal transduction of ethylene (ET), salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and abscisic acid (ABA), hormones that may be not only involved in ripening, but also in fruit interactions with pathogens. The changes in relative expression of key genes during infection and assays of susceptibility of fruit with impaired synthesis or perception of these hormones were used to formulate hypotheses regarding the involvement of these regulators in the outcome of the tomato fruit–B. cinerea interaction. PMID:23717322

  5. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, H; Whittle, S; Lopez, S; Bailey, E; Weaver, S

    2000-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of the use of the fruit (papaya) of Carica papaya as topical ulcer dressings by registered nurses in the Spanish Town Hospital (STH), Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) and the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica. A ten-item pretested self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 285 randomly selected registered nurses at the UHWI, KPH and STH. There was a 72% response rate. The prevalence of topical papaya use among the respondents was 75%. Comments from the users of papaya suggested that topical application of the unripe fruit promoted desloughing, granulation and healing and reduced odour in chronic skin ulcers. It was cost effective. Papaya was considered to be more effective than other topical applications in the treatment of chronic ulcers. There was some difficulty in preparation of the fruit and occasionally a sensation of burning was reported by the patients. There was concern about the use of a non-sterile, non-standardised procedure but there were no reports of wound infection from its use. Papaya is widely used by nurses as a form of dressing for chronic ulcers and there is need for standardisation of its preparation and application. PMID:10786448

  6. Papaya beta-galactosidase/galactanase isoforms in differential cell wall hydrolysis and fruit softening during ripening.

    PubMed

    Lazan, Hamid; Ng, Syu-Yih; Goh, Lee-Yin; Ali, Zainon Mohd

    2004-12-01

    The potential significance of the previously reported papaya (Carica papaya L.) beta-galactosidase/galactanase (beta-d-galactoside galactohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.23) isoforms, beta-gal I, II and III, as softening enzymes during ripening was evaluated for hydrolysis of pectins while still structurally attached to unripe fruit cell wall, and hemicelluloses that were already solubilized in 4 M alkali. The enzymes were capable of differentially hydrolyzing the cell wall as evidenced by increased pectin solubility, pectin depolymerization, and degradation of the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses (ASH). This enzyme catalyzed in vitro changes to the cell walls reflecting in part the changes that occur in situ during ripening. beta-Galactosidase II was most effective in hydrolyzing pectin, followed by beta-gal III and I. The reverse appeared to be true with respect to the hemicelluloses. Hemicellulose, which was already released from any architectural constraints, seemed to be hydrolyzed more extensively than the pectins. The ability of the beta-galactanases to markedly hydrolyze pectin and hemicellulose suggests that galactans provide a structural cross-linkage between the cell wall components. Collectively, the results support the case for a functional relevance of the papaya enzymes in softening related changes during ripening. PMID:15694277

  7. Isolation and preliminary characterization of the cysteine-proteinases from the latex of Carica candamarcensis Hook.

    PubMed

    Walreavens, V; Jaziri, M; van Beeumen, J; Schnek, A G; Kleinschmidt, T; Looze, Y

    1993-07-01

    The cysteine-proteinase chymopapain from Carica papaya L. is used for chemonucleolysis of damaged human intervertebral spinal discs. The purification of this enzyme is difficult. To overcome these problems, we were looking for a substitute among the cysteine-proteinases of Carica candamarcensis Hook. The latex from unripe fruits was collected in an aqueous solution of methylethanethiolsulfonate to prevent proteolytic activities. The soluble fraction of the lypophilized product provided four enzymatically active peaks (CC-I-CC-IV) during chromatography on CM-Sephadex C-50 in sodium acetate buffer, pH5.0. They could be further purified by rechromatography under similar conditions. The isolated enzymes have been characterized by PAGE, analysis of the Fourier transform infrared spectra, preliminary studies of their specificities as well as a comparison of the N-terminal amino-acid sequences up to position 43. CC-III proved to be glycosylated. CC-I and CC-III from Carica candamarcensis Hook are suggested to correspond to papain and chymopapain from Carica papaya L., respectively. PMID:8216902

  8. A biochemical comparison between latex from Carica candamarcensis and C. papaya.

    PubMed

    Bravo, L M; Hermosilla, J; Salas, C E

    1994-12-01

    1. A group of plant proteinases is present mainly in the unripe fruit of the papaya tree (Carica papaya), which is a member of the genus Carica. C. candamarcensis is another species that belongs to this group. Its latex contains several proteinases displaying high proteolytic activity. 2. We used several electrophoretic techniques to compare the protein composition of the latex from the two species. Acid electrophoresis followed by staining or Western blot revealed a total of 17 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 7 proteins in C. papaya. Some of the proteins observed in C. papaya have been previously reported in the literature. 3. Electrophoresis on denaturing gels, followed by staining or Western blot revealed the presence of 14 proteins in C. candamarcensis and 6 proteins in C. papaya. Non-equilibrium isoelectrofocusing of the latex from both species showed a larger array of proteins in C. candamarcensis. The analysis of esterase and proteolytic activities on gel fractions after electrophoresis revealed the presence of distinct areas presenting enzyme activity. Some proteins detected in C. candamarcensis have different mobilities when compared with proteins from C. papaya. 4. These results support the view that latex from C. candamarcensis contains a wider diversity of proteins compared to C. papaya, and that some of the proteins not in C. papaya present esterase and proteolytic activity. PMID:7550003

  9. Zoosporicidal activities of anacardic acids against Aphanomyces cochlioides.

    PubMed

    Begum, Parvin; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Ogawa, Yuko; Tahara, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    The EtOAc soluble constituents of the unripe fruits of Ginkgo biloba showed motility inhibition followed by lysis of zoospores of the phytopathogenic Aphanomyces cochlioides. We purified 22:1-omega7-anacardic acid (1), 24:1-omega9-anacardic acid (2) and 22:0-anacardic acid (3), together with other related compounds, 21:1-omega7-cardol (4) and 21:1-omega7-cardanol (5) from the crude extracts of Ginkgo fruits. Amongst them, compound 1 was a major active agent in quality and quantity, and showed potent motility inhibition (98% in 30 min) followed by lysis (55% in 3 h) of the zoospores at 1 x 10(-7) M. The 2-O-methyl derivative (1-c) of 1 displayed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, but practically inactive to Escherichia coli. A brief study on structure-activity relationships revealed that a carboxyl group on the aromatic ring and an unsaturated side chain in the anacardic acid derivative are important for strong motility inhibitory and lytic activities against the zoospore. PMID:12440727

  10. Evolution of the yields and composition of essential oil from Portuguese myrtle (Myrtus comunis L.) through the vegetative cycle.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula C; Cebola, Maria-João; Bernardo-Gil, M Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Portuguese myrtle was determined at different developmental stages of the plant: pre-flowering, flowering, unripe and ripe berries. The oil was extracted separately by Clevenger distillation from leaves, branches and berries. The yields vary from 0.33% to 0.74% for leaves, 0.02% to 0.19% for branches, and 0.11% to 0.23% for berries. The highest yields were obtained for the leaves in October, and for the berries in September; branches show similar values in the months of June, July and September, and the samples collected in May and October produced very little amount of oil. Altogether, September seems to be the month with the best yields for the three parts of the plant. The essential oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS, and a total of thirty five components were identified. The major components were limonene+1,8-cineole [25.9% (berries)-39.5% (leaves)], myrtenyl acetate [6.6% (berries)-24.8% (leaves)], alpha-pinene [9.7% (berries)-21.5% (leaves)], and linalool [6.2% (leaves)-36.5% (berries)]. Portuguese myrtle belongs to the group of myrtles which are characterized by the presence of myrtenyl acetate as one of the major components. PMID:19701146