Explains how a simulation of aerial photography can help students in a college level beginning course on interpretation of aerial photography understand the interrelationships of the airplane, the camera, and the earth's surface. Procedures, objectives, equipment, and scale are discussed. (DB)
U.S. Geological Survey
The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.
Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.
Results of a one-year experimental study on the use of aerial color infrared photography in citrus grove management are presented. It is found that the spring season, when trees are in flush (have young leaves), is the best season to photograph visible differences between healthy and diseased trees. It is also shown that the best photography can be obtained with a 12-in. focal length lens. The photographic scale that allowed good photo interpretation with simple inexpensive equipment was 1 in. = 330 ft. The use of a window-overlay transparency method allowed rapid photo interpretation and data recording in computer-compatible forms. Aerial color infrared photography carried out during the spring season revealed a more accurate status of tree condition than visual inspection.
Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...
Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominquez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)
For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), the ER-2 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The ER-2 aerial photography consists of color-IR transparencies collected during flights in 1994 and 1996 over the study areas.
Anderson, William H.
Considerable interest has developed recently in the use of aerial photographs for agricultural management. Even the simplest hand-held aerial photographs, especially those taken with color infrared film, often provide information not ordinarily available through routine ground observation. When fields are viewed from above, patterns and variations become more apparent, often allowing problems to be spotted which otherwise may go undetected.
abstract The U.S. EPAs Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool in the form of an Excel. spreadsheet that facilitates planning aerial photography missions. The spreadsheet accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the stud...
Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Dominguez, Roseanne; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)
For BOReal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS), C-130 and other aerial photography was collected to provide finely detailed and spatially extensive documentation of the condition of the primary study sites. The NASA C-130 Earth Resources aircraft can accommodate two mapping cameras during flight, each of which can be fitted with 6- or 12-inch focal-length lenses and black-and-white, natural-color, or color-IR film, depending upon requirements. Both cameras were often in operation simultaneously, although sometimes only the lower resolution camera was deployed. When both cameras were in operation, the higher resolution camera was often used in a more limited fashion. The acquired photography covers the period of April to September 1994. The aerial photography was delivered as rolls of large format (9 x 9 inch) color transparency prints, with imagery from multiple missions (hundreds of prints) often contained within a single roll. A total of 1533 frames were collected from the C-130 platform for BOREAS in 1994. Note that the level-0 C-130 transparencies are not contained on the BOREAS CD-ROM set. An inventory file is supplied on the CD-ROM to inform users of all the data that were collected. Some photographic prints were made from the transparencies. In addition, BORIS staff digitized a subset of the tranparencies and stored the images in JPEG format. The CD-ROM set contains a small subset of the collected aerial photography that were the digitally scanned and stored as JPEG files for most tower and auxiliary sites in the NSA and SSA. See Section 15 for information about how to acquire additional imagery.
Schloesser, Donald W.; Brown, Charles L.; Manny, Bruce A.
This study demonstrates the feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to inventory submersed macrophytes in the connecting channels of the Great Lakes. For this purpose, we obtained aerial color transparencies and collateral ground truth information about submersed vegetation at 160 stations within four study sites in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers, September 17 to October 4, 1984. Photographs were interpreted by five test subjects to determine with what accuracy they could detect beds of submersed macrophytes, and the precision of delineating the extent of such vegetation beds. The interpreters correctly determined the presence or absence of vegetation 80% of the time (range 73-86%). Differences between individuals were statistically significant. Determination of the presence or absence of macrophytes depended partly on their relative abundance and water clarity. Analysis of one photograph from each of the four study sites revealed that photointerpreters delineated between 35 and 75 ha of river bottom covered by vegetation. This wide range indicates that individuals should be tested to assess their relative capability and be trained before they are employed to delineate plant beds in large-scale inventories. Within limits, low-altitude aerial photography, combined with collateral ground truth information, can be used to determine the presence or absence and delineate the extent of submersed macrophytes in connecting channels of the Great Lakes.
Describes the APSRS, an automated information system for conventional aerial photography projects, established after the formation of the National Cartographic Information Center in the US Geological Survey in 1974. -after Author
Kite aerial photography (KAP) is proposed as a creative tool for geography field teaching and as a medium to approach the complexity of readily available geodata. The method can be integrated as field experiment, surveying technique or group activity. The acquired aerial images can instantaneously be integrated in geographic information systems…
Systematic sets of ground based color and color infrared photography were presented to students in remote sensing classes to enhance their ability to interpret satellite images. Features readily apparent on computer enhanced LANDSAT images were presented simultaneously with ground based photography in the format of slide triplicates. It was hypothesized that this instructional approach would improve the students' abilities to recognize, understand and interpret ground phenomena present on remotely sensed imagery. Tests conducted in undergraduate remote sensing classes substantially upheld this hypothesis. Student image interpretive abilities were tested before and after being exposed to the ground level photography. In general, image interpretive skills of the class improved by 25%. Also, the performance of students having different academic majors varied greatly for differing types of image subjects.
Myers, Jeff; Shelton, Gary; Annegarn, Harrold; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)
This presentation will review the aerial photography collected by the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the SAFARI (Southern African Regional Science Initiative) year 2000 campaign. It will include specifications on the camera and film, and will show examples of the imagery. It will also detail the extent of coverage, and the procedures to obtain film products from the South African government. Also included will be some sample applications of aerial photography for various environmental applications, and its use in augmenting other SAFARI data sets.
Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.
Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.
A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Availability of aerial photography. 611.21 Section 611.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SOIL SURVEYS Cartographic...
The U.S.EPA's Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch has developed a tool which facilitates planning aerial photography missions. This tool is an Excel spreadsheet which accepts various input parameters such as desired photo-scale and boundary coordinates of the study area and compiles ...
The most practical avenue for development of these goals is to continue to use the LAAPS system at field sites that require aerial imaging. For the sake of convenience, I believe that the local field sites can provide a convenient location to develop new applications and test enh...
Marrs, R. W.; Evans, M. A.
The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area. Enlarged (50x) density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of 1973. The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery. Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges.
Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.
Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.
Atkinson, R. J.
Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.
Holman, R. E., III
Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. The research was divided into three phases: (1) Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, (2) determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and (3) comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline. Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification. The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was 61.5 percent developed.
Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Hart, W. G.
Changes in the red tonal response of Kodak Ektrachrome Infrared Aero 8443 film (EIR) are often incorrectly attributed solely to variations in infrared light reflectance of plant leaves, when the primary influence is a difference in visible light reflectance induced by varying chlorophyll contents. Comparisons are made among aerial photographic images of high- and low-chlorophyll foliage. New growth, foot rot, and boron and chloride nutrient toxicites produce low-chlorophyll foliage, and EIR transparency images of light red or white compared with dark-red images of high-chlorophyll foliage. Deposits of the sooty mold fungus that subsists on the honeydew produced by brown soft scale insects, obscure the citrus leaves' green color. Infected trees appear as black images on EIR film transparencies compared with red images of healthy trees.
Schloesser, Donald W.; Manny, Bruce A.; Brown, Charles L.; Jaworski, Eugene
The feasibility of using low-altitude aerial photography to identify beds of submersed macrophytes is demonstrated. True color aerial photos and collateral ground survey information for submersed aquatic macrophyte beds at 10 sites in the St.Clair-Detroit River system were obtained in September 1978. Using the photos and collateral ground survey information, a dichotomous key was developed for the identification of six classes - beds of five genera of macrophytes and one substrate type. A test was prepared to determine how accurately photo interpreters could identify the six classes. The test required an interpreter to examine an unlabeled, outlined area on photographs and identify it using the key. Six interpreters were tested. One pair of interpreters was trained in the interpretation of a variety of aerial photos, a second pair had field experience in the collection and identification of submersed macrophytes in the river system, and a third pair had neither training in the interpretation of aerial photos nor field experience. The criteria that we developed were applied equally well by the interpretors, regardless of their training or experience. Overall accuracy (i.e., omission errors) of all six classes combined was 68% correct, whereas, overall accuracy of individual classes ranged from 50 to 100% correct. Mapping accuracy (i.e. omission and commission errors) of individual classes ranged from 36 to 75%. Although the key developed for this study has only limited application outside the context of the data and sites examined in this study, it is concluded that low-altitude aerial photography, together with limited amounts of collateral ground survey information, can be used to economically identify beds of submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair-Detroit River system and other similar water bodies.
Pilant, A. N.; Neale, A.; Wilhelm, D.
Ecosystem services (ES) are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature: e.g., clean air and water, food and fiber, cultural-aesthetic-recreational benefits, pollination and flood control. The ES concept is emerging as a means of integrating complex environmental and economic information to support informed environmental decision making. The US EPA is developing a web-based National Atlas of Ecosystem Services, with a component for urban ecosystems. Currently, the only wall-to-wall, national scale land cover data suitable for this analysis is the National Land Cover Data (NLCD) at 30 m spatial resolution with 5 and 10 year updates. However, aerial photography is acquired at higher spatial resolution (0.5-3 m) and more frequently (1-5 years, typically) for most urban areas. Land cover was mapped in Raleigh, NC using freely available USDA National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) with 1 m ground sample distance to test the suitability of aerial photography for urban ES analysis. Automated feature extraction techniques were used to extract five land cover classes, and an accuracy assessment was performed using standard techniques. Results will be presented that demonstrate applications to mapping ES in urban environments: greenways, corridors, fragmentation, habitat, impervious surfaces, dark and light pavement (urban heat island). Automated feature extraction results mapped over NAIP color aerial photograph. At this scale, we can look at land cover and related ecosystem services at the 2-10 m scale. Small features such as individual trees and sidewalks are visible and mappable. Classified aerial photo of Downtown Raleigh NC Red: impervious surface Dark Green: trees Light Green: grass Tan: soil
Light, Donald L.
The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.
Nelson, H. A.
Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between 183 m and 915 m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.
Murtiyoso, A.; Remondino, F.; Rupnik, E.; Nex, F.; Grussenmeyer, P.
Aerial photography has a long history of being employed for mapping purposes due to some of its main advantages, including large area imaging from above and minimization of field work. Since few years multi-camera aerial systems are becoming a practical sensor technology across a growing geospatial market, as complementary to the traditional vertical views. Multi-camera aerial systems capture not only the conventional nadir views, but also tilted images at the same time. In this paper, a particular use of such imagery in the field of building inspection as well as disaster assessment is addressed. The main idea is to inspect a building from four cardinal directions by using monoplotting functionalities. The developed application allows to measure building height and distances and to digitize man-made structures, creating 3D surfaces and building models. The realized GUI is capable of identifying a building from several oblique points of views, as well as calculates the approximate height of buildings, ground distances and basic vectorization. The geometric accuracy of the results remains a function of several parameters, namely image resolution, quality of available parameters (DEM, calibration and orientation values), user expertise and measuring capability.
Akinin, M. V.; Akinina, N. V.; Klochkov, A. Y.; Nikiforov, M. B.; Sokolova, A. V.
The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means, performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments (clusters) in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task.
Ragan, J. G.; Green, J. H.; Whitehurst, C. A.
NASA aerial photography, primarily color infrared and color positive transparencies, was used in a study of marsh management practices and in comparing managed and unmanaged marsh areas. Weir locations for tidal control are recommended.
Allen, W., III; Sledge, B.; Paul, C. K.; Landini, A. J.
Some of the major photography and photogrammetric suppliers and users located in Southern California are listed. Recent trends in aerial photographic coverage of the Los Angeles basin area are also noted, as well as the uses of that imagery.
Merchant, J. W.; Waddell, B. H.
The use of aerial photography as a method for determining the wildlife conditions of an area is discussed. Color infrared photography is investigated as the most effective type of remote sensor. The characteristics of the remote sensing systems are described. Examples of the remote sensing operation and the method for reducing the data are presented.
Draeger, W. C.; Pettinger, L. R.
The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography was studied. The results were encouraging on two counts: (1) The very practical problems of an operational survey are being faced and solutions are being found. (2) It seems that a fully operational agricultural inventory using space photography is not beyond the scope of present technology.
Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS
Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.
A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.
A study was conducted along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas to evaluate color-infrared aerial photography combined with supervised image analysis to quantify changes in giant reed (Arundo donax L.) populations over a 6-year period. Aerial photographs from 2002 and 2008 of the same seven study site...
Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.
A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.
This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage. It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1921, is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use. The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of 1:5,000 is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined.
Draeger, W. C.
The feasibility of performing inventories of agricultural resources using very small scale aerial or space photography has been investigated. Results to date are encouraging on two counts: (1) the questions posed initially are being answered, and (2) it would seem that a fully operational agricultural inventory using very small scale photography is not beyond the scope of present technology. The biggest problems to be faced in establishing a functional inventory system are those concerning logistics and data handling.
Pope, Robert A.
Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...
Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby] is one of the most widespread and abundant rangeland weeds in western North America. The objectives of this study were to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and compare it with aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and multispe...
The paper discusses the numerous issues that needed to be addressed when developing a methodology for mapping Submersed Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) from digital aerial photography. Specifically, we discuss 1) choice of film; 2) consideration of tide and weather constraints; 3) in-s...
Aerial photography from the 1930s serves as the earliest synoptic depiction of vegetation cover. We generated a spatially explicit database of shrub (Prosopis velutina) stand structure within two 1.8 ha field plots established in 1932 to address two questions: (1) What are the detection limits of p...
Dickson, R. A.
APFO furnishes LANDSAT imagery and supporting NASA aircraft imagery to NASA-funded principal investigators who are working within the agriculture discipline. The office holds and reproduces Skylab imagery and a variety of aircraft photography (including infrared) from various government agencies. Available products are listed. Other topics discussed include quality control of photographic materials, analytical aerotriangulation, and photographic processes.
... technological collection techniques or other forms of information technology. All comments received in response... disabilities who require alternative mean for communication (Braille, large print, audio tape, etc.) should...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial...
Bryan, B. A.; Tunnel, S. H.
The data obtained during aerial photography flights using a helicopter are presented. The areas photographed are identified as three areas within Test Site 175: (1) Rosenberg, (2) Houston Ship Channel/Trinity Bay, and (3) the Somerville Dam. Data are presented in the form of charts. Reproductions of the aerial photographs are included.
Munro, R.E.; Trauger, D.L.
Recent intensive research on the canvasback has focused attention on the need for more precise estimates of population parameters. During the 1972-75 period, various types of aerial photographing equipment were evaluated to determine the problems and potentials for employing these techniques in appraisals of canvasback populations. The equipment and procedures available for automated analysis of aerial photographic imagery were also investigated. Serious technical problems remain to be resolved, but some promising results were obtained. Final conclusions about the feasibility of operational implementation await a more rigorous analysis of the data collected.
Jack, R. F.
The Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Program was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 1966 under the administration of the Geological Survey. It is primarily concerned with the application of remote sensing techniques for the management of natural resources. The retrieval system employed to search the EROS database is called INORAC (Inquiry, Ordering, and Accounting). A description is given of the types of images identified in EROS, taking into account Landsat imagery, Skylab images, Gemini/Apollo photography, and NASA aerial photography. Attention is given to retrieval commands, geographic coordinate searching, refinement techniques, various online functions, and questions regarding the access to the EROS Main Image File.
This collection of material has been assembled in response to a growing.interest in the use of low-cost, small-format aerial photography in the management of agricultural resources. Together, these articles serve to document the prevailing level of interest in the subject and provide an insight as to what can reasonably be expected from the use of this powerful agricultural management tool.
Schwebel, M. D.; James, W. P.; Clark, W. J.
Studies were conducted utilizing six different film and filter combinations to quantitatively detect chlorophyll and turbidity in six farm ponds. The low range of turbidity from 0-35 JTU correlated well with the density readings from the green band of normal color film and the high range above 35 JTU was found to correlate with density readings in the red band of color infrared film. The effect of many of the significant variables can be reduced by using standardized procedures in taking the photography. Attempts to detect chlorophyll were masked by the turbidity. The ponds which were highly turbid also had high chlorophyll concentrations; whereas, the ponds with low turbidity also had low chlorophyll concentrations. This prevented a direct correlation for this parameter. Several suggested approaches are cited for possible future investigations.
Petrushevsky, Vladimir; Tsur, David
Based on the experience gained with the Condor2 long-range oblique photography (LOROP) camera, ELOP is expanding its airborne reconnaissance product line with the Condor TAC tactical photography system. The latter was designed for overflight imaging of extended areas from a fighter or special mission aircraft, at day and night. The Condor TAC is mounted in an aerodynamically shaped pod and can operate in wide envelope of flight altitude and speed. Besides the camera, the pod contains mission management and video processing unit (MVU), solid state recorder (SSR), wide-band data link (DL) for real-time imagery transmission, and two environmental control units (ECU). Complex multi-segment optical windows were successfully developed for the system. The camera system design is modular and highly flexible. Two independent imaging payload modules are mounted inside a gimbal system. Each of the modules is equipped with a strap-down IMU, and may carry a cluster of cameras or a single large camera with gross weight up to 35 kg. The payload modules are interchangeable, with an identical interface to the gimbal. The modularity and open architecture of the system facilitate its adaptation to various operational requirements, as well as allow easy and relatively non-expensive upgrades and configuration changes. In the current configuration, both EO and IR payload modules are equipped with a combination of longer focal length cameras for bi-directional panoramic scan at medium and high flight altitudes, and shorter focal length cameras for fixed wide angle coverage at low altitudes. All the camera types are equipped with standard format, off-the-shelf area detector arrays. Precise motion compensation is achieved by calibrated back-scan mirrors.
Liu, P.; Li, Y. C.; Hu, W.; Ding, X. B.
Oblique photography technology as an excellent method for 3-D city model construction has brought itself to large-scale recognition and undeniable high social status. Tilt and vertical images with the high overlaps and different visual angles can produce a large number of dense matching point clouds data with spectral information. This paper presents a method of buildings reconstruction with stereo matching dense point clouds from aerial oblique images, which includes segmentation of buildings and reconstruction of building roofs. We summarize the characteristics of stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images and outline the problems with existing methods. Then we present the method for segmentation of building roofs, which based on colors and geometrical derivatives such as normal and curvature. Finally, a building reconstruction approach is developed based on the geometrical relationship. The experiment and analysis show that the methods are effective on building reconstruction with stereo matching point clouds from aerial oblique images.
Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.
The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software
Gibbs, A.; Richmond, B. M.; Nolan, M.
Chronic and widespread coastal erosion along the northern coast of Alaska is threatening traditional lifestyles, sensitive ecosystems, energy and defense related infrastructure, and large tracts of Native Alaskan, State, and Federally managed land. Recent USGS historical shoreline position studies have documented shoreline change rates along most of northern Alaska for the period from 1947 to circa 2000. Rates vary from an erosional high of -18.6 m/yr along vulnerable bluffed coasts, to accretion up to +10.9 m/yr along prograding sand-rich coasts (average rate for entire study area is -1.4 m/yr). The historical analysis gives valuable information regarding long-term rates of change but does not provide details on the timing and processes driving the change. Oblique and vertical aerial photography contains valuable coastal information on such things as bluff failure mechanisms, presence or absence of shorefast ice, beach characteristics including erosional scarps and ice-push ridges, wrack lines produced during storm surge events, and habitat identification. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry applied to oblique aerial photography can be used to construct high quality DEMs at a relatively low cost. Repeat aerial surveys and resultant DEM construction serve as a potential monitoring tool that can be used to quantify volumetric change, and, if conducted frequently enough, provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for coastal change in the Arctic. We provide examples from a few selected sites in northern Alaska where oblique aerial photography has been used to better understand coastal change in remote and threatened areas.
Istvan, L. B.; Bondy, M. T.
The interpretation procedure described uses a grid cell approach. In addition, a random point is located in each cell. The procedure required that the cell/point grid be established on a base map, and identical grids be made to precisely match the scale of the photographic frames. The grid is then positioned on the photography by visual alignment to obvious features. Several alignments on one frame are sometimes required to make a precise match of all points to be interpreted. This system inherently corrects for distortions in the photography. Interpretation is then done cell by cell. In order to meet the time constraints, first order interpretation should be maintained. The data is put onto coding forms, along with other appropriate data, if desired. This 'digital' manual interpretation technique has proven to be efficient, and time and cost effective, while meeting strict requirements for data format and accuracy.
Li, Xiaoxiao; Myint, Soe W.; Zhang, Yujia; Galletti, Chritopher; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Turner, Billie L.
Detailed land-cover mapping is essential for a range of research issues addressed by the sustainability and land system sciences and planning. This study uses an object-based approach to create a 1 m land-cover classification map of the expansive Phoenix metropolitan area through the use of high spatial resolution aerial photography from National Agricultural Imagery Program. It employs an expert knowledge decision rule set and incorporates the cadastral GIS vector layer as auxiliary data. The classification rule was established on a hierarchical image object network, and the properties of parcels in the vector layer were used to establish land cover types. Image segmentations were initially utilized to separate the aerial photos into parcel sized objects, and were further used for detailed land type identification within the parcels. Characteristics of image objects from contextual and geometrical aspects were used in the decision rule set to reduce the spectral limitation of the four-band aerial photography. Classification results include 12 land-cover classes and subclasses that may be assessed from the sub-parcel to the landscape scales, facilitating examination of scale dynamics. The proposed object-based classification method provides robust results, uses minimal and readily available ancillary data, and reduces computational time.
Harris, Melanie; Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, A.; Duffy, M.; Wright, C.W.
This report is created as part of the Aerial Data Collection and Creation of Products for Park Vital Signs Monitoring within the Northeast Region Coastal and Barrier Network project, which is a joint project between the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program (NPS-IM), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Observational Sciences Branch, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Coastal and Watershed Studies (CCWS). This report is one of a series that discusses methods for extracting topographic features from aerial survey data. It details step-by-step methods used to extract a spatially referenced digital line from aerial photography that represents the seaward edge of terrestrial vegetation along the coast of Assateague Island National Seashore (ASIS). One component of the NPS-IM/USGS/NASA project includes the collection of NASA aerial surveys over various NPS barrier islands and coastal parks throughout the National Park Service's Northeast Region. These aerial surveys consist of collecting optical remote sensing data from a variety of sensors, including the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), and down-looking digital mapping cameras.
Marshall, J.; Meyer, M.
An earlier study under somewhat clinical laboratory conditions has suggested the possibility of using smaller scales of forest photography without serious information loss. The present paper subjects this idea to a rigorous field test by a number of experienced user-cooperators. Various combinations of summer black-and-white infrared and color infrared aerial photography at scales of 1:15,840, 1:24,000, 1:31,680, and 1:80,000 were taken over forested portions of Minnesota. Major conclusions are that 1:15,840 is the preferred working photo scale, and that instead of 1:15,840 a scale of 1:20,000 is considered an acceptable substitute.
Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.
The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.
Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.
Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.
Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.
Ferguson, E.L.; Jorde, D.G.; Sease, J.L.
A conventional 35-mm camera equipped with an f2.8 135-mm lens and ASA 64 color film was used to acquire sex ratio data on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering in the Platte River Valley of south-central Nebraska. Prelight focusing for a distance of 30.5 metres and setting of shutter speed at 1/2000 of a second eliminated focusing and reduced image motion problems and resulted in high-resolution, large-scale aerial photography of small targets. This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas. The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per-100 bird basis.
Ross, G. F. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Nine photography interpretation tests were performed with a total of 19 different interpreters. Three tests were conducted with black and white intermediate scale photography and six tests with color infrared intermediate scale photography. The black and white test results show that the interpretation of vegetation mapped at the association level of classification is reliable for all the classes used at 61%. The color infrared tests indicate that the association level of mapping is unsatisfactory for vegetation interpretation of classes 1 and 6. Students' t-test indicated that intermediate scale black and white photography is significantly better than this particular color infrared photography for the interpretation of southeastern Arizona vegetation mapped at the association level.
Belcher, D.; Veverka, J.; Sagan, C.
Tentative characterizations of several Mariner 6 and 7 Martian surface features, made by the senior author in the absence of previous knowledge about Mars, are presented. The ridges in 7N17 are interpreted as a glacial moraine; barchane or parabolic sand dunes are identified in 6N5; and thermokarst collapse features, possibly produced in permafrost by Martian geothermal activity, are proposed in 6N8 and 6N14, in agreement with the suggestion of Sharp et al. (1971).
The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. [Lake Wingra, Wisconsin
Gustafson, T. D.; Adams, M. S.
Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin. It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods.
Gonçalves, J. A.
Aerial photography has been acquired regularly for topographic mapping since the decade of 1930. In Portugal there are several archives of aerial photos in national mapping institutes, as well as in local authorities, containing a total of nearly one hundred thousand photographs, mainly from the 1940s, 1950s and some from 1930s. These data sets provide important information about the evolution of the territory, for environment and agricultural studies, land planning, and many other examples. There is an interest in making these aerial coverages available in the form of orthorectified mosaics for integration in a GIS. The orthorectification of old photographs may pose several difficulties. Required data about the camera and lens system used, such as the focal distance, fiducial marks coordinates or distortion parameters may not be available, making it difficult to process these data in conventional photogrammetric software. This paper describes an essentially automatic methodology for orientation, orthorectification and mosaic composition of blocks of old aerial photographs, using Agisoft Photoscan structure from motion software. The operation sequence is similar to the processing of UAV imagery. The method was applied to photographs from 1947 and 1958, provided by the Portuguese Army Geographic Institute. The orientation was done with GCPs collected from recent orthophototos and topographic maps. This may be a difficult task, especially in urban areas that went through many changes. Residuals were in general below 1 meter. The agreement of the orthomosaics with recent orthophotos and GIS vector data was in general very good. The process is relatively fast and automatic, and can be considered in the processing of full coverages of old aerial photographs.
Lipo, C. P.; Lee, C.; Wechsler, S.
With the ability to generate on demand high-resolution imagery across landscapes, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are increasingly become the tools of choice for geospatial researchers. At CSULB, we have implemented a number of aerial systems in order to conduct archaeological, vegetation and terrain analyses. The platforms include the commercially available X100 by Gatewing, a hobby based aircraft, kites, and tethered blimps. From our experience, each platform has advantages and disadvantages n applicability int eh field and derived imagery. The X100, though comparatively more costly, produces images with excellent coverage of areas of interest and can fly in a wide range of weather conditions. The hobby plane solutions are low-cost and flexible in their configuration but their relative lightweight makes them difficult to fly in windy conditions and the sets of images produced can widely vary. The tethered blimp has a large payload and can fly under many conditions but its ability to systematically cover large areas is very limited. Kites are extremely low-cost but have similar limitations to blimps for area coverage and limited payload capabilities. Overall, we have found the greatest return for our investment from the Gatewing X100, despite its relatively higher cost, due to the quality of the images produced. Developments in autopilots, however, may improve the hobby aircraft solution and allow X100 like products to be produced in the near future. Results of imagery and derived products from these UAS missions will be presented and evaluated. Assessment of the viability of these UAS-products will inform the research community of their applicability to a range of applications, and if viable, could provide a lower cost alternative to other image acquisition methods.
Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested...
Giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and...
Hudson, W. D.
The characteristics of 17 cover types (13 forest types or tree species and 4 nonforest cover types) in Michigan are discussed as well as their interpretation from medium scale color infrared photography. The occurrence of each type is described by region and site requirements. Those attributes of a tree or stand which are helpful when attempting to interpret the type from a vertical perspective are discussed as well as common crown types. The identification of the forest type or tree species by using image characteristics (size, shape, shadow, color, texture, pattern, or association) is discussed. Ground photographs and sketches of individual trees are included. Stereograms of typical stands are available.
Udevitz, M.S.; Burn, D.M.; Webber, M.A.
Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods. We conducted a trial survey in April 2003 to estimate the number of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses. We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. ?? 2007 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy.
Obanawa, Hiroyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Gomez, Christopher
In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves. To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM (Structure from Motion) technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. The research was carried out using UAS (Unmanned Aerial System) combined with a commercial small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) carrying a compact camera. The UAV is a DJI PHANTOM: the UAV has four rotors (quadcopter), it has a weight of 1000 g, a payload of 400 g and a maximum flight time of 15 minutes. The camera is a GoPro 'HERO3 Black Edition': resolution 12 million pixels; weight 74 g; and 0.5 sec. interval-shot. The 3D model has been constructed by digital photogrammetry using a commercial SfM software, Agisoft PhotoScan Professional®, which can generate sparse and dense point-clouds, from which polygonal models and orthophotographs can be calculated. Using the 'flight-log' and/or GCPs (Ground Control Points), the software can generate digital surface model. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base. The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser
Schneider, Anna; Gerke, Horst H.; Maurer, Thomas; Nenov, Rossen; Raab, Thomas
The evolution of erosion rill or gully networks is a formative process in initial landscape development. Digital representations of drainage networks are often derived from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) based on morphometric parameters, or mapped in field surveys or from aerial photographs. This study attempted to reconstruct and analyze the first five years of erosion rill network evolution in the 6 ha artificial catchment 'Hühnerwasser', which serves as a real world-laboratory to study patterns and processes of initial ecosystem development. The drainage network was characterized in a twofold approach, based on the analysis of remotely-sensed data. We used high-resolution drone-based aerial photographs to map the actively eroding rill network for four states of development, and a time series of ten Digital Elevation Models to characterize the morphology of the surface. Rill network maps and morphometric parameters were combined to allow for region-specific analyses of morphometry for different parts of the rill network. After a rapid growth of the erosion rill network during the first two years of development, a reduction of the area of actively eroding rills was observed. Region-specific analysis of morphometry indicates an increase in flow accumulation in the central parts of the rill network, which suggests that locally evolving feedback cycles between flow accumulation and erosion affected rill network development, in addition to the effects of precipitation characteristics and the growth of vegetation cover. The combination of drainage network characterization from aerial photography and DEMs could improve analyses of initial drainage network development in experimental studies, as it allows for critical comparisons of flow accumulation patterns and the actual patterns of erosion rills or gullies.
Grotefendt, Richard Alan
Increasing amounts and types of timely and accurate data are required for monitoring to ensure compliance with natural resource regulatory requirements. This study developed a cost-effective method to partially fulfill these data requirements using super large scale aerial photography (Scale: greater than 1:2,000). Two synchronized, metric, Rolleiflex 70mm (2.76in) cameras mounted 12m (40ft) apart on a rigid platform and carried at 5.6 km/hr (3 knots) by a helicopter collected this high resolution, 3D imagery from Alaska and Washington. The overlapping photo pairs provided 3D views of natural resource objects as fine as twigs. The 12m (40ft) inter-camera distance improved ground visibility between tree crowns of dense old growth forests. Analytical stereoplotters and the application of photogrammetric principles enabled measurement and interpretation of photo objects such as trees and their height in a cost-effective way. Horizontal and vertical measurement accuracy was within 2% and 3% of field measurement, respectively. Forest inventory and riparian buffer monitoring applications were used to test this method. Although field work is still required to develop photo-field relationships unique to each ecosystem and for quality assurance, the photo estimates of individual tree height, volume, diameter, type, and location, as well as down tree decay class and landing spot, plot timber volume, and area were comparable to and may replace approximately 95% of field effort. For example, the average of the absolute differences between field and photo estimates for tree height was 2.4m (7.8ft) (s.d. = 2.1m (6.8ft), n = 376), diameter at breast height (1.4m (4.5ft) above ground on uphill tree side) was 5.8cm (2.3in) (s.d. = 5.6cm (2.2in), n = 109), and plot volume in gross board feet was within 10.9% to 13.4% (n = 10) depending on the estimator used. Forest type was correctly classified 99.4% (n = 180) of the time. Timber inventory, species identification, sample
Price, K. P.; Willie, R. D.; Wheeler, D. J.; Ridd, M. K.
The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.
Nakashima, Etsuko; Isobe, Atsuhiko; Magome, Shinya; Kako, Shin'ichiro; Deki, Noriko
This study has demonstrated a reliable method of quantifying the total mass of litter on a beach. It was conducted on Ookushi beach, Goto-Islands, Japan, and uses a combination of balloon-assisted aerial photography and in situ mass measurements. The total mass of litter over the beach was calculated to be 716±259kg. This figure was derived by multiplying the litter-covered area (calculated using balloon-assisted aerial photography) by the mass of litter per unit area. Light plastics such as polyethylene made up 55% of all plastic litter on the beach, although more work is needed to determine whether lighter plastics are transported to beaches more readily by winds and ocean currents compared with heavier plastics, or whether lighter plastics comprise a greater percentage of marine litter. Finally, the above estimates were used to calculate the total mass of metals released into coastal ecosystems via plastic litter on beaches. PMID:21367432
Jensen, J.R.; Burkhalter, S.; Althausen, J.D.; Narumalani, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 78,000 ha Department of Energy (DOE) facility that borders the Savannah River in the south-west portion of South Carolina. It includes a 3,800 ha cypress-tupelo swamp where commercial lumbering activities took place prior to the purchase of the land by the federal government in 1951. Since then, the DOE commenced nuclear production operations which resulted in the release of thermal effluent into the streams entering the Savannah River swamp system. The thermal effluent also had an impact on the swamp through the creation of sedimentation deltas. The purpose of this research is to identify areas of anthropogenic impact on the swamp and to delineate any areas that may still be considered pristine. Large-scale historical aerial photography of the swamp for 1938, 1943, 1951, and 1973 were photo-interpreted and used to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database. Logging features such as haul lines, drag points, harvest areas and roads were identified from black-and-white aerial photographs (1938-1973) and converted into a digital format. Sediment deltas were interpreted from 1976, 1981 and 1988 color aerial photography. Geometric transformations and GIS data analysis operations were performed to delineate areas impacted by man`s activities over the 48-year time period. Only 1391 ha of swamp can still can be considered pristine. Approximately 63% of the swamp has been altered from its original state, either by logging practices or the effects of sediment loading from thermal effluent. This method of mapping the pristine areas of the swamp allows SRS environmental scientists the opportunity to have a priori knowledge about undisturbed swamp forest environments, which they may use as a baseline for restoration or wetland mitigation projects.
Owers, Katharine A.; Albanese, Brett; Litts, Thomas
Riparian zones are critical for protecting water quality and wildlife, but are often impacted by human activities. Ongoing threats and uncertainty about the effectiveness of buffer regulations emphasize the importance of monitoring riparian buffers through time. We developed a method to rapidly categorize buffer width and landuse attributes using 2007 leaf-on aerial photography and applied it to a 65 km section of the Toccoa River in north Georgia. We repeated our protocol using 1999 leaf-off aerial photographs to assess the utility of our approach for monitoring. Almost half (45%) of the length of the Toccoa River was bordered by buffers less than 50 ft wide in 2007, with agricultural and built-up lands having the smallest buffers. The percentage of river length in each buffer width category changed little between 1999 and 2007, but we did detect a 5% decrease in agricultural land use, a corresponding increase in built-up land use, and an additional 149 buildings within 100 ft of the river. Field verification indicated that our method overestimated buffer widths and forested land use and underestimated built-up land use and the number of buildings within 100 ft of the river. Our methodology can be used to rapidly assess the status of riparian buffers. Including supplemental data (e.g., leaf-off imagery, road layers) will allow detection of the fine-scale impacts underestimated in our study. Our results on the Toccoa River reflect historic impacts, exemptions and variances to regulations, and the ongoing threat of vacation home development. We recommend additional monitoring, improvements in policy, and efforts to increase voluntary protection and restoration of stream buffers.
Hale, J.; Sadler, J.
not be useful as a consistent predictor of built density, but that some form of collinearity should still be expected in studies that employ built density gradients. The collection of digital color night photography from the International Space Station (ISS) presents an opportunity to rapidly map artificial lighting at a medium resolution and large extent, but radiance calibrated data do not yet exist. We therefore used our ground surveys and aerial night photographs of London to reclassify pixels within an ISS image of SE England to represent upward radiant flux. In addition, we were able to explore whether the estimated radiance values for each pixel resulted from a few bright light sources or multiple dim lamps, raising the possibility of improved estimates of lighting character based on prior probability models. Given the global step-change underway in artificial lighting and the high demand for data on urban systems, our results suggest that a suite of complimentary lighting measurement techniques that includes night-time aerial photography would be beneficial.
Scarpace, F. L.; Quirk, B. K.; Kiefer, R. W.; Wynn, S. L.
Computer assisted interpretation of small scale aerial imagery was found to be a cost effective and accurate method of mapping complex vegetation patterns if high resolution information is desired. This type of technique is suited for problems such as monitoring changes in species composition due to environmental factors and is a feasible method of monitoring and mapping large areas of wetlands. The technique has the added advantage of being in a computer compatible form which can be transformed into any georeference system of interest.
Sripada, Ravi Prakash
Fast, accurate methods to determine in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) requirements are needed to provide more precise and economical management and potentially decrease groundwater N contamination. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a methodology for predicting in-season N requirement for corn at the V7 and VT stages using aerial color infrared (CIR) photography; (ii) validate the RGDVI-based remote sensing technique for determining in-season N requirements for corn at VT; (iii) determine the relationships between corn agronomic parameters and spectral parameters that influence the prediction of optimum NV7 and NVT rates. Field studies were conducted for four years over a wide range of soil conditions and water regimes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. A two-way factorial experimental design was implemented as a split-plot in randomized complete blocks with NPL as the main plot factor and NV7 or NVT as the sub-plot factor. Corn agronomic parameters were measured and aerial CIR photographs were obtained for each site at V7 or VT prior to N application. Spectral radiation of corn measured using the Green Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) relative to high-N reference strips using a linear-plateau model was the best predictor of optimum NVT (R2 = 0.67). Very weak correlations were observed between optimum rates of N V7 and band combinations with significant correlations for relative G, RGDVI, and relative difference vegetation index (RDVI). In the VT validation study, the difference between predicted and observed optimum NVT rates ranged from -30 to 90 kg N ha-1. Overall, the remote sensing technique was successful (r2 = 0.85) in predicting optimum NVT rates despite the inherent constraints of predicting yield potential in any particular year. The spectral index RGDVI showed consistently significant relationships with corn agronomic parameters measured at VT. By assessing corn N requirements late in the season during the period of maximum N
Dietrich, J. T.; Duffin, J.
Geomorphic monitoring of river restoration projects is a critical component of measuring their success. In smaller streams, with depths less than 2 meters, one of the more difficult variables to map at high-resolution is bathymetry. In larger rivers, bathymetry can be measured with instruments like multi-beam sonar, bathymetric airborne LiDAR, or acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP). However, these systems are often limited by their minimum operating depths, which makes them ineffective in shallow water. Remote sensing offers several potential solutions for collecting bathymetry, spectral depth mapping and photogrammetric measurement (e.g. Structure-from-Motion (SfM) multi-view photogrammetry). In this case study, we use SfM to produce both high-resolution above water topography and below water bathymetry for two reaches of a stream restoration project on the Middle Fork of the John Day River in eastern Oregon and one reach on the White River in Vermont. We collected low-allitude multispectral (RGB+NIR) aerial photography at all of the sites at altitudes of 30 to 50 meters. The SfM survey was georeferenced with RTK-GPS ground control points and the bathymetry was refraction-corrected using additional RTK-GPS sample points. The resulting raster data products have horizontal resolutions of ~4-8 centimeters for the topography and ~8-15 cm for the bathymetry. This methodology, like many fluvial remote sensing methods, will only work under ideal conditions (e.g. clear water), but it provides an additional tool for collecting high-resolution bathymetric datasets for geomorphic monitoring efforts.
One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms (Arthur Batut 1890), small-format aerial photography (SFAP) became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the 1990s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, (softcopy) photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery. Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world. As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored. During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques. State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems (UAS) now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future? This presentation traces the development of the last two decades
Turley, Anthony Allen
Many research projects require the use of aerial images. Wetlands evaluation, crop monitoring, wildfire management, environmental change detection, and forest inventory are but a few of the applications of aerial imagery. Low altitude Small Format Aerial Photography (SFAP) is a bridge between satellite and man-carrying aircraft image acquisition and ground-based photography. The author's project evaluates digital images acquired using low cost commercial digital cameras and standard model airplanes to determine their suitability for remote sensing applications. Images from two different sites were obtained. Several photo missions were flown over each site, acquiring images in the visible and near infrared electromagnetic bands. Images were sorted and analyzed to select those with the least distortion, and blended together with Microsoft Image Composite Editor. By selecting images taken within minutes apart, radiometric qualities of the images were virtually identical, yielding no blend lines in the composites. A commercial image stitching program, Autopano Pro, was purchased during the later stages of this study. Autopano Pro was often able to mosaic photos that the free Image Composite Editor was unable to combine. Using telemetry data from an onboard data logger, images were evaluated to calculate scale and spatial resolution. ERDAS ER Mapper and ESRI ArcGIS were used to rectify composite images. Despite the limitations inherent in consumer grade equipment, images of high spatial resolution were obtained. Mosaics of as many as 38 images were created, and the author was able to record detailed aerial images of forest and wetland areas where foot travel was impractical or impossible.
Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.
A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.
Kirby, C. L.
Satellite imagery and small-scale (1:120,000) infrared ektachrome aerial photography for the development of improved forest and land inventory techniques in the boreal forest region are presented to demonstrate spectral signatures and their application. The forest is predominately mixed, stands of white spruce and poplar, with some pure stands of black spruce, pine and large areas of poorly drained land with peat and sedge type muskegs. This work is part of coordinated program to evaluate ERTS imagery by the Canadian Forestry Service.
Frater, J. B.; Melhorn, W. N.
Skylab S190B black and white photography has a useful reconnaissance capability in geomorphic mapping of landform features in the arid and semi-arid Great Basin. Enlargement of original photographic data products to a scale of 1:250,000 scale compatible with published topographic maps permits ready identification and classification of most landform elements. However, interpretation suffers through the lack of stereoscopic coverage and introduces problems relating to scale and loss of detail. When aircraft underflight photography for the same area is used as a data enhancement tool, problems of scale, detail, and interpretation are diminished. The combination of orbital and underflight photographic coverage provides a regional overview in which the interrelationships of both micro- and macro-scale landforms become apparent.
Change Detection using 75-year Aerial Photo and Satellite Data Sets, Inexpensive Means to Obtain 6 cm Resolution Data, and Developing Opportunities for Community-oriented Remote Sensing through Photography
Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Steele, C. M.; Browning, D. M.
costly aerial mapping cameras or scanners. The extreme high resolution of the images has found great application in rangeland health assessments. Archiving all these photographic products is a necessity so that future researchers can build their own studies on a firm foundation of past observations and analyses. Although we have experienced enormous advances in automated processing and classification of digital remote sensing data since the 1970s, the results are not always better that when we were working with manual interpretation of photographic products. One example is that manual techniques we used for mapping snow cover extent in the 1970-1980s in the Rio Grande basin provided data with information content that may exceed that from today’s automated methods which result in less discrimination of snow cover beneath the forest canopy. Additionally, continued utilization of photography opens up the possibility of community-oriented remote sensing which can have application to developing research areas like phenology and snow hydrology where the public can contribute photos as a form of ground truth
Stein, E. D.; Nezlin, N. P.; Kamer, K.
Newport Bay is a large estuary in southern California that is subject to anthropogenic nutrient loading, eutrophication and hypoxia. Traditional ground-based methods of assessing algal extent for monitoring and management are limited in that they cannot provide a synoptic view of algal distribution over comparatively large areas. The goal of this study was to explore the application of color infrared aerial photography as an alternative for analyzing the changes in the abundance of macroalgae. Three surveys combining remote sensing (false-color infrared aerial photography) and traditional (ground-based quadrats) sampling methods to quantify macroalgal mat coverage were carried out in Upper Newport Bay (UNB) between July and October 2005. Airborne photographs (scale 1:6000) collected during daytime low tides, clear skies and appropriate sun angle were orthorectified, georegistered and combined into three mosaic composite images, one for each survey. During each aerial photography survey, macroalgal percent cover was measured on the ground at ~30 locations randomly scattered throughout the intertidal mudflat area; these ground data were used for calibration of classification schemes developed for each of the composite images. Using a cluster-analysis classification method, ground samples from each survey were classified into three or four classes, based on similarity of their optical signatures. Before classification, each digital image was transformed by the Minimum Noise Fraction Rotation method to remove noise and enhance contrast between the classes. For classification, the Spectral Angle Mapper scheme was used. All pixels in the images were attributed to classes and the areal extent of each class was estimated. For each class, the averaged percent cover by different substrates was estimated from ground sample data. The total coverage by different substrates was calculated by multiplying the within-cluster percent coverage by cluster areas. This analysis showed
Bryan, W. B.; Adams, M.-L.
Detailed observations from the study of Apollo 17 panoramic photography of the Aitken crater are reported which suggest that there has been significant late-stage compressional deformation of the crater and its adjacent highlands. A speculative interpretation of eruptive activity and drain-back events within Aitken is presented, which leads to the conclusion that hummocky topography within certain cones represents collapsed lava rather than extrusive domes. That is, eruptive activity within Aitken probably commenced with an explosive cone-building stage, followed by lava eruptions from cones and fissures, and ended with drain-back restricted to the relatively deep lava ponded in the vents.
Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.
Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh
Molnia, Bruce; Hallam, Cheryl A.
Between October 27 and November 1, 1998, Central America was devastated by Hurricane Mitch. Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U.S. agencies planning to provide assistance, and the international relief community could come to the aid of the residents of the devastated area. Between December 4 and 19, 1998 an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5,000 high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15,000 video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.
On May 15,2002 AVIRlS (Advanced VisuaJ/lnfrared Imaging Spectrometer) data and high altitude aerial photographs were acquired tor coastal .waters from Cape Lookout to Oregon Inlet, North Carolina. The study encompasses extensive areas of seagrass, federally protected submersed, r...
Gillan, Jeffrey K; Karl, Jason W; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed
Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of
Gillan, Jeffrey K.; Karl, Jason W.; Duniway, Michael; Elaksher, Ahmed
Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat. Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height (e.g., LiDAR or synthetic aperture radar) are often too expensive, and require specialized sensors. An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution (HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance) digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March 2009 near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models (DSMs) were created by photogrammetric methods (aerial triangulation, digital image matching) for twenty-six test plots. We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches. Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of
Niebuhr, S.; Child, S.; Porter, C.; Herried, B.; Morin, P. J.
The Antarctic Geospatial Information Center (AGIC) and the US Geologic Survey (USGS) collaborated to scan, archive, and make available 330,000 trimetrogon aerial (TMA) photos from 1860 flight lines taken over Antarctica from 1946 to 2000. Staff at USGS scanned them at 400 dpi and 1024 dpi resolution. To geolocate them, AGIC digitized the flight line maps, added relevant metadata including flight line altitude, camera type, and focal length, and approximated geographic centers for each photo. Both USGS and AGIC host the medium resolution air photos online, and are adding high resolution scans as they become available. The development of these metadata allowed AGIC to create a web-based flight line and aerial photo browsing application to facilitate the searching process. The application allows the user to browse through air photos and flight lines by location with links to full resolution preview images and to image downloads. AGIC has also orthorectified selected photos of facilities and areas of high scientific interest and are making them available online. This includes a time series showing significant change in several glaciers and lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys over 50 years and a series illustrating how McMurdo Station has changed. For the first time, this collection of historical imagery over a swiftly changing continent are readily available to the Antarctic scientific community (www.agic.umn.edu/imagery/aerial).
Davis, Robert Matthew
A process is described to convert aerial photographs from flat images to 3D point clouds and then convert into height maps to be used as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. All software used in the process is either free or open source. The process uses a DJI Phanton multicoper and two Canon Point and Shoot digital cameras. One camera is unaltered, and a second camera is modified to produce infrared images. A DJI Phantom FC-40 multicopter is used as the aerial platform to carry the cameras. Multiple paths are described to convert from still images (or video to still images) to N-view matches, followed by sparse point clouds then dense point clouds. Point clouds are distinct 3D points charted in an XYZ coordinate system. The dense point clouds can be converted into 3D models for viewing and analysis. A height map is extracted from the point cloud and surface images (in raster format) are created and then used in QGIS or ArcMap as pseudo digital elevation models for surface modeling. Finally, the digital elevation models are evaluated in comparison to similar LIDAR images. Keywords: Passive Remote Sensing; LIDAR; Spatial Resolution.
Habowski, S.; Cialek, C.
An inventory methodology was developed to identify potential wild area sites. A list of site criteria were formulated and tested in six selected counties. Potential sites were initially identified from LANDSAT satellite imagery. A detailed study of the soil, vegetation and relief characteristics of each site based on both high-altitude aerial photographs and existing map data was conducted to eliminate unsuitable sites. Ground reconnaissance of the remaining wild areas was made to verify suitability and acquire information on wildlife and general aesthetics. Physical characteristics of the wild areas in each county are presented in tables. Maps show the potential sites to be set aside for natural preservation and regulation by the state under the Wilderness and Natural Areas Act of 1972.
The study presented for the session "Remote sensing for archaeology, cultural, natural heritage and Geospatial Infrastructure" concern a large part of the territory between L'Aquila and Capestrano, in Abruzzo (central Italy, close to Gran Sasso Mountain). It has been interested a territory strip including the initial well known route of Tratturo Regio, an ancient pastoral passage of transhumance from high rough grazing of Abruzzo to the largest plains of northern Puglia (Tavoliere). This area has a particularly well preserved environment, very rich in archaeological remains for any chronological period. The study has been realized by direct survey, going through documents in different archives, examination of historical and modern aerial photograph. The outcome of research is a view of ancient occupation of the area, from prehistorical to medieval period. Through the analisys (or reading) of historical and present photos have been identified and localized (geographical positioning) a large amount of cropmarks concerning new sites at most (settlements, necropolis, roads, single structures, etc.).
Vericat, Damià; Narciso, Efrén; Béjar, Maria; Tena, Álvaro; Brasington, James; Gibbins, Chris; Batalla, Ramon J.
Digital Terrain Models are fundamental to characterise landscapes, to support numerical modelling and to monitor topographic changes. Recent advances in topography, remote sensing and geomatics are providing new opportunities to obtain high density/quality and rapid topographic data. In this paper we present an integrated methodology to rapidly obtain reach scale topographic models of fluvial systems. This methodology has been tested and is being applied to develop event-scale terrain models of a 11-km river reach in the highly dynamic Upper Cinca (NE Iberian Peninsula). This research is conducted in the background of the project MorphSed. The methodology integrates (a) the acquisition of dense point clouds of the exposed floodplain (aerial photography and digital photogrammetry); (b) the registration of all observations to the same coordinate system (using RTK-GPS surveyed GCPs); (c) the acquisition of bathymetric data (using aDcp measurements integrated with RTK-GPS); (d) the intelligent decimation of survey observations (using the open source TopCat toolkit) and, finally, (e) data fusion (elaborating Digital Elevation Models). In this paper special emphasis is given to the acquisition and registration of point clouds. 3D point clouds are obtained from aerial photography and by means of automated digital photogrammetry. Aerial photographs are taken at 275 meters above the ground by means of a SLR digital camera manually operated from an autogyro. Four flight paths are defined in order to cover the 11 km long and 500 meters wide river reach. A total of 45 minutes are required to fly along these paths. Camera has been previously calibrated with the objective to ensure image resolution at around 5 cm. A total of 220 GCPs are deployed and RTK-GPS surveyed before the flight is conducted. Two people and one full workday are necessary to deploy and survey the full set of GCPs. Field data acquisition may be finalised in less than 2 days. Structure-from-Motion is
Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W. J.
Handbook advises on benefits and methods of aerial photography with color infrared film. Interpretation of photographs is discussed in detail. Necessary equipment for interpretation is described--light table, magnifying lenses, and microfiche viewers, for example. Advice is given on rating tree condition; identifying effects of diseases, insects, and nematodes; and evaluating effects of soil, water, and weather.
Mason, David C.; Wang, Hai-Jing; Lohani, Bharat
The study of the morphodynamics of tidal channel networks is important because of their role in tidal propagation and the evolution of salt-marshes and tidal flats. Channel dimensions range from tens of meters wide and meters deep near the low water mark to only 20-30cm wide and 20cm deep for the smallest channels on the marshes. The conventional method of measuring the networks is cumbersome, involving manual digitizing of aerial photographs. This paper describes a semi-automatic knowledge-based network extraction method that is being implemented to work using airborne scanning laser altimetery. The channels exhibit a width variation of several orders of magnitude, making an approach based on multi-scale line detection difficult. The processing therefore uses multi-scale edge detection to detect channel edges, then associates adjacent anti-parallel edges together to form channels uing a distance-with-destination transform. Breaks in the networks are repaired by extending channel ends in the direction of their ends to join with nearby channels, using domain knowledge that flow paths should proceed downhill and that nay network fragment should be joined to a nearby fragment so as to connect eventually to the open sea.
Using aerial photographs dating back to 1937, the historical trends of five land use classes (crop, forest, open field, urban and suburban) are determined. The relationships between these and various flow regime parameters are investigated. Annual runoff is found to be 7.5 inches greater now than in the year 1932. It is also found that growing season runoff increased by 3.5 inches during the same period. This increase is approximately equivalent to 160 area inches of excess runoff during the 45-year period of observation. The increase in runoff is found to be positively correlated with the percent basin area in the urban, suburban and open field land use classes. A negative correlation is established with forest and crop land. Although poor correlations are found with high flow, low flow, flow interval and flow date data, it is thought that a more precise quantification of land use or a smaller basin area may possibly have yielded more positive results for streamflow timing data.
Sheibley, Rich W.; Josberger, Edward G.; Chickadel, Chris
The input of freshwater and associated nutrients into Lynch Cove and lower Hood Canal (fig. 1) from sources such as groundwater seeps, small streams, and ephemeral creeks may play a major role in the nutrient loading and hydrodynamics of this low dissolved-oxygen (hypoxic) system. These disbursed sources exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. However, few in-situ measurements of groundwater seepage rates and nutrient concentrations are available and thus may not represent adequately the large spatial variability of groundwater discharge in the area. As a result, our understanding of these processes and their effect on hypoxic conditions in Hood Canal is limited. To determine the spatial variability and relative intensity of these sources, the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center collaborated with the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory to obtain thermal infrared (TIR) images of the nearshore and intertidal regions of Lynch Cove at or near low tide. In the summer, cool freshwater discharges from seeps and streams, flows across the exposed, sun-warmed beach, and out on the warm surface of the marine water. These temperature differences are readily apparent in aerial thermal infrared imagery that we acquired during the summers of 2008 and 2009. When combined with co-incident video camera images, these temperature differences allow identification of the location, the type, and the relative intensity of the sources.
Jack, Robert F.
Describes Earth Resources Observation System online database, which provides access to computerized images of Earth obtained via satellite. Highlights include retrieval system and commands, types of images, search strategies, other online functions, and interpretation of accessions. Satellite information, sources and samples of accessions, and…
L Lake was developed as a cooling water reservoir for the L Reactor at the Savannah River Site. The construction of the lake, which began in the fall of 1984, altered the structure and function of Steel Creek. Completed in the fall of 1985, L Lake has a capacity of 31 million cubic meters and a normal pool of 58 meters. When L Reactor operations ceased in 1988, the water level in the lake still had to be maintained. Site managers are currently trying to determine the feasibility of draining or drawing down the lake in order to save tax dollars. In order to understand the full repercussions of such an undertaking, it was necessary to compile a comprehensive inventory of what the lake bottom looked like prior to filling. Aerial photographs, acquired nine days before the filling of the lake began, were scanned and used for softcopy photogrammetry processing. A one-meter digital elevation model was generated and a digital orthophoto mosaic was created as the base map for the project. Seven categories of features, including the large waste units used to contain the contaminated soil removed from the dam site, were screen digitized and used to generate accurate maps. Other map features include vegetation waste piles, where contaminated vegetation from the flood plain was contained, and ash piles, which are sites where vegetation debris was burned and then covered with clean soil. For all seven categories, the area of disturbance totaled just over 63 hectares. When the screen digitizing was completed, the elevation at the centroid of each disturbance was determined. When the information is used in the Savannah River Site Geographical Information System, it can be used to visualize the various L Lake draw-down scenarios suggested by site managers and hopefully, to support evaluations of the cost effectiveness for each proposed activity.
'unlocking the Archive': Using Digital Photogrammetry of Modern Airborne Aerial Photography for Analysis of Historic Aerial Photographs to Extend the Record of Glacier Mass Balance Change on the Antarctic Peninsula
Clarke, L. E.; Miller, P.; Fox, A. J.; Mills, J. P.
Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there are almost no data on mass changes for the more than 400 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite data have been used to calculate change over the last 3 decades, but methods to quantify this over longer timescales have eluded researchers. However there is an archive of aerial photography dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic imagery and the lack of ground control data. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography has allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; however, in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera has been applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow and associated errors to highlight the suitability of this technique and demonstrate the data that can be obtained. Accurate measurements of surface elevation change on glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula over a 70 year time span have enabled quantification of spatial and temporal patterns of change. The results show a general trend of glacier retreat, but with thinning of the glacier terminus marginally offset by accumulation in the upper areas of the glacier. The use of this technique opens up possibilities for 'unlocking the archive' in other remote glacial areas where historic aerial photography exists but the collection of ground control points is limited.
Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Urban, Leslie
Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for many species and pose challenges in developed landscapes. They are increasingly viewed as a cost-efficient means of riparian habitat restoration and water storage. Still, information on their status is rare, particularly in western North America. We used aerial photography to evaluate changes in beaver occupancy between 1942–1968 and 2009 in upper portions of 2 large watersheds in Oregon, USA. We used multiple observers and occupancy modeling to account for bias related to photo quality, observers, and imperfect detection of beaver impoundments. Our analysis suggested a slightly higher rate of beaver occupancy in the upper Deschutes than the upper Klamath basin. We found weak evidence for beaver increases in the west and declines in eastern parts of the study area. Our study presents a method for dealing with observer variation in photo interpretation and provides the first assessment of the extent of beaver influence in 2 basins with major water-use challenges. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Hayashi, M.; Donovan, K.; Sjogren, D.
The northern prairie region of North America is characterized by undulating terrains with very low regional gradient, underlain by clay-rich glacial tills. The soils derived from clay-rich tills have very low permeability when they are frozen. As a result a large amount of snowmelt runoff is generated over frozen ground. Numerous depressions on the undulating terrains trap snowmelt water and focus the infiltration flux under the depressions. Therefore, the depressions have important hydrologic functions regarding runoff retention and groundwater recharge. Previous studies have investigated the storage of snowmelt runoff and subsequent infiltration at a scale of each depression (102-103 m2). However, to understand the roles of depressions in regional hydrology, depression storage needs to be evaluated at a much larger scale. Our ultimate goal is to quantify depression storage at the scale of watersheds (102-103km 2) and represent it properly in a large-scale hydrologic model. As the first step towards this goal, we quantified depression storage at 1-km2 scale using infrared (IR) aerial photographs and digital elevation model combined with the measurement of water depth in depressions. Two parcels of land were selected for the study in the watershed of West Nose Creek, located immediately north of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Each site contained a subsection of native prairie grass and cultivated field. Snow surveys were conducted at each site to estimate the average snow water equivalent (SWE) on the ground prior to melt. SWE ranged between 26 mm and 39 mm. Water depth was measured in 111 depressions when they were filled up to the peak level, and IR photographs were taken simultaneously at a scale of 1:10,000. The soil was frozen to a depth of 1 m or greater as indicated by several thermocouple arrays installed at the site. Detailed elevation survey was conducted in summer using a total station and differential global positioning system for 10 selected depressions to
Hoffman, R. R.
This report describes an investigation of the psychological aspects that affect the reasoning of expert aerial photo interpreters. The purpose of the study is to help develop an artificial intelligence expert system to aid terrain analysis. Artificial intelligence offers tools for studying and representing expert knowledge and reasoning. This study examines four methods for extracting the expert's knowledge: the Standard Terrain Analysis Method, the Structured Interview Method, the Limited Information Task, and the Method of Tough Cases. Criteria are presented for analyzing the four methods, and criteria that must pertain to aerial photo interpretation in order for expert systems tools to be applicable are described. This report discusses the structure of expert systems in general and the structure of an expert system for photo interpretation in particular.
Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.
Shoreline Change Study. An accompanying ESRI ArcGIS shape file (and plaintext copy) indicates the position of the aircraft and time when each photograph was taken. The USGS-CMGP Field Activity ID for the survey is A-5-09-AK, and more information on the survey and how to view the photographs using Google Earth software is available online at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/a/a509ak/html/a-5-09-ak.photos.kmz (last accessed February 12, 2010). The initial report ?Oblique aerial photography of the Arctic coast of Alaska, Nulavik to Demarcation Point, August 7-10, 2006? is available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/436/, and the associated Google Earth .kmz file is available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/a/a106ak/html/a-1-06-ak.photos.kmz (last accessed February 12, 2010).
Fensham, Roderick J; Fairfax, Russell J
Features of the land management history over a 125,755 km(2) area of central Queensland, Australia were determined from a variety of sources. A random sample of 205 site locations provided the basis for determining trends in land use. Trends in vegetation clearing were determined using sequential aerial photography for the sample sites, revealing a steady rate averaging nearly 1% of the region per annum over 41 years. This measure of sustained clearing over a large region is higher than recently published clearing rates from South America. Land types have been selectively cleared with over 90% of the Acacia on clay land type having been cleared. A land-holder questionnaire pertaining to the random sites yielded a response rate of 71% and provided information on vegetation clearing, ploughing, tree killing (ring-barking or tree poisoning), and fire frequency, season and intensity. The land-holder responses were compared with independent data sources where possible and revealed no mis-information. However, land-holders may have been marginally less likely to respond if the sample area had been cleared, although this effect was not statistically significant. Ploughing and tree killing are variable depending on land type, but the former has affected about 40% of the Acacia on clay land type, effectively eliminating options for natural regrowth. The proportion of decade-site combinations that were reported as having no fires increased from 22% in the 1950s to an average of 42% for subsequent decades, although the reporting of more than one fire per decade has been relatively constant through the study period. The reporting of at least one fire per decade varies from 46% for the Acacia on sand land type to 77% for the Eucalypt on sand land type for decade-site combinations. Fires are more intense when associated with clearing than in uncleared vegetation, but the proportion of cool and hot fires is relatively constant between land types in uncleared vegetation. Nearly
Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.
The Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, an area of strategic economic importance to the United States, is home to remote Native American communities and encompasses unique habitats of global significance. Coastal erosion along the Arctic coast is chronic and widespread; recent evidence suggests that erosion rates are among the highest in the world (up to ~16 m/yr) and may be accelerating. Coastal erosion adversely impacts energy-related infrastructure, natural shoreline habitats, and Native American communities. Climate change is thought to be a key component of recent environmental changes in the Arctic. Reduced sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is one of the probable mechanisms responsible for increasing coastal exposure to wave attack and the resulting increase in erosion. Extended periods of permafrost melting and associated decrease in bluff cohesion and stability are another possible source of the increase in erosion. Several studies of selected areas on the Alaska coast document past shoreline positions and coastal change, but none have examined the entire North coast systematically. Results from these studies indicate high rates of coastal retreat that vary spatially along the coast. To address the need for a comprehensive and regionally consistent evaluation of shoreline change along the North coast of Alaska, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of their Coastal and Marine Geology Program's (CMGP) National Assessment of Shoreline Change Study, is evaluating shoreline change from Peard Bay to the United States/Canadian border, using historical maps and photography and a standardized methodology that is consistent with other shoreline-change studies along the Nation's coastlines (for example, URL http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/shoreline-change/ (last accessed March 2, 2009). This report contains photographs collected during an aerial-reconnaissance survey conducted in support of this study. An accompanying ESRI ArcGIS shape file (and plain-text copy
Anker, Y.; Hershkovitz, Y.; Gasith, A.; Ben-Dor, E.
classification and the in-situ transects indicates that: A. Stream vegetation classification resolution is about 4 cm by the SRGB method compared to about 1 m by HSR. Moreover, this resolution is also higher than of the manual grid transect classification. B. The SRGB method is by far the most cost-efficient. The combination of spectral information (rather than the cognitive color) and high spatial resolution of aerial photography provides noise filtration and better sub-water detection capabilities than the HSR technique. C. Only the SRGB method applies for habitat and section scales; hence, its application together with in-situ grid transects for validation, may be optimal for use in similar scenarios.
The HSR dataset was first degraded to 17 bands with the same spectral range as the RGB dataset and also to a dataset with 3 equivalent bands
Marshall, V M; Lewis, M M; Ostendorf, B
We assess the feasibility of using airborne imagery for Buffel grass detection in Australian arid lands and evaluate four commonly used image classification techniques (visual estimate, manual digitisation, unsupervised classification and normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) thresholding) for their suitability to this purpose. Colour digital aerial photography captured at approximately 5 cm of ground sample distance (GSD) and four-band (visible–near-infrared) multispectral imagery (25 cm GSD) were acquired (14 February 2012) across overlapping subsets of our study site. In the field, Buffel grass projected cover estimates were collected for quadrates (10 m diameter), which were subsequently used to evaluate the four image classification techniques. Buffel grass was found to be widespread throughout our study site; it was particularly prevalent in riparian land systems and alluvial plains. On hill slopes, Buffel grass was often present in depressions, valleys and crevices of rock outcrops, but the spread appeared to be dependent on soil type and vegetation communities. Visual cover estimates performed best (r 2 0.39), and pixel-based classifiers (unsupervised classification and NDVI thresholding) performed worst (r 2 0.21). Manual digitising consistently underrepresented Buffel grass cover compared with field- and image-based visual cover estimates; we did not find the labours of digitising rewarding. Our recommendation for regional documentation of new infestation of Buffel grass is to acquire ultra-high-resolution aerial photography and have a trained observer score cover against visual standards and use the scored sites to interpolate density across the region. PMID:24234223
Clarke, Lucy; Miller, Pauline; Ireland, Louise; Fox, Adrian; Mills, Jon; Fieber, Karolina
The Antarctic Peninsula is a mountain glacier system comprised of over 400 glaciers, and is an important contributor to historical and future sea level rise. Assessment and monitoring of AP glaciers is crucial for understanding sensitivity to climate change. Changes to glacier fronts and ice shelves and glacier acceleration are well documented, but there are almost no data on mass changes on the Antarctic Peninsula. Satellite data have been used to calculate change over the last 3 decades, but methods to quantify this over longer timescales have eluded researchers. However there is an archive of aerial photography dating back to the 1940s, this has been largely ignored due to the range of technical problems associated with deriving quantitative data from historic imagery and the lack of ground control data. This presentation demonstrates how advances in photogrammetric processing and capture of modern aerial photography has allowed this archive to be 'unlocked'. Accurate photogrammetric reconstruction from aerial photographs traditionally requires known ground control points acquired in the field; in remote and inaccessible areas, such as the Antarctic Peninsula, this is often impossible. A method for providing control for historic photos without fieldwork, by linking them to a newly acquired, highly accurate photogrammetric model adjusted through direct kinematic GPS positioning of the camera has been applied to a number of glaciers across the Antarctic Peninsula. This presentation will outline the photogrammetric workflow with focus on the Moider Glacier in the Marguerite Bay region of the western Antarctic Peninsula to investigate the quality of data that can be obtained. Volumetric changes on the glaciers from the 1950s to present day (2015) have been reconstructed and can be used to explore the spatial and temporal changes that have occurred on this glacier. In particular, there is near-annual data over the last 5 years recording a period when there has been
The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...
Schmitz, Denine; Blank, Matt; Ammondt, Selita; Patten, Duncan T
The restorative potential of dam removal on ecosystem function depends on the reversibility of dam effects and its operations. While dam removal is an established engineering practice, the need for an understanding of the ecological response remains. We used paleoflood hydrology, hydrologic modeling, and aerial photo interpretation to investigate the long-term ecologic responses to dam failure and breach. We investigated downstream geomorphic and vegetation responses to a dam failure (Pattengail Dam in 1927) and a controlled dam breach, which used natural sediment removal (Mystic Lake Dam in 1985). Our data showed vegetation responses indicative of channel and floodplain evolution at Pattengail. The size of the flood following the Pattengail dam failure initiated a series of channel adjustments and reworked over 19ha of floodplain downstream of the dam. In Mystic, we observed few flood stage indicators and a slight response in floodplain vegetation. We made several findings. (1) Dam removal effects on channel evolution and floodplain development depend on reach types and their responsiveness to flow regime change. (2) Ecologic response to dam removal depends on the sizes and timing of high flow events during and following removal. (3) Paleohydrology can be used to assess historic floods (>20 years). We see the utility of assessing the ecological responsiveness of a system to previous fluvial events or changes in flow regime. Informed about the character of a system based on its history, dam removal scientists can use these tools to set realistic restoration goals for removing a dam. PMID:19042079
Shackelford, R. G.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.
An automatic Fourier transform diffraction pattern sampling system, used to investigate techniques for forestry classification of six band multispectral aerial photography is presented. Photographs and diagrams of the design, development and fabrication of a hybrid optical-digital Fourier transform detector are shown. The detector was designed around a concentric ring fiber optic array. This array was formed from many optical fibers which were sorted into concentric rings about a single fiber. All the fibers in each ring were collected into a bundle and terminated into a single photodetector. An optical/digital interface unit consisting of a high level multiplexer, and an analog-to-digital amplifier was also constructed and is described.
Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.
Regional planning agencies are currently expressing a need for detailed land cover/use information to effectively meet the requirements of various federal programs. Individual data sources have advantages and limitations in fulfilling this need, both in terms of time/cost and technological capability. A methodology has been developed to merge land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography and map sources to maximize the effective use of a variety of data sources in the provision of an integrated information system for regional analysis. A test of the proposed inventory method is currently under way in four central Michigan townships. This test will evaluate the compatibility, accuracy and cost of the integrated method with reference to inventories developed from a single data source, and determine both the technological feasibility and analytical potential of such a system.
Annual color infrared aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of digit...
Fiorucci, Federica; Cardinali, Mauro; Carlà Roberto; Mondini, Alessandro; Santurri, Leonardo; Guzzetti, Fausto
Landslide inventory maps are a common type of map used for geomorphological investigations, land planning, and hazard and risk assessment. Landslide inventory maps covering medium to large areas are obtained primarily exploiting traditional geomorphological techniques. These techniques combine the visual and heuristic interpretation of stereoscopic aerial photographs with more or less extensive field investigations. Aerial photographs most commonly used to prepare landslide inventory maps range in scale from about 1:10,000 to about 1:40,000. Interpretation of satellite images is a relatively recent, powerful tool to obtain information of the Earth surface potentially useful for the production of landslide inventory maps. The usefulness of satellite information - and the associated technology - for the identification of landslides and the production of landslide inventory maps, remains largely unexplored. In this context, it is of interest to investigate the type, quantity, and quality of the information that can be retrieved analyzing images taken by the last generation of high and very-high resolution satellite sensors, and to compare this information with the information obtained from the analysis of traditional stereoscopic aerial photographs, or in the field. In the framework of the MORFEO project for the exploitation of Earth Observation data and technology for landslide identification and risk assessment, of the Italian Space Agency, we have compared two event-based landslide inventory maps prepared exploiting two different techniques. The two maps portray the geographical distribution and types of landslides triggered by rainfall in the period from November 2004 to May 2005 in the Collazzone area, Umbria, central Italy. The first map was prepared through reconnaissance field surveys carried out mostly along roads. The second map was obtained through the combined visual interpretation of 1:10,000 scale, colour ortho-photo maps, and images taken by the IKONOS
Sykes, Helena; Neale, Simon; Coe, Sarah
Natural Resources Wales is a UK government body responsible for environmental regulation, among other areas. River walks in Water Framework Directive (WFD) priority catchments in South West Wales, UK, identified soil entering water courses due to poaching and bank erosion, leading to deterioration in the water quality and jeopardising the water quality meeting legal minimum standards. Bare soil has also been shown to cause quicker and higher hydrograph peaks in rural catchments than if those areas were vegetated, which can lead to flooding of domestic properties during peak storm flows. The aim was to target farm visits by operational staff to advise on practices likely to improve water quality and to identify areas where soft engineering solutions such as revegetation could alleviate flood risk in rural areas. High resolution colour-infrared aerial photography, 25cm in the three colour bands and 50cm in the near infrared band, was used to map bare soil in seven catchments using supervised classification of a five band stack including the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Mapping was combined with agricultural land use and field boundary data to filter out arable fields, which are supposed to bare soil for part of their cycle, and was very successful when compared to ground truthing, with the exception of silage fields which contained sparse, no or unproductive vegetation at the time the imagery was acquired leading to spectral similarity to bare soil. A raindrop trace model was used to show the path sediment from bare soil areas would take when moving through the catchment to a watercourse, with hedgerows inserted as barriers following our observations from ground truthing. The findings have been used to help farmers gain funding for improvements such as fencing to keep animals away from vulnerable river banks. These efficient and automated methods can be rolled out to more catchments in Wales and updated using aerial imagery acquired more recently to
Teodoro, Ana; Pais-Barbosa, Joaquim; Piqueiro, Francisco; Aguiar, Ricardo
Under the scope of the "Blue Flag" project, a field campaign in order to collect water samples and a photogrammetric survey were performed at the urban seashore beaches of Porto, in August of 2008. Several water quality parameters were measured in different stations, following the European Directive 2006/7/CE. However, only 14 stations appear in the area covered by the aerial photographs. Multiple linear regressions were established in order to estimate the relationship between the DNs and three different water quality parameters (WQP). All the established models were found to be statistically significant and can be used to explain a considerable part of the data variability (R2>66%). A qualitative analysis was also performed in order to identify hydromorphologic features/patterns and correlate them with several WQP. The aerial photographs were classified in 6 classes (beach, beachface, breaking zone, rocks, sediments and sea). The maximum likelihood classifier presented the best performance. Analyzing the results in a GIS environment, it is clear that: for coliforms parameter the highest values appear near the mouth of urban small rivers (beach and beachface); for turbidity the highest values are located in the sediments class; and for the dissolve oxygen the highest values are located in areas with higher dynamics (breaking zone and beachface).
Aldrich, R. C.; Greentree, W. J.; Heller, R. C.; Norick, N. X.
In October 1969, an investigation was begun near Atlanta, Georgia, to explore the possibilities of developing predictors for forest land and stand condition classifications using space photography. It has been found that forest area can be predicted with reasonable accuracy on space photographs using ocular techniques. Infrared color film is the best single multiband sensor for this purpose. Using the Apollo 9 infrared color photographs taken in March 1969 photointerpreters were able to predict forest area for small units consistently within 5 to 10 percent of ground truth. Approximately 5,000 density data points were recorded for 14 scan lines selected at random from five study blocks. The mean densities and standard deviations were computed for 13 separate land use classes. The results indicate that forest area cannot be separated from other land uses with a high degree of accuracy using optical film density alone. If, however, densities derived by introducing red, green, and blue cutoff filters in the optical system of the microdensitometer are combined with their differences and their ratios in regression analysis techniques, there is a good possibility of discriminating forest from all other classes.
Strand, E. K.; Bunting, S. C.; Smith, A. M.
Expansion of woody plant cover in semi-arid ecosystems previously occupied primarily by grasses and forbs has been identified as an important land cover change process affecting the global carbon budget. Although woody encroachment occurs worldwide, quantifying changes in carbon pools and fluxes related to this phenomenon via remote sensing is challenging because large areas are affected at a fine spatial resolution (1- 10 m) and, in many cases, at slow temporal rates. Two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis (SWA) represents a novel image processing technique that has been successful in automatically and objectively quantifying ecologically relevant features at multiple scales. We apply SWA to current and historic 1-m resolution black and white aerial photography to quantify changes in above ground woody biomass and carbon stock of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe on the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. Due to the large land area (330,000 ha) and variable availability of historical photography, we sampled forty-eight 100-ha blocks situated across the area, stratified using topographic, soil, and land stewardship variables. The average juniper plant cover increased one-fold (from 5.3% to 10.4% total cover) at the site during the time period of 1939-1946 to 1998-2004. Juniper plant density has increased by 128% with a higher percentage of the plant population in the smaller size classes compared to the size distribution 60 years ago. After image-based SWA delineation of tree crown sizes, we computed the change in above ground woody plant biomass and carbon stock between the two time periods using allometry. Areas where the shrub steppe is dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) has experienced little to no expansion of western juniper. However, on deeper, more well drained soils capable of supporting mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata subsp. vaseyana), the above
Heimes, F.J.; Moore, G.K.; Steele, T.D.
Expanded energy- and recreation-related activities in the Yampa River basin, Colorado and Wyoming, have caused a rapid increase in economic development which will result in increased demand and competition for natural resources. In planning for efficient allocation of the basin 's natural resources, Landsat images and small-scale color and color-infrared photographs were used for selected geologic, hydrologic and land-use applications within the Yampa River basin. Applications of Landsat data included: (1) regional land-use classification and mapping, (2) lineament mapping, and (3) areal snow-cover mapping. Results from the Landsat investigations indicated that: (1) Landsat land-use classification maps, at a regional level, compared favorably with areal land-use patterns that were defined from available ground information, (2) lineaments were mapped in sufficient detail using recently developed techniques for interpreting aerial photographs, (3) snow cover generally could be mapped for large areas with the exception of some densely forested areas of the basin and areas having a large percentage of winter-season cloud cover. Aerial photographs were used for estimation of turbidity for eight stream locations in the basin. Spectral reflectance values obtained by digitizing photographs were compared with measured turbidity values. Results showed strong correlations (variances explained of greater than 90 percent) between spectral reflectance obtained from color photographs and measured turbidity values. (Woodard-USGS)
White, S. M.; Madsen, E.
soil water content. These other factors are all directly affected by the hydroperiod, creating a complex system of feedbacks. Inundation frequencies show a pronounced relationship to zonation. Creek bank height and the hydroperiod have a curvilinear relationship at low bank heights such that small decreases in creek bank height can result in large increases in inundation frequency. Biological zonation is not simply a result of bank height and inundation frequency, other contributing factors include species competition, adaptability, and groundwater flow. Vegetation patterns delineated by a ground-based GPS survey and image classification from the aerial photos show that not all changes in eco-zonation are a direct function of elevation. Some asymmetry across the creek is observed in plant habitat, and eliminating topography (and thereby tidal inundation) as a factor, we attribute the remaining variability to groundwater flow.
McKeown, N. K.; Bishop, J. L.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.
The Painted Desert, AZ has been proposed as an analog site for Mawrth Vallis, Mars . In this study, we compare spectra of the Painted Desert from HyMap, from an ASD spectrometer in the field, and of Painted Desert samples measured in the lab. This comparison will aid in the interpretation of CRISM data by identifying consistent differences between lab measurements, field measurements, and aerial measurements of the same site. Our field sites were located near Five Buttes on Navajo land and at the Teepee site of the Petrified Forest National Park. Rocks in these areas are composed of feldspar, chert, smectite, kaolinite, calcite and dolomite. In comparing our three datasets, the most consistent difference is that the absorption band near 2.2 μm is weaker in the aerial (HyMap) data than both the field and lab data, which are of similar magnitude (Figs. 1 and 2). The weaker bands could be due to the larger footprint of the aerial data (4 m x 4 m), resulting in spectra that may sample a larger variety of materials. The spectral features in the 2-2.5 μm region are due to combinations and overtones of the metal-OH vibration within the mineral structure. That the bands are consistently weaker in the aerial data than the lab and field data could mean that modal estimates based on satellite data from Mars could be underestimating the percentage of phyllosilicates.
U.S. Geological Survey
Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.
Nguyen, Liliane; Guerin, Antoine; Abellán, Antonio; Carrea, Dario; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel
Multiple sources of geological data exist nowadays, most of them are in 2D (e.g. geological maps, geological panoramic sketch), and only a few are in 3D (e.g. block diagram). One of the current challenges in geological mapping consists not only in providing a more consistent 3D data, but also in pursuing a gathering and a harmonisation of the geological information in order to obtain a more consistent interpretations of the 3D geological models. New remote sensing techniques have significantly improved the representation of three-dimensional surfaces during the last decade, especially for steep and inaccessible rockcliffs. Therefore, we present an exploratory study aiming to find a reliable method for carrying out a three-dimensional mapping of geological contacts using a High Resolution Digital Elevation Model (HRDEM) with a 1 meter cell size. To this end, we selected the "Scex Rouge Mountain" as pilot study area. This outcrop, which is located in the Diablerets Massif (Vaud, Swiss Alps), has the particularity to present very distinguishable folded geological boundaries on its Southern face. The Southern slope belongs to the Wildhorn nappe, which is mainly composed of sedimentary rocks. The top-layer is composed of siliceous limestones, the well-visible fold layer is the "Pygurus layer" and consist of sandy limestone. Finally the bottom-layer includes marly schist and clayey limestones. At first, different sources of information has been draped on the HRDEM of the Scex Rouge Mountain, including not only classical geological maps (1:25 000) but also different sources of imagery (e.g. gigapixel panoramas, open access images, etc.). In a second step, several three-dimensional polylines have been drawn following the geological limit on each drapped HRDEM. Then we investigated the accuracy of 2D classical geological maps by comparing these geological limits with the drawn 3D polylines. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the accuracy of the method, a ground truth needs
Proper selection and operation of spray nozzles associated with aerial applications is critical to insuring efficacy while mitigating off-target movement. Labels for most agrochemical products applied in the U.S. specifically define the droplet size or spray classification that can be used to apply...
U.S. Geological Survey
The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.
Heller, Andrew Roland
The Fort Clark State Historic Site (32ME2) is a well known site on the upper Missouri River, North Dakota. The site was the location of two Euroamerican trading posts and a large Mandan-Arikara earthlodge village. In 2004, Dr. Kenneth L. Kvamme and Dr. Tommy Hailey surveyed the site using aerial color and thermal infrared imagery collected from a powered parachute. Individual images were stitched together into large image mosaics and registered to Wood's 1993 interpretive map of the site using Adobe Photoshop. The analysis of those image mosaics resulted in the identification of more than 1,500 archaeological features, including as many as 124 earthlodges.
A detailed aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey of the Jabal Ashirah area in the southeastern Arabian Shield has been analyzed using computer-classification algorithms. The analysis resulted in maps that show radiometric map units and gamma-ray anomalies indicating the presence of possible concentrations of potassium and uranium. The radiometric-unit map was interpreted to 'produce a simplified radiolithic map that was correlated with the mapped geology. The gamma-ray data show uranium anomalies that coincide with a tin-bearing granite, but known gold and nickel mineralization do not have any associated gamma-ray signatures.
Pilant, A. N.; Baynes, J.; Dannenberg, M.
The US EPA National Atlas for Sustainability is a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application that allows users to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services in a specific region. The Atlas provides users with a visual method for interpreting ecosystem services and understanding how they can be conserved and enhanced for a sustainable future. The Urban Atlas component of the National Atlas will provide fine-scale information linking human health and well-being to environmental conditions such as urban heat islands, near-road pollution, resource use, access to recreation, drinking water quality and other quality of life indicators. The National Land Cover Data (NLCD) derived from 30 m scale 2006 Landsat imagery provides the land cover base for the Atlas. However, urban features and phenomena occur at finer spatial scales, so higher spatial resolution and more current LC maps are required. We used 4 band USDA NAIP imagery (1 m pixel size) and various classification approaches to produce urban land cover maps with these classes: impervious surface, grass and herbaceous, trees and forest, soil and barren, and water. Here we present the remote sensing methods used and results from four pilot cities in this effort, highlighting the pros and cons of the approach, and the benefits to sustainability and ecosystem services analysis. Example of high resolution land cover map derived from USDA NAIP aerial photo. Compare 30 m and 1 m resolution land cover maps of downtown Durham, NC.
Su, W.-J.; Stohr, C.
A landslide inventory was conducted along the Ohio and Mississippi rivers in the New Madrid Seismic Zone of southern Illinois, between the towns of Olmsted and Chester, Illinois. Aerial photography and field reconnaissance identified 221 landslides of three types: rock/debris falls, block slides, and undifferentiated rotational/translational slides. Most of the landslides are small- to medium-size, ancient rotational/translational features partially ob-scured by vegetation and modified by weathering. Five imagery sources were interpreted for landslides: 1:250,000-scale side-looking airborne radar (SLAR); 1:40,000-scale, 1:20,000-scale, 1:6,000-scale, black and white aerial photography; and low altitude, oblique 35-mm color photography. Landslides were identified with three levels of confidence on the basis of distinguishing characteristics and ambiguous indicators. SLAR imagery permitted identification of a 520 hectare mega-landslide which would not have been identified on medium-scale aerial photography. The leaf-off, 35-mm color, oblique photography provided the best imagery for confident interpretation of detailed features needed for smaller landslides.
Estes, John E.; Thaman, Konai
This paper traces the history and growth of air photo interpretation and remote sensing within the field of geography. Courses offered in these fields, factors influencing growth, research findings, and professional geographic interest are discussed. (JH)
Raines, G. L.
An evaluation is presented of the multiband photography concept that tonal differences between rock formations on aerial photography can be improved through the selection of the appropriate bands. The concept involves: (1) acquiring band reference data for the rocks being considered; (2) selecting the best combination of bands to discriminate the rocks using these reference data; (3) acquiring aerial photography using these selected bands; and (4) extracting the desired geologic information in an optimum manner. The test site geology and rock reflectance are discussed in detail. The evaluation found that the differences in contrast ratios are not statistically significant, and the spectral information in different bands is not advantageous.
Annual color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs acquired annually between 1997 and 2007 were used to classify distributions of intertidal and shallow subtidal native eelgrass Zostera marina and non-indigenous dwarf eelgrass Z. japonica in lower Yaquina estuary, Oregon. The use of...
Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California
Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.
Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.
Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Richards, Ronald T.
The development potential of ground-water resources in the karst limestone of northwestern Puerto Rico, in an area extending from the Río Camuy to Aguadilla, is uncertain as a result of limited knowledge of the location of areas where a high density of cavities (interconnected fractures, conduits, and other dissolution features) might suggest the occurrence of high water yields. The presence in northwestern Puerto Rico of numerous coastal submarine springs, cavernous porosity in some of the wells, and rivers with entrenched and underground paths, indicate that it is probable that water-bearing, subterranean interconnected cavities occur in the area between the Río Camuy and Aguadilla. The number of exploratory wells needed to determine the location of these conduits or zones of enhanced secondary porosity could be substantially reduced if more information were available about the location of these subterranean features, greatly reducing the drilling costs associated with a trial-and-error exploratory process. A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, to detect the presence of cavities that might suggest the occurrence of conduit-controlled groundwater flow. Aerial photographs, geologic and topographic maps, and field reconnaissance were used to identify such linear terrain features as ridges, entrenched canyons, and fracture traces. Natural potential and gravity geophysical methods were also used. The following sites were selected for the aerial photograph interpretation and geophysical testing: Caimital Bajo uplands and former Ramey Air Force Base in Aguadilla; Quebrada de los Cedros between Aguadilla and Isabela; the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Otilio dairy farm, and Pozo Brujo in Isabela; the Monte Encantado area in Moca and Isabela; and the Rio Camuy cave system in Hatillo and Camuy. In general, the degree of success varied with site and the
Lee, K.; Knepper, D. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Sawatzky, D. L.
The author has identified the following significant results. Extracting geologic information from ERTS and Skylab/EREP images is best done by a geologist trained in photointerpretation. The information is at a regional scale, and three basic types are available: rock and soil, geologic structures, and landforms. Discrimination between alluvium and sedimentary or crystalline bedrock, and between units in thick sedimentary sequences is best, primarily because of topographic expression and vegetation differences. Discrimination between crystalline rock types is poor. Folds and fractures are the best displayed geologic features. They are recognizable by topographic expression, drainage patterns, and rock or vegetation tonal patterns. Landforms are easily discriminated by their familar shapes and patterns. It is possible to optimize the scale, format, spectral bands, conditions of acquisition, and sensor systems for best geologic interpretation. Several examples demonstrate the applicability of satellite images to tectonic analysis and petroleum and mineral exploration.
Payne, Meredith Lindsay
The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.
Wellens, Joost; Midekor, Akoly; Traore, Farid; Tychon, Bernard
In recent decades, the Kou watershed in south-western Burkina Faso has suffered from poor water management. Despite the abundance of water, most water users regularly face water shortages because of the increase in the amount of land under irrigation. To help them achieve a more equitable allocation of irrigated land, local stakeholders need an easily managed low-cost tool for monitoring and mapping these irrigated zones. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and low-cost procedure for mosaicing and geo referencing amateur small-scale aerial photographs for land-use surveys. Sets of tens (2009) and hundreds (2007) of low-altitude aerial photographs, with a resolution of 0.4 m and 0.8 m, respectively, were used to create a detailed land-cover map of typical African small-scale irrigated agriculture. A commercially available stitching tool and GIS allowed geo referenced ‘mono-images’ to be constructed; both mosaics were warped on a high-resolution SPOT image with a horizontal root mean square error (RMSE) of about 11 m. The RMSE between the two image datasets was 2 m. This approach is less sensitive to atmospheric conditions that are non-predictable in programming satellite imagery.
Wood, Charles A.
Space Shuttle astronauts have used handheld cameras to take about 30,000 photographs of the earth as seen from orbit. These pictures provide valuable, true-color depictions of many geologically significant areas. While the photographs have areal coverages and resolutions similar to the more familiar Landsat MSS and TM images, they differ from the latter in having a wide variety of solar illumination angles and look angles. Astronaut photographs can be used as very small scale aerial photographs for geologic mapping and planning logistical support for field work. Astronaut photography offers unique opportunities, because of the intelligence and training of the on-orbit observer, for documenting dynamic geologic activity such as volcanic eruptions, dust storms, etc. Astronauts have photographed more than 3 dozen volcanic eruption plumes, some of which were not reported otherwise. The stereographic capability of astronaut photography also permits three-dimensional interpretation of geologic landforms which is commonly useful in analysis of structural geology. Astronauts have also photographed about 20 known impact craters as part of project to discover presently unknown examples in Africa, South America, and Australia.
High-resolution aerial photography is one of the most valuable tools available for managing extensive landscapes. With recent advances in digital camera technology, computer hardware, and software, aerial photography is easier to collect, store, and transfer than ever before. Images can be automa...
Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)
Change detection using 75-year aerial photo and satellite data sets, inexpensive means to obtain 6 cm resolution data, and developing opportunities for community-oriented remote sensing through photography
Some governmental research sites have been in existence for as many as 100 years with ground photography used for documentation starting in the early 1900s(e.g., at the USDA Jornada Experimental Range(JER)(783 km2) in south central New Mexico) If ground photography is properly documented when acquir...
Colwell, R. N.
The types of photography obtained on the Apollo 9 mission and on concurrent flights made by supporting aircraft are described. The need for earth resource surveys and the value of aircraft and spacecraft as the platforms from which to make such surveys are considered along with the rational for using multiband photography and the means by which such photography can be enhanced. Aerial and space photographs are presented and analyzed. The feasibility of conducting earth resource surveys by means of space photography is discussed and results are summarized.
Cochran, Susan A.
Photographic imaging is the oldest form of remote sensing used in coral reef studies. This chapter briefly explores the history of photography from the 1850s to the present, and delves into its application for coral reef research. The investigation focuses on both photographs collected from low-altitude fixed-wing and rotary aircraft, and those collected from space by astronauts. Different types of classification and analysis techniques are discussed, and several case studies are presented as examples of the broad use of photographs as a tool in coral reef research.
Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.
A demonstration was given within the last few days at the British Museum by Mr. J. W. Gordon, author of "Generalized Linear Perspective" (Constable and Co.), a work describing a newly-worked-out system by which photographs can be made available for the purpose of exactly recording the dimensions of the objects photographed even when the objects themselves are presented foreshortened in the photograph.
Enslin, W. R.; Hudson, W. D.; Lusch, D. P.
A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.
Debusschere, Karolien; Penland, Shea; Westphal, Karen A.; Reimer, P. Douglas; McBride, Randolph A.
An aerial geomorphic mapping system was developed to examine the spatial and temporal variability in the coastal geomorphology of Louisiana. Between 1984 and 1990 eleven sequential annual and post-hurricane aerial videotape surveys were flown covering periods of prolonged fair weather, hurricane impacts and subsequent post-storm recoveries. A coastal geomorphic classification system was developed to map the spatial and temporal geomorphic changes between these surveys. The classification system is based on 10 years of shoreline monitoring, analysis of aerial photography for 1940-1989, and numerous field surveys. The classification system divides shorelines into two broad classes: natural and altered. Each class consists of several genetically linked categories of shorelines. Each category is further subdivided into morphologic types on the basis of landform relief, elevation, habitat type, vegetation density and type, and sediment characteristics. The classification is used with imagery from the low-altitude, high-resolution aerial videotape surveys to describe and quantify the longshore and cross-shore geomorphic, sedimentologic, and vegetative character of Louisiana's shoreline systems. The mapping system makes it possible to delineate and map detailed geomorphic habitat changes at a resolution higher than that of conventional vertical aerial photography. Morphologic units are mapped parallel to the regional shoreline from the aerial videotape imagery onto the base maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The base maps were constructed from vertical aerial photography concurrent with the data of the video imagery.
This chapter describes how photography can inspire and cultivate sociological mindfulness. One set of assignments uses self-portraiture to highlight the complexity of visual representations of social identity. Another uses photography to guide sociological inquiry. Both sets of assignments draw on the Literacy Through Photography methodology,…
Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan
Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).
Evaluation of low altitude oblique photography obtained by hand-held cameras was useful in determining specifications of operational mission requirements for conventional smaller-scaled vertical photography. Remote sensing techniques were used to assess the rapid destruction of marsh areas at Pointe Mouillee. In an estuarian environment where shoreline features change yearly, there is a need for revision in existing area maps. A land cover inventory, mapped from aerial photography, provided essential data necessary for determining adjacent lands suitable for marshland development. To quantitatively assess the wetlands environment, a detailed inventory of vegetative communities (19 categories) was made using color infrared photography and intensive ground truth. A carefully selected and well laid-out transect was found to be a key asset to photointerpretation and to the analysis of vegetative conditions. Transect data provided the interpreter with locally representative areas of various vegetative types. This facilitated development of a photointerpretation key. Additional information on vegetative conditions in the area was also obtained by evaluating the transect data.
MAPPING NON-INDIGENOUS EELGRASS ZOSTERA JAPONICA, ASSOCIATED MACROALGAE AND EMERGENT AQUATIC VEGETARIAN HABITATS IN A PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARY USING NEAR-INFRARED COLOR AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND A HYBRID IMAGE CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE
We conducted aerial photographic surveys of Oregon's Yaquina Bay estuary during consecutive summers from 1997 through 2001. Imagery was obtained during low tide exposures of intertidal mudflats, allowing use of near-infrared color film to detect and discriminate plant communitie...
Cartographic aerial cameras continue to play the key role in producing quality products for the aerial photography business, and specifically for the National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP). One NAPP photograph taken with cameras capable of 39 lp/mm system resolution can contain the equivalent of 432 million pixels at 11 ??m spot size, and the cost is less than $75 per photograph to scan and output the pixels on a magnetic storage medium. On the digital side, solid state charge coupled device linear and area arrays can yield quality resolution (7 to 12 ??m detector size) and a broader dynamic range. If linear arrays are to compete with film cameras, they will require precise attitude and positioning of the aircraft so that the lines of pixels can be unscrambled and put into a suitable homogeneous scene that is acceptable to an interpreter. Area arrays need to be much larger than currently available to image scenes competitive in size with film cameras. Analysis of the relative advantages and disadvantages of the two systems show that the analog approach is more economical at present. However, as arrays become larger, attitude sensors become more refined, global positioning system coordinate readouts become commonplace, and storage capacity becomes more affordable, the digital camera may emerge as the imaging system for the future. Several technical challenges must be overcome if digital sensors are to advance to where they can support mapping, charting, and geographic information system applications.
Describes the effects of elementary curriculum materials using instant photography developed for the Polaroid Education Project. The materials most effectively reached students who do not respond to verbal materials. Students and teachers shared authority in interpreting student photographs. Photography activities increased parent interest and…
The technology of aerial photography, photogrametry, has widespread applications in mapping and aerial surveying. A multi-billion-dollar industry, aerial surveying and mapping is "big business" in both civilian and military sectors. While the industry has grown increasingly automated, employment opportunities still exist for people with a basic…
Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...
Motta, Ricardo J.
We are just a few years away from celebrating the 200th anniversary of photography. The first permanent photographic record was made by Niepce in 1826, the view from his window at Le Gras. After many development cycles, including some periods of stagnation, photography is now experience an amazing period of growth. Change since the mid 90's going into the next several years will completely modify photography and its industry. We propose that the digital photography revolution can be divided into two phases. The first, from about 1994 to 2009, was primarily the transformation of film-based equipment into their digital counterparts. Now, in the second phase, photography is starting to change into something completely different, with forces like social networks, cell phone cameras and computational photography changing the business, the methods and the use of photographs.
El-Baz, F.; Mitchell, D. A.
The primary objectives of the earth observations and photography experiment of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project were to photograph various terrestrial structures and to use the capabilities of man as a trained observer in visually studying earth features and phenomena. Man's special capabilities include the sensitivity of the eye to subtle color variations and the speed with which the eye/brain system can interpret what is seen and select targets for photography. Real time astronaut observations constitute a useful complement to orbital photographs and greatly aid in their interpretation. Targets for mapping and hand held photography were selected on the basis of their value to specialists in the earth sciences including geology, oceanography, desert study, hydrology, meteorology, and environmental science.
ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221
Holter, M. R.
The characteristics and extent of data which is obtainable by electromagnetic spectrum sensing and the application to earth resources survey are discussed. The wavelength and frequency ranges of operation for various remote sensors are tabulated. The spectral sensitivities of various sensing instruments are diagrammed. Examples of aerial photography to show the effects of lighting and seasonal variations on earth resources data are provided. Specific examples of multiband photography and multispectral imagery to crop analysis are included.
Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey
This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.
Larsen, P. A.
A determination was made of the areal extent of terrain obscured by clouds and cloud shadows on a portion of an Apollo 9 photograph at the instant of exposure. This photogrammetrically determined area was then compared to the cloud coverage reported by surface weather observers at approximately the same time and location, as a check on result quality. Stereograms prepared from Apollo 9 vertical photographs, illustrating various percentages of cloud coverage, are presented to help provide a quantitative appreciation of the degradation of terrain photography by clouds and their attendant shadows. A scheme, developed for the U.S. Navy, utilizing pattern recognition techniques for determining cloud motion from sequences of satellite photographs, is summarized. Clouds, turbulence, haze, and solar altitude, four elements of our natural environment which affect aerial photographic missions, are each discussed in terms of their effects on imagery obtained by aerial photography. Data of a type useful to aerial photographic mission planners, expressing photographic ground coverage in terms of flying height above terrain and camera focal length, for a standard aerial photograph format, are provided. Two oblique orbital photographs taken during the Apollo 9 flight are shown, and photo-interpretations, discussing the cloud types imaged and certain visible geographical features, are provided.
Weaver, J. E.; Parkhurst, W. H.; Ward, J. F.; Almond, R. H.
Instruction for acquiring and analytically processing small-scale color-infrared photography to perform a soil resources inventory over forests of the southern U.S. is provided. Planning the project; acquiring aerial photography, materials, equipment and supplemental data; and preparing the photography for analysis are discussed. The procedures for preparing ancillary and primary component overlays are discussed. The use of correlation charts and dichotomous keys for mountain landforms, water regime, and vegetation is explained.
Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...
Poulton, C. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Mouat, D. A.
The application of space and high flight photography to vegetational resources in Arizona is discussed. Ecologically based vegetation-landform and land use maps are prepared. The use of material from the Apollo 9 flight and high flight aerial photography are discussed. Land uses that result in a conversion or strong modification of the natural vegetation are presented. The vegetation-landform units have an ecological basis and are meaningful from a land use point of view because they identify areas with unique potentials or limitations for use or development under various land uses. Examples of these relationships are given.
This paper explores the application of Kite Aerial Photography at the coastal environment along with digital photogrammetry for seabed geomorphological mapping. This method takes advantage of sea-water clearance that allows the transmission of sunlight through the water column and backscatter of seabed reflection under certain conditions of sunlight, weather and sea state. We analyze the procedure of acquisition, processing and interpretation of kite aerial imagery from the sub-littoral zone up to 5 meters depth. Using a calibrated non-metric digital compact camera we managed to acquire several vertical aerial images from two coastal sites in the Attica Peninsula (Greece) covering an area of approximately 200x100 meters. Both sites express significant geomorphological variability and they have a relatively smooth slope profile. For the photogrammetric processing we acquired topographic and bathymetric survey simultaneously with Kite Aerial Photography using a portable GPS of sub-meter accuracy. In order to deal with bottom control measurements we developed Bottom Control Points which were placed on the seabed. These act like the Ground Control Points and they can be easily deployed in the marine environment. The processing included interior and exterior orientation as well as ortho-rectification of images. This produced final orthomosaics for each site at scales 1:500 - 1:1500 with a resolution of a few centimeters. Interpretation of the seabed was based on color and texture features of certain areas with explicit seabed reflectivity and was supported by underwater photographs for ground truthing. At the final stage of image analysis, we recognized the boundaries (contrasting reflectivity) between different bottom types and digitized them as 2D objects using GIS. Concluding, this project emphasizes on the advantages and physical restrictions of Kite Aerial Photography in mapping small-scale geomorphological features in coastal, estuarine and lagoonal environments
Art Education, 1981
Presents 13 winning photographs by secondary students participating in the annual Scholastic Photography Awards competition conducted by Scholastic Magazines, Inc., and sponsored by the Eastman Kodak Company. Top winners receive scholarships. (SJL)
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.
The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.
Vegas, P. L.
A procedure for obtaining land use data from satellite imagery by the use of conventional interpretation methods is presented. The satellite is described briefly, and the advantages of various scales and multispectral scanner bands are discussed. Methods for obtaining satellite imagery and the sources of this imagery are given. Equipment used in the study is described, and samples of land use maps derived from satellite imagery are included together with the land use classification system used. Accuracy percentages are cited and are compared to those of a previous experiment using small scale aerial photography.
Poulton, C. E.; Faulkner, D. P.; Schrumpf, B. J.
A hierarchial classification of vegetation and related resources is considered that is applicable to convert remote sensing data in space and aerial synoptic photography. The numerical symbolization provides for three levels of vegetational classification and three levels of classification of environmental features associated with each vegetational class. It is shown that synoptic space photography accurately projects how urban sprawl affects agricultural land use areas and ecological resources.
Richardson, M.; Byrne, Kay
This paper examines the concept of the 'Presence of Absence' in post-mortem photography and holography, drawing upon both historical and lesser-known images as reference. To create a photographic negative one needs the presence of light to expose the light sensitive surface, be it glass, a polished plate or plastic. A hologram may also be created when a coherent light source, for example from a Laser, travels through a light sensitive material and falls upon the subject to be recorded. A holograph however, retains the optical qualities of both phase and amplitude, the memory of light. Both mediums recall, as it were, 'now absent moments', and confronts us with what is 'not there' as much as 'what is'. This paper examines the exploration of absence and presence in post-mortem photography and holography and it's a richly visceral visual language. A photonic syntax can interpret death as an elegant yet horrific aesthetic, the photograph may be beautify screened and yet obscene in its content. In essence one can be a voyeur, experiencing a mere visual whisper of the true nature of the subject. Our Victorian forefathers explored postmortem photography as an object of mourning, and at the close of the nineteenth century when Jack the Ripper had the inhabitants of White Chapel in a grip of fear, photography made its mark as a documentation of violent crime. Today, within contemporary photography, death is now presented within the confines of the 'Art Gallery', as a sensual, and at times, sensationalised art form. In exploring post-mortem imagery, both in holography and conventional photography, absence presents an aspect of death as startling in its unanimated form and detailed in its finite examination of mortality.
Chuman, Ted A.; Hummel, Susan K.
Two surveys investigated the extent of photography instruction in dental schools. The first survey of 53 schools revealed that 36% had formal dental photography programs. Of 21 photography instructors surveyed in the second study, 67% had no formal training, many knew little about texts or resources, and techniques and knowledge varied. (MSE)
Howell, Frederick; Reed, Loretta; Jensen, Capra; Robison, Gary; Taylor, Susan; Pavesich, Christine
The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide skill standards for all content areas in career and technical education. The standards in this document are for photography programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of an advanced high-school program.…
Routh, Robert D.
Image making, like writing and speaking, is a carrier of ideas. This paper presents photography as therapy, a useful concept for advocates of humanistic education. The paper shows that Western civilization, due to its preoccupation with science, technology, and commerce, enhances and promotes left-hemispheric brain functions (verbal, analytical,…
Photography students spend a considerable amount of time working on technical issues in shooting, composing, editing, and processing prints. Another aspect of their learning should include the conception and communication of their ideas. A student's memories and dreams can serve as motivation to create images in visual art. Some artists claim that…
The teaching of photography provides many opportunities to attack the assumption of universal heterosexuality, which is central to our society, in order to provide space for other sexualities such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender. This article is based on many years of lecturing in art schools and focuses on the classroom teaching of…
Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine
Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…
31. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE NORTHEAST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IN RELATION TO DOWNTOWN OAKLAND AND LAKE MERRITT. Date and time of photography "12-9-98 10:54." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
32. OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW TO THE SOUTHWEST, SHOWING THE FEDERAL CHANNEL IN RELATION TO SAN FRANCISCO BAY AND SAN BRUNO MOUNTAIN AT TOP CENTER. Date and time of photography "12-9-98 10:58." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)
A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.
Lulla, Kamlesh; Helfert, Michael
A review is presented of postflight cataloging and indexing activities of mission data obtained from Space Shuttle earth observations photography. Each Space Shuttle mission acquires 1300-4400 photographs of the earth that are reviewed and interpreted by a team of photointerpreters and cataloging specialists. Every photograph's manual and electronic set of plots is compared for accuracy of its locational coordinates. This cataloging activity is a critical and principal part of postflight activity and ensures that the database is accurate, updated and consequently made meaningful for further utilization in the applications and research communities. A final product in the form of a Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Handheld Photography is published for users of this database.
Silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus Torr. and Gray) is an annual weed found on rangelands in south and southeast Texas. Color-infrared aerial photography and computer image analysis techniques were evaluated for detecting and mapping silverleaf sunflower infestations on a south Texas range...
A study was conducted on a south Texas rangeland area to evaluate aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and CIR digital imagery combined with unsupervised image analysis techniques to map broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby]. Accuracy assessments performed on compute...
Kaliyadan, Feroze; Manoj, Jayasree; Venkitakrishnan, S; Dharmaratnam, A D
Digital photography has virtually replaced conventional film photography as far as clinical imaging is concerned. Though most dermatologists are familiar with digital cameras, there is room for improvement in the quality of clinical images. We aim to give an overview of the basics of digital photography in relation to dermatology, which would be useful to a dermatologist in his or her future clinical practice. PMID:19052435
Davis, Bruce E.
Two major criticisms of using Shuttle hand held photography as an Earth science sensor are that it is nondigital, nonquantitative and that it has inconsistent platform characteristics, e.g., variable look angles, especially as compared to remote sensing satellites such as LANDSAT and SPOT. However, these criticisms are assumptions and have not been systematically investigated. The spectral effects of off-nadir views of hand held photography from the Shuttle and their role in interpretation of lava flow morphology on the island of Hawaii are studied. Digitization of photography at JSC and use of LIPS image analysis software in obtaining data is discussed. Preliminary interpretative results of one flow are given. Most of the time was spent in developing procedures and overcoming equipment problems. Preliminary data are satisfactory for detailed analysis.
The incident at the 3 Mile Island Nuclear Plant has led to many changes in the operation and employee training in U.S. Nuclear Power Industry. This paper presents an approach to the preparation of a comprehensive geographic information system that would meet the needs for monitor...
Sallee, Jeff; Meier, Lesley R.
As humans, we perform remote sensing nearly all the time. This is because we acquire most of our information about our surroundings through the senses of sight and hearing. Whether viewed by the unenhanced eye or a military satellite, remote sensing is observing objects from a distance. With our current technology, remote sensing has become a part…
Riparian monitoring is a key aspect of sustainable resource management and is mandated by US federal law for federal land-management agencies. However, it is an endeavor hampered by rising manpower costs and time-consuming travel and methods. These limitations tend to reduce sampling intensity per r...
Lee, K. (Principal Investigator); Raines, G. L.
The author has identified the following significant results. With the advent of ERTS and Skylab satellites, multiband imagery and photography have become readily available to geologists. The ability of multiband photography to discriminate sedimentary rocks was examined. More than 8600 in situ measurements of band reflectance of the sedimentary rocks of the Front Range, Colorado, were acquired. Statistical analysis of these measurements showed that: (1) measurements from one site can be used at another site 100 miles away; (2) there is basically only one spectral reflectance curve for these rocks, with constant amplitude differences between the curves; and (3) the natural variation is so large that at least 150 measurements per formation are required to select best filters. These conclusions are supported by subjective tests with aerial multiband photography. The designed multiband photography concept for rock discrimination is not a practical method of improving sedimentary rock discrimination capabilities.
Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...
The last few years have seen a number of new flaps described and a renewed interest in the use of fluorescein, but there have been few photographs of the fluorescein effect, because special light sources were required with the filters that were employed. The realization that fluorescein can be excited by electromagnetic radiation in the visible range allows a simplified technique in which an ordinary electronic flash unit may serve as the only light source. The photography of fluorescein is not difficult to perform, and since minimal additional equipment is required, all workers who use fluorescein should begin to document their work more accurately and dramatically.
Rost, Fred; Oldfield, Ron
This beautifully illustrated book describes the methods used to record images viewed through a microscope. The text describes the principles and practices of photomicrography, and is written for all who take photomicrographs, beginners and/or experienced practitioners. The authors describe techniques that may be applied to many disciplines for teaching, research, archives, or pleasure. The book includes chapters on standard photography, modern digital techniques, methods for improving contrast, and a short chapter on drawing. In addition to its value as a work of reference, the authors' clear, didactic style makes this book suitable as a textbook for courses in photomicrography and/or elementary light microscopy.
Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.
This contribution promotes 3D photography as an important tool to obtain objective object information. Keeping mainly in mind World Heritage documentation as well as Heritage protection, it is another intention of this paper, to stimulate the interest in applications of 3D photography for professionals as well as for amateurs. In addition this is also an activity report of the international CIPA task group 3. The main part of this paper starts with "Digging the treasure of existing international 3D photography". This does not only belong to tangible but also to intangible Cultural Heritage. 3D photography clearly supports the recording, the visualization, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. Therefore the use of 3D photography in C.H. should increase on an international level. The presented samples in 3D represent a voluminous, almost partly "forgotten treasure" of international archives for 3D photography. The next chapter is on "Promoting new 3D photography in Cultural Heritage". Though 3D photographs are a well-established basic photographic and photogrammetric tool, even suited to provide "near real" documentation, they are still a matter of research and improvement. Beside the use of 3D cameras even single lenses cameras are very much suited for photographic 3D documentation purposes in Cultural Heritage. Currently at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, low altitude aerial photography is exposed from a maximum height of 13m, using a hand hold carbon telescope rod. The use of this "huge selfie stick" is also an (international) recommendation, to expose high resolution 3D photography of monuments under expedition conditions. In addition to the carbon rod recently a captive balloon and a hexacopter UAV- platform is in use, mainly to take better synoptically (extremely low altitude, ground truth) aerial photography. Additional experiments with respect to "easy
Rhoads, Misty; Phillips, Kathy
The purpose of this activity is to provide an opportunity for students to explore and share their view of the six domains of health through the use of photography and personal interpretive analysis. After reviewing the domains of health and receiving in-class instructions, students are given two weeks to collect photos in their environments that…
Aerial photographic interpretation of lineaments and faults in late Cenozoic deposits in the eastern parts of the Saline Valley 1:100, 000 quadrangle, Nevada and California, and the Darwin Hills 1:100, 000 quadrangle, California
Faults and fault-related lineaments in Quaternary and late Tertiary deposits in the southern part of the Walker Lane are potentially active and form patterns that are anomalous compared to those in most other areas of the Great Basin. Two maps at a scale of 1:100,000 summarize information about lineaments and faults in the area around and southwest of the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system based on extensive aerial-photo interpretation, limited field interpretation, limited field investigations, and published geologic maps. There are three major fault zones and two principal faults in the Saline Valley and Darwin Hills 1:100,000 quadrangles. (1) The Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system and (2) the Hunter Mountain fault zone are northwest-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault zones. (3) The Panamint Valley fault zone and associated Towne Pass and Emigrant faults are north-trending normal faults. The intersection of the Hunter Mountain and Panamint Valley fault zones is marked by a large complex of faults and lineaments on the floor of Panamint Valley. Additional major faults include (4) the north-northwest-trending Ash Hill fault on the west side of Panamint Valley, and (5) the north-trending range-front Tin Mountain fault on the west side of the northern Cottonwood Mountains. The most active faults at present include those along the Death Valley-Furnace Creek fault system, the Tin Mountain fault, the northwest and southeast ends of the Hunter Mountain fault zone, the Ash Hill fault, and the fault bounding the west side of the Panamint Range south of Hall Canyon. Several large Quaternary landslides on the west sides of the Cottonwood Mountains and the Panamint Range apparently reflect slope instability due chiefly to rapid uplift of these ranges. 16 refs.
Luman, D.E.; Stohr, C.; Hunt, L.
Aerial photography from the 1920s and 1930s is a unique record of historical information used by government agencies, surveyors, consulting scientists and engineers, lawyers, and individuals for diverse purposes. Unfortunately, the use of the historical aerial photographic prints has resulted in their becoming worn, lost, and faded. Few negatives exist for the earliest photography. A pilot project demonstrated that high-quality, precision scanning of historical aerial photography is an appealing alternative to traditional methods for reproduction. Optimum sampling rate varies from photograph to photograph, ranging between 31 and 42 ??m/pixel for the USDA photographs tested. Inclusion of an index, such as a photomosaic or gazetteer, and ability to view the imagery promptly upon request are highly desirable.
Shekede, Munyaradzi D.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi
Although increased woody plant abundance has been reported in tropical savannas worldwide, techniques for detecting the direction and magnitude of change are mostly based on visual interpretation of historical aerial photography or textural analysis of multi-temporal satellite images. These techniques are prone to human error and do not permit integration of remotely sensed data from diverse sources. Here, we integrate aerial photographs with high spatial resolution satellite imagery and use a discrete wavelet transform to objectively detect the dynamics in bush encroachment at two protected Zimbabwean savanna sites. Based on the recently introduced intensity-dominant scale approach, we test the hypotheses that: (1) the encroachment of woody patches into the surrounding grassland matrix causes a shift in the dominant scale. This shift in the dominant scale can be detected using a discrete wavelet transform regardless of whether aerial photography and satellite data are used; and (2) as the woody patch size stabilises, woody cover tends to increase thereby triggering changes in intensity. The results show that at the first site where tree patches were already established (Lake Chivero Game Reserve), between 1972 and 1984 the dominant scale of woody patches initially increased from 8 m before stabilising at 16 m and 32 m between 1984 and 2012 while the intensity fluctuated during the same period. In contrast, at the second site, which was formely grass-dominated site (Kyle Game Reserve), we observed an unclear dominant scale (1972) which later becomes distinct in 1985, 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, the intensity increased. Our results imply that using our approach we can detect and quantify woody/bush patch dynamics in savanna landscapes.
Koelbl, O.; Depury, P.
The interpretability of false color Spacelab photographs for erosion control and water shed management was assessed using photos taken over Nepal and the Mount Everest Massif. The thematic interpretation was done by a geologist working in this region. Scale limitations, image reproduction, and filtering of the photographs are discussed. Results show that much information can be extracted using relatively simple means. Color infrared photography must be used since panchromatic imagery does not show enough detail.
Yoon, T.; Schenk, T.
There is an increasing awareness in the science community about the potential of utilizing old photography and derived products together with new data for change detection and for extending the timeline as far back as possible. For example recent observations have revealed dramatic changes in the behavior of many ice streams and outlet glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, ranging from complete shutdown of ice streams to manifold increases in velocity. Most observations are typically from the comparatively short time period since the beginning of the civilian satellite imagery (1980s), with most quantitative measurements starting only 10-15 years ago. To evaluate whether ongoing observed changes are climatically significant, changes must be determined over longer time frames. Earlier terrestrial and aerial photography and maps indeed exist and the objective of the project to disseminate these historical data and to develop techniques and tools for combining (fusing) old and new data in order to compile long-term time series of changes in the polar regions, for example in ice extent, velocity and surface elevations. The presentation focuses on new methodologies and interdisciplinary approaches that greatly facilitate the use of old photography for quantitative studies in the polar regions. An absolute prerequisite for the successful use of old photography is a rigorous registration, either with other sensory input data or with respect to 3D reference systems. Recent advances in digital photogrammetry allow registration with linear features, such as lines, curves and free-form lines without the need for identifying identical points. The concept of sensor invariant features was developed to register such disparate data sets as aerial imagery and 3D laser point clouds, originating from satellite laser altimetry or airborne laser scanning systems. Examples illustrating these concepts are shown from the Transantarctic Mountains, including the registration of aerial
Scherer, J J; Paul, J B; Jiao, H; O'Keefe, A
A new technique that enables frequency-resolved cavity ringdown absorption spectra to be obtained over a large optical bandwidth by a single laser shot is described. The technique, ringdown spectral photography (RSP), simultaneously employs two key principles to record the time and frequency response of an optical cavity along orthogonal axes of a CCD array detector. Previously, the principles employed in RSP were demonstrated with narrow-band laser light that was scanned in frequency [Chem. Phys. Lett. 292, 143 (1998)]. Here, the RSP method is demonstrated using single pulses of broadband visible laser light. The ability to obtain broad as well as rotationally resolved spectra over a large bandwidth with high sensitivity is demonstrated. PMID:18364983
Rosenthal, J; Forst, L
Photographers are exposed to chemical, physical, and psychological hazards during the course of their work. Photojournalists are at physical risk from motor vehicle crashes and work in war zones. Ergonomic risk comes from handling heavy equipment as well as work in awkward postures in dangerous positions. Darkroom exposure to chemical agents may lead to respiratory, allergic, and nervous system disease. Psychological problems come from chaotic work organization. Digital photography may reduce the prevalence of chemical exposure, although it may increase the risk of musculoskeletal illness. Simple hygiene measures may prevent illness in photographers. An increasing number of printed resources is available to professional and amateur photographers; this information may help them protect their health while they enjoy their art. PMID:11567918
Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. It has become that lineaments seen on Skylab and ERTS images are not equally well defined, and that the clarity of definition of a particular lineament is recorded somewhat differently by different interpreters. In an effort to determine the extent of these variations, a semi-quantitative classification scheme was devised. In the field, along the crest of Bald Eagle Mountain in central Pennsylvania, statistical techniques borrowed from sedimentary petrography (point counting) were used to determine the existence and location of intensely fractured float rock. Verification of Skylab and ERTS detected lineaments on aerial photography at different scales indicated that the brecciated zones appear to occur at one margin of the 1 km zone of brecciation defined as a lineament. In the Lock Haven area, comparison of the film types from the SL4 S190A sensor revealed the black and white Pan X photography to be superior in quality for general interpretation to the black and white IR film. Also, the color positive film is better for interpretation than the color IR film.
Liu, Ziwei; Xu, Tingfa; Liu, Jingdan; Li, Xiangmin; Zhao, Peng
A depth-based computational photography model is proposed for all-in-focus image capture. A decomposition function, a defocus matrix, and a depth matrix are introduced to construct the photography model. The original image acquired from a camera can be decomposed into several sub-images on the basis of depth information. The defocus matrix can be deduced from the depth matrix according to the sensor defocus geometry for a thin lens model. And the depth matrix is reconstructed using the axial binocular stereo vision algorithm. This photography model adopts an energy functional minimization method to acquire the sharpest image pieces separately. The implementation of the photography method is described in detail. Experimental results for an actual scene demonstrate that our model is effective.
Robinove, Charles J.
The increased use of pictorial displays of data in the fields of photogrammetry and photo interpretation has led to some confusion of terms, not so much b photogrammetrists as bu users and interpreters of pictorial data. The terms "remote sensing" and "remote sensing of environment" are being used as general terms to describe "the measurement of some property of an object without having the measuring device physically in contact with the object" (Parker, 1962). Measurements of size and shape by photogrammetric and optical means are common examples of remote sensing and therefore require no elaboration. Other techniques of remote sensing of electromagnetic radiation in and beyond the limits of the visible spectrum require some explanation and differentiation from the techniques used in the visible spectrum. The following definitions of "photography" and "imagery" are proposed to clarify these two terms in hope that this will lead to more precise understanding and explanation of the processes.
The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...
Ashley, R. P.
The determination of geological features characteristic of the Goldfield epithermal ore deposits is considered and which of them can be identified from color and color infrared aerial photography. The Goldfield mining district in the western part of the Basin and Range Province is the area of study, located in desert terrain of relatively low relief.
30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA
Wallace, R. E.
Nine-frame multiband aerial photography of a sample area 4500 feet on a side was processed to enhance spectral contrasts. The area concerned is in the Carrizo Plain, 45 miles west of Bakersfield, California, in sec. 29, T 31 S., R. 21 E., as shown on the Panorama Hills quadrangle topographic map published by the U. S. Geological Survey. The accompany illustrations include an index map showing the location of the Carrizo Plain area; a geologic map of the area based on field studies and examination of black and white aerial photographs; an enhanced multiband aerial photograph; an Aero Ektachrome photograph; black and white aerial photographs; and infrared image in the 8-13 micron band.
Nakada, Ryuji; Takigawa, Masanori; Ohga, Tomowo; Fujii, Noritsuna
Digital oblique aerial camera (hereinafter called "oblique cameras") is an assembly of medium format digital cameras capable of shooting digital aerial photographs in five directions i.e. nadir view and oblique views (forward and backward, left and right views) simultaneously and it is used for shooting digital aerial photographs efficiently for generating 3D models in a wide area. For aerial photogrammetry of public survey in Japan, it is required to use large format cameras, like DMC and UltraCam series, to ensure aerial photogrammetric accuracy. Although oblique cameras are intended to generate 3D models, digital aerial photographs in 5 directions taken with them should not be limited to 3D model production but they may also be allowed for digital mapping and photomaps of required public survey accuracy in Japan. In order to verify the potency of using oblique cameras for aerial photogrammetry (simultaneous adjustment, digital mapping and photomaps), (1) a viewer was developed to interpret digital aerial photographs taken with oblique cameras, (2) digital aerial photographs were shot with an oblique camera owned by us, a Penta DigiCAM of IGI mbH, and (3) accuracy of 3D measurements was verified.
Bermel, Peter F.
The National High-Altitude Photography Program (NHAP) is a multi-Federal agency activity to acquire uniform imagery for the establishment of a national high-altitude photographic data base. Federal agencies participating in NHAP have pooled their resources and consolidated photographic requirements in a systematic 6-year effort that will minimize duplication of photographic programs, reduce overall Federal expenditures for aerial photography, and provide imagery for a wide range of public and private users, The U.S. Geological Survey has the lead coordination role and shares, with the other participating agencies, the responsibility for funding the acquisition of photography. Since the inception of NHAP in 1980, black-and-white and color infrared stereoscopic imagery has been acquired for about 50% of the 3,000,000 square miles in the conterminous United States. An additional 40% of the 48-State area is under contract to provide aerial survey firms, and the sixth and final contract to achieve complete once-over coverage will be awarded early in 1985. Extensive use has been made of the newly established data base for mapping, landform studies, land use planning, natural resource inventory, evaluation and management, engineering, and education. In anticipation of the completion of once-over coverage, the participating agencies have begun studies to define the requirements for a maintenance program which would provide cyclic coverage of the conterminous United States and imagery for specific agency needs. Although continued funding at the same level is not assured, under consideration are requirements for new cameras, films, and other remote sensors, photographic parameters, and extension of program coverage to Alaska, Hawaii, and outlying areas. In addition, new applications of the data base to prepare cartographic map and data products are being investigated. It is becoming increasingly clear that some major decision needs to be made soon if a NHAP II is to begin in
Lloyd, D. D.; Head, J. W.
Interpretations of photography of Orientale Basin deposits obtained under earthshine illumination conditions during the Apollo 16 mission are presented. Although the quality of these photographs is less than that obtainable in sunshine, these regions are in the dark during Apollo missions because of the locations of the Apollo landing sites. Photography of these regions under different lighting geometry and from different viewpoints is therefore a useful addition to previous photographic data. Oblique photography was obtained of Riccioli Crater and adjacent areas, which lie northeast of the Orientale Basin.
The purpose of this article is to help students develop their digital photography skills and see the world through new eyes. An emphasis is placed on using digital photography to communicate ideas and feelings. (Contains 6 figures and 2 tables.)
Smith, Conrad; Hubbard, Tom
Tests the hypothesis that photojournalists with high professionalism scores are more likely to win news photography awards. Suggests that television news photography awards recognize skills gained through experience rather than specific professional values. (MM)
A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist.
Near infrared color aerial photography (-1:7200) of Yaquina Bay, Oregon, flown at minus tides during summer months of 1997 was used to produce digital stereo ortho-photographs covering tidally exposed eelgrass habitat. GIS analysis coupled with GPS positioning of ground-truth da...
Schott, J.R.; Wilkinson, E.P.
Recent improvements in aerial thermographic techniques, particularly in achievable spatial resolution and noise equivalent temperature variation, have enabled the use of thermography in a more objective fashion. Interpretation of the information contained in thermograms has also been improved through the use of certain techniques accounting for roof material type (emissivity), background effects, and atmospheric variables. With current methods, roof surface temperature from aerial imagery can be measured to within 1.8/sup 0/F (1.0/sup 0/C) of the actual temperature. These advances in thermogram analysis have opened the door for potential direct measurement of rooftop heat-loss levels from thermogram data. Ultimately, it is felt that this type of information would make it feasible to direct intensive energy-conservation efforts toward a smaller population, where the need and cost benefits will be the greatest.
Cameron, W. S.; Doyle, F. J.; Levenson, L.; Michlovitz, K.
The availability of Apollo 17 pictorial data is announced as an aid to the selection of the photographs for study. Brief descriptions are presented of the Apollo 17 flight, and the photographic equipment used during the flight. The following descriptions are also included: service module photography, command module photography, and lunar surface photography.
The paper describes the first attempts of biological electron microphotography. It starts with a description of the early use of electron microscopy in biology, showing that electron microscopy was used as an extension of former light microscopical studies. Thus, the pictures produced by electron microscopy are interpreted as describing the micro-texture of those structures already seen in light microscopy. That was done irrespective from the specific problems of tissue preparation for electron microscopy. The use of photography in electron microscopy is discussed in more detail. It is shown that in electron microscopy, not the preparation itself which is usually destroyed or damaged during observation in the electron microscope. Thus, biological electron microscopy can be described as a real image science. PMID:16060072
Dieck, J.J.; Robinson, Larry
The Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has used aerial photography to map land cover/land use on federally owned and managed lands for over 20 years. Until recently, that process used 23- by 23-centimeter (9- by 9-inch) analog aerial photos to classify vegetation along the Upper Mississippi River System, on National Wildlife Refuges, and in National Parks. With digital aerial cameras becoming more common and offering distinct advantages over analog film, UMESC transitioned to an entirely digital mapping process in 2009. Though not without challenges, this method has proven to be much more accurate and efficient when compared to the analog process.
Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.
Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.
Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Veneziani, P.; Dosanjos, C. E.
Methods used for interpreting orbital (LANDSAT) data for regional geological mapping in Brazil are examined. Particular attention is given to the levels of analysis used for studying geomorphology, structural geology, lithology, stratigraphy, surface geology, and dynamic processes. Examples of regional mapping described include: (1) rock intrusions in SE Sao Paulo, the southern parts of Minas Gerais, and the states of Rio de Janeiro, and Espiritu Santo; (2) a preliminary survey of Pre-Cambrian geology in the State of Piaui; and (3) the Gondwana Project - surveying Jaguaribe plants. Mineral exploration in Rio Grande do Sul, and the geology of the Alcalino complex of Itatiaia are discussed as well as the use of automatic classifications of rock intrusions and of ilmenite deposits in the Floresta Region. Aerial photography, side looking radar, and thermal infrared scanning are other types of remote sensors also used in prospecting for geothermal anomalies in the city of Caldas Novas-Goias.
Fiorucci, F.; Cardinali, M.; Carlà, R.; Rossi, M.; Mondini, A. C.; Santurri, L.; Ardizzone, F.; Guzzetti, F.
We tested the possibility of using digital, color aerial ortho-photographs and monoscopic, panchromatic satellite images of comparable spatial and radiometric resolution, to map recent landslides in Italy and to update existing measures of landslide mobilization. In a 90-km 2 area in Umbria, central Apennines, rainfall resulted in abundant landslides in the period from September 2004 to June 2005. Analysis of the rainfall record determined the approximate dates of landslide occurrence and revealed that the slope failures occurred in response to moderately wet rainfall periods. The slope failures occurred primarily in cultivated terrain and left subtle morphological and land cover signatures, making the recognition and mapping of the individual landslides problematic. Despite the difficulty with the identification of the landslides without the use of stereoscopic visualization, visual analysis of the aerial and satellite images allowed mapping 457 new landslides, ranging in area 3.0 × 10 1 < AL < 2.5 × 10 4 m 2, for a total landslide area ALT = 6.92 × 10 5 m 2. To identify the landslides, the investigators adopted the interpretation criteria commonly used to identify and map landslides on aerial photography. The result confirms that monoscopic, very high resolution images taken by airborne and satellite sensors can be used to prepare landslide maps even where slope failures are difficult to detect, provided the imagery has sufficient geometric and radiometric resolutions. The different dates of the aerial (March 2005) and the satellite (June-July 2005) images allowed the temporal segmentation of the landslide information, and studying the statistics of landslide area and volume for different periods. Compared to pre-existing information on the abundance and size of the landslides in the area, the inventory obtained by studying the aerial and satellite images proved more complete. The new mapping showed 145% more landslides and 85% more landslide area than a pre
Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.
A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.
Underwood, Richard W.
Since the beginning of history, mankind has dreamed of soaring above his planet and recording his impressions. Others dreamed of a journey to the Moon, to the other planets, and indeed to the stars. NASA cameras have changed the dreams to stark reality. Space photography is not only striking in beauty, but also permits us to unlock many of the secrets of our universe.
The Imaging and Photographic Technology area, in which the author teaches, is an applications- and technology-oriented photography program designed to prepare students for work in technical, corporate, industrial, and scientific environments. One day, the author received an e-mail message from an editor who had found his Web site and thought he…
Jenkins, Ronald L.; Howell, W. Mike; Davenport, L. J.; Wood, Linda F.
Photography makes an easy and excellent tool for teaching field biology courses, allowing students to study nature without harming it. This photographic technique is used in capturing images of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants during class field trips, then making these images available for students to identify and study from a departmental…
McDole, Thomas L.
Alternative curriculum strategies can be used to conduct an effective photography program without the expense usually associated with a darkroom. Three methods can be used to eliminate the need for a darkroom facility: outside vendors, an emulsion that can be user-processed without access to a darkroom (slide or transparency film), and emulsions…
Hulme, Kenneth S.
Describes class projects involving astronomical photography. Includes a description of how to make an astrocamera or convert a pocket camera into one suitable for astrophotography, film choices, and phenomena to photograph, such as star trails, meteors, the sun, and the moon. (DS)
Dalton, Nicholas M.; Deering, Charles S.
A two-channel Photography Based Image Generator system was developed to drive the Helmet Mounted Laser Projector at the Naval Training System Center at Orlando, Florida. This projector is a two-channel system that displays a wide field-of-view color image with a high-resolution inset to efficiently match the pilot's visual capability. The image generator is a derivative of the LTV-developed visual system installed in the A-7E Weapon System Trainer at NAS Cecil Field. The Photography Based Image Generator is based on patented LTV technology for high resolution, multi-channel, real world visual simulation. Special provisions were developed for driving the NTSC-developed and patented Helmet Mounted Laser Projector. These include a special 1023-line raster format, an electronic image blending technique, spherical lens mapping for dome projection, a special computer interface for head/eye tracking and flight parameters, special software, and a number of data bases. Good gaze angle tracking is critical to the use of the NTSC projector in a flight simulation environment. The Photography Based Image Generator provides superior dynamic response by performing a relatively simple perspective transformation on stored, high-detail photography instead of generating this detail by "brute force" computer image generation methods. With this approach, high detail can be displayed and updated at the television field rate (60 Hz).
Glowacki, Joseph W.
This guidebook for school publications photographers discusses both the self-image of the publications photographer and various aspects of photography, including components of the camera, shutter speed and action pictures, light meters, handling cameras, lenses, developing film, pushing film beyond the emulsion-speed rating recommended by the…
Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.
Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…
Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703
Most elementary students approach photography in an open-minded, experimental way. As a result, their images are often more playful than those taken by adults. Students discover more through their own explorations than they would learn through overly structured lessons. In this article, the author describes how he introduces his elementary…
Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.
This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial photography vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents,…
Brown, R.H.; Chapman, W.H.; Hanna, W.F.; Mongan, C.E.; Hursh, J.W.
An inertial guidance system for aerial surveying has been developed under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. This prototype system, known as the aerial profiling of terrain (APT) system, is designed to determine continuously the positions of points along an aircraft flight path, or the underlying terrain profile, to an accuracy of + or - 0.5 ft (15 cm) vertically and + or - 2 ft (61 cm) horizontally. The system 's objective thus is to accomplish, from a fixed-wing aircraft, what would traditionally be accomplished from ground-based topographic surveys combined with aerial photography and photogrammetry. The two-part strategy for measuring the terrain profile entails: (1) use of an inertial navigator for continuous determination of the three-coordinate position of the aircraft, and (2) use of an eye-safe pulsed laser profiler for continuous measurement of the vertical distance from aircraft to land surface, so that the desired terrain profile can then be directly computed. The APT system, installed in a DeHavilland Twin Otter aircraft, is typically flown at a speed of 115 mph (105 knots) at an altitude of 2,000 ft (610 m) above the terrain. Performance-evaluation flights have shown that the vertical and horizontal accuracy specifications are met. (USGS)
Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt; Lauritsen, Jens; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ravn, Pernille
The aim of this study was to evaluate interpretations and the reproducibility of interpretations when looking at colposcopic photographs in a forensic setting, as well as discussing some of the dilemmas and pitfalls of forensic colposcopic photography. A total of 316 colposcopic photographs from 51 women taken on three occasions following consensual sexual intercourse, and 78 colposcopic photographs from 39 rape victims, were evaluated by four different observers. Photographs were taken in the same setting, by the same group of investigators, before and after application of toluidine blue dye. The overall Kappa-value for the four observers' judgment of lesion vs. no lesion was 0.41 which can be interpreted as moderate agreement. Intra-observer agreement was calculated for two of the observers looking at photographs with a 10 months' time-gap, and the Kappa-values were 0.41 and 0.52. Positive and negative predictive values of the photographs were 82 and 81 % respectively. This study demonstrates relatively poor reliability of colposcopic photography. Some would argue that this makes colposcopic photography a low-quality method of evaluation and that forensic science should aim for higher standards because of its use in court. Others would argue that as long as the limitations of a scientific method are acknowledged then it is still eligible for use. The moderate agreement and accuracy stresses the need for quality control in the gynecological part of a rape examination. Colposcopic photography also provides a good option for supervision and teaching in an ethically difficult setting. It strengthens the legal rights for both victim and perpetrator. PMID:23247984
Clapp, Robert E.
Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.
Olson, N. K. (Principal Investigator)
The author has identified the following significant results. Good results were obtained from using Skylab photography in conjunction with LANDSAT imagery for visual interpretation of various geologic features, particularly lineaments. It was concluded that visual interpretation alone of Skylab photographs was quite limited, and much of this was because of the low contrast, heavily vegetated terrain in southeastern United States. Lineaments of major structural features are detectable but subtle. An intimate knowledge of the geologic field relationships is needed before a meaningful analysis is feasible using current satellite photography alone.