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1

Autonomous Controller Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using  

E-print Network

Autonomous Controller Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Multi-objective Genetic Programming controllers were developed for fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications using multi well to real UAVs. 2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulation The focus of this research was the development

Fernandez, Thomas

2

Barlow, Gregory John. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-objective Genetic Programming. (under the direction of Edward Grant.)  

E-print Network

them to fly real UAVs. #12;DESIGN OF AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION CONTROLLERS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLESAbstract Barlow, Gregory John. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-objective Genetic Programming. (under the direction of Edward Grant.) Unmanned aerial

Fernandez, Thomas

3

Aerial Work Platform Safety Program  

E-print Network

Aerial Work Platform Safety Program Updated: July 22, 2013 #12;Aerial Work Platform Safety Program..................................................................................................................................7 Electrical Hazards ..........................................................................................................11 #12;Aerial Work Platform Safety Program 1 The official version of this information will only

Holland, Jeffrey

4

Wireless Relay Communications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

in which Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used as relays between ground-based terminals and a network1 Wireless Relay Communications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Performance and Optimization network backbone, which made use of unmanned vehicles including UAVs [5] and dealt with the resulting

Swindlehurst, A. Lee

5

Monocular vision SLAM for indoor aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel indoor navigation and ranging strategy by using a monocular camera. The proposed algorithms are integrated with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with a focus on indoor aerial vehicle applications. We experimentally validate the proposed algorithms by using a fully self-contained micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. The range measurement strategy

Koray Celik; Soon-Jo Chung; Matthew Clausman; Arun K. Somani

2009-01-01

6

Obstacle and Terrain Avoidance for Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and strategy around the world.\\u000a Technology advancements have enabled the development of large UAVs (e.g., Global Hawk, Predator) and the creation of smaller,\\u000a increasingly capable UAVs. The focus of this Chapter is on smaller fixed-wing miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs), which range\\u000a in size from % to 2 m

S. Griffiths; J. Saunders; A. Curtis; B. Barber; T. McLain; R. Beard

7

Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP)  

SciTech Connect

The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various scientific communities inside and outside of ARM and the associated working groups, 3) the coordination and selection of the relative importance of the three different focus areas (routine observations, IOPs, instrument development program), 4) the examination and quality control of the data collected by AVP, and 5) providing field support for flight series. This report documents the accomplishments in each of these focus areas for the 3 years of funding for the grant that were provided.

Greg M. McFarquhar

2011-10-21

8

Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States); Lamp, T. [Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Wright Lab.

1997-12-31

9

A survey of quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a topic of interest in many research organizations. UAVs are finding applications in various areas ranging from military applications to traffic surveillance. This paper is a survey for a certain kind of UAV called quadrotor or quadcopter. Researchers are frequently choosing quadrotors for their research because a quadrotor can accurately

Shweta Gupte; Paul Infant Teenu Mohandas; James M. Conrad

2012-01-01

10

Model simplification of an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors describe the process of model simplification that can be done to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in straight steady flight condition. The aim of the process is to find a simple model that can approximate as good as possible the physical model of the AR.Drone quadcopter designed by Parrot. The non-linear dynamic model of this

Ioan-Radu Morar; Ioan Nascu

2012-01-01

11

Visual navigation of a quadrotor Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vision-based navigation strategy for a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a single embedded camera observing natural landmarks. In the proposed approach, images of the environment are first sampled and stored as a set of ordered key images (visual path) and organized providing a visual memory of the environment. The robot navigation

Jonathan Courbon; Youcef Mezouar; Nicolas Guenard; Philippe Martinet

2009-01-01

12

Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation

Kitt C. Reinhardt; Thomas R. Lamp; Jack W. Geis; A. J. Colozza

1996-01-01

13

Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable  

E-print Network

Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable Surgical Robot Mitchell J on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were environment and to control it through an unconventional data link such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

14

Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination  

E-print Network

1 Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination F.B. da Silva S.D. Scott-mail: halab@mit.edu #12;2 Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination by F.B. da Silva, S.D. Scott, and M.L. Cummings Executive Summary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, despite

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

15

Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Research into reactive collision avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles has been conducted on unmanned terrestrial and mini aerial vehicles utilising active Doppler radar obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed that a simple reactive collision avoidance al- gorithm enables aerial vehicles to autonomously avoid obstacles. This builds upon simulation work

Andrew Viquerat; Lachlan Blackhall; Alistair Reid; Salah Sukkarieh; Graham Brooker

2007-01-01

16

Robust trajectory planning for unmanned aerial vehicles in uncertain environments  

E-print Network

As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) take on more prominent roles in aerial missions, it becomes necessary to increase the level of autonomy available to them within the mission planner. In order to complete realistic mission ...

Luders, Brandon (Brandon Douglas)

2008-01-01

17

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System  

E-print Network

This research will proposed a new kind of relatively low cost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make just in time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaics of aerial photo should be able to be produced with relatively low cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint. The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payload management system specifically developed for rapid aerial mapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the key factor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectified aerial mapping). This system will also be equipped with special software to post process the aerial photos to produce the mosaic aerial photo map

Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

2008-01-01

18

Morphing Inflatable Wing Development for Compact Package Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

any military and commercial applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been identified and numerous vehicles are under development. Many of these vehicles have a need to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun launch or packaging into aircraft mounted aerial drop assemblies. One technology that has shown promise in achieving this goal is

David Cadogan; Tim Smith; Matt MacKusick

19

Trajectory optimization for target localization using small unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. One particular mission of interest ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2008-01-01

20

Modeling and adaptive control of indoor unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

The operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in constrained indoor environments presents many unique challenges in control and planning. This thesis investigates modeling, adaptive control and trajectory optimization ...

Michini, Bernard (Bernard J.)

2009-01-01

21

Motion Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Resource Constraints  

E-print Network

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are currently used in several surveillance applications to monitor a set of targets and collect relevant data. One of the main constraints that characterize a small UAV is the maximum amount of fuel the vehicle...

Sundar, Kaarthik

2012-10-19

22

Aerospace Industry Opportunities in Australia UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVs)  

E-print Network

Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been around since the dawn of aviation, and Australia has been developing stations;payloads;anddatacommunication,storage,processing,anddissemination(Information Technology-2002) - presented at AUVSI '96 1 Introduction Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been around since the dawn

Wong, K. C.

23

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, is a game for the PC. The player controls a UAV, which  

E-print Network

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, is a game for the PC. The player controls a UAV, which the player must use to eliminate a target with a missile while maximizing the casualties player driven narrative. -Mechanics Movement is controlled by the WASD keys. In order to simulate UAV

Li, Mo

24

Study of visual cues for unmanned aerial vehicle waypoint allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual cues for an operator station for unmanned aerial vehicles were evaluated in a simulation study. Vehicle position and heading information was displayed on a platform map, and simulated video imagery from the vehicle was provided. Two video camera orientations were used, facing forward or sideways from the vehicle. A camera field-of-view icon on the map was also tested. Subjects

Tan T. Trinh; James K. Kuchar

1999-01-01

25

Decision Support Visualizations for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Decision Support Visualizations for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Amy S, 02139 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are quickly becoming indispensable in military operations applications. U Current unmanned aerial systems (UASs) require support from a multiple personnel ground

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

26

Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

2008-03-01

27

Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Corp., Brookpark, OH (United States). Aerospace Technology Development

1996-12-31

28

Low altitude threat evasive trajectory generation for autonomous aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

In recent years, high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles have been used to great success in combat operations, providing both reconnaissance as well as weapon launch platforms for time critical targets. Interest is now ...

Pettit, Ryan L. (Ryan Louis), 1978-

2004-01-01

29

Visibility maximization with unmanned aerial vehicles in complex environments  

E-print Network

Unmanned aerial vehicles are used extensively in persistent surveillance, search and track, border patrol, and environment monitoring applications. Each of these applications requires the obtainment of information using a ...

Lee, Kenneth (Kenneth King Ho)

2010-01-01

30

Autonomous quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle for culvert inspection  

E-print Network

This document presents work done to lay the foundation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for inspecting culverts. By expanding upon prior progress creating an autonomous indoor quadrotor, many basic hardware and ...

Serrano, Nathan E

2011-01-01

31

A distributed embedded software architecture for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

In order to deploy intelligent, next-generation applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), we must first develop a software architecture that supports onboard computation and flexible communication. This thesis ...

Matczynski, Michael J

2006-01-01

32

Natural language processing for unmanned aerial vehicle guidance interfaces  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the opportunities and challenges involved in applying natural language processing techniques to the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are addressed. The problem of controlling an unmanned aircraft ...

Craparo, Emily M. (Emily Marie), 1980-

2004-01-01

33

Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with anti-windup compensation. Our analysis on the indirect adaptive scheme reveals that the perturbation terms due to parameter errors do not cause any unbounded signals in the closed-loop. The stability of the adaptive system is established, and the properties of the proposed control scheme are demonstrated through simulations on a UAV model with input magnitude saturation constraints. The robust adaptive control design is further developed to extend our results to rate-saturated systems.

Kahveci, Nazli E.

34

Efficient C-Space and Cost Function Updates in 3D for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Efficient C-Space and Cost Function Updates in 3D for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Sebastian Scherer aerial vehicle with on-board sensing and computing. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have than ground vehicles. Any object close to the intended path of an air vehicle must be avoided

Scherer, Sebastian

35

Development of a Proof-of-Concept Backpackable Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

E-print Network

??This thesis documents the design and development of a robust backpackable proof-of-concept unmanned aerial vehicle. The unmanned aerial vehicle?s design departs from existing configurations in… (more)

Walker, Calvin Russell

2006-01-01

36

Situational Awareness of a Ground Robot from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Situational Awareness of a Ground Robot from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Daniel Hager Thesis system that allows for safe deployment and operation of a ground robot from an unmanned aerial vehicle an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Daniel Hager ABSTRACT In the operation of unmanned vehicles, safety is a primary

Kochersberger, Kevin

37

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management  

E-print Network

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management is in very remote areas that are expensive and often impossible to access on the ground. Unmanned Aerial perspectives across broader spatial extents is unrivaled. Keywords: Small unmanned aerial vehicles, aerial

38

Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring  

E-print Network

Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased considerably a UAV relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. Additional advantages over piloted aircraft

39

Avionics and control system development for mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

A flight control system was developed to achieve mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a part of the Parent Child Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (PCUAV) project at MIT and the Draper Laboratory. A lateral ...

Park, Sanghyuk, 1973-

2004-01-01

40

Temporal Range Registration for Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iterative temporal registration algorithm is presented in this article for registering 3D range images obtained from unmanned\\u000a ground and aerial vehicles traversing unstructured environments. We are primarily motivated by the development of 3D registration\\u000a algorithms to overcome both the unavailability and unreliability of Global Positioning System (GPS) within required accuracy\\u000a bounds for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation. After suitable

Rad Madhavan; Tsai Hong; Elena Messina

2005-01-01

41

Combined Visual and Inertial Navigation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Combined Visual and Inertial Navigation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Jonathan Kelly, Srikanth Angeles, California, USA 90089-0781 {jonathsk,srik,gaurav}@usc.edu Summary. We describe an UAV navigation system which combines stereo visual odometry with inertial measurements from an IMU. Our approach fuses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

42

Formation of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, control laws are designed to achieve desired flight formations for a group of unmanned (uninhabited) aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that the formation is led and managed by a leader UAV, which determines desired (for instance, safe and achievable) flight trajectories for a group of follower UAVs. Having the desired trajectories, control laws are designed to

T. John KOO; Shahram M. Shahruz

2001-01-01

43

Direct Adaptive Tracking Control of Quadrotor Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel adaptive control algorithm solving the trajectory tracking problem for quadrotor aerial vehicles. The control law is derived using a backstepping procedure. A technique derived from dynamic surface con- trol is used to simplify the expression of the obtained control algorithm, with no significant loss in terms of performance. Proof of stability is obtained using Lyapunov

Yannick Morel; Alexander Leonessa

2006-01-01

44

The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system that has been developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology, called the GTMax. This description will include the processes put in place to enable the system to be used for UAV-technology research, including effective flight testing. Research UAVs are characterized by the need for

Eric N. Johnson; Daniel P. Schrage

2003-01-01

45

System Integration and Operation of a Research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flight simulation tools to reduce the schedule, risk, and required amount of flight-testing for complex aerospace systems is a well-recognized benefit of these approaches. However, some special challenges arise when one attempts to obtain these benefits for the development and operation of a research Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. Research UAV systems are characterized by the need

Eric N. Johnson; Daniel P. Schrage

2004-01-01

46

Design of a Small Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports on a conceptual design of a solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a mass no more than 10 kg. This UAV will have the necessary equipment to study wildfires in California, including a Global Positioning System (GPS) and infrared cameras. Using similar aircraft in the same weight class, the geometry of the aircraft was calculated. A weight

Christopher Hartney

2011-01-01

47

Optimizing Trajectories for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Patrolling the Border  

E-print Network

Optimizing Trajectories for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Patrolling the Border Chris Kiekintveld are exactly opposite. This is how such situations are planned now: this is how border patrol agents in terms of words from natural language. In this paper, on an example of an UAV patrolling the border, we

Kreinovich, Vladik

48

Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

Bayraktar, Selcuk

2006-01-01

49

MULTI-FUNCTIONALAUTOPILOT DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTS FOR ROTORCRAFT-BASED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

MULTI-FUNCTIONALAUTOPILOT DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTS FOR ROTORCRAFT-BASED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES is considered risky, unnecessary, and/or impossible. For these situations,Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs for rotorcraft-basedunmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs) for cooperative multi-agent scenarios.The issues of multi

Sastry, S. Shankar

50

The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax Eric N. Johnson* and Daniel P. Schrage  

E-print Network

This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVThe Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax Eric N. Johnson* and Daniel P. Schrage be utilized. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the development of an open system Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

Johnson, Eric N.

51

Cross Layer Design for Mobile Ad-Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks  

E-print Network

Cross Layer Design for Mobile Ad-Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks Abdel Ilah of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Ad-Hoc net- work, the layered architecture is not flexible enough to achieve for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (IMAC UAV). As for the routing protocol, We developed the Optimized Link State

Dong, Liang

52

Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control  

E-print Network

Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control by Yoshiaki Students #12;2 #12;Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control This thesis investigates the coordination and control of fleets of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Future

53

Collaborative Sensing by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles W. T. Luke Teacy, Jing Nie,  

E-print Network

, advances in airframe design and con- trol technology mean that using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVsCollaborative Sensing by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles W. T. Luke Teacy, Jing Nie, Sally Mc.trigoni,stephen.cameron}@comlab.ox.ac.uk ABSTRACT In many military and civilian applications, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide

Martin, Ralph R.

54

Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing  

E-print Network

Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism Kaan-- In this work a dynamic model of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle that is equipped with a tilt-wing mechanism, LQR, Quadrotor, Tilt-wing, VTOL. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) designed for various

Ã?Â?nel, Mustafa

55

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased considerably in recent  

E-print Network

Abstract The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased. Introduction Civilian applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have increased considerably in recent Acquisition, Or thorectification, and Object-based Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UA V) Imager y

56

Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight planning was done using the MdCockpit software, with the module waypoint editor. Flight route file was downloaded into the quadrocopter autonomous chip via cable. A total of twelve vertical images with a longitudinal and transversal overlapping of 60% and 50% respectively were taken. The digital camera was previously geometrically calibrated. Field control points covering the whole studied area were defined over the area of interest and their coordinates were measured by a GPS. Natural targets were used as field control points. The close range photogrammetric software Photomodeler Scanner v.7 was used in this work to calibrate the camera and to carry out the photogrammetric process. The software Golden Surfer was used to produce the DEM. The planimetric and the altimetric root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated in order to check the accuracy of the products. The RMSEx was 6 cm, the RMSEy was 4 cm and the RMSEy was 7 cm. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of orthophotos and DEMs obtained from images captured from a quadrocopter using low cost photogrammetric software. A future work can be the comparison of the products obtained following the route used in this study where the images are taken vertically with the products obtained with an orbital route where the number of images will be diminished and the photos will be taken oblique.

Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

2013-08-01

57

Low-Cost Multispectral Aerial Imaging using Autonomous Runway-Free Small Flying Wing Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial imaging has become very important to areas like remote sensing and surveying. However, it has remained ex- pensive and difficult to obtain with high temporal and spatial resolutions. This paper presents a method to retrieve georef- erenced aerial images by using a small UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). Obtaining aerial images this way is inexpensive, easy-to-use and allows for high

Austin M. Jensen; Marc Baumann; Yangquan Chen

2008-01-01

58

Intelligent Operation Using Terrain Following Flight in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach in terrain following\\/terrain avoidance (TF\\/TA) flight is proposed. Due to existing unknown terrain during flight, an intelligent approach is used. Intelligence is implemented using the fuzzy approach. This method can be used in off-line design in trajectory planning which has wide applications in TF\\/TA maneuvers in unmanned aerial vehicles. A relationship between slope of terrain and aircraft

M. Rahim; Seyed M. Malaek

2007-01-01

59

A Low-Cost System for Indoor Motion Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

A Low-Cost System for Indoor Motion Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Sylvain Bertrand and performance analysis of an indoor low-cost motion tracking system for minia- ture Unmanned Aerial Vehicles constraints for reliable motion tracking of a miniature UAV. I. INTRODUCTION Miniature Unmanned Aerial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

60

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

61

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

1994-01-01

62

Infrared microsensor payload for miniature unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a category of aircraft small enough to be transported, launched, operated, and retrieved by a crew of one or two. The concept is not new, having been in limited use by the U.S. military over the past fifteen years, but interest in potential applications is growing as size and cost of the vehicles come down. An application that is particularly significant to the military and law-enforcement agencies is remote reconnaissance, with one or more onboard sensors transmitting data back to the operator(s) in real time. Typically, a miniature UAV is capable of flying a pre-programmed route autonomously, with manual override as an option. At the conclusion of the mission, the vehicle returns for landing, after which it can be quickly disassembled and stowed until its next use. Thermal imaging extends the utility of miniature UAVs to operations in complete darkness and limited visibility, but historically thermal imagers have been too large and heavy for this application. That changed in 1999 with the introduction of Indigo System's AlphaTM camera, which established a new class of thermal imaging product termed the infrared "microsensor". Substantially smaller and lighter than any other infrared imaging product available at the time, AlphaTMwas the first camera that could be readily packaged into the nose of a miniature UAV. Its low power consumption was also a key enabling feature. Building upon the success of AlphaTM, Indigo then took the microsensor class a step further with its OmegaTM camera, which broke all the records established by AlphaTM for small size, weight, and power. OmegaTM has been successfully integrated into several miniature UAVs, including AeroVironment's Pointer and Raven, as well as the Snake Eye UAV manufactured by BAI Aerosystems. Aspects of the OmegaTM design that have led to its utility on these and other platforms are described, and future prospects for even smaller microsensors are discussed.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Laband, Stan; Terre, William A.; Petrovich, Peter; Swanson, Kyle; Sundra, Carrie; Sener, Ward; Wilmott, Jay

2003-09-01

63

An Optimization-based Approach to Time Critical Cooperative Surveillance and Coverage with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Aerial Vehicles Ali Ahmadzadeh, James Keller, George J. Pappas, Ali Jadbabaie and Vijay Kumar I, elec- trically powered fixed-wing aerial vehicle that feature body fixed cameras to provide a low capability to enable this class of vehicles to perform missions arguably outside of their design envelope

Pappas, George J.

64

Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Physical Sciences and Engineering Division Mechanical Engineering Department Master of Science Optimisation of Lagrangian Flash Flood Microsensors Dropped by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle by Mohammed… (more)

Abdulaal, Mohammed

2014-01-01

65

Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

2014-06-01

66

A MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV): SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND IMAGE ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-systems became relevant for applications in precision farming and in infrastructure maintenance, like road maintenance and dam surveillance. This paper gives an overview about UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) systems and their application for photogrammetric recording and documentation of cultural heritage. First the historical development of UAV systems and the definition of UAV-helicopte rs

Henri Eisenbeiss

2004-01-01

67

AN EXPLORATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DIRECT MANIPULATION THROUGH 3D SPATIAL INTERACTION  

E-print Network

AN EXPLORATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DIRECT MANIPULATION THROUGH 3D SPATIAL INTERACTION of directly manipulating an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Particularly, a study of touch- and device- free robust and potentially more meaningful scale. We discuss the design and development of various 3D

Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

68

Image-Based Visual Servo Control of the Translation Kinematics of a Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate a range of image-based visual servo control algorithms for regulation of the position of a quadrotor aerial vehicle. The most promising control algorithms have been successfully implemented on an autonomous aerial vehicle and demonstrate excellent performance.

Odile Bourquardez; Robert E. Mahony; Nicolas Guenard; François Chaumette; Tarek Hamel; Laurent Eck

2009-01-01

69

A Framework for the Scalable Control of Swarms of Unmanned Ground Vehicles with Unmanned Aerial Vehi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-We address the problem of deploying groups of tens or hundreds of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in urban environments where one or more unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to coordinate the groups. We envision a paradigm in which a UAV with aerial cameras can be used to monitor and command a swarm of UGVs, and a hierarchy allowing

Luiz Chaimowicz; Vijay Kumar

2004-01-01

70

Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Current Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ­ Current Status and Future Directions George have highlighted the potential utility for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Both fixed wing and rotary/rescue operations. Future combat operations will continue to place unmanned aircraft in challenging conditions

Antsaklis, Panos

71

Modeling and Control of Bisymmetric Aerial Vehicles Subjected to Drag and Lift  

E-print Network

(hovering). On the other hand, energy consumption is high due to small lift-to-drag ratios. By contrastModeling and Control of Bisymmetric Aerial Vehicles Subjected to Drag and Lift Daniele Pucci1 Tarek- propelled aerial vehicles subjected to lift and drag aerodynamic forces is addressed. Assuming a rotational

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

72

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes  

E-print Network

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes Wesam H. Al-Sabban, Luis F. Gonzalez and Ryan N. Smith Abstract-- Exploiting wind-energy is one possible way to extend the flight duration of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Wind-energy can also be used

Smith, Ryan N.

73

Solving the SLAM Problem for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Smoothed Estimates  

E-print Network

Solving the SLAM Problem for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Smoothed Estimates Zoran Sjanic, Martin present a solution to the simulta- neous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) using a camera and inertial sensors. A good SLAM solution is an important enabler

Schön, Thomas

74

Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.  

PubMed

With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

2005-01-01

75

Surface classification via unmanned aerial vehicles gripper finger deflection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this thesis is to ascertain the feasibility of using strain gauges attached to a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) gripper to determine, upon impact, the hardness of a landing site. We design and fabricate a four finger gripper that uses a rotary component to convert the rotational motion of a servo to the linear motion of the finger assemblies. We functionally test a gripper prototype made from rapid-prototype material. We conduct three experiments to test the gripper's functionality. The first experiment tests the gripper's ability to grasp, lift, and release a centered payload, and the gripper performed with overall success rates of 91%, 100%, and 87% respectively. The second experiment tests the gripper's ability to self-align, lift and release the payload and the gripper performed with overall success rates of 99%, 100%, and 96% respectively. The third experiment tests the functional durability of the gripper, and it performed without error for 5000 open/close cycles.

Van Hoosear, Christopher A.

76

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

77

Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upwards with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally we propose a new GPS independent control strategy for exploiting...

Ákos, Zsuzsa; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás; 10.1088/1748-3182/5/4/045003

2010-01-01

78

76 FR 61750 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts...to reduce workers' risk of death or serious injury by ensuring...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial...

2011-10-05

79

Hierarchical Motion Planning for Autonomous Aerial and Terrestrial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous mobile robots---both aerial and terrestrial vehicles---have gained immense importance due to the broad spectrum of their potential military and civilian applications. One of the indispensable requirements for the autonomy of a mobile vehicle is the vehicle's capability of planning and executing its motion, that is, finding appropriate control inputs for the vehicle such that the resulting vehicle motion satisfies the requirements of the vehicular task. The motion planning and control problem is inherently complex because it involves two disparate sub-problems: (1) satisfaction of the vehicular task requirements, which requires tools from combinatorics and/or formal methods, and (2) design of the vehicle control laws, which requires tools from dynamical systems and control theory. Accordingly, this problem is usually decomposed and solved over two levels of hierarchy. The higher level, called the geometric path planning level, finds a geometric path that satisfies the vehicular task requirements, e.g., obstacle avoidance. The lower level, called the trajectory planning level, involves sufficient smoothening of this geometric path followed by a suitable time parametrization to obtain a reference trajectory for the vehicle. Although simple and efficient, such hierarchical decomposition suffers a serious drawback: the geometric path planner has no information of the kinematical and dynamical constraints of the vehicle. Consequently, the geometric planner may produce paths that the trajectory planner cannot transform into a feasible reference trajectory. Two main ideas appear in the literature to remedy this problem: (a) randomized sampling-based planning, which eliminates the geometric planner altogether by planning in the vehicle state space, and (b) geometric planning supported by feedback control laws. The former class of methods suffer from a lack of optimality of the resultant trajectory, while the latter class of methods makes a restrictive assumption concerning the vehicle kinematical model. We propose a hierarchical motion planning framework based on a novel mode of interaction between these two levels of planning. This interaction rests on the solution of a special shortest-path problem on graphs, namely, one using costs defined on multiple edge transitions in the path instead of the usual single edge transition costs. These costs are provided by a local trajectory generation algorithm, which we implement using model predictive control and the concept of effective target sets for simplifying the non-convex constraints involved in the problem. The proposed motion planner ensures "consistency" between the two levels of planning, i.e., a guarantee that the higher level geometric path is always associated with a kinematically and dynamically feasible trajectory. The main contributions of this thesis are: 1. A motion planning framework based on history-dependent costs (H-costs) in cell decomposition graphs for incorporating vehicle dynamical constraints: this framework offers distinct advantages in comparison with the competing approaches of discretization of the state space, of randomized sampling-based motion planning, and of local feedback-based, decoupled hierarchical motion planning, 2. An efficient and flexible algorithm for finding optimal H-cost paths, 3. A precise and general formulation of a local trajectory problem (the tile motion planning problem) that allows independent development of the discrete planner and the trajectory planner, while maintaining "compatibility" between the two planners, 4. A local trajectory generation algorithm using mpc, and the application of the concept of effective target sets for a significant simplification of the local trajectory generation problem, 5. The geometric analysis of curvature-bounded traversal of rectangular channels, leading to less conservative results in comparison with a result reported in the literature, and also to the efficient construction of effective target sets for the solution of the tile motion planning problem, 6. A wavel

Cowlagi, Raghvendra V.

80

Real-time aerial video exploitation station for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SET Corporation, under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, is building a Real-time Aerial Video Exploitation (RAVE) Station for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). Users of SUAVs have in general been underserved by the exploitation community because of the unique challenges of operating in the SUAV environment. SUAVs are often used by small teams without the benefits of dedicated personnel, equipment, and time for exploitation. Thus, effective exploitation tools for these users must have sufficiently automated capabilities to keep demands on the team's labor low, with the ability to process video and display results in real-time on commonly-found ruggedized laptops. The RAVE Station provides video stabilization, mosaicking, moving target indicators (MTI), tracking, and target classification, and displays the results in several different display modes. This paper focuses on features of the RAVE Station implementation that make it efficient, low-cost, and easy to use. The software architecture is a pipeline model, allowing each processing module to tap off the pipe, and to add new information back into the stream, keeping redundancy to a minimum. The software architecture is also open, allowing new algorithms to be developed and plugged in. Frame-to-frame registration is performed by a feature-tracking algorithm which employs RANSAC to discard outlying matches. MTI is performed via a fast and robust three frame differencing algorithm. The user interface and exploitation functions are simple, easy to learn and use. RAVE is a capable exploitation tool that meets the needs of SUAV users despite their challenging environment.

Gregga, Jason B.; Pope, Art; Kielmeyer, Kathy; Ran, Yang

2008-04-01

81

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces our robotic system named UGAV (Unmanned Ground-Air Vehicle) consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The paper focuses on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and UAV: (A) teleoperated control by means of cell or smart phones with a new concept of automatic configuration

Hartmut Surmann; Dirk Holz; Sebastian Blumental; Thorsten Linder; Peter Molitor; Viatcheslav Tretyakov

2008-01-01

82

BACKGROUND IMAGE: PHOTODISC nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to  

E-print Network

of targets on the ground. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) can be deployed to accurately aspect of this work is the synergistic integration of aerial and ground vehicles that exhibit. Ground vehicles, on the other hand, offer Cooperative Air and Ground Surveillance A Scalable Approach

Pappas, George J.

83

Considerations for Use of Aerial Views In Remote Unmanned Ground Vehicle Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) operations place the human operator at a perceptual disadvantage. Adding aerial views can benefit the operator's spatial cognition by supplying the missing contextual information regarding the vehicle's position and relation to other objects in the space surrounding the vehicle. In order to benefit from this additional information the operator must control and integrate multiple viewpoints.

Roger A. Chadwick

84

Mission Specification and Control for Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles for Indoor Target Discovery and Tracking  

E-print Network

Mission Specification and Control for Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles for Indoor Target of unmanned vehicles in mixed indoor/outdoor reconnaissance scenarios. We outline the tools and techniques microautonomous vehicles become available. In the scenarios that serve as the focus of this paper, an unmanned

85

Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

Sabo, Chelsea

86

Swarm Control in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Henry Hexmoor, Brian McLaughlan, and Matt Baker  

E-print Network

Swarm Control in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Henry Hexmoor, Brian McLaughlan, and Matt Baker to the US military. This paper reports on a project that models control of a fleet of unmanned aerial. In this paper, we present our design and implementation of UAV group control in a fully implemented simulated

Hexmoor, Henry

87

Trajectory Planning and Re-planning Strategies Applied to a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Trajectory Planning and Re-planning Strategies Applied to a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Abbas environment and other operational re- quirements [1]. The quadrotor helicopter is one of the unmanned aerial] for a non-linear model of a quadrotor helicopter. In [3], adaptive path planning algorithms are developed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted  

E-print Network

lifts Link: Occupational Safety and Health Administration www.osha.gov #12;Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle, if they can be installed safely. Aerial Lifts Safety Tip #11 A spill, a slip, a hospital trip #12;Additional

Minnesota, University of

89

Tracking of atmospheric release of pollution using unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking of an atmospheric release of pollution is usually based on measurements provided by stationary networks, occasionally complemented with deployment of mobile sensors. In this paper, we extend the existing concept to the case where the sensors are carried onboard of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The decision theoretic framework is used to design an unsupervised algorithm that navigates the UAVs to minimize the selected loss function. A particle filter with a problem-tailored proposal function was used as the underlying data assimilation procedure. A range of simulated twin experiments was performed on the problem of tracking an accidental release of radiation from a nuclear power plant in realistic settings. The main uncertainty was in the released activity and in parametric bias of the numerical weather forecast. It was shown that the UAVs can complement the existing stationary network to improve the accuracy of data assimilation. Moreover, two autonomously navigated UAVs alone were shown to provide assimilation results comparable to those obtained using the stationary network with more than thirty sensors.

Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek

2013-03-01

90

Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

1998-07-01

91

Helmet-mounted displays for unmanned aerial vehicle control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was performed to assess the effect of using a Helmet Mounted Display (HMD) versus a conventional computer monitor and joystick to perform an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor operator target search task. Eight subjects were evaluated on objective performance measures including their target detection accuracy and responses, in addition to subjective measures including workload, fatigue, situational awareness, and simulator sickness in both experimental conditions. Subjects were flown through a virtual world and asked to identify objects as targets, non-targets, or distractors. Results for objective measures indicated no difference in the operators' ability to accurately classify targets and non-targets. The subjects' ability to place the cursor on a target of interset (targeting accuracy), was, however, significantly better in the computer monitor condition than the HMD. The distance at which subjects could classify an object's identity was also significantly better in the computer monitor condition. Subjective measures showed no overall differences for sel-reported fatigue, workload, and situational awareness. A significant disadvantage, however, was found for the HMD with respect to self-reported nausea, disorientation, and oculomotor strain. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the incorporation of HMDs into UAV ground control station operations.

Morphew, M. Ephimia; Shively, Jay R.; Casey, Daniel

2004-09-01

92

Developing a Conceptual Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communications Mobile AD Hoc Network Simulation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A growing demand for increased networking interoperability has spawned a requirement for ad hoc networking. One proposal to satisfy the need is development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) communications Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (NANET) . In order to establ...

H. L. Blackshear

2002-01-01

93

Autonomous navigation and tracking of dynamic surface targets on-board a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of an independent, on-board visual servoing system which allows a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle to autonomously identify and track a dynamic surface target. Image ...

Selby, William Clayton

2011-01-01

94

Embedded avionics with Kalman state estimation for a novel micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

An inertial navigation system leveraging Kalman estimation techniques and quaternion dynamics is developed for deployment to a micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The capabilities, limitations, and requirements of ...

Tzanetos, Theodore

2013-01-01

95

Effect of auditory peripheral displays on unmanned aerial vehicle operator performance  

E-print Network

With advanced autonomy, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations will likely be conducted by single operators controlling multiple UAVs. As operator attention is divided across multiple supervisory tasks, there is a need ...

Graham, Hudson D

2008-01-01

96

Human-RRT collaboration in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle mission path planning  

E-print Network

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used for a variety of military and commercial purposes, including surveillance, combat, and search and rescue. Current research is looking into combining automation with human supervision ...

Griner, Alina

2012-01-01

97

Implementation of mechanical, electrical, and feedback control systems in unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

The thesis objective was to design an unmanned aerial vehicle that was capable of stable, autonomous flight. A fixed wing aircraft was chosen to simplify some of the flight characteristics and avoid some of the challenges ...

Tan, Derrick (Derrick Chi-Ho)

2006-01-01

98

StarVis : a configural decision support tool for schedule management of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) become increasingly autonomous, current single-UAV operations involving multiple personnel could transition to a single operator simultaneously supervising multiple UAVs in high-level ...

Brzezinski, Amy S

2008-01-01

99

Auditory Decision Aiding in Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the effectiveness of sonification, continuous auditory alert mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. Background: UAV supervisory ...

Donmez, B.

2009-01-01

100

Effect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Performance  

E-print Network

. These continuous alerts were tested against single beep discrete alerts. The results show that the use of the continuous audio alerts enhances a single operator's performance in monitoringEffect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Performance

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

101

LQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Efe Sirimoglu, Cevdet Hancer, Taylan Ayken, and Mustafa Unel  

E-print Network

, SMC I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) designed for various missions such as surveillanceLQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Efe and control of a new tilt-wing aerial vehicle (SUAVI: Sabanci University Unmanned Aerial VehIcle

Yanikoglu, Berrin

102

Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

2011-01-01

103

An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

1998-12-01

104

Vehicle detection and tracking in wide field-of-view aerial video  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a joint probabilistic relation graph approach to simultaneously detect and track a large number of vehicles in low frame rate aerial videos. Due to low frame rate, low spatial resolution and sheer number of moving objects, detection and tracking in wide area video poses unique challenges. In this paper, we explore vehicle behavior model from road structure

Jiangjian Xiao; Hui Cheng; Harpreet S. Sawhney; Feng Han

2010-01-01

105

Decentralized linear time-varying model predictive control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hierarchical MPC approach to stabilization and autonomous navigation of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), under constraints on motor thrusts, angles and positions, and under collision avoidance constraints. Each vehicle is of quadcopter type and is stabilized by a local linear time-invariant (LTI) MPC controller at the lower level of the control hierarchy around commanded

Alberto Bemporad; Claudio Rocchi

2011-01-01

106

A Hierarchical Approach to Probabilistic Pursuit-Evasion Games with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of having a team of Un- manned Ground Vehicles (UGV) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) pursue a team of evaders while con- currently building a map in an unknown environment. We cast this problem in a probabilistic game-theoretic framework and consider two computationally feasible pursuit policies: greedy and global-max. We implement this scenario on a eet

H. Jin Kim Ren; Vidal David; H. Shim; Omid Shakernia; Shankar Sastry

2001-01-01

107

A hierarchical approach to probabilistic pursuit-evasion games with unmanned ground and aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of having a team of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) pursue a team of evaders while concurrently building a map in an unknown environment. We cast this problem in a probabilistic game-theoretic framework and consider two computationally feasible pursuit policies: greedy and global-max. We implement this scenario on a fleet of UGVs

H. J. Kim; R. Vidal; D. H. Shim; Omid Shakernia; Shankar Sastry

2001-01-01

108

Modeling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Modeling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dongwon Jung identification algorithm. A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment is developed to support visualization of the vehicle's motion completes the simulation environment. The hardware-in-the-loop setup

Tsiotras, Panagiotis

109

A Combined Wiimote-Camera Tracking System for Small Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Wii remote (Wiimote) controller and a conventional video camera are used to perform real-time position tracking of an aerial vehicle. The combination of the Wiimote's infrared and video camera fields of view creates a virtual cube in which motion can be fully monitored. This controlled space allows a vehicle to navigate with no onboard sensors. The

H. Vargas; E. Preza; R. Velazquez

2009-01-01

110

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes  

E-print Network

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision wind-energy is one possible way to ex- tend flight duration for Unmanned Arial Vehicles. Wind-energy sources of wind energy available to exploit for this problem [5]: 1) Vertical air motion, such as thermal

Smith, Ryan N.

111

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Setar Inc., Brookpark, OH (United States); Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1994-12-31

112

Design of a GaAs/Ge Solar Array for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

1995-01-01

113

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J.; Colozza, A.J.

1995-03-01

114

Use of Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles for the Exploration of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the thin, cold, carbon dioxide-based atmosphere of Mars, recent work at NASA Ames has suggested that vertical lift (based on rotary-wing technology) planetary aerial vehicles could potentially be developed to support Mars exploration missions. The use of robotic vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles (VL PAVs) would greatly augment the science return potential of Mars exploration. Many technical challenges exist in the development of vertical lift vehicles for planetary exploration. It only takes the realization that the world altitude record for a helicopter is less than 40,000 feet (versus flight at the equivalent terrestrial altitude of over 100,000 feet required to match Mars' surface atmospheric density) to appreciate the aeronautical challenges in developing these vehicles. Nonetheless, preliminary work undertaken at NASA Ames and others suggest that these vehicles are indeed viable candidates for Mars exploration.

Young, L. A.; Briggs, G. A.; Derby, M. R.; Aiken, E. W.

2000-01-01

115

Reconfigurable Path Planning for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a motion planning framework for a fully deployed autonomous unmanned aerial ve- hicle which integrates two sample-based motion plan- ning techniques, Probabilistic Roadmaps and Rapidly Exploring Random Trees. Additionally, we incorporate dynamic reconfigurability into the framework by inte- grating the motion planners with the control kernel of the UAV in a novel manner with little

Mariusz Wzorek; Patrick Doherty

2006-01-01

116

Ideas and Technology of Control Systems @RT 2011 CDC-ECC 2011 Control Design of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

of UAVs UAVs: Unmanned aerial vehicles of different size which may be used for monitoring and detection for Mission Design and Autopilot Integration: an Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles," Euro-SIW 2008Ideas and Technology of Control Systems @RT 2011 CDC-ECC 2011 CNR-IEIIT Control Design of Unmanned

Tempo, Roberto

117

Special Issue on Development of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In support of military operations and civil applications, the  

E-print Network

Editorial Special Issue on Development of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In support of military operations and civil applications, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have quickly emerged and practitioners in the fields of unmanned systems, with a common interest in the new challenges in platform design

Benmei, Chen

118

Using iFMI spectral registration for video stabilization and motion detection by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), especially in the form of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) are useful tools for reconnaissance, surveillance, and general situation assessment in safety, security, and rescue missions. Many UAV have meanwhile good autonomous flight capabilities, especially by tracking pre-planned routes via GPS or for station-keeping. Here it is shown how the video stream from an UAV can be

Soren Schwertfeger; Andreas Birk; Heiko Bulow

2011-01-01

119

Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key

Hong Yang Singhania

2008-01-01

120

Exploring 3D Gesture Metaphors for Interaction with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

metaphors for control and communication with Un- manned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) such as the Parrot AR Drone bundled with the AR Drone. We also discuss the trade-offs in the technique design metrics based on results and constructive test-beds [1]. With the arrival of low-cost robotics such as the Parrot AR Drone and Roomba, we

LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

121

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

) Inlet, diffuser and nozzle design system (6) Gas Turbine Component Matching (3) Gas Turbine HealthDESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

Camci, Cengiz

122

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some

Yan Jin; Yan Liao; Ali A. Minai; Marios M. Polycarpou

2006-01-01

123

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Model Validation Using On-Board Sensing and Instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight dynamics model has been developed to predict the stability and flying characteristics of small UAVs. Extreme flight environments can be created in the simulation for autopilot testing. Another important application of the UAV flight dynamics model is dead reckoning, a process of estimating the aircraft's motions from the last known state during the interval

D. R. Wong; Q. Ou; M. Sinclair; Y. J. Li; X. Q. Chen; A. Marburg

2008-01-01

124

Approach for autonomous control of unmanned aerial vehicle using intelligent agents for knowledge creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a planned approach for autonomous operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). A hybrid approach seeks to provide knowledge generation through the application of artificial intelligence (AI) and intelligent agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration

2004-01-01

125

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Cost Metrics for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

-tech arsenal of the US military. The focus of operations has undergone a paradigm shift with an added emphasis operations have greatly benefited from the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) as part of the high on intelligence soldiers. Similarly, a paradigm shift has taken place in the field of cost estimation. Traditional

de Weck, Olivier L.

126

Backstepping\\/nonlinear H? control for path tracking of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear robust control strategy to solve the path tracking problem for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The helicopter motion equations is obtained by the Lagrange- Euler formalism. The control structure is performed through a nonlinear Hinfin controller to stabilize the rotational movements and a control law based on backstepping approach to track the reference trajectory. Finally,

Guilherme V. Raffo; Manuel G. Ortega; Francisco R. Rubio

2008-01-01

127

Simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

a quadrotor UAV. Index Terms--Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Quadrotor, Speed estimation, Time of [1], the authors propose a velocities estimator for a tracking control of an under-actuated quadrotor propose a nice technique to estimate the speed of a quadrotor UAV from acceleration measurements, provided

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

A 3D Interface for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle B. Cervin 1  

E-print Network

A 3D Interface for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle B. Cervin 1 , C. Mills1 , and B. C. Wünsche2 1 Dept (JGSF) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Furthermore the design of the interface enables its integration into the Virtual Maritime System Architecture which will be used for the simulation of large scale

Goodman, James R.

129

Cyber security threat analysis and modeling of an unmanned aerial vehicle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technology for miniature electronic military equipment and systems have led to the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as the new weapons of war and tools used in various other areas. UAVs can easily be controlled from a remote location. They are being used for critical operations, including offensive, reconnaissance, surveillance and other civilian missions. The need to

Weiqing Sun

2012-01-01

130

Performance Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis investigates the performance of three mobile ad hoc routing protocols in the context of a swarm of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that a wireless network of nodes having an average of 5.1774 log n neighbors, where n...

M. T. Hyland

2007-01-01

131

Controllability issues in flapping flight for biomimetic micro aerial vehicles (MAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore controllability in flapping flight for micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), inch-size robots capable of autonomous flight. Differently from previous work, we focus on a MAV with very limited wing kinematics and simple input control schemes. In particular, in the first part we show how an MAV provided with a pair of wings, each with a single degree of freedom

Luca Schenato; Domenico Campolo; Shankar Sastry

2003-01-01

132

Control of a single ground vehicle using aerial and onboard camera views  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling a ground vehicle using only onboard and aerial camera views, can be a tedious task, as it is challenging for the operator to estimate information about the robots location and orientation using only these view. However the visual data can be sufficient for computerized calculation of this information even in the absence of other sensors. This approach is of

Vishal Lowalekar

2011-01-01

133

Improving unmanned aerial vehicle pilot training and operation for flying in cluttered environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future applications will bring unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to new environments such as urban areas, causing a change in the way that UAVs are currently operated. However, UAV accidents still occur at a much higher rate than the accident rate for commercial airliners. Therefore, there is a need to better train UAV pilots and augment their performance to minimize accidents.

James T. Hing; Keith W. Sevcik; Paul Y. Oh

2009-01-01

134

Mixed reality for unmanned aerial vehicle operations in near Earth environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future applications will bring unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to near Earth environments such as urban areas, causing a change in the way UAVs are currently operated. Of concern is that UAV accidents still occur at a much higher rate than the accident rate for commercial airliners. A number of these accidents can be attributed to a UAV pilot's low situation

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

2010-01-01

135

Bounded control of an underactuated biomimetic aerial vehicle -Validation with robustness tests $  

E-print Network

Bounded control of an underactuated biomimetic aerial vehicle - Validation with robustness tests of simple control laws for an em- bedded implementation on a biomimetic MAV, aiming to control its attitude-00675527,version1-1Mar2012 #12;1. Introduction Since many decades, the flapping flight mechanisms have been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

136

A Multi-objective Approach for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time Windows  

E-print Network

concept, is shown. We introduce a case study as an application scenario, where sport actions of a football advances in the area of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, for short), commonly known as drones, are opening of autonomy. A possible application of a team of UAVs, equipped with camera (referred to as camera

Boyer, Edmond

137

Safety Requirements for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) in Future Civil Airspace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses topics concerning the development of future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) so that they can operate safely within the community of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Studies by the Defense Science Board; the Office of Science and Technology; Government Accountability Office; and the Congressional Research Service: Library of Congress; have all

Robert Loh; Yi Bian; Tim Roe

2006-01-01

138

Solar Power System for experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); design and fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Solar Power System for experimental unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is designed and summarized. For the aircraft represented in this paper, solar cells were used to increase the endurance of the aircraft. Obtaining this goal, an electrical circuit was developed to measure the output power of the batteries of the aircraft during the flight. Flight tests showed that in cruise

H. Bahrami Torabi; M. Sadi; A. Yazdian Varjani

2011-01-01

139

Performance modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles with on-board energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of energy harvesting in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has received much attention in recent years. Solar powered flight of small aircraft dates back to the 1970s when the first fully solar flight of an unmanned aircraft took place. Currently, research has begun to investigate harvesting ambient vibration energy during the flight of UAVs. The authors have recently developed

Steven R. Anton; Daniel J. Inman

2011-01-01

140

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-01-01

141

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles REV2008 -www.rev-conference.org 1  

E-print Network

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles REV2008-Air Vehicle) consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV the surrounding of the robot to the operator. Cameras, mounted on Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) or Unmanned

Behnke, Sven

142

M.J.H. Lum et al. / Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) 313 Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 15, Long Beach CA, February, 2007  

E-print Network

M.J.H. Lum et al. / Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) 313 Medicine Meets Virtual. All rights reserved Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable Surgical on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were

Rosen, Jacob

143

Design and characterization of Hover Nano Aerial Vehicle (HNAV) propulsion system  

E-print Network

On October 4th 2005, DARPA released a request for proposals for a Nano-Air Vehicle (NAV) program. The program sought to develop an advanced urban reconnaissance vehicle. According the requirement imposed by DARPA, the NAV ...

Sato, Sho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

144

A fault-tolerant control architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research has presented several approaches to achieve varying degrees of fault-tolerance in unmanned aircraft. Approaches in reconfigurable flight control are generally divided into two categories: those which incorporate multiple non-adaptive controllers and switch between them based on the output of a fault detection and identification element, and those that employ a single adaptive controller capable of compensating for a variety of fault modes. Regardless of the approach for reconfigurable flight control, certain fault modes dictate system restructuring in order to prevent a catastrophic failure. System restructuring enables active control of actuation not employed by the nominal system to recover controllability of the aircraft. After system restructuring, continued operation requires the generation of flight paths that adhere to an altered flight envelope. The control architecture developed in this research employs a multi-tiered hierarchy to allow unmanned aircraft to generate and track safe flight paths despite the occurrence of potentially catastrophic faults. The hierarchical architecture increases the level of autonomy of the system by integrating five functionalities with the baseline system: fault detection and identification, active system restructuring, reconfigurable flight control; reconfigurable path planning, and mission adaptation. Fault detection and identification algorithms continually monitor aircraft performance and issue fault declarations. When the severity of a fault exceeds the capability of the baseline flight controller, active system restructuring expands the controllability of the aircraft using unconventional control strategies not exploited by the baseline controller. Each of the reconfigurable flight controllers and the baseline controller employ a proven adaptive neural network control strategy. A reconfigurable path planner employs an adaptive model of the vehicle to re-shape the desired flight path. Generation of the revised flight path is posed as a linear program constrained by the response of the degraded system. Finally, a mission adaptation component estimates limitations on the closed-loop performance of the aircraft and adjusts the aircraft mission accordingly. A combination of simulation and flight test results using two unmanned helicopters validates the utility of the hierarchical architecture.

Drozeski, Graham R.

145

Formation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs)  

E-print Network

and dampers to generate reference trajectories for a group of quadrotors. Virtual forces exerted on each vehicle are produced by using projected distances between the quadrotors. Several coordinated task--UAV, Quadrotor, Formation Control I. INTRODUCTION Quadrotor helicopters have become very popular in the last

Yanikoglu, Berrin

146

Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

147

Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Aerial Ladar Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the use of overhead high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) data for enhancing the performances of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) in vege- tated terrains. Data were collected using an airborne laser and provided prior to the robot mission. Through extensive and exhaustive field testing, we demonstrate the significance of such data in two areas: robot localization and

Nicolas Vandapel; Raghavendra Rao Donamukkala; Martial Hebert

2006-01-01

148

Simulation and Flight Control of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of continued interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing has also been developed that exhibits desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations, competition, and in prior aerodynamics studies. This paper presents a simulation model and an assessment of flight control characteristics of the vehicle. Linear state space models of the vehicle associated with typical trimmed level flight conditions and which are suitable for control system design are presented as well. The simulation is used as the basis for the design of a measurement based nonlinear dynamic inversion control system and outer loop guidance system. The vehicle/controller system is the subject of ongoing investigations of autonomous and collaborative control schemes. The results indicate that the design represents a good basis for further development of the micro aerial vehicle for autonomous and collaborative controls research.

Waszak, Martin; Davidson, John B.; Ifju, Peter G.

2002-01-01

149

An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

2002-01-01

150

Real-Time Simulation and Data Fusion of Navigation Sensors for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated navigation tool developed in the framework of an advanced study on navigation of Unmanned\\u000a Aerial Vehicles. The study aimed at testing innovative navigation sensor configurations to support fully autonomous flight\\u000a even during landings and other critical mission phases. The tool is composed of sensor simulation and data fusion software.\\u000a The most important navigation sensors that

Francesco Esposito; Domenico Accardo; Antonio Moccia; U. Ciniglio; F. Corraro; L. Garbarino

151

An Image-Sequence Compressing Algorithm Based on Homography Transformation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus on the image compressing problem of unmanned aerial vehicle with high compression ratio, fixed compressing ratio and low computational complexity requirement, a low-complexity image-sequence compressing algorithm based on homography transformation was proposed. The image sequences were dynamically divided into frame-groups according the data from airborne inertial navigation systems, and the intermediate frames in the same frame-group was b i-directionally

Junbin Gong; Chenlin Zheng; Jinwen Tian; Dingxue Wu

2010-01-01

152

Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

2004-01-01

153

Imaging from an unmanned aerial vehicle: agricultural surveillance and decision support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002, NASA’s solar-powered Pathfinder-Plus unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to conduct a proof-of-concept mission in US national airspace above the 1500ha plantation of the Kauai Coffee Company in Hawaii. While in national airspace, the transponder-equipped UAV was supervised by regional air traffic controllers and treated like a conventionally piloted aircraft. High resolution color and multispectral imaging payloads,

S. R Herwitz; L. F Johnson; S. E Dunagan; R. G Higgins; D. V Sullivan; J Zheng; B. M Lobitz; J. G Leung; B. A Gallmeyer; M Aoyagi; R. E Slye; J. A Brass

2004-01-01

154

Flocking of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by LQR Control Osamah Saif1 and Isabelle Fantoni1 and Arturo Zavala-Rio2  

E-print Network

follow one UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), which is designated as a leader. A formation flight missionFlocking of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by LQR Control Osamah Saif1 and Isabelle Fantoni1 and Arturo Zavala-R�io2 Abstract-- In this paper, we address the control problem of multiple Unmanned Aerial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles Koray C elik Student Member, IEEE, Soon-Jo Chung Member, IEEE, Matthew Clausman Student Member, IEEE,  

E-print Network

1 Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles Koray C� elik Student Member, IEEE, Soon algorithms are integrated with simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) with a focus on indoor aerial-contained micro aerial vehicle (MAV) with on-board image processing and SLAM capabilities. The range measurement

Chung, Soon-Jo

156

Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

2011-01-01

157

Decentralized target geolocation for unmanned aerial vehicle with sensor bias estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the decentralized approach of target geolocation and sensor bias estimation for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles with bearing angle sensors. The bias of bearing sensor is crucial source that impoverish accuracy of target geolocation. The decentralized estimation approach utilizes the information filtering and dual estimation. The local estimator running in each vehicle estimates the target motion and its sensor bias simultaneously in dual estimation framework. The dual estimation consists of two parallel filters, which are the state filter for target motion and the parameter filter for sensor bias. The information increments of target motion in local vehicles are shared with other vehicles in information filtering framework which is suitable for multiple sensor estimation than conventional Kalman filter. Performance comparison of the proposed decentralized geolocation algorithm with bias estimation with the centralized approaches is demonstrated by numerical simulation.

Baek, Kwangyul; Bang, Hyochoong

2012-11-01

158

Technical Note: A low cost unmanned aerial vehicle for ship based science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is compared with those already available and the motivation for its development is established. It is targeted at ship-based science missions and potential applications are described including a specific science case to measure white capping in the deep ocean. The current vehicle includes a range of more than 1000 Km, carrying a payload of 2 Kg and it can be launched and recovered from a coastal research vessel. The vehicle has flown successfully in Force 4 gusting Force 6-7 wind conditions, an important requirement for operation at sea. Data analysis is performed on images captured by the vehicle to provide a measurement of wave period and white capping fraction. The next stage of the project is to develop a suitable payload and perform a demonstration science mission.

Waugh, E.; Mowlem, M.

2010-07-01

159

Technical Note: A low cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for ship based science missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is compared with those already available and the motivation for its development is established. It is targeted at ship-based science missions and potential applications are described including a specific science case to measure white capping in the deep ocean. The current vehicle includes a range of more than 1000 km, carrying a payload of 2 kg and it can be launched and recovered from a coastal research vessel. The vehicle has flown successfully in Force 4 gusting Force 6-7 wind conditions, an important requirement for operation at sea. Data analysis is performed on images captured by the vehicle to provide a measurement of wave period and white capping fraction. The next stage of the project is to develop a suitable payload and perform a demonstration science mission.

Waugh, E.; Mowlem, M.

2010-03-01

160

Collaborative Exploration with a Micro Aerial Vehicle: A Novel Interaction Method for Controlling a MAV with a Hand-Held Device  

E-print Network

In order to collaboratively explore an environment with a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV), an operator needs a mobile interface, which can support the operator’s divided attention. To this end, we developed the Micro Aerial ...

Pitman, David

2012-01-01

161

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

162

Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively useful remote sensing reflectance from airborne imagery. Measurements collected near the water's surface or from adjacent shoreline areas are being used to refine the spectral corrections or assess the validity of the hyperspectral imagery. The imagery collected corroborates the importance of validation measurements, sensor selection, and radiative transfer models for the interpretation of UAV based imagery. The fieldwork and subsequent analysis show some of the technical challenges that exist for radiometric and atmospheric corrections, and the use of UAVs for coastal research.

English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

2013-12-01

163

The Scout Launch Vehicle program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

164

US Army remotely piloted vehicle supporting technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Essential technology programs that lead to the full scale engineering development of the Aquila Remotely Piloted Vehicle system for U.S. Army are described. The Aquila system uses a small recoverable and reusable RPV to provide target acquisition, designation, and aerial reconnaissance mission support for artillery and smart munitions. Developments that will provide growth capabilities to the Aquila RPV system, as well as future RPV mission concepts being considered by the U.S. Army are presented.

Gossett, T. D.

1981-01-01

165

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-09-01

166

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the UAV DSM could be as good as LiDAR data, and is ready for other applications. The quality of the data set provides not only geoinfomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

2014-05-01

167

Reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

168

On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

Rochala, Zdzis?aw

2012-02-01

169

Transition Flight Simulation of Flapping-Wing Micro-Aerial Vehicle Using Aerodynamic Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes how to simulate the flight of a flapping-wing micro-aerial vehicle (MAV). It uses an aerodynamic database generated using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The database is composed of the time mean aerodynamic forces and moments generated at various flapping wing motions in various flight modes. Flight is simulated utilizing the database by interpolation. The procedure is applied to transition flight of a dragonfly-type MAV with two-pairs of resonance-type flapping wings. The present MAV attains the mission of hovering, transition and cruising flights successfully with stable attitude.

Isogai, Koji; Kawabe, Hiroyasu

170

Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

Haro, Helida C.

2010-01-01

171

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

172

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

Not Available

1992-01-01

173

Surveying a Landslide in a Road Embankment Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Photogrammetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the works of civil engineering, and some others applications, need to be designed using a basic cartography with a suitable scale to the accuracy and extension of the plot.The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry covers the gap between classical manned aerial photogrammetry and hand- made surveying techniques because it works in the close-range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives. The aim of this work is developing of an accurate and low-cost method to characterize landslides located on the size of a road. It was applied at the kilometric point 339 belonging to the A92 dual carriageway, in the Abla municipal term, province of Almeria, Spain. A photogrammetric project was carried out from a set of images taken from an md4-200 Microdrones with an on-board calibrated camera 12 Megapixels Pentax Optio A40. The flight was previously planned to cover the whole extension of the embankment with three passes composed of 18 photos each one. All the images were taken with the vertical axe and it was registered 85% and 60% longitudinal and transversal overlaps respectively. The accuracy of the products, with planimetric and altimetric errors of 0.049 and 0.108m repectively, lets to take measurements of the landslide and projecting preventive and palliative actuations.

Carvajal, F.; Agüera, F.; Pérez, M.

2011-09-01

174

Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

2013-06-01

175

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.  

PubMed

Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

2013-01-01

176

Neural-network-based navigation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles for detecting unintended emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile aircraft with many applications, including the potential for use to detect unintended electromagnetic emissions from electronic devices. A particular area of recent interest has been helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. Because of the nature of these helicopters' dynamics, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via output feedback control for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic, virtual, and dynamic controllers and an observer. Optimal tracking is accomplished with a single NN utilized for cost function approximation. The controller positions the helicopter, which is equipped with an antenna, such that the antenna can detect unintended emissions. The overall closed-loop system stability with the proposed controller is demonstrated by using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for positioning the helicopter for unintended emissions detection.

Zargarzadeh, H.; Nodland, David; Thotla, V.; Jagannathan, S.; Agarwal, S.

2012-06-01

177

An Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Concept for Low-Altitude Geophysical Exploration in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept for a small, agile UAV platform for conducting geophysical mapping in the IPY and beyond has been explored. We have developed a framework concept for community input and feedback based on a low-cost, autonomous vehicle with onboard high-precision inertial navigation that performs vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). The vehicle we have focused on is the GoldenEye-100, developed by Aurora Flight Sciences Corp. (www.aurora.aero), which can carry a lightweight payload and achieve a range of 300-500 km (roundtrip). The VTOL capability would potentially allow flights to be launched from the helicopter deck of an icebreaker, and would remove the logistical burden of ensuring a hazard-free runway on the ice. Vehicle operations are controlled using a portable ground station. A payload concept has also been developed, indicating that the vehicle could easily carry a lightweight, compact magnetometer, camera and laser altimeter. Instruments developed for space missions exist that would enable a high performance system to be carried within the ~10 kg payload envelope. A gravity measurement system and radar sounder are also considered. A capable UAV platform for geophysical mapping would complement the existing aerial research platforms in Antarctica and has the potential to accelerate the exploration and monitoring of critical but remote areas in a cost-effective manner.

Raymond, C. A.; Behar, A. E.

2004-05-01

178

Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for the identification, control and general operation. A high-fidelity helicopter model is established with the lumped-parameter approach. With the lift and torque aerodynamic model of the main and tail rotors, a nonlinear simulation model is first constructed. The control models of the RUAVs used in our research are derived by the application of a time-domain parametric identification method to the flight data of target RUAVs. Two distinct control theories, namely classical control theory and modern linear robust control theory, are applied to the identified model. The proposed controllers are validated in a nonlinear simulation environment and tested in a series of test flights. With the successful implementation of the low-level vehicle controller, the guidance layer is designed. The waypoint navigator, which decides the adequate flight mode and the associated reference trajectory, serves as an intermediary between the low-level vehicle control layer and the high-level mission-planning layer. In order to interpret the abstract mission planning to commands that are compatible with the low-level structure, a novel framework called Vehicle Control Language (VCL) is developed. The key idea of VCL is to provide a mission-independent methodology to describe given flight patterns. The VCL processor and vehicle control layer are integrated into the hierarchical control structure, which is the backbone of our intelligent UAV system. The proposed idea is validated in the simulation environment and then fully tested in a series of flight tests.

Shim, Hyunchul

179

From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework  

E-print Network

at LiU. Research focus: automated planning techniques, autonomous unmanned systems and roboticsFrom Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle From Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Doherty, Patrick

180

The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Chris. W. Johnson, DPhil; Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.  

E-print Network

The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Chris. W. Johnson, DPhil; Department In April 2006, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle crashed near Nogales, Arizona. This incident is of interest is also of interest because it illustrates an irony of Unmanned Aircraft Systems operations

Johnson, Chris

181

A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

Funaki, M.

2004-12-01

182

Cooperative Navigation for Heterogeneous Autonomous Vehicles via Approximate Dynamic Programming  

E-print Network

systems with increased capabilities. These unmanned ground and aerial vehicles are becoming crucial Silvia Ferrari, Michael Anderson, Rafael Fierro, and Wenjie Lu Abstract-- Unmanned ground and aerial out dangerous missions. These vehicles can be viewed as networks of heterogeneous unmanned robotic

Ferrari, Silvia

183

Aerial Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

2005-01-01

184

Hyperspectral imaging from a light-weight (up to 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicle platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 the Idaho National Lab (INL) has been developing advanced remote sensing capabilities that combine increasingly sophisticated miniaturized sensors with relatively affordable, light weight (under 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV-based hyperspectral sensing capabilities have been routinely refined via flight tests conducted at INL's UAV Runway Research Park in southeastern Idaho, and at the Orchard Training Area in central Idaho. Idaho State University (ISU) Boise Center Aerospace Lab (BCAL) has provided field data collection and image processing support to target ground versus aerial data comparisons, assess spectral and geometric data accuracy and determine classification algorithms appropriate for vegetation management applications. We report instrumentation, sensor and image validation results, optimal flight parameters, and methods for improving the geometric accuracies of the datasets. We also assess the accuracy of narrowband vegetation indices and shrub cover estimates derived from the imagery. Preliminary results indicate that the UAV-based hyperspectral imaging system has potential to bridge the gap between costly in-situ data collections, coarse resolution satellite data collections, or infrequent and costly manned hyperspectral data collections. Furthermore, new areas of research may be possible with this UAV platform by providing an affordable, on-demand platform that can rapidly collect transect data and stay on station for hours.

Mitchell, J.; Hruska, R.; Anderson, M.; Glenn, N. F.

2011-12-01

185

Identifying Contingency Requirements using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: ( I ) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the eventual safety-criticality of such systems as they begin to fly over populated areas. The results reported here are preliminary but show that Obstacle Analysis helped (1) identify new contingencies that appeared as autonomy increased; (2) identify new alternatives for handling both previously known and new contingencies; and (3) investigate the continued validity of existing software requirements for contingency handling. Since many mobile, intelligent systems are built using a development process that poses the same challenges, the results appear to have applicability to other similar systems.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Nelson, Stacy; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Frost, Chad R.; Tal, Doron

2005-01-01

186

Implementation of an Onboard Visual Tracking System with Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

E-print Network

This paper presents a visual tracking system that is capable or running real time on-board a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The tracking system is computationally efficient and invariant to lighting changes and rotation of the object or the camera. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and there are two different methods for creation of the image patches. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch created prior to flight with previous flight data. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The tracking system is capable of re-detecting the object of interest in the events of tracking failure. Performance of the tracking system was verified both in the lab and during actual flights of the UAV. Results show that the system can run on-board and track a diverse set of objects in real time.

Qadir, Ashraf; Neubert, Jeremiah

2012-01-01

187

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

188

Power beaming to a micro aerial vehicle using an active phased array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power beaming system to a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) using 5.8GHz microwaves has been developed. The system consists of three sub-systems; a pointing system, a tracking system, and a receiving system. The MAV is tracked using the phase information of pilot signal. Software retro-directive function has been realized through a PC control and a microwave beam is pointed to the MAV using an active phased array. The beam divergence was about 9deg and the beam steering angle was from -9deg to +9deg. Light-weight flexible rectenna array made of cupper tapes and a thin polyimide film was mounted on a wing of the MAV model, and the electric motor was driven by the received power. The weight per unit reception area was 26mg/cm2.

Sawahara, Hironori; Oda, Akinori; Alseny, Diallo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

2010-04-01

189

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

E-print Network

(UAV) Images José Manuel Peña1* , Jorge Torres-Sánchez1 , Ana Isabel de Castro1 , Maggi Kelly2 of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near

Kelly, Maggi

190

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor/Systems for In-Flight Wing Shape Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing an in-flight wing shape measurement system based on fiber bragg grating sensors for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is shown. The topics include: 1) MOtivation; 2) Objective; 3) Background; 4) System Design; 5) Ground Testing; 6) Future Work; and 7) Conclusions

Parker, Allen; Richards, Lance; Ko, William; Piazza, Anthony; Tran, Van

2006-01-01

191

Title: A Different Approach to Sensor Networking for SHM: Remote Powering and Interrogation with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

and Interrogation with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Authors: Michael Todd, David Mascarenas, Eric Flynn, Tajana Rosing, Ben Lee, Daniele Musiani, Sanjoy Dasgupta, Samori Kpotufe, Daniel Hsu, Rajesh Gupta, Gyuhae Park, Tim response and people must traverse for safety (short term) and over Michael Todd, David Mascarenas, Eric

Gupta, Rajesh

192

The object recognition and adaptive threshold selection in the vision system for landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of a vision system for landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This vision system consists of the vision detection software and the self-made onboard camera platform. After accomplishing its mission, the UAV would return to the helipad and land on it autonomously and accurately. To achieve more, the head of the UAV must point

Zeng Fucen; Shi Haiqing; Wang Hong

2009-01-01

193

Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only

Jeongho Cho; José Carlos Príncipe; Deniz Erdogmus; Mark A. Motter

2006-01-01

194

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the development of the University of Florida's Micro Air Vehicle concept. A series of flexible wing based aircraft that possess highly desirable flight characteristics were developed. Since computational methods to accurately model flight at the low Reynolds numbers associated with this scale are still under development, our effort has relied heavily on trial and error. Hence a time efficient method was developed to rapidly produce prototype designs. The airframe and wings are fabricated using a unique process that incorporates carbon fiber composite construction. Prototypes can be fabricated in around five man-hours, allowing many design revisions to be tested in a short period of time. The resulting aircraft are far more durable, yet lighter, than their conventional counterparts. This process allows for thorough testing of each design in order to determine what changes were required on the next prototype. The use of carbon fiber allows for wing flexibility without sacrificing durability. The construction methods developed for this project were the enabling technology that allowed us to implement our designs. The resulting aircraft were the winning entries in the International Micro Air Vehicle Competition for the past two years. Details of the construction method are provided in this paper along with a background on our flexible wing concept.

Ifju, Peter G.; Ettinger, Scott; Jenkins, David; Martinez, Luis

2002-01-01

195

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2010-07-01

196

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2011-07-01

197

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2012-07-01

198

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

199

Sitting in the Pilot's Seat; Optimizing Human-Systems Interfaces for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the pilot-machine interfaces (the forward viewing camera display) for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle called the DROID (Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone) will be analyzed for optimization. The goal is to create a visual display for the pilot that as closely resembles an out-the-window view as possible. There are currently no standard guidelines for designing pilot-machine interfaces for UAVs. Typically, UAV camera views have a narrow field, which limits the situational awareness (SA) of the pilot. Also, at this time, pilot-UAV interfaces often use displays that have a diagonal length of around 20". Using a small display may result in a distorted and disproportional view for UAV pilots. Making use of a larger display and a camera lens with a wider field of view may minimize the occurrences of pilot error associated with the inability to see "out the window" as in a manned airplane. It is predicted that the pilot will have a less distorted view of the DROID s surroundings, quicker response times and more stable vehicle control. If the experimental results validate this concept, other UAV pilot-machine interfaces will be improved with this design methodology.

Queen, Steven M.; Sanner, Kurt Gregory

2011-01-01

200

Configuration and Specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Early Site Specific Weed Management  

PubMed Central

A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches). PMID:23483997

Torres-Sanchez, Jorge; Lopez-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Pena-Barragan, Jose Manuel

2013-01-01

201

D Modelling and Accuracy Assessment of Granite Quarry Using Unmmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are automated systems whose main characteristic is that can be remotely piloted. This property is especially interesting in those civil engineering works in which the accuracy of the model is not reachable by common aerial or satellite systems, there is a difficult accessibility to the infrastructure due to location and geometry aspects, and the economic resources are limited. This paper aims to show the research, development and application of a UAV that will generate georeferenced spatial information at low cost, high quality, and high availability. In particular, a 3D modelling and accuracy assessment of granite quarry using UAV is applied. With regard to the image-based modelling pipeline, an automatic approach supported by open source tools is performed. The process encloses the well-known image-based modelling steps: calibration, extraction and matching of features; relative and absolute orientation of images and point cloud and surface generation. Beside this, an assessment of the final model accuracy is carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), imaging total station (ITS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in order to ensure its validity. This step follows a twofold approach: (i) firstly, using singular check points to provide a dimensional control of the model and (ii) secondly, analyzing the level of agreement between the realitybased 3D model obtained from UAV and the generated with TLS. The main goal is to establish and validate an image-based modelling workflow using UAV technology which can be applied in the surveying and monitoring of different quarries.

González-Aguilera, D.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Mancera-Taboada, J.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; Gozalo-Sanz, I.; Arias-Perez, B.

2012-07-01

202

Rapid, repeat-sample monitoring of crustal deformations and environmental phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASAs Science Mission Directorate. UAVSARs unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near-real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSARs data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

Smith, R. C.

2006-12-01

203

Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-Y?O?OMH/NEK?/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated on an UAV.

Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

2014-08-01

204

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

2014-01-01

205

Obtaining Potential Virtual Temperature Profiles, Entrainment Fluxes, and Spectra from Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a simple but effective small unmanned aerial vehicle design that is able to make high-resolution temperature and humidity measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer. The air model used is an adapted commercial design, and is able to carry all the instrumentation (barometer, temperature and humidity sensor, and datalogger) required for such measurements. It is fitted with an autopilot that controls the plane's ascent and descent in a spiral to 1800 m above ground. We describe the results obtained on three different days when the plane, called Aerolemma-3, flew continuously throughout the day. Surface measurements of the sensible virtual heat flux made simultaneously allowed the calculation of all standard convective turbulence scales for the boundary layer, as well as a rigorous test of existing models for the entrainment flux at the top of the boundary layer, and for its growth. A novel approach to calculate the entrainment flux from the top-down, bottom-up model of Wynagaard and Brost is used. We also calculated temperature fluctuations by means of a spectral high-pass filter, and calculated their spectra. Although the time series are small, tapering proved ineffective in this case. The spectra from the untapered series displayed a consistent -5/3 behaviour, and from them it was possible to calculate a dimensionless dissipation function, which exhibited the expected similarity behaviour against boundary-layer bulk stability. The simplicity, ease of use and economy of such small aircraft make us optimistic about their usefulness in boundary-layer research.

Dias, N. L.; Gonçalves, J. E.; Freire, L. S.; Hasegawa, T.; Malheiros, A. L.

2012-10-01

206

Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and Ozone concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ ozone (O3) concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at Hough End and Heaton Park, Manchester, UK on 28th June 2012. The Skywalker was equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurements taken by the Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN), and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured O3 was a reliable indicator of background O3 concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

Allen, G.; Illingworth, S. M.; Percival, C.; Hayes, H.; Hollingsworth, P.; Gallagher, M. W.

2013-12-01

207

Real-Time Monitoring System Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Integrated with Sensor Observation Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service) makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and Sensor Service Grid (SSG) to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

Witayangkurn, A.; Nagai, M.; Honda, K.; Dailey, M.; Shibasaki, R.

2011-09-01

208

A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

2004-01-01

209

Experimental measurement of the aerodynamic charateristics of two-dimensional airfoils for an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of the development of an airfoil for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system; the investigation involves the analysis of the aerodynamic performance for the gliding condition of two-dimensional airfoil models which have been tested. This development is based on the modification of a selected airfoil from the NACA four digits family. The modification of this base airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface since the UAV will have an internal propulsion system. This analysis involved obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients experimentally for the situation where there is not flow through the blowing outlet, called the no blowing condition by means of wind tunnel tests. The methodology to obtain the forces experimentally was through an aerodynamic wire balance. Obtained results were compared with numerical results by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from references and found in very good agreement. Finally, a selection of the airfoil with the best aerodynamic performance is done and proposed for further analysis including the blowing condition.

Velazquez, Luis; Noži?ka, Ji?í; Vav?ín, Jan

2012-04-01

210

Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g., terrain, cultural features, pre-mission plan, etc.), as well as numerous information updates via networked communication with other sources (e.g., weather, intel). This information is overlaid conformal, in real time, onto the dynamic camera video image display presented to operators. Synthetic vision overlay technology is expected to improve operator situation awareness by highlighting key spatial information elements of interest directly onto the video image, such as threat locations, expected locations of targets, landmarks, emergency airfields, etc. Also, it may help maintain an operator"s situation awareness during periods of video datalink degradation/dropout and when operating in conditions of poor visibility. Additionally, this technology may serve as an intuitive means of distributed communications between geographically separated users. This paper discusses the tailoring of synthetic overlay technology for several UAV applications. Pertinent human factors issues are detailed, as well as the usability, simulation, and flight test evaluations required to determine how best to combine synthetic visual data with live camera video presented on a ground control station display and validate that a synthetic vision system is beneficial for UAV applications.

Calhoun, Gloria L.; Draper, Mark H.; Abernathy, Michael F.; Patzek, Michael; Delgado, Francisco

2005-05-01

211

Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo

2014-05-01

212

Convolutional Neural Network-based Vision Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obstacle detection and avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task, requiring processing speed and accuracy. Although a number of sensor solutions are available for this task, optical sensors are particularly suited being cheap, light-weight and long range. Stereoscopic systems with 2 cameras can be calibrated and used to perform localization of detected features in 3D space, allowing a model of the environment in front of the UAV to be constructed. Stereoscopic methods can, however, be computationally intensive and prone to mismatches which further increases the computational burden of a potential system. This thesis proposes a new approach to horizon detection based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and uses knowledge of the sky, ground and horizon to simplify the search for potential obstacles to the horizon and sky region of an image. An edge feature based approach followed by stereo correspondence is then applied to detect and triangulate the location of potential obstacles, producing a 3D model as the system output which can be used by an obstacle avoidance algorithm to navigate the UAV.

Verbickas, Rytis

213

Optic flow-based vision system for autonomous 3D localization and control of small aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic ?ow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for ?ight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm

Farid Kendoul; Isabelle Fantoni; Kenzo Nonami

2009-01-01

214

Design of a four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle capable of sustaining zero-roll and zero-pitch flight using vector thrusting  

E-print Network

In recent decades, remote controlled airplanes and helicopters equipped with video cameras have been used by the movie industry, photographers, and for surveillance. The military deploys these unmanned aerial vehicles ...

Hilton, Danny Charles

2005-01-01

215

Online optimal obstacle avoidance for rotary-wing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents an integrated framework for online obstacle avoidance of rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which can provide UAVs an obstacle field navigation capability in a partially or completely unknown obstacle-rich environment. The framework is composed of a LIDAR interface, a local obstacle grid generation, a receding horizon (RH) trajectory optimizer, a global shortest path search algorithm, and a climb rate limit detection logic. The key feature of the framework is the use of an optimization-based trajectory generation in which the obstacle avoidance problem is formulated as a nonlinear trajectory optimization problem with state and input constraints over the finite range of the sensor. This local trajectory optimization is combined with a global path search algorithm which provides a useful initial guess to the nonlinear optimization solver. Optimization is the natural process of finding the best trajectory that is dynamically feasible, safe within the vehicle's flight envelope, and collision-free at the same time. The optimal trajectory is continuously updated in real time by the numerical optimization solver, Nonlinear Trajectory Generation (NTG), which is a direct solver based on the spline approximation of trajectory for dynamically flat systems. In fact, the overall approach of this thesis to finding the optimal trajectory is similar to the model predictive control (MPC) or the receding horizon control (RHC), except that this thesis followed a two-layer design; thus, the optimal solution works as a guidance command to be followed by the controller of the vehicle. The framework is implemented in a real-time simulation environment, the Georgia Tech UAV Simulation Tool (GUST), and integrated in the onboard software of the rotary-wing UAV test-bed at Georgia Tech. Initially, the 2D vertical avoidance capability of real obstacles was tested in flight. The flight test evaluations were extended to the benchmark tests for 3D avoidance capability over the virtual obstacles, and finally it was demonstrated on real obstacles located at the McKenna MOUT site in Fort Benning, Georgia. Simulations and flight test evaluations demonstrate the feasibility of the developed framework for UAV applications involving low-altitude flight in an urban area.

Kang, Keeryun

216

First Experiences Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Volcano Observation in the Visible Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the most active volcanoes in the world are located in Middle and South America. While permanently installed sensors for seismicity give reliable supervision of volcanic activities, they lack the possibility to determine occurrence and extent of surface activities. Both from the point of science and civil protection, visible documentation of activities is of great interest. While satellites and manned aircraft already offer many possibilities, they also have disadvantages like delayed or poor image data availability or high costs. The Institute of Aerospace Systems of the Technical University of Braunschweig, in collaboration with the spin-off company Mavionics, developed a family of extremely small and lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), with the smallest aircraft weighting only 550~g (19~ounces) at a wing span of 50 cm (20~inch). These aircraft are operating completely automatically, controlled by a highly miniaturized autopilot system. Flight mission is defined by a list of GPS waypoints using a conventional notebook. While in radio range, current position and status of the aircraft is displayed on the notebook and waypoints can easily be changed by the user. However, when radio connection is not available, the aircraft operates on its on, completing the flight mission automatically. This greatly increases the operating range of the system. Especially for the purpose of volcano observation in South America, the aircraft Carolo~P330 was developed, weighting 5~kg (11~pounds) at a wing span of 3.3~m ( 11~ft). The whole system can be easily carried by car and the electric propulsion system avoids handling of flammable liquids. The batteries can be recharged in the field. Carolo~P330 has an endurance of up to 90~minutes at a flight speed of 25~m/s, giving it a maximum range of 67 km (41~miles). It was especially designed to operate under harsh conditions. The payload is a digital still camera, which delivers aerial images with a resolution of up to 8~megapixel. On a field campaign in 2005, the performance of the system was evaluated at the two active Ecuadorian volcanoes Cotopaxi and El~Reventador. After hand-launch at Mt. Cotopaxi, the autopilot brought the aircraft up to 7,000~m above sea level (starting from a plateau on 4,500~m a.s.l.), with temperatures around the freezing point. At El~Reventador active lava flows were documented in the tropical montane rain forest. Since the position and attitude of the aircraft is recorded within the autopilot system, the single aerial images can be referenced automatically after the flight to form a mosaic of images. The whole processing chain from mission planning to image mosaic takes less than half a day. Besides the technical details of this cost-effective remote sensing system, the results of the measurement campaign in 2005 will be presented. An outlook will discuss the installation of other payload for thermal imaging or air sampling.

Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Bange, J.

2007-05-01

217

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR RANGELAND MAPPING AND MONITORING: A COMPARISON OF TWO SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

systems, image acquisition and image processing results are discussed and compared. INTRODUCTION Remote and monitoring. A wide variety of imagery, from medium resolution satellite images to high-resolution aerial imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly

218

Absolute High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-Time Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes an absolute localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle.\\u000a The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform\\u000a to achieve an absolute localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method

Lars Kuhnert; Markus Ax; Matthias Langer; Duong Nguyen Van; Klaus-Dieter Kuhnert

2009-01-01

219

A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

2013-08-01

220

3D Map Information to Support Camera Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of cameras of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the content of the monitor, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) weak situation awareness due to the remote position of the operator and the small field of view of the camera images. Therefore, it is important to assist the operator with adequate tools. A 3D (three dimensional) digital map with information about the predicted viewing direction of the camera was constructed and evaluated in a simulator experiment. Participants had to inspect roads and forest areas with and without a 3D map. A 2D (two dimensional) map with the same information as the 3D map was available in all conditions. With the 3D map the participants were able to inspect larger areas, especially when the task became more difficult due to time delays and low update rates. Furthermore they were better able to perform an additional task when they were supported by the 3D map. The participants also reported lower workload in the condition with the 3D map. These subjective workload results were not supported by objective workload measures (physiological measures). Analysis of eye movements showed that the 3D map was used very frequently, especially in conditions with time delays and low update rates. Because a 3D map is very intuitive it can be used for alternative steering control methods (apart from stick control) such as pointer devices (mouse control or touch screen control).

Veltman, J. A.; Oving, A. B.

2002-09-01

221

Measurement of turbulent water vapor fluxes using a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here the first application of a lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system designed to measure turbulent properties and vertical latent heat fluxes (?E). Such measurements are crucial to improve our understanding of linkages between surface moisture supply and boundary layer clouds and phenomena such as atmospheric rivers. The application of UAVs allows for measurements on spatial scales complimentary to satellite, aircraft, and tower derived fluxes. Key system components are: a turbulent gust probe; a fast response water vapor sensor; an inertial navigation system (INS) coupled to global positioning system (GPS); and a 100 Hz data logging system. We present measurements made in the continental boundary layer at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Research Flight Facility located in the Mojave Desert. Two flights consisting of several horizontal straight flux run legs up to ten kilometers in length and between 330 and 930 m above ground level (m a.g.l.) are compared to measurement from a surface tower. Surface measured ?E ranged from -53 W m-2 to 41 W m-2, and the application of a Butterworth High Pass Filter (HPF) to the datasets improved agreement to within +/-12 W m-2 for 86% of flux runs, by removing improperly sampled low frequency flux contributions. This result, along with power and co-spectral comparisons and consideration of the differing spatial scales indicates the system is able to resolve vertical fluxes for the measurement conditions encountered. Challenges remain, and the outcome of these measurements will be used to inform future sampling strategies and further system development.

Thomas, R. M.; Lehmann, K.; Nguyen, H.; Jackson, D. L.; Wolfe, D.; Ramanathan, V.

2012-01-01

222

Three-dimensional imaging applications in Earth Sciences using video data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three dimensional (3D) aerial images, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are cheaper to operate and easier to fly than the typical manned craft mounted with a laser scanner. This project explores the feasibility of using 2D video images acquired with a UAV and transforming them into 3D point clouds. The Aeryon Scout -- a quad-copter micro UAV -- flew two missions: the first at York University Keele campus and the second at the Canadian Wollastonite Mine Property. Neptec's ViDAR software was used to extract 3D information from the 2D video using structure from motion. The resulting point clouds were sparsely populated, yet captured vegetation well. They were used successfully to measure fracture orientation in rock walls. Any improvement in the video resolution would cascade through the processing and improve the overall results.

McLeod, Tara

223

Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be feasible and can collect imagery for very large areas in a short period of time. It was accurate for bare ground and grasses. Both UAV systems have limitations, but these will be reduced as the technology advances. In both cases, the UAV systems collected data at a much faster rate than possible on the ground. The study concluded that improvements in automating the image processing efforts would greatly improve use of the technology. In the near future, UAV technology may revolutionize rangeland monitoring in the same way Global Positioning Systems have affected navigation while conducting field activities.

Robert Paul Breckenridge

2007-05-01

224

A new stratospheric sounding platform based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) droppable from meteorological balloon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution measurements of climate-relevant trace gases and aerosols in the upper troposphere and stratosphere (UTS) have been and remain technically challenging. The high cost of measurements onboard airborne platforms or heavy stratospheric balloons results in a lack of accurate information on vertical distribution of atmospheric constituents. Whereas light-weight instruments carried by meteorological balloons are becoming progressively available, their usage is constrained by the cost of the equipment or the recovery operations. The evolving need in cost-efficient observations for UTS process studies has led to development of small airborne platforms - unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), capable of carrying small sensors for in-situ measurements. We present a new UAV-based stratospheric sounding platform capable of carrying scientific payload of up to 2 kg. The airborne platform comprises of a latex meteorological balloon and detachable flying wing type UAV with internal measurement controller. The UAV is launched on a balloon to stratospheric altitudes up to 20 km, where it can be automatically released by autopilot or by a remote command sent from the ground control. Having been released from the balloon the UAV glides down and returns to the launch position. Autopilot using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer, barometer, compas and GPS navigation provides flight stabilization and optimal way back trajectory. Backup manual control is provided for emergencies. During the flight the onboard measurement controller stores the data into internal memory and transmits current flight parameters to the ground station via telemetry. Precise operation of the flight control systems ensures safe landing at the launch point. A series of field tests of the detachable stratospheric UAV has been conducted. The scientific payload included the following instruments involved in different flights: a) stratospheric Lyman-alpha hygrometer (FLASH); b) backscatter sonde; c) electrochemical ozone sonde; d) optical CO2 sensor; e) radioactivity sensor; f) solar radiation sensor. In addition, each payload included temperature sensor, barometric sensor and a GPS receiver. Design features of measurement systems onboard UAV and flight results are presented. Possible applications for atmospheric studies and validation of remote ground-based and space-borne observations is discussed.

Efremov, Denis; Khaykin, Sergey; Lykov, Alexey; Berezhko, Yaroslav; Lunin, Aleksey

225

Spatial distribution of water stress and evapotranspiration estimates using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of spatial distribution of evapotranspiration poses a particular challenge in quantitative hydrology. Conventional methods provide punctual measurements of evapotranspiration rates which may be transformed into aggregated mean values by extrapolation or the application of empirical models. The influence of spatial structures (heterogeneity of the landscape) in relevant small spatial scales is captured insufficiently by these methods. Modern optical remote sensors aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provide the basis for the generation of high spatial resolution data. Spectral data in the optical, near infrared and thermal infrared domain will be used as input into a surface energy balance (SEB) model to produce evapotranspiration maps. The spectral properties of vegetation are of particular importance for the calculation, since plants are the link between soil and atmosphere and thus have major impact on evapotranspiration rates of land surfaces. First estimates of plant status and indicators of transpiration behavior will be obtained by applying and combining water stress parameters of different wavelengths. As opposed to satellite data, time-series of self-determined spatial and temporal resolution may be created by varying flight altitude and turnaround times. Thus it is possible to analyze the influence of landscape structures, as well as the chronological development of the observed parameters. Located at the interface between hydrology and remote sensing this work utilizes an innovative remote sensing platform to gain distributed spectral information. This information will be used to visualize evapotranspiration patterns in hydrological heterogeneous areas. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of transition zones of varying water supply and under the influence of selected environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture, depth of GW-table). To reach that goal it is essential to generate a robust processing chain, involving all necessary processing steps. These include camera calibration, geometric and radiometric correction of the image data, as well as automatic image stitching at different scales. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on the spectral information of the surface have to be considered and, if necessary, corrected for the application of a SEB model. Data collection is conducted at several ZALF research sites in NE-Germany.

Rauneker, P.; Lischeid, G.

2012-04-01

226

Miniaturized aerosol, cloud and radiometric payloads for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized aerosol, cloud and radiometric payloads were developed to advance atmospheric observations using small autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs). The observing system consisted of three vertically- stacked AUAVs to allow simultaneous sampling of the earth's atmosphere - offering new insights to radiation budgets and aerosol-cloud interactions. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight less than 4 kg and power less than 30 W. Due to size and weight limitations of the lightweight AUAV platform, the payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data integrity has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with ground-based and laboratory instruments, as well as inter-aircraft comparisons. The instrument suite includes commercially-available instruments that have been repackaged or redesigned to minimize weight and volume and improve their performance. Several instruments have been completely redesigned including an aerosol inlet, absorption photometer based on an aethelometer and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter. Re-engineering of the absorption photometer's optics and electronics improved its performance at three wavelengths. The CCN instrument has been reduced to less than 2kg (compared to 28 kg) without compromising performance utilizing theory and model simulations to optimize design and define operating limits. A shrouded aerosol inlet was specifically designed for the AUAVs to minimize sample biases in aerosol number and size distributions. The radiometric sensors perform well during straight and level portions of the flight as the autopilot maintains a level platform (pitch and roll) to within a degree. An integrated data acquisition system connects to the instruments via a common interface that supplies power and distributes the data signals to the onboard computer. Several integrated circuits are embedded into the interface to increase its functionality as the central data system, including a GPS for time stamping and spatial coordination. The importance of miniaturization, in light of current research needs, will also be discussed.

Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

227

Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU) shows that the integrated system can reach position, velocity and attitude accuracies compatible with CAT-II precision approach requirements. Simulation of the second system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU/ADM) shows promising results since the achieved attitude accuracy is higher using the ADM/VBS/IMU than using VBS/IMU only. However, due to rapid divergence of the ADM virtual sensor, there is a need for a frequent re-initialisation of the ADM data module, which is strongly dependent on the UAV flight dynamics and the specific manoeuvring transitions performed. Finally, the output provided by the VBN and integrated navigation sensor systems is used to design a flight control system using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for the Aerosonde UAV.

Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

2012-04-01

228

Vision-based state estimation for uninhabited aerial vehicles using the coplanarity constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and evaluated a vision-based state estimation algorithm for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the implicit extended Kalman filter (IEKF) and the coplanarity constraint (also known as the epipolar or essential constraint). The coplanarity constraint, a well-known property in the structure from motion (SFM) field, has advantages for this application in that the feature point locations in three dimensional space do not have to be known and tracked and that feature points can be discarded and acquired as necessary. This reduces the computational load which is important for real time applications such as aircraft control. Advantages of the IEKF are that, in principle, the current estimate uses all previous information, not just the current observations, and that the estimate will propagate forward in an orderly fashion in the case of interrupted or reduced measurements. The dynamics of the aircraft are included in the process model which improves the observability of the states and resolves the SFM scale factor ambiguity. The algorithm was implemented in a numerical simulation and exhibited divergence problems in the presence of measurement noise. These effects were particularly evident in the velocity estimates. The problems were eliminated by zeroing out the small velocity dependent terms in the measurement matrix. The algorithm was exercised in a Monte Carlo fashion and found to be robust to errors in the process model and to measurement noise. Sensitivities to filter and focal plane implementation parameters including camera depression angle, field of view, measurement interval, and feature point location and number were also assessed. The modified estimator was then employed in a closed loop UAV simulation to provide feedback to a simple autopilot. The simulation demonstrated that the state estimates provided were sufficiently accurate to allow control of the UAV through successful waypoint navigation. This simulation used feature points generated at random locations in the field of view. A second closed loop simulation was successfully run using synthetic imagery from the University of Florida's vision laboratory and a Lucas-Kanade feature point tracking algorithm.

Webb, Thomas Philip

229

A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are problematic for design space exploration. To begin addressing the current gaps in fuel cell aircraft development, a methodology has been developed to explore and characterize the near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs. The first step of the methodology is the development of a valid MDA. This is accomplished by using propagated uncertainty estimates to guide the decomposition of a MDA into key contributing analyses (CAs) that can be individually refined and validated to increase the overall accuracy of the MDA. To assist in MDA development, a flexible framework for simultaneously solving the CAs is specified. This enables the MDA to be easily adapted to changes in technology and the changes in data that occur throughout a design process. Various CAs that model a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) UAV are developed, validated, and shown to be in agreement with hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a fully developed fuel cell propulsion system. After creating a valid MDA, the final step of the methodology is the synthesis of the MDA with an uncertainty propagation analysis, an optimization routine, and a chance constrained problem formulation. This synthesis allows an efficient calculation of the probabilistic constraint boundaries and Pareto frontiers that will govern the design space and influence design decisions relating to optimization and uncertainty mitigation. A key element of the methodology is uncertainty propagation. The methodology uses Systems Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) to estimate the uncertainty of key performance metrics due to uncertainties in design variables and uncertainties in the accuracy of the CAs. A summary of SSA is provided and key rules for properly decomposing a MDA for use with SSA are provided. Verification of SSA uncertainty estimates via Monte Carlo simulations is provided for both an example problem as well as a detailed MDA of a fuel cell UAV. Implementation of the methodology was performed on a small fuel cell UAV designed to carry a 2.2 kg payload with 24 hours of endurance. Uncertainty distributions for both design

Moffitt, Blake Almy

230

Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is taking longer than expected to realize the immense potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)for civil applications due to the complexity of regulations being developed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) that can be applied to both manned and unmanned flight in the National Airspace System (NAS). As a result, FAA has required that for all UAV flights in the NAS, an external pilot must maintain line-of-sight contact with the UAV. Properly trained observers must also be present to assist the external pilot in collision avoidance. Additionally, in order to fly in the NAS, formal approval must be requested from FAA through application for a Certificate of Authorization (COA for government applicants or a Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) in the experimental category for non-government applicants. Flight crews of UAVs must pass exams also required for manned airplane pilots. Although flight crews for UAVs are not required to become manned airplane pilots, UAV flight missions are much more efficient if one or two of the UAV flight crew are also manned aircraft pilots so they can serve as the UAV mission commander. Our group has performed numerous UAV flights within the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Two developments with Jornada UAVs can be recommended to other UAV operators that would increase flight time experience and study areas covered by UAV images. First, do not overlook the possibility of obtaining permission to fly in Restricted Military Airspace (RMA). At the Jornada, our airspace is approximately 50% NAS and 50% RMA. With experiments ongoing in both types of airspace, we can fly in both areas and continue to increase UAV flights. Second, we have developed an air- and-ground vehicle approach for long distance, continuous pilot transport that always maintains line-of-sight requirements. This allows flying several target areas on a single mission and increasing the number of acquired UAV images - over 90,000 UAV images have now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

2013-12-01

231

A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were stored in the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The resolution of magnetic field decreased to 30nT, when the plane flew to the tail wind. However, it is worse against the head wind. Obtained anomaly pattern was compared with the magnetic anomaly pattern published by Geoscience Australia. Both patterns were essentially consistent, although a part of pattern in the head wind flights was not resemble. Ant-Plane 4 flew up to 5700 m in altitude with aerosol counter, thermometer and hygrometer at northern part of Japan. A drastic change of temperature, humidity and particle number was observed at the inversion layer of atmosphere. Consequently we conclude that the small drone Ant-Plane 4 can be used for geophysical research. We are making effort to develop Ant-Plane for more simple assemblage and more easy operation.

Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

2007-05-01

232

Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

2013-12-01

233

Performance modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles with on-board energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of energy harvesting in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has received much attention in recent years. Solar powered flight of small aircraft dates back to the 1970s when the first fully solar flight of an unmanned aircraft took place. Currently, research has begun to investigate harvesting ambient vibration energy during the flight of UAVs. The authors have recently developed multifunctional piezoelectric self-charging structures in which piezoelectric devices are combined with thin-film lithium batteries and a substrate layer in order to simultaneously harvest energy, store energy, and carry structural load. When integrated into mass and volume critical applications, such as unmanned aircraft, multifunctional devices can provide great benefit over conventional harvesting systems. A critical aspect of integrating any energy harvesting system into a UAV, however, is the potential effect that the additional system has on the performance of the aircraft. Added mass and increased drag can significantly degrade the flight performance of an aircraft, therefore, it is important to ensure that the addition of an energy harvesting system does not adversely affect the efficiency of a host aircraft. In this work, a system level approach is taken to examine the effects of adding both solar and piezoelectric vibration harvesting to a UAV test platform. A formulation recently presented in the literature is applied to describe the changes to the flight endurance of a UAV based on the power available from added harvesters and the mass of the harvesters. Details of the derivation of the flight endurance model are reviewed and the formulation is applied to an EasyGlider remote control foam hobbyist airplane, which is selected as the test platform for this study. A theoretical study is performed in which the normalized change in flight endurance is calculated based on the addition of flexible thin-film solar panels to the upper surface of the wings, as well as the addition of flexible piezoelectric patches to the root of the wing spar. Experimental testing is also performed in which the wing spar of the EasyGlider aircraft is modified to include both Macro Fiber Composite and Piezoelectric Fiber Composite piezoelectric patches near the root of the wing and two thin-film solar panels are installed onto the upper wing surface to harvest vibration and solar energy during flight. Testing is performed in which the power output of the various harvesters is measured during flight. Results of the flight testing are used to update the model with accurate measures of the power available from the energy harvesting systems. Finally, the model is used to predict the potential benefits of adding multifunctional self-charging structures to the wing spar of the aircraft in order to harvest vibration energy during flight and provide a local power source for low-power sensors.

Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

2011-03-01

234

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2010-07-01

235

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2012-07-01

236

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

237

40 CFR 1039.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 1039.610 Section...vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2011-07-01

238

Visual control of an unmanned aerial vehicle for power line inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a robotic vehicle to inspect overhead power lines has many attractions. The concept of a small, rotorcraft which draws its power from the lines is introduced here. Some of its advantages compared with a free-flying aircraft are discussed. Achieving the required degree of autonomy and reliable power pick-up needs good control of the position and attitude of the vehicle

Ian Golightly; Dewi Jones

2005-01-01

239

An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning  

PubMed Central

Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

2014-01-01

240

Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

2014-01-01

241

Road extraction from aerial and satellite images by dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic road extraction scheme which combines the wavelet decomposition for road sharpening and a model-driven linear feature extraction algorithm based on dynamic programming. Semi-automatic means that a road is extracted automatically after some seed points have been given coarsely by the operator through activation of a mouse using a convenient interactive image-graphics user interface.

Armin Gruen; Haihong Li

1995-01-01

242

Developing a Control Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Search and Localize RF Time-Varying Mobile Targets: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control architecture that allows multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively detect mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. The architecture is developed under the premise that UAVs are controlled as a distributed system. The distributed system-based technique maximizes the search and detection capabilities of multiple UAVs. We use a hybrid approach that combines

Daniel J. Pack; George W. P. York

2005-01-01

243

Hydrology With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Albert Rango, USDA-ARS-Jornada Experimental Range, Las Cruces, NM (alrango@nmsu.edu)  

E-print Network

Hydrology With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Albert Rango, USDA-ARS-Jornada Experimental Range observations as well as ground-based measurements for validation. As data from new, hydrologically be integrated with ground sensor networks. In the case of LDCM, the major advantage is that this coverage can

244

System design of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for marine environmental sensing  

E-print Network

Technological improvements over the past decade have led to the widespread use of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles for data collection in marine environmental sensing and modeling in coastal environments. However, ...

Leighton, Joshua (Joshua C.)

2013-01-01

245

1-Point-based Monocular Motion Estimation for Computationally-Limited Micro Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

synthetic and real data, using video footage from a small flying quadrotor. We show that our methods for vehicles equipped with a computationally-limited embedded computer. Fig. 1: Our nano quadrotor from KMel

Boyer, Edmond

246

Automatic Collision Avoidance for Manually Tele-operated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

on a physical quadrotor system in a laboratory environment. In all experiments the human operator failed for a manually tele-operated quadrotor helicopter. The vehicle was given an operator input to fly into the floor

van den Berg, Jur

247

Unmanned ground vehicle Demonstration II program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military has a requirement for a remotely controlled ground system to perform reconnaissance, surveillance, target acquisition, patrolling, and nuclear, biological, chemical detection. The primary goal of the unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) Demonstration II program is to demonstrate advanced technologies such as the utility of semiautonomous navigation in a military situation. The system is based on four high-mobility, multipurpose wheeled

S. H. Munkeby; C. M. Shoemaker; W. H. Chun

1994-01-01

248

40 CFR 89.914 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

...What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.914 Section 89.914 Protection...What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of 40...

2014-07-01

249

Use of 3D laser radar for navigation of unmanned aerial and ground vehicles in urban and indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the integration of Inertial measurements with measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) imaging sensor for position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. To enable operation of UAVs and AGVs at any time in any environment a Precision Navigation, Attitude, and Time (PNAT) capability is required that is robust and not solely dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS). In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. Although deep integration of GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data may prove to be a viable solution an alternative method is being discussed in this paper. The alternative solution is based on 3D imaging sensor technologies such as Flash Ladar (Laser Radar). Flash Ladar technology consists of a modulated laser emitter coupled with a focal plane array detector and the required optics. Like a conventional camera this sensor creates an "image" of the environment, but producing a 2D image where each pixel has associated intensity vales the flash Ladar generates an image where each pixel has an associated range and intensity value. Integration of flash Ladar with the attitude from the IMU allows creation of a 3-D scene. Current low-cost Flash Ladar technology is capable of greater than 100 x 100 pixel resolution with 5 mm depth resolution at a 30 Hz frame rate. The proposed algorithm first converts the 3D imaging sensor measurements to a point cloud of the 3D, next, significant environmental features such as planar features (walls), line features or point features (corners) are extracted and associated from one 3D imaging sensor frame to the next. Finally, characteristics of these features such as the normal or direction vectors are used to compute the platform position and attitude changes. These "delta" position and attitudes are then used calibrate the IMU. Note, that the IMU is not only required to form the point cloud of the environment expressed in the navigation frame, but also to perform association of the features from one flash Ladar frame to the next. This paper will discuss the performance of the proposed 3D imaging sensor feature extraction, position change estimator and attitude change estimator using both simulator data and data collected from a moving platform in an indoor environment. The former consists of data from a simulated IMU and flash Ladar installed on an aerial vehicle for various trajectories through an urban environment. The latter consists of measurements from a CSEM Swissranger 3D imaging sensor and a MicroStrain low-cost IMU. Data was collected on a manually operated aerial vehicle inside the Ohio University School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science building.

Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Venable, Don; Smearcheck, Mark

2007-04-01

250

The U.S. Army's VehicleThe U.S. Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP):Intelligence Program (AVIP)  

E-print Network

The U.S. Army's VehicleThe U.S. Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP):Intelligence Program-5000 USA Phone: (810) 574-7413 Fax: (810) 574-6996 E-mail: GorsichD@tacom.army.mil IV2001 IEEE Intelligent;Vehicle IntelligenceVehicle Intelligence VI provides new driving functionalities, and enhances existing

251

Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected specific time difference measurements between PTZ optical payload searches without radar cuing and searches with radar cuing. In every test run conducted, searches with radar cuing reduced PTZ optical payload detection time. The study showed that a low-cost COTS radar mounted on a small UAV can meet some of the radar requirements lost with cancellation of the VTUAV program. The study results could have a direct impact on myriad of U.S. Navy and other U.S. government surveillance requirements, especially the monitoring of U.S. coastal waters in support of homeland security goals and objectives.

Ford, Patrick Joseph

252

The Impact of Intelligent Aiding for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Schedule Management  

E-print Network

There is increasing interest in designing systems such that the current many-to-one ratio of operators to unmanned vehicles (UVs) can be inverted. Instead of lower-level tasks performed by today’s UV teams, the sole operator ...

Cummings, M. L.

2007-01-01

253

Parameterized Trajectories for Target Localization Using Small and Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

and acceleration constraints[4] and sensor models have been linearized[5]. Solution methods including dynamic are pre-computed for a set of nominal target locations uniformly distributed over the sensor field of view with respect to relative vehicle speed, sensor range, and sensor update rate allows the same table to be used

Langelaan, Jack W.

254

Adaptive tracking control of underactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles via backstepping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers about the control problem for an underactuated quadrotor UAV system with model parameter uncertainty. Backstepping based techniques are utilized to design a nonlinear adaptive controller which can compensate for the mass uncertainty of the vehicle. Lyapunov based stability analysis shows that the proposed control design yields asymptotic tracking for the UAV's motion in x, y, z direction

Mu Huang; Bin Xian; Chen Diao; Kaiyan Yang; Yu Feng

2010-01-01

255

Quality assessment of traversability maps from aerial LIDAR data for an unmanned ground vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of assessing quantitatively the quality of traversability maps computed from data collected by an airborne laser range finder. Such data is used to plan paths for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) prior to the execution of long range traverses. Little attention has been devoted to the problem we address in this paper. We

Nicolas Vandapel; Raghavendra R. Donamukkala; Martial Hebert

2003-01-01

256

Mixed reality for unmanned aerial vehicle operations in near Earth environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the lack of motion feedback to a UAV pilot, a system was developed that integrates a motion simulator into UAV operations. The system is designed such that during flight, the angular rate of a UAV is captured by an onboard inertial measurement unit (IMU) and is relayed to a pilot controlling the vehicle from inside the motion simulator.

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

2010-01-01

257

VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1977-01-01

258

Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

Altug, Erdinc

259

Experimental observation and assessment of ice conditions with a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle over Yellow River, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to its unique geographical location and regional climate, the Yellow River and its tributaries are prone to ice jams almost every spring. Ice jams can cause levees to burst, leading to severe flooding, property damage, and human casualties. Hence, there is an urgent need to carry out observations of ice conditions and make risk assessments of ice jam occurrence. Field observation is the most reliable technique, but it is usually too expensive and time-consuming, which has led to the evaluation of applied remote sensing for data capture and analysis. Owing to the factors of timeliness, image resolution, human safety, and cost, satellite or manned aerial remote sensing cannot fully meet the requirements of ice condition observation. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing system is proposed for the collection of river ice imagery, providing the benefits of low cost, flexible launch and landing logistics, safety, and appropriate hyperspatial image resolution. One Inner Mongolian segment of the Yellow River was chosen as a test area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of observation and assessment of ice conditions using the UAV system. The specific UAV remote sensing system and its components are introduced along with the procedures of UAV operation and imagery acquisition. Image preprocessing techniques and ice information extraction are described in detail followed by analysis and risk assessment of the ice conditions based on the resulting panoramic imagery. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed-wing UAV system to rapid observation and risk assessment of ice jam formation over the Yellow River under harsh weather conditions including low temperatures and strong winds.

Lin, Jiayuan; Shu, Li; Zuo, Hang; Zhang, Baosen

2012-01-01

260

Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4-200 Microdrones is an UAV which can be programmed to follow a route defined by several way-points and actions. The ground-based device was a Pacific Vision, Inc. multispectral radiometer. Four images with both systems were taken during the crop season and an index related with nitrogen crop status was calculated from them and compared in a sunflower field that had four irrigation treatments and eight nitrogen application rates, resulting in 32 plots of 7 m by 3.4 m, with a plant density of 7.1 plants m-2. Calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both measurement systems was a good indicator of nitrogen applied, but the UAV-based system provided a better estimate than ground-based system because in the first system was possible to eliminate the soil and shadows for calculating the index..

Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

2011-09-01

261

Hemispherical eye sensor in micro aerial vehicles using advanced pinhole imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses key issues regarding the feasibility of providing micro unmanned air vehicles (micro-UAVs) with a miniature hemispherical eye using the latest CMOS sensor technology. Key specifications of the visual system of such visually guided drones are low power consumption, adaptive resolution and sensitivity, packaging and manufacturing complexity, ultra-wide field-of-view (FOV), lightness and small overall size. We describe a

Christel-Loic Tisse; H. Durrant-Whyte

2005-01-01

262

Hierarchical control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper introduces the development,of multiple number,of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) system as a part of BErkeley AeRobot (BEAR) project, highlighting the recent achievements,in the design and,implementation ,of rotorcraft-based ,UAV (RUAV) control system. Based on the experimental flight data, linear system model valid near hover condition,is found ,by applying ,time-domain numerical methods,to experimental flight data. The acquired linear model,is

D. H. Shim; H. J. Kim; S. Sastry

2000-01-01

263

Lightweight aerial vehicles for monitoring, assessment and mapping of radiation anomalies.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) incident released a significant mass of radioactive material into the atmosphere. An estimated 22% of this material fell out over land following the incident. Immediately following the disaster, there was a severe lack of information not only pertaining to the identity of the radioactive material released, but also its distribution as fallout in the surrounding regions. Indeed, emergency aid groups including the UN did not have sufficient location specific radiation data to accurately assign exclusion and evacuation zones surrounding the plant in the days and weeks following the incident. A newly developed instrument to provide rapid and high spatial resolution assessment of radionuclide contamination in the environment is presented. The device consists of a low cost, lightweight, unmanned aerial platform with a microcontroller and integrated gamma spectrometer, GPS and LIDAR. We demonstrate that with this instrument it is possible to rapidly and remotely detect ground-based radiation anomalies with a high spatial resolution (<1 m). Critically, as the device is remotely operated, the user is removed from any unnecessary or unforeseen exposure to elevated levels of radiation. PMID:24949582

MacFarlane, J W; Payton, O D; Keatley, A C; Scott, G P T; Pullin, H; Crane, R A; Smilion, M; Popescu, I; Curlea, V; Scott, T B

2014-10-01

264

The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

1995-09-01

265

Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents  

SciTech Connect

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

2013-04-02

266

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer chemistry.

Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

2004-01-01

267

Autonomous Hovering and Landing of a Quad-rotor Micro Aerial Vehicle by Means of on Ground Stereo Vision System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On ground stereo vision system is used for autonomous hovering and landing of a quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). This kind of system has an advantage to support embedded vision system for autonomous hovering and landing, since an embedded vision system occasionally gives inaccurate distance calculation due to either vibration problem or unknown geometry of the landing target. Color based object tracking by using Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm was examined. Nonlinear model of quad-rotor MAV and a PID controller were used for autonomous hovering and landing. The result shows that the Camshift based object tracking algorithm has good performance. Additionally, the comparison between the stereo vision system based and GPS based autonomous hovering of a quad-rotor MAV shows that stereo vision system has better performance. The accuracy of the stereo vision system is about 1 meter in the longitudinal and lateral direction when the quad-rotor flies in 6 meters of altitude. In the same experimental condition, the GPS based system accuracy is about 3 meters. Additionally, experiment on autonomous landing gives a reliable result.

Pebrianti, Dwi; Kendoul, Farid; Azrad, Syaril; Wang, Wei; Nonami, Kenzo

268

A guided-wave system for monitoring the wing skin-to-spar bond in unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in military as well as civil applications. A critical part of the structure is the adhesive bond between the wing skin and the supporting spar. If not detected early, bond defects originating during manufacturing or in service flight can lead to inefficient flight performance and eventual global failure. This paper will present results from a bond inspection system based on attached piezoelectric disks probing the skin-to-spar bondline with ultrasonic guided waves in the hundreds of kilohertz range. The test components were CFRP composite panels of two different fiber layups bonded to a CFRP composite tube using epoxy adhesive. Three types of bond conditions were simulated, namely regions of poor cohesive strength, regions with localized disbonds and well bonded regions. The root mean square and variance of the received time-domain signals and their discrete wavelet decompositions were computed for the dominant modes propagating through the various bond regions in two different inspection configurations. Semi-analytical finite element analysis of the bonded multilayer joint was also carried out to identify and predict the sensitivity of the predominant carrier modes to the different bond defects. Emphasis of this research is based upon designing a built-in system for monitoring the structural integrity of bonded joints in UAVs and other aerospace structures.

Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Marzani, Alessandro; Coccia, Stefano; Oliver, Joseph; Kosmatka, John; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Restivo, Gaetano

2005-05-01

269

Reflectance Data Processing of High Resolution Multispectral Data Acquired with an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle AggieairTM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the performance and accuracy of a method for converting airborne multispectral data to reflectance data are characterized. Spectral reflectance is the ratio of reflected to incident radiant flux and it may have values only in the interval 0-1, inclusive. Reflectance is a key physical property of a surface and is empirically derived from on-ground observations. The paper presents a method for processing multispectral data acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform, called AggieAirTM, and a process for converting raw digital numbers to calibrated reflectance values. Imagery is acquired by two identical sets of cameras. One set is aboard the UAV and the other is over a barium sulfate reference panel. The cameras have identical settings. The major steps for producing the reflectance data involve the calibration of the reference panel, calibration of the multispectral UAV cameras, zenith angle calculations and image processing. The method converts airborne multispectral data by calculating the ratio of linearly-interpolated reference values from the pre- and post-flight reference panel readings. The flight interval is typically approximately 30 minutes and the imagery is acquired around local solar noon. The UAV is typically flown at low altitudes to reduce atmospheric effects to a negligible level. Data acquired over wetlands near Great Salt Lake, Utah is used to illustrate ground data and processed imagery. The spectral resolution of the multispectral data is 25 cms. The paper discusses the accuracy issues and errors associated with the proposed method.

Zaman, B.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

2012-12-01

270

Wind Tunnel experiments of UiTM's blended wing body (BWB) Baseline-II unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at low subsonic speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted to obtain aerodynamic characteristics and performance of a blended wing-body aircraft (BWB) under study by UiTM. The BWB design for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) known as “Baseline-II” is actually a completely-revised, redesigned version of “Baseline-I” BWB. The Baseline-II features have introduced a canard, a simpler planform, and slimmer body compared to its predecessor while maintaining

Firdaus Mohamad; Wirachman Wisnoe; Wahyu Kuntjoro; Rizal E. M. Nasir; Zurriati Mohd. Ali; Nor Fazira Reduan

2010-01-01

271

Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

1996-12-31

272

Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory. Simulations in a realistic operational environment as well as flight testing with the feedback controller demonstrate the capabilities of the approach. The TSM is also applied for system identification of an aircraft using motion capture data. In this application, time domain system identification techniques are used to identify both linear and nonlinear aerodynamic models of large-amplitude pitching motions driven by control surface deflections. The resulting models are assessed based on both their predictive capabilities as well as simulation results.

Grymin, David J.

273

Intelligent tire monitor system of aerial vehicles based on radio frequency technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low power consuming intelligent monitor system of tire based on radio frequency technology is designed in this paper. The low consuming power unit, the measurement unit, the agreement of timestamp and the protocol of chain layers are presented in details. The main program flow charts of the measuring terminal and host terminal are given. he tire is the only

Kai-rui Zhao; Shicheng Xu; Qing Ye; Yan Li

2011-01-01

274

Vehicle systems and payload requirements evaluation. [computer programs for identifying launch vehicle system requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques developed for identifying launch vehicle system requirements for NASA automated space missions are discussed. Emphasis is placed on development of computer programs and investigation of astrionics for OSS missions and Scout. The Earth Orbit Mission Program - 1 which performs linear error analysis of launch vehicle dispersions for both vehicle and navigation system factors is described along with the Interactive Graphic Orbit Selection program which allows the user to select orbits which satisfy mission requirements and to evaluate the necessary injection accuracy.

Rea, F. G.; Pittenger, J. L.; Conlon, R. J.; Allen, J. D.

1975-01-01

275

Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

2004-01-01

276

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images  

PubMed Central

The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

Pena, Jose Manuel; Torres-Sanchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; Lopez-Granados, Francisca

2013-01-01

277

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

278

Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

1977-01-01

279

Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

1977-01-01

280

The China New Energy Vehicles Program - Challenges and Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this report funded by the World Bank and carried out by the firm PRTM, Chinaâs New Energy Program and 10 Cities 1000 Vehicles program are evaluated. China is on the forefront of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) development leading the world in funding of new energy vehicles (100 billion RMB investments by 2021). Leading the development of new energy technologies is faced with challenges such as policy, grid solutions, standards, new business models, new technologies, and customer acceptance. This report reviews Chinaâs current energy programs and predicts future government and commercial changes to come due to new energy technologies.

Prtm

281

myCopter Enabling Technologies for Personal Aerial Transportation Systems  

E-print Network

Transport System PAV Personal Aerial Vehicle PPL Private pilot license UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle 1 towards a Personal Aerial Transportation System, in which vehicles would also have vertical space into account the required operational infrastructure, instead of starting with the design of a vehicle

282

Three-dimensional vortex wake structure of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates the formation and evolution of the unsteady three-dimensional wake structures generated by the flapping wings of the DelFly II micro aerial vehicle in forward flight configuration. Time-resolved stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were carried out at several spanwise-aligned planes in the wake, so as to allow a reconstruction of the temporal development of the wake of the flapping wings throughout the complete flapping cycle. Simultaneous thrust-force measurements were performed to explore the relation between the wake formation and the aerodynamic force generation mechanisms. The three-dimensional wake configuration was subsequently reconstructed from the planar PIV measurements by two different approaches: (1) a spatiotemporal wake reconstruction obtained by convecting the time-resolved, three-component velocity field data of a single measurement plane with the free-stream velocity; (2) for selected phases in the flapping cycle a direct three-dimensional spatial wake reconstruction is interpolated from the data of the different measurement planes, using a Kriging regression technique. Comparing the results derived from both methods in terms of the behavior of the wake formations, their phase and orientation indicate that the spatiotemporal reconstruction method allows to characterize the general three-dimensional structure of the wake, but that the spatial reconstruction method can reveal more details due to higher streamwise resolution. Comparison of the wake reconstructions for different values of the reduced frequency allows assessing the impact of the flapping frequency on the formation and interaction characteristics of the vortical structures. For low values of the reduced frequency, it is observed that the vortex structure formation of instroke and outstroke is relatively independent of each other, but that increasing interaction occurs at higher reduced frequencies. It is further shown that there is a phase lag in the appearance of the structures for increasing flapping frequency, which is in correlation with the generation of the forces. Comparison of thrust generated during the instroke and the outstroke phases of the flapping motion in conjunction with the development of the wake structures indicates that wing-wing interaction at the start of outstroke (peel motion) becomes a dominant feature for reduced frequencies greater than 0.62.

Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B. W.; Eisma, H. E.; Remes, B. D. W.

2014-09-01

283

Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by Geoscience Australia. The pattern obtained in the tail wind was consistent with the map, although the pattern obtained form the tail wind was not similar for weak anomaly in the map. Consequently we conclude that the magnetic survey by small drone with MR-magnetometer is possible in the calm wind or in the tail wind. The magnetic noise might be increased by the heading change due to the turbulent flows because of angular deviation of the x-, y- and z-components of MR magnetometer.

Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

2006-12-01

284

Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The hygrometer was installed at the nose of a small GPS-controlled glider, which was lifted by a meteorological balloon into the stratosphere and released by a remote command. GPS-based flight control guides and lands the UAV at the launch point thereby allowing multiple usage of its payload. Another sounding platform allowing for multiple usage of the FLASH instrument is a GPS-guided paraglide. The results of measurements acquired in the test flights using different types of balloon-lifted UAVs are presented.

Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

285

EDIN0613P weight estimating program. [for launch vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The weight estimating relationships and program developed for space power system simulation are described. The program was developed to size a two-stage launch vehicle for the space power system. The program is actually part of an overall simulation technique called EDIN (Engineering Design and Integration) system. The program sizes the overall vehicle, generates major component weights and derives a large amount of overall vehicle geometry. The program is written in FORTRAN V and is designed for use on the Univac Exec 8 (1110). By utilizing the flexibility of this program while remaining cognizant of the limits imposed upon output depth and accuracy by utilization of generalized input, this program concept can be a useful tool for estimating purposes at the conceptual design stage of a launch vehicle.

Hirsch, G. N.

1976-01-01

286

Controlled manipulation using autonomous aerial systems  

E-print Network

The main focus of the thesis is to design and control Autonomous Aerial Systems, also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are able to hover and navigate in space using the thrust forces generated by the ...

Srikanth, Manohar B. (Manohar Balagatte)

2013-01-01

287

VEEP: A Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the VEEP simulation program was to: (1) predict vehicle fuel economy and relative emissions over any specified driving cycle; (2) calculate various measures of vehicle performance (acceleration, passing manuevers, gradeability, top speed), and (3) give information on the various categories of energy dissipation (rolling friction, aerodynamics, accessories, inertial effects, component inefficiences, etc.). The vehicle is described based on detailed subsystem information and numerical parameters characterizing the components of a wide variety of self-propelled vehicles. Conventionally arranged heat engine powered automobiles were emphasized, but with consideration in the design toward the requirement of other types of vehicles.

Klose, G. J.

1978-01-01

288

2-Point-based Outlier Rejection for Camera-Imu Systems with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

on a quadrotor vehicle, motion priors from IMU can be used to discard wrong estimations in the framework of a 2 of a monocular camera mounted on a quadrotor vehicle, motion priors from IMU can be used to discard wrong

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program  

SciTech Connect

K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State's Site Operator Program continues to get the word-out'' about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State's G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states's program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State's program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-01-01

290

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

291

United States orbital transfer vehicle programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five U.S. orbital transfer vehicles carrying spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various expandable launch vehicles are studied. These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the U.S. Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval, and return to a space base. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are mature vehicles currently available for mission support. Characteristics, flight records, and costs are defined. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

Gunn, Charles R.

1989-01-01

292

Navy OmniDirectional Vehicle (ODV) development program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome

Hillery McGowen

1994-01-01

293

Making Your Vehicle Preventive Maintenance Program Pay Off.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of a vehicle maintenance program for school districts that can reduce overall costs and improve safety. It describes developing a maintenance plan and its implementation, and recordkeeping tips. In addition, it highlights where to find vehicle maintenance training and resources. (GR)

Bruhn, Catherine G.

1997-01-01

294

Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 3: Program requirements documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for geosynchronous orbit capability using the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) are defined. The program requirements, the mission requirements, and the system and subsystem requirements for the MOTV are discussed. The mission requirements include a geosynchronous Earth orbit vehicle for the construction, servicing, repair and operation of communications, solar power, and Earth observation satellites.

Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

1979-01-01

295

Remote reconnaissance vehicle program. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the development and initial use of remote reconnaissance vehicle No. 1 (RRV-1) in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup. The RRV-1 is a rugged, remotely operated, highly maneuverable six-wheeled vehicle which is tethered to transmit power and control signals. It has a system for controlled reel-in and pay-out of the tether, TV cameras with remotely

D. Giefer; R. Hine; M. Pavelek

1985-01-01

296

Navy Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome conditions of reduced traction, ship motion, decks heeled at high angles, obstacles, and confined spaces. Under the Navy program, ODV technology was investigated and a series of experimental vehicles were built and successfully tested under extremely demanding conditions. The ODV drive system has been found to be applicable to autonomous, remotely, or manually operated vehicles. Potential commercial applications include multi-directional forklift trucks, automatic guided vehicles employed in manufacturing environments, and remotely controlled platforms used in nuclear facilities or for hazardous waste clean up tasks.

Mcgowen, Hillery

1994-01-01

297

Aerial of the VAB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

2000-01-01

298

Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

299

International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAVS M. Bláha *, H. Eisenbeiss, D. Grimm, P. Limpach Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry.limpach)@geod.baug.ethz.ch and mblaha@student.ethz.ch Commission VI, WG VI/4 KEY WORDS: UAV, Falcon 8, direct georeferencing, GPS

Schindler, Konrad

300

Acknowledgments: NASA Glenn Research Center (Grant #NNC04GB44G) College of Engineering Prof. Martin Abraham NASA envisions employing fuel cells running on jet fuel reformate for its uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), low emission alternative power (LE  

E-print Network

poisoned by the sulfur present in jet (JP-8, Jet-A, etc.) fuels. If left uncaptured, it leads uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), low emission alternative power (LEAP) missions and for transatlantic odor. The currently used catalysts deactivate quickly and/or are poisoned due to large sulfur contents

Azad, Abdul-Majeed

301

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied

Dan Hyde; Kirk Collier

2009-01-01

302

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

2000-06-19

303

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

304

Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2)

B. H. Rowlett; R. Murry

1977-01-01

305

Program For Simulating Dynamics Of Aerospace Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SORT (Simulation and Optimization of Rocket Trajectories) is general-purpose three-degree-of-freedom with three axis static moment balance simulation of flight dynamics of arbitrary aerospace vehicle. Modular structure facilitates application to variety of trajectory-analysis problems. Contains math model of aerodynamics completely generalized. Computes both longitudinal and lateral forces and moments. In addition to fore-body coefficients, computes longitudinal base effect aerodynamic forces and moments. Simplified ballistic-coefficient model also available for analysis of ballistic entry. Written using ANSI FORTRAN 77.

Berning, M. J.; Sagis, K. D.

1995-01-01

306

Vehicle Detection from Aerial Imagery Joshua Gleason, Ara V. Nefian, Xavier Bouyssounousse, Terry Fong and George Bebis  

E-print Network

in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline including vegetation, rural roads and buildings, lakes and rivers collected during several day time in particular pose a potentially catastrophic threat to the vast network of oil and gas pipelines in rural areas

Bebis, George

307

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2011-01-01

308

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2014-01-01

309

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

310

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2012-01-01

311

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

2005-10-01

312

The DARPA/USAF Falcon Program Small Launch Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earlier in this decade, the U.S. Air Force Space Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), in recognizing the need for low-cost responsive small launch vehicles, decided to partner in addressing this national shortcoming. Later, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) joined in supporting this effort, dubbed the Falcon Program. The objectives of the Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) element of the DARPA/USAF Falcon Program include the development of a low-cost small launch vehicle(s) that demonstrates responsive launch and has the potential for achieving a per mission cost of less than $5M when based on 20 launches per year for 10 years. This vehicle class can lift 1000 to 2000 lbm payloads to a reference low earth orbit. Responsive operations include launching the rocket within 48 hours of call up. A history of the program and the current status will be discussed with an emphasis on the potential impact on small satellites.

Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Thompson, Tim L.; Sackheim, Robert; London, John R., III

2006-01-01

313

Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

NONE

1994-03-01

314

Control of a remotely operated quadrotor aerial vehicle and camera unit using a fly-the-camera perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a mission-centric approach to controlling the optical axis of a video camera mounted on a camera manipulator and fixed to a quadrotor remotely operated vehicle. A four-DOF quadrotor, UAV model will be combined with a two-DOF camera kinematic model to create a single system to provide a full six DOF actuation of the camera view. This work

DongBin Lee; Vilas Chitrakaran; T imothy Burg; Darren Dawson; Bin Xian

2007-01-01

315

Operational Planning and Programming of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future military autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) will perform multiple missions, handle many contingencies, and require broad domain knowledge. The intelligence of these multi-miasion AUVs will require complex mission-contingent software. As a result, programming an AUV for a mission promises to be an increasingly formidable task, even as it increasingly needs to be performed in the field by operational personnel, not

Andrew Kramer; David Toms; Robert Schrag; D. Johnson

1989-01-01

316

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

...2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26...Programs § 101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has...program to provide an additional source of motor vehicle support to all...

2014-07-01

317

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

318

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

319

Aerial Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into aerial imagery. Learners will use the internet to gather free aerial imagery of nearby points of interest (or use laminated images prepped by educator). Then, they will imagine they are traveling in a spaceship to visit Earth for the first time and explore how their view changes as they approach Earthâs surface. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

320

Characterization of Shrubland-Atmosphere Interactions through Use of the Eddy Covariance Method, Distributed Footprint Sampling, and Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecohydrological dynamics can be evaluated from field observations of land-atmosphere states and fluxes, including water, carbon, and energy exchanges measured through the eddy covariance method. In heterogeneous landscapes, the representativeness of these measurements is not well understood due to the variable nature of the sampling footprint and the mixture of underlying herbaceous, shrub, and soil patches. In this study, we integrate new field techniques to understand how ecosystem surface states are related to turbulent fluxes in two different semiarid shrubland settings in the Jornada (New Mexico) and Santa Rita (Arizona) Experimental Ranges. The two sites are characteristic of Chihuahuan (NM) and Sonoran (AZ) Desert mixed-shrub communities resulting from woody plant encroachment into grassland areas. In each study site, we deployed continuous soil moisture and soil temperature profile observations at twenty sites around an eddy covariance tower after local footprint estimation revealed the optimal sensor network design. We then characterized the tower footprint through terrain and vegetation analyses derived at high resolution (<1 m) from imagery obtained from a fixed-wing and rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our analysis focuses on the summertime land-atmosphere states and fluxes during which each ecosystem responded differentially to the North American monsoon. We found that vegetation heterogeneity induces spatial differences in soil moisture and temperature that are important to capture when relating these states to the eddy covariance flux measurements. Spatial distributions of surface states at different depths reveal intricate patterns linked to vegetation cover that vary between the two sites. Furthermore, single site measurements at the tower are insufficient to capture the footprint conditions and their influence on turbulent fluxes. We also discuss techniques for aggregating the surface states based upon the vegetation and soil classifications obtained from the high-resolution aerial imagery. Overall, the integration of the different techniques yielded new insight into the spatiotemporal variation of land surface states and their relation to sensible and latent heat fluxes in two shrubland sites, with the potential application in other ecosystems worldwide.

Anderson, C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Robles-Morua, A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

2012-12-01

321

Analysis of Manpower Requirements for the United States Marine Corps Tiers II and III Unmanned Aerial Systems Family of Systems Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was conducted to examine the quantitative and qualitative component requirements for the Tier II and Tier III of the United States Marine Corps Unmanned Aerial Systems Program. The main objective of this research is to develop a proposed man...

C. E. Nader

2007-01-01

322

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) system design requirements are given. The information is based on the IPAD User Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70013-D) and the Integrated Information Processing Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70012-D). General information about IPAD and a list of the system design requirements that are to be satisfied by the IPAD system are given. The system design requirements definition is to be considered as a baseline definition of the IPAD system design requirements.

Anderson, O. L.; Calvery, A. L.; Davis, D. A.; Dickmann, L.; Folger, D. H.; Jochem, E. N.; Kitto, C. M.; Vonlimbach, G.

1977-01-01

323

Aerial Shepherds: Coordination among UAVs and Swarms of Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of deploying groups of tens or hundreds of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in urban environments where a group of aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to coordinate the ground vehicles. We envision a hi- erarchy in which UAVs with aerial cameras can be used to monitor and command a swarm of UGVs, controlling the splitting and

Luiz Chaimowicz; Vijay Kumar

2004-01-01

324

A FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM FOR AERIAL ROBOTS: ALGORITHMS AND EXPERIMENTS  

E-print Network

as on-board intelligence for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). This hierarchical flight. Subscribing to this idea, Rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs) deserve special interests, due. A tracking control layer is designed on the identified vehicle dynamics and integrated with a trajectory

Sastry, S. Shankar

325

UAVs in climate research: The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

In the last year, a Department of Energy/Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project known as ``ARM-UAV`` has made important progress in developing and demonstrating the utility of unmanned aerospace vehicles as platforms for scientific measurements. Recent accomplishments include a series of flights using an atmospheric research payload carried by a General Atomics Gnat UAV at Edwards AFB, California, and over ground instruments located in north-central Oklahoma. The reminder of this discussion will provide background on the program and describe the recent flights.

Bolton, W.R.

1994-05-01

326

Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

Caille, Gary

2013-12-13

327

Use of the Aerosonde Unihabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4) was a scientific field experiment based in Florida in summer 2001 focused on the study of hurricanes off the east coast of the United States. Sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Office of Earth Science, and conducted in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's annual hurricane research program, CAMEX 4 utilized aircraft, ground-based and satellite instrumentation to obtain unprecedented, three dimensional characterizations of these important storms. The Aerosonde UAV was selected by NASA to participate in CAMEX 4 because it provided a unique capability to obtain measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer in and around the storms, unattainable by other platforms or measurement capabilities. This talk focuses on the NASA review process that was followed to coordinate the UAV activity with the conventional aircraft operations, as well as with the other participating agencies and the FAA. We will discuss how Aerosonde addressed the issues of safety, coordination and communication and summarize the lessons learned.

Hipskind, R. Stephen; Curry, Judy; Holland, Greg

2001-01-01

328

City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

None

2013-12-31

329

COCOA - Tracking in Aerial Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefleld settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At flrst stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving

Saad Ali; Mubarak Shah

2005-01-01

330

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle's Identity Crisis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strategic leaders of the information age face a future of ambiguous threats and challenges as well as potential technological advancements never before envisioned just a few years ago. Many lessons of the past may no longer apply to vastly complex conditi...

D. Larm

2004-01-01

331

Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

Deal, Walter F., III

2005-01-01

332

PAYCOS: A new multidisciplinary analysis program for hypersonic vehicle design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Payload Conceptual Sizing Code (PAYCOS), a new multidisciplinary computer program for use in the conceptual development phase of hypersonic lifting vehicles (HV's), is described. The program allows engineers to rapidly determine the feasibility of an HV concept and then improve upon the concept by means of optimization theory. The code contains analysis modules for aerodynamics, thermodynamics, mass properties, flight stability, controls, loads, structures, and packaging. Motivation for the code lies with the increased complexity of HV's over their body-of-revolution ballistic predecessors. With these new shapes, the need to rapidly screen out poor concepts and actively develop new and better concepts is an even more crucial part of the early design process. Preliminary results are given which demonstrate the optimization capabilities of the code.

Stubbe, J. R.

1990-01-01

333

Online trajectory planning for UAVs using mixed integer linear programming  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a improved path planner using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) to solve a receding horizon optimization problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). Using MILP, hard constraints for obstacle ...

Culligan, Kieran Forbes

2006-01-01

334

NCS EMP (National Communications System Electromagnetic Pulse) mitigation program: Aerial TI System test plan. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program mitigates the damaging effects of nuclear weapons on regional and national telecommunications capabilities. To meet this objective, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to create a network level model to assess the effects of High-Altitude EMP (HEMP). In addition, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to collect the level HEMP effects to data required to support the network-level model. The products of this model will assist the NCS in identifying potential vulnerabilities of national telecommunications capabilities to HEMP and to support National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) initiatives.

Not Available

1986-08-01

335

Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

1979-01-01

336

Low cost navigation technology investigation for the unmanned ground vehicle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) is currently developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Technology Test Bed (TTB). The UGV TTB is a program that will utilize two High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicles (HMMWV). One HMMWV will contain the Operator Control Unit (OCU) while the other HMMWV will be operated as the remote vehicle. The purpose of the TTB is

Brian T. Baeder; C. T. Osborn; Jeff L. Rhea

1994-01-01

337

Aerial photos of KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A broad aerial view west of Launch Complex 39 Area shows a multitude of facilities. Starting with the Shuttle Landing Facility, at bottom center is a circle around a windsock, a landing aid for pilots; at bottom right is a portion of the landing strip. In the center is the parking tarmac with its mate/demate device on the left corner. To the right is the remote launch vehicle hangar, still under construction. At the upper right is the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The tow-way road runs from the landing strip to the Orbiter Processing Facility, next to the VAB. The Kennedy Parkway North extends from the left side toward the VAB. The long white building next to the parkway is the Apollo/Saturn V Center. Above it, slightly visible on the horizon (left), is Launch Complex 39, Pad B.

2000-01-01

338

Georgia Tech Aerial Robotics Team 2009 International Aerial Robotics Competition Entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the use of low-cost range and target identification sensors on a stable flying vehicle for suitability in solving the 5 th Mission proposed for the 2009 International Aerial Robotics Competition. The ability for vehicles to navigate unknown environments is critical for autonomous operation. Mapping of a vehicle's environment and self-localization within that environment are especially difficult for

Girish Chowdhary; H. Claus Christmann; Eric N. Johnson; M. Scott Kimbrell

339

Aerial thermography for energy conservation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal infrared scanning from an aircraft is a convenient and commercially available means for determining relative rates of energy loss from building roofs. The need to conserve energy as fuel costs makes the mass survey capability of aerial thermography an attractive adjunct to community energy awareness programs. Background information on principles of aerial thermography is presented. Thermal infrared scanning systems, flight and environmental requirements for data acquisition, preparation of thermographs for display, major users and suppliers of thermography, and suggested specifications for obtaining aerial scanning services were reviewed.

Jack, J. R.

1978-01-01

340

Electric and hybrid vehicle self-certification and verification procedures: Market Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The process by which a manufacturer of an electric or hybrid vehicle certifies that his vehicle meets the DOE Performance Standards for Demonstration is described. Such certification is required for any vehicles to be purchased under the Market Demonstration Program. It also explains the verification testing process followed by DOE for testing to verify compliance. Finally, the document outlines manufacturer responsibilities and presents procedures for recertification of vehicles that have failed verification testing.

None

1980-03-01

341

Space Vehicle Powerdown Philosophies Derived from the Space Shuttle Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In spaceflight, electrical power is a vital but limited resource. Almost every spacecraft system, from avionics to life support systems, relies on electrical power. Since power can be limited by the generation system s performance, available consumables, solar array shading, or heat rejection capability, vehicle power management is a critical consideration in spacecraft design, mission planning, and real-time operations. The purpose of this paper is to capture the powerdown philosophies used during the Space Shuttle Program. This paper will discuss how electrical equipment is managed real-time to adjust the overall vehicle power level to ensure that systems and consumables will support changing mission objectives, as well as how electrical equipment is managed following system anomalies. We will focus on the power related impacts of anomalies in the generation systems, air and liquid cooling systems, and significant environmental events such as a fire, decrease in cabin pressure, or micrometeoroid debris strike. Additionally, considerations for executing powerdowns by crew action or by ground commands from Mission Control will be presented. General lessons learned from nearly 30 years of Space Shuttle powerdowns will be discussed, including an in depth case-study of STS-117. During this International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission, a failure of computers controlling the ISS guidance, navigation, and control system required that the Space Shuttle s maneuvering system be used to maintain attitude control. A powerdown was performed to save power generation consumables, thus extending the docked mission duration and allowing more time to resolve the issue.

Willsey, Mark; Bailey, Brad

2011-01-01

342

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

2014-07-01

343

Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

1975-01-01

344

Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program  

SciTech Connect

ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Bolton, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

345

Endurance bounds of aerial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.

Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

2014-06-01

346

Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

1999-12-13

347

Decentralized Cooperative Control of Heterogeneous Vehicle Groups  

E-print Network

terrain. A group of unmanned ground vehicles (ugvs) is sent to clear a Corresponding author. Email for the ground vehicles, and to surveil the surrounding area for threats, a group of unmanned aerial vehicles: a group of ground vehicles (ugvs) and a group of aerial vehicles (uavs). The ground agents interact

Tanner, Herbert G.

348

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

1980-11-01

349

Support to X-33/Resusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The X-33 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Peer Review Team (PRT) was formed to assess the integrated X-33 vehicle GN&C system in order to identify any areas of disproportionate risk for initial flight. The eventual scope of the PRT assessment encompasses the GN&C algorithms, software, avionics, control effectors, applicable models, and testing. The initial (phase 1) focus of the PRT was on the GN&C algorithms and the Flight Control Actuation Subsystem (FCAS). The PRT held meetings during its phase 1 assessment at X-33 assembly facilities in Palmdale, California on May 17-18, 2000 and at Honeywell facilities in Tempe, Arizona on June 7, 2000. The purpose of these meetings was for the PRT members to get background briefings on the X-33 vehicle and for the PRT team to be briefed on the design basis and current status of the X-33 GN&C algorithms as well as the FCAS. The following material is covered in this PRT phase 1 final report. Some significant GN&C-related accomplishments by the X-33 development team are noted. Some topics are identified that were found during phase 1 to require fuller consideration when the PRT reconvenes in the future. Some new recommendations by the PRT to the X-33 program will likely result from a thorough assessment of these subjects. An initial list of recommendations from the PRT to the X-33 program is provided. These recommendations stem from topics that received adequate review by the PRT in phase 1. Significant technical observations by the PRT members as a result of the phase 1 meetings are detailed. (These are covered in an appendix.) There were many X-33 development team members who contributed to the technical information used by the PRT during the phase 1 assessment, who supported presentations to the PRT, and who helped to address the many questions posed by the PRT members at and after the phase 1 meetings. In all instances the interaction between the PRT and the X-33 development team members was cordial and very professional. The members of the PRT are grateful for the time and effort applied by all of these individuals and hope that the contents of this report will help to make the X-33 program a success.

2000-01-01

350

Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

2000-01-01

351

40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?  

...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913 Section 89.913 Protection...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You may use the provisions of...

2014-07-01

352

Cost-effectiveness and officer morale of a personally assigned patrol vehicle program : A comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a study which compares two police fleet management programs in San Diego County and combines both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods to evaluate the costs and effectiveness of a personally-assigned vehicle program to that of a conventional pool car program. Concludes that personally-assigned vehicles are most cost-effective to maintain. Moreover, officers report a higher level of satisfaction using

Sheldon X. Zhang; Theodore D. Benson

1997-01-01

353

The University Nanosat Program: an adaptable, responsive and realistic capability demonstration vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University Nanosat Program (UNP) is a student satellite program cosponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL\\/VS), the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA\\/GSFC), the American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics (AIAA), and the Air Force Space Test Program (STP). The program was initiated

George Hunyadi; Jeff Ganley; A. Peffer; M. Kumashiro

2004-01-01

354

Hybrid propulsion for launch vehicle boosters: A program status update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained in studying the origin and suppression of large-amplitude pressure oscillations in a 24 in. diameter hybrid motor using a liquid oxygen/hydroxylterminated polybutadiene/polycyclopentadiene propellant system are discussed. Tests conducted with liquid oxygen flow rates varying from 10 to 40 lbm/sec were designed to gauge the effectiveness of various vaporization chamber flow fields, injector designs, and levels of heat addition in suppressing high-frequency longitudinal mode oscillations. Longitudinal acoustic modes did not arise in any tests. However, initial testing revealed the presence of high-amplitude, sinusoidal, nonacoustic oscillations persisting throughout the burn durations. Analysis showed this to be analogous to chug mode instability in liquid rocket engines brought about by a coupling of motor combustion processes and the liquid oxygen feed system. Analytical models were developed and verified by test data to predict the amplitude and frequency of feed-system-coupled combustion pressure oscillations. Subsequent testing showed that increasing the feed system impedance eliminated the bulk mode instability. This paper documents the work completed to date in performance of the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters Program (NAS8-39942) sponsored by NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

Carpenter, R. L.; Boardman, T. A.; Claflin, S. E.; Harwell, R. J.

1995-01-01

355

Dynamic programming algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and EC social legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, apart from the problem of vehicle routing, schedulers\\u000aalso face the problem of nding feasible driver schedules complying\\u000awith complex restrictions on drivers' driving and working hours. To\\u000aaddress this complex interdependent problem of vehicle routing and\\u000abreak scheduling, we propose a dynamic programming approach for\\u000athe vehicle routing problem with time windows including the EC so-\\u000acial

A. Leendert Kok; C. Manuel Meyer; Herbert Kopfer; J. Marco J. Schutten

2009-01-01

356

> 070131-073Vehicle  

E-print Network

on collaborative control ofAutonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Autonomous-The design and development of the Swordfish Autonomous Surface Vehicle (ASV) system is discussed. Swordfish Terms-Autonomous Surface Vehicles, ocean robotics, marine science operations, unmanned survey vessels. I

Marques, Eduardo R. B.

357

Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

NONE

1993-06-01

358

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

359

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

1980-01-01

360

Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity analysis resport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime and maintenance, owner use patterns, internal combustion engine (ICE) reference vehicle fuel economy, and drive-line component costs and type. The lowest initial cost of the hybrid vehicle would be $1200 to $1500 higher than that of the conventional vehicle. For nominal energy costs ($1.00/gal for gasoline and 4.2 cents/kWh for electricity), the ownership cost of the hybrid vehicle is projected to be 0.5 to 1.0 cents/mi less than the conventional ICE vehicle. To attain this ownership cost differential, the lifetime of the hybrid vehicle must be extended to 12 years and its maintenance cost reduced by 25 percent compared with the conventional vehicle. The ownership cost advantage of the hybrid vehicle increases rapidly as the price of fuel increases from $1 to $2/gal.

1979-01-01

361

COOPERATIVE PATH-PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES USING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how to model a cooperative path planning system for multiple autonomous air vehicles within the framework of a stochastic (dynamic programming) decision process. The proposed approach allows the vehicles to cooperate and find near-optimal search paths over a given environment in the presence of uncertainty and constraints on movement and computational power.

Matthew Flint; Marios Polycarpou; Emmanuel Fernandez-Gaucherand

2002-01-01

362

Aerial Video Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

1991-01-01

363

Development of Flight Simulation Program for the HYFLEX Vehicle and Flight Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a flight simulation program, used to analyze the navigation, guidance and control system and for flight analysis of the hypersonic flight experiment vehicle (HYFLEX). More precise flight analysis had to be carried out to predict the sp...

H. Suzuki, Y. Matsumoto

1997-01-01

364

77 FR 73458 - Vehicle Technologies Program; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...alternative fuels such as electricity, ethanol, natural gas, or biodiesel. This tool has a basic widget version, which allows users...each focus on a specific type of alternative fuel vehicle (biodiesel, compressed natural gas, E85, and electric drive)....

2012-12-10

365

Sampling-Based Real-Time Motion Planning under State Uncertainty for Autonomous Micro-Aerial Vehicles in GPS-Denied Environments.  

PubMed

This paper presents a real-time motion planning approach for autonomous vehicles with complex dynamics and state uncertainty. The approach is motivated by the motion planning problem for autonomous vehicles navigating in GPS-denied dynamic environments, which involves non-linear and/or non-holonomic vehicle dynamics, incomplete state estimates, and constraints imposed by uncertain and cluttered environments. To address the above motion planning problem, we propose an extension of the closed-loop rapid belief trees, the closed-loop random belief trees (CL-RBT), which incorporates predictions of the position estimation uncertainty, using a factored form of the covariance provided by the Kalman filter-based estimator. The proposed motion planner operates by incrementally constructing a tree of dynamically feasible trajectories using the closed-loop prediction, while selecting candidate paths with low uncertainty using efficient covariance update and propagation. The algorithm can operate in real-time, continuously providing the controller with feasible paths for execution, enabling the vehicle to account for dynamic and uncertain environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate feasible trajectories that reduce the state estimation uncertainty, while handling complex vehicle dynamics and environment constraints. PMID:25412217

Li, Dachuan; Li, Qing; Cheng, Nong; Song, Jingyan

2014-01-01

366

An Integrated UAV Navigation System Based on Aerial Image Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility of using geo-referenced satellite or aerial images to augment an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) navigation system in case of GPS failure. A vision based navigation system which combines inertial sensors, visual odometer and registration of a UAV on-board video to a given geo-referenced aerial image has been developed and tested

Gianpaolo Conte; Patrick Doherty

2008-01-01

367

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics (Program CIP: 47.0699--Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mech.). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics I and II. Presented first are a…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

368

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2010-07-01

369

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2011-07-01

370

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2012-07-01

371

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program? 80.500...OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel General...

2013-07-01

372

The near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Performance specifications were determined for a hybrid vehicle designed to achieve the greatest reduction in fuel consumption. Based on the results of systems level studies, a baseline vehicle was constructed with the following basic paramaters: a heat engine power peak of 53 kW (VW gasoline engine); a traction motor power peak of 30 kW (Siemens 1GV1, separately excited); a heat engine fraction of 0.64; a vehicle curb weight of 2080 kg; a lead acid battery (35 kg weight); and a battery weight fraction of 0.17. The heat engine and the traction motor are coupled together with their combined output driving a 3 speed automatic transmission with lockup torque converter. The heat engine is equipped withe a clutch which allows it to be decoupled from the system.

1979-01-01

373

Electric and hybrid vehicles program. 5th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1981  

SciTech Connect

This fifth annual report on the implementation of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-413, as amended by Public Law 95-238, referred to as the Act) complies with the reporting requirements established in Section 14 of the Act. In addition to informing the Congress of the progress and plans of the Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program, this report is intended to serve as a communication link between the Department and all of the public and private interests involved in making the program a success. The Annual Report represents the major summary of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program activities; since July 1981, DOE has ceased publication of the EHV Quarterly Reports with Congressional approval. The fourth quarter activities for FY 1981 are included in this report. During FY 1981, significant progress was made toward implementing the policies established by Congress in the Act. There has been a noticeable increase in interest shown by both the automobile manufacturing and the supply sectors of our economy in electric and hybrid vehicles. This year, the emphasis in the Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program shifted from vehicle demonstration and preparation for production readiness to research, development, test, and evaluation of advanced technologies to achieve the attributes necessary to make electric and hybrid vehicles a practical transportation alternative. Research and development efforts in batteries and propulsion components, as well as total vehicle systems, continue to reveal significant progress toward providing industry with technology options that will result in vehicles with greater public acceptance.

None

1982-03-01

374

A Coupled Nonlinear Discrete-Time Controller and Observer Designs for Under-actuated Autonomous vehicles with Application to a Quadrotor Aerial Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of a combined discrete-time nonlinear tracking controller-observer design procedure for a class of underactuated autonomous vehicles with configuration (position and orientation) measurements and modelled via Lagrangian approach; we show the asymptotic stability of the closed loop-dynamics using Lyapunov analysis to guarantee the desired objectives of the tracking controller coupled with the observer (software sensor). The

M. Guisser; Medromi Hassan; H. Ifassiounen; J. Saadi; N. Radhy

2006-01-01

375

Cocoa-tracking in aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving

M Shah

2006-01-01

376

Autonomous indoor aerial gripping using a quadrotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an implementation of au- tonomous indoor aerial gripping using a low-cost, custom-built quadrotor. Such research extends the typical functionality of mi- cro air vehicles (MAV) from passive observation and sensing to dynamic interaction with the environment. To achieve this, three major challenges are overcome: precise positioning, sensing and manipulation of the object, and stabilization in the presence

Vaibhav Ghadiok; Jeremy Goldin; Wei Ren

2011-01-01

377

Autonomous indoor aerial gripping using a quadrotor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an implementation of autonomous indoor aerial gripping using a low-cost, custom-built quadrotor. Such research extends the typical functionality of micro air vehicles (MAV) from passive observation and sensing to dynamic interaction with the environment. To achieve this, three major challenges are overcome: precise positioning, sensing and manipulation of the object, and stabilization in the presence of disturbance

Vaibhav Ghadiok; Jeremy Goldin; Wei Ren

2011-01-01

378

Dispersion analysis and linear error analysis capabilities of the space vehicle dynamics simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous error analyses conducted by the Guidance and Dynamics Branch of NASA have used the Guidance Analysis Program (GAP) as the trajectory simulation tool. Plans are made to conduct all future error analyses using the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program. A study was conducted to compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU) error simulations of the two programs. Results of the GAP/SVDS comparison are presented and problem areas encountered while attempting to simulate IMU errors, vehicle performance uncertainties and environmental uncertainties using SVDS are defined. An evaluation of the SVDS linear error analysis capability is also included.

Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

1975-01-01

379

Energy consumption analysis of FC-EDLC hybrid railway vehicle by dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze energy consumption of FC-EDLC hybrid railway vehicle to reveal the energy reduction effect. To evaluate this effect properly, we adopt dynamic programming which is optimal control theory. Dynamic programming enables us to calculate energy consumption under optimized control of power sources. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship among reduction effect of energy consumption, device

Tomoyuki Ogawa; Hiroaki Yoshihara; Shinji Wakao; Keiichiro Kondo; Minoru Kondo

2007-01-01

380

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) To promote truck and bus safety programs and  

E-print Network

Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) Goal To promote truck and bus safety programs and technologies messages at multiple venues Demonstrate proven and emerging safety technologies to state and motor carrier stakeholders Promote deployment of safety technologies by fleets and state MCSAP agencies Evaluate program

381

77 FR 53199 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Advanced Clean Car Program; Request...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Advanced Clean Car program (ACC) which combines the control of smog and soot causing pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions...amendments to its low emission vehicle (LEV) program to address both smog forming pollutants and greenhouse gases, and amendments to...

2012-08-31

382

Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Sixth Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy Press's book about the cooperative research and development project between the US government and the US Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) is available free online. The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program was instigated by President Clinton in 1993 with the aim of increasing fuel efficiency of autos and enhancing the US automobile industry's competitiveness and efficiency. Contents of the book include the development of vehicle subsystems, systems analysis, and concept vehicles. The text is presented in HTML format with a tool allowing users to jump to desired pages.

National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board.; Research., U. S.

2000-01-01

383

IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early work was performed to apply data base technology in support of the management of engineering data in the design and manufacturing environments. The principal objective of the IPAD project is to develop a computer software system for use in the design of aerospace vehicles. Two prototype systems are created for this purpose. Relational Information Manager (RIM) is a successful commercial product. The IPAD Information Processor (IPIP), a much more sophisticated system, is still under development.

Miller, R. E., Jr.

1985-01-01

384

A Dynamic Programming Heuristic for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows and European Community Social Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, apart from the problem of vehicle routing, schedulers also face the problem of nding feasible driver schedules comply- ing with complex restrictions on drivers' driving and working hours. To address this complex interdependent problem of vehicle routing and break scheduling, we propose a restricted dynamic programming heuristic for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and the full

A. Leendert Kok; C. Manuel Meyer; Herbert Kopfer; J. M. J. Schutten

2010-01-01

385

An Innovative Approach for Data Collection and Handling to Enable Advancements in Micro Air Vehicle Persistent Surveillance  

E-print Network

.S.-European Micro-Aerial Vehicle Technology 24 Demonstration and Assessment held in Germany in 2005, was able to be programmed with GPS waypoints for navigation. In addition, the Dragonfly had built-in autonomous functionality such as climb and return....S.-European Micro-Aerial Vehicle Technology 24 Demonstration and Assessment held in Germany in 2005, was able to be programmed with GPS waypoints for navigation. In addition, the Dragonfly had built-in autonomous functionality such as climb and return...

Goodnight, Ryan David

2010-10-12

386

Reliability Program Development and Implementation for a Remote Piloted Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper decribes the implementation of a Reliability Program from the definition of a major project throughout development, to operational flights. The Reliability Program enjoyed full support by IAI Engineering Division management without any outside (client) pressure and enabled the reliability group to prove its competence and usefulness to all levels of design engineers and prototype shop engineers and management.

Sergiu Samuel; Yehuda Tamir

1983-01-01

387

Aerial Robotic System for Transportation and Logistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status quo of a research on a novel aerial robotic system for transportation and logistics is presented. Under a new concept for an aerial robotic transportation system, three-Dimensional Transportation Robots (3DTR) were constructed with twin turbojet engines equipped by high performance noise reduction system and a flexibly jointed delta wing controlled by 2-axis actuators. This vehicle is also stable in the air due to its pendulum structure. The first flight was successfully conducted on November 22, 2005. Flight examination of 3DTR indicates its short take-off and landing (STOL) capability.

Iwata, Kakuya; Hashimoto, Naohisa; Komoriya, Kiyoshi

388

[Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

Not Available

1993-01-01

389

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

Not Available

1980-10-01

390

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

NONE

1997-03-01

391

IPAD: Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conference was organized to promote wider awareness of the IPAD program and its coming impact on American industry. The program focuses on technology issues that are critical to computer aided design manufacturing. Included is a description of a representative aerospace design process and its interface with manufacturing, the design of a future IPAD integrated computer aided design system, results to date in developing IPAD products and associated technology, and industry experiences and plans to exploit these products.

1980-01-01

392

76 FR 34286 - ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment...Office (ITS JPO) will host a free public webinar on June 24, 2011 at 1 p.m. (EDT...Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report. The webinar will provide an opportunity for...

2011-06-13

393

A Vocational Program for Recreational Vehicle Maintenance/Repair. A Report, 1977-78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a secondary school curriculum guide designed to be used by vocational teachers in a one- or two-year recreational vehicle maintenance/repair program. In the preliminary pages, a description is given of the project that developed the curriculum, outlining its objectives and procedures in formulating the model interdisciplinary…

1978

394

A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1978-01-01

395

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities  

E-print Network

Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

396

A Licensing Program for Operators of Two-Wheeled Motor Vehicles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a licensing program for operators of two-wheeled motor vehicles. Materials specifically developed for the study were: (1) a driver's handbook, (2) two forms of a written test, (3) an off-street driving test, and (4) a driving range. Once developed, these materials were the basis of the separate…

Locke, Lewis Alvin

397

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

Meyer, D. D.

1979-01-01

398

Decentralized Cooperative Aerial Surveillance Using Fixed-Wing Miniature UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous applications require aerial surveillance. Civilian applications include monitoring forest fires, oil fields, and pipelines and tracking wildlife. Applications to homeland security include border patrol and monitoring the perimeter of nuclear power plants. Military applications are numerous. The current approach to these applications is to use a single manned vehicle for surveillance. However, manned vehicles are typically large and expensive.

Randal W. Beard; Timothy W. McLain; Derek B. Nelson; Derek Kingston; David Johanson

2006-01-01

399

Nonlinear tracking and landing controller for quadrotor aerial robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quadrotor UAVs are one of the most preferred type of small unmanned aerial vehicles because of the very simple mechanical construction and propulsion principle. However, the nonlinear dynamic behavior requires a more advanced stabilizing control and guidance of these vehicles. In addition, the small payload reduces the amount of batteries that can be carried and thus also limits the operating

Holger Voos; Haitham Bou-Ammar

2010-01-01

400

Aerial photographic reproductions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Cartographic Information Center of the U.S. Geological Survey maintains records of aerial photographic coverage of the United States and its Territories, based on reports from other Federal agencies as well as State governmental agencies and commercial companies. From these records, the Center furnishes data to prospective purchasers on available photography and the agency holding the aerial film.

U.S. Geological Survey

1975-01-01

401

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

NONE

1997-06-01

402

Aerial Photographs and Satellite Images  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Photographs and other images of the Earth taken from the air and from space show a great deal about the planet's landforms, vegetation, and resources. Aerial and satellite images, known as remotely sensed images, permit accurate mapping of land cover and make landscape features understandable on regional, continental, and even global scales. Transient phenomena, such as seasonal vegetation vigor and contaminant discharges, can be studied by comparing images acquired at different times. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which began using aerial photographs for mapping in the 1930's, archives photographs from its mapping projects and from those of some other Federal agencies. In addition, many images from such space programs as Landsat, begun in 1972, are held by the USGS. Most satellite scenes can be obtained only in digital form for use in computer-based image processing and geographic information systems, but in some cases are also available as photographic products.

U.S. Geological Survey

1997-01-01

403

Photographic consulting services to the Earth Resources program. [using aerial photography as a tool for scientific measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recommendations, procedures, and techniques are summarized which provided by the Kodak Apparatus Division to the Ames Research Center to support the Earth Resources Aircraft Program at that facility. Recommendations, procedures, and calibration data are included for sensitometry, densitometry, laboratory cleanliness, and determination of camera exposure. Additional comments are made regarding process control procedures and general laboratory operations.

1976-01-01

404

New Opportunitie s for Small Satellite Programs Provided by the Falcon Family of Launch Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Falcon family of launch vehicles, developed by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX), are designed to provide the world's lowest cost access to orbit. Highly reliable, low cost launch services offer considerable opportunities for risk reduction throughout the life cycle of satellite programs. The significantly lower costs of Falcon 1 and Falcon 9 as compared with other similar-class launch vehicles results in a number of new business case opportunities; which in turn presents the possibility for a paradigm shift in how the satellite industry thinks about launch services.

Dinardi, A.; Bjelde, B.; Insprucker, J.

2008-08-01

405

Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

1986-01-01

406

Preliminary performance estimates of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle. [computerized synthesis program to assess effects of vehicle and mission parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A computerized synthesis program has been used to assess the effects of various vehicle and mission parameters on the performance of a highly maneuverable remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) for the air-to-air combat role. The configuration used in the study is a trapezoidal-wing and body concept, with forward-mounted stabilizing and control surfaces. The study mission consists of an outbound cruise, an acceleration phase, a series of subsonic and supersonic turns, and a return cruise. Performance is evaluated in terms of both the required vehicle weight to accomplish this mission and combat effectiveness as measured by turning and acceleration capability. The report describes the synthesis program, the mission, the vehicle, and the results of sensitivity and trade studies.

Nelms, W. P., Jr.; Axelson, J. A.

1974-01-01

407

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Year 1 third quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

Not Available

1992-06-01

408

Multiserver queueing in supervisory control of autonomous unmanned vehicles  

E-print Network

Multiserver queueing in supervisory control of autonomous unmanned vehicles Nathan D. Powel control of autonomous unmanned vehicles Nathan D. Powel Chair of the Supervisory Committee: Associate Professor Kristi Morgansen Aeronautics & Astronautics Widespread adoption of unmanned aerial vehicles has

Morgansen, Kristi

409

A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

2002-01-01

410

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

Johnson, D.R.

1999-01-01

411

U.S. Department of Energy: FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, under direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works "to strengthen America's energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality." The Program is a collaborative effort with industry leaders to develop transportation technologies that reduce the nation's dependence on imported oil and improve air quality. This website describes their current partnerships, including the FreedomCAR, which "represents a new approach to powering the vehicles of the future" and 21st Century Truck, which works to address "the challenges facing today's heavy-duty transportation sector." The scope of their research program includes vehicle system technologies, advanced materials, fuels, and engine and emission controls. In their outlines of their research programs, they provide some basic information about these areas and offer some links with more in-depth discussions about research in these areas. The Deployment section of the website describes their "initiatives to bring energy-saving innovation and education to consumers."

412

Preliminary Performance Analyses of the Constellation Program ARES 1 Crew Launch Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By the time NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report had been released to the public in December 2005, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center had already initiated the first of a series of detailed design analysis cycles (DACs) for the Constellation Program Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which has been given the name Ares I. As a major component of the Constellation Architecture, the CLV's initial role will be to deliver crew and cargo aboard the newly conceived Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to a staging orbit for eventual rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). However, the long-term goal and design focus of the CLV will be to provide launch services for a crewed CEV in support of lunar exploration missions. Key to the success of the CLV design effort and an integral part of each DAC is a detailed performance analysis tailored to assess nominal and dispersed performance of the vehicle, to determine performance sensitivities, and to generate design-driving dispersed trajectories. Results of these analyses provide valuable design information to the program for the current design as well as provide feedback to engineers on how to adjust the current design in order to maintain program goals. This paper presents a condensed subset of the CLV performance analyses performed during the CLV DAC-1 cycle. Deterministic studies include development of the CLV DAC-1 reference trajectories, identification of vehicle stage impact footprints, an assessment of launch window impacts to payload performance, and the computation of select CLV payload partials. Dispersion studies include definition of input uncertainties, Monte Carlo analysis of trajectory performance parameters based on input dispersions, assessment of CLV flight performance reserve (FPR), assessment of orbital insertion accuracy, and an assessment of bending load indicators due to dispersions in vehicle angle of attack and side slip angle. A short discussion of the various customers for the dispersion results, along with results and ramifications of each study, are also provided.

Phillips, Mark; Hanson, John; Shmitt, Terri; Dukemand, Greg; Hays, Jim; Hill, Ashley; Garcia, Jessica

2007-01-01

413

Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

Not Available

1993-07-01

414

Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program. Year 1, second quarter report, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State`s Site Operator Program continues to get the ``word-out`` about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State`s G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states`s program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State`s program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-12-31

415

SIMPLEV: A simple electric vehicle simulation program, Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

An electric vehicle simulation code which can be used with any IBM compatible personal computer was written. This general purpose simulation program is useful for performing parametric studies of electric vehicle performance on user input driving cycles. The program is run interactively and guides the user through all of the necessary inputs. Driveline components and the traction battery are described and defined by ASCII files which may be customized by the user. Scaling of these components is also possible. Detailed simulation results are plotted on the PC monitor and may also be printed on a printer attached to the PC. This report serves as a users` manual and documents the mathematical relationships used in the simulation.

Cole, G.H.

1991-06-01

416

COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

2006-05-01

417

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

Johnson, D.R.

2000-01-01

418

Human Power Vehicle Program. Final report, June 15, 1993--June 14, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Power Vehicle Program was an intensive, five day a week, four week program designed to give middle school students the opportunity to ``be engineers``. During the month of July, Delta College, the Macro Michigan Multicultural Pre-Technical Education Partnership (M3PEP), and the United States Department of Energy sponsored a four-week learning experience in human-powered vehicles. This unique experience introduced students to the physiology of exercise, the mechanics of the bicycle, and the physics and mathematics of the bicycle. Students also participated in a three day bike tour. The Program used the Bike Lab facility at Delta College`s International Centre in Saginaw, Michigan. Students had the opportunity to explore the development and refinement of the bicycle design and to investigate it`s power machine-the human body. Interactive instruction was conducted in groups to assure that all students experienced the satisfaction of understanding the bicycle. The purpose of the Program was to increase minority students` awareness and appreciation of mathematics and science. The premise behind the Program was that engineers and scientists are made, not born. The Program was open to all minority youth, grades 8 and 9, and was limited to 25 students. Students were selected to participate based upon their interest, desire, maturity, and attitude.

Crowell, J.; Graves, P.

1995-11-01

419

Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

1979-01-01

420

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

421

76 FR 21789 - ITS Joint Program Office; Vehicle to Infrastructure Core System Concept of Operations; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Program Office; Vehicle to Infrastructure Core System Concept of Operations; Notice of...discuss the Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) Core System Concept of Operations on May 17...for interested parties to learn about the Core System ConOps, including the system...

2011-04-18

422

VEHICLE NETWORKS: ACHIEVING REGULAR FORMATION  

E-print Network

when only a portion of the group is in each one's line-of-sight, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs into an era of autonomous vehicles, the study of control theory serves to design and analyze the performance of automated sys- tems. The cooperative use of unmanned vehicles, for example, requires some assurance

423

Digital autoland system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 V SELECTION OF APPROACH TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A. Instrument Landing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 B. Microwave Landing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 C. Global Positioning System... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 V SELECTION OF APPROACH TYPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 A. Instrument Landing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 B. Microwave Landing System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 C. Global Positioning System...

Wagner, Thomas William, Jr.

2007-09-17

424

Mesh stability of unmanned aerial vehicle clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a cluster controller design of a mesh of helicopters which produces the trajectory to be tracked in terms of the desired acceleration. As an intermediate step for the formation flying of a cluster of helicopters, an individual helicopter controller is designed which accepts the trajectory to be tracked in terms of the desired accelerations. The design uses the fact

Aniruddha Pant; Pete Seiler; T. John Koo; Karl Hedrick

2001-01-01

425

Decentralized Task Assignment for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the problem of decentralized task assignment for a fleet of UAVs. Centralized task assignment for a fleet of UAVs is often not practical due to communication limits, robustness issues, and scalability, and using a distributed approach can mitigate many of these problems. One recently proposed decentralized approach is to replicate the central assignment algorithm on each UAV.

Mehdi Alighanbari

2005-01-01

426

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

Not Available

1994-08-01

427

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report for July through September 1994 (Fourth quarter of fiscal year 1994)  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the US. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: advancement of electric vehicle technologies; development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator`s business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. This fourth quarter report (FY-94) includes a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now found in Appendix A.

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-03-01

428

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

1995-04-01

429

Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program (update to automatic flight trajectory design, performance prediction, and vehicle sizing for support of Shuttle and Shuttle derived vehicles) engineering manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program and its predecessors, the ROBOT and the RAGMOP programs, have had a long history of supporting MSFC in the simulation of space boosters for the purpose of performance evaluation. The ROBOT program was used in the simulation of the Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 vehicles in the 1960's and provided the first utilization of the minimum Hamiltonian (or min-H) methodology and the steepest ascent technique to solve the optimum trajectory problem. The advent of the Space Shuttle in the 1970's and its complex airplane design required a redesign of the trajectory simulation code since aerodynamic flight and controllability were required for proper simulation. The RAGMOP program was the first attempt to incorporate the complex equations of the Space Shuttle into an optimization tool by using an optimization method based on steepest ascent techniques (but without the min-H methodology). Development of the complex partial derivatives associated with the Space Shuttle configuration and using techniques from the RAGMOP program, the ROBOT program was redesigned to incorporate these additional complexities. This redesign created the MASTRE program, which was referred to as the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle TRajectory Evaluation program at that time. Unique to this program were first-stage (or booster) nonlinear aerodynamics, upper-stage linear aerodynamics, engine control via moment balance, liquid and solid thrust forces, variable liquid throttling to maintain constant acceleration limits, and a total upgrade of the equations used in the forward and backward integration segments of the program. This modification of the MASTRE code has been used to simulate the new space vehicles associated with the National Launch Systems (NLS). Although not as complicated as the Space Shuttle, the simulation and analysis of the NLS vehicles required additional modifications to the MASTRE program in the areas of providing additional flexibility in the use of the program, allowing additional optimization options, and providing special options for the NLS configuration.

Lyons, J. T.

1993-01-01

430

Object and Event Recognition for Aerial Surveillance Yi Li, Indriyati Atmosukarto, Masaharu Kobashi, Jenny Yuen and Linda G. Shapiro  

E-print Network

, Box 352350, Seattle, WA 98195-2350, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Unmanned aerial vehicles with high quality video. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are able to provide large amounts of video data over terrain on the ground. These videos are difficult to analyze, because the airplane moves, the camera zooms in and out

Oliva, Aude

431

Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project Integrated Into NASA's Vehicle Systems Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project is formulated according to the Office of Aerospace Technology's objectives as outlined in the NASA Strategic Plan. It is directly related to the "protect the environment" objective and will make progress toward the "increase mobility" and "support national security" objectives as well. UEET technologies will impact future civil and military aircraft and will benefit the development of future space transportation propulsion systems. UEET Project success will, therefore, depend on developing revolutionary, but affordable, technology solutions that are inherently safe and reliable and thus can be incorporated in future propulsion system designs. In fiscal year 2003, UEET became part of NASA's Vehicle Systems Program and continues to evolve its programmatic role. The Vehicle Systems Program aims to develop breakthrough technologies and methodologies, push the boundaries of flight through research on advanced vehicle concepts, respond quickly to industry and the Department of Defense on critical safety and other issues, and provide facilities and expert consultation for industry and other Government agencies during product development.

Shaw, Robert J.

2004-01-01

432

Computer program for post-flight analysis of rigid body moments acting on a launch vehicle first stage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A FORTRAN coded computer program and method for evaluation of the rigid body disturbing moments for a launch vehicle first stage based on post-flight measurements is described. The technique is a straightforward deterministic approach. Residual moments are computed to satisfy the equations of motion. Residuals are expressed in terms of altered vehicle characteristics; the aerodynamic coefficients, thrust misalignment, and control effectiveness. This method was used on the Scout launch vehicle and uncovered several significant differences between flight data and wind tunnel data. The computer program is written in FORTRAN IV for a CDC CYBER 173 computer system.

Knauber, R. N.

1982-01-01

433

Close range ISR (PRISTA) and close quarters combat (CQC) with unmanned aerial systems (UAS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ironically, the final frontiers for the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) are the closest spaces at hand. There is an urgent operational capability gap in the area of proximate reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (PRISTA) as well as close quarters combats (CQC). Needs for extremely close range functionality in land, sea and urban theaters remain unfilled, largely due to the challenges presented by the maneuverability and silent operating floor required to address these missions. The evolution of small, nimble and inexpensive VTOL UAV assets holds much promise in terms of filling this gap. Just as UAVs have evolved from large manned aircraft, so have MAVs (Micro Aerial Vehicles) evolved from UAVs. As unmanned aviation evolves into aerial robotics, NAV (Nano Aerial Vehicle) research will become the next hotbed of unmanned aerial systems development as these systems continue to mature in response to the need to find robotic replacements for humans in PRISTA, CQC, and many other hazardous duties.

Maynell, Jon

2010-04-01

434

40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (f) Data submission. We may require you to send us emission test data on the duty cycle for Class I motorcycles. (g) Participation in averaging, banking and trading. Recreational vehicles adapted for use as highway...

2010-07-01

435

40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (f) Data submission. We may require you to send us emission test data on the duty cycle for Class I motorcycles. (g) Participation in averaging, banking and trading. Recreational vehicles adapted for use as highway...

2013-07-01

436

40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (f) Data submission. We may require you to send us emission test data on the duty cycle for Class I motorcycles. (g) Participation in averaging, banking and trading. Recreational vehicles adapted for use as highway...

2012-07-01

437

Model-based neural network algorithm for coffee ripeness prediction using Helios UAV aerial images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, NASA has had a great interest in exploring the feasibility of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), equipped with multi-spectral imaging systems, as long-duration platform for crop monitoring. To address the problem of predicting the ripeness level of the Kauai coffee plantation field using UAV aerial images, we proposed a neural network algorithm based on a

R. Furfaro; B. D. Ganapol; L. F. Johnson; S. Herwitz

2005-01-01

438

CQAR: Closed Quarter Aerial Robot Design for Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target  

E-print Network

CQAR: Closed Quarter Aerial Robot Design for Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition, caves and tunnels which are often spacious but GPS reception is poor. Envisioned is that a small, safe collision avoidance, optic flow, near-Earth environments I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles like

Oh, Paul

439

Robust Tracking Control of an Underactuated Quadrotor Aerial-Robot Based on a Parametric Uncertain Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the tracking control of a underactu- ated quadrotor aerial vehicle is presented where position and yaw trajectory tracking is achieved using feedback control system. The control design is complicated by considering parametric uncer- tainty in the dynamic modeling of the quadrotor aerial-robot. Robust control schemes are then designed using a Lyapunov- based approach to compensate for the

DongBin Lee; Timothy C. Burg; Darren M. Dawson; Dule Shu; Bin Xian; Enver Tatlicioglu

2009-01-01

440

Design and Implementation of a Self-configuring Ad-hoc Network for Unmanned Aerial Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) as such in general, need wireless networks in order to communicate. UAS are very flexible and hence allow for a wide range of missions by means of utilizing dierent UAVs according to the mission requirements. Each of these missions also poses special needs and requirements on the communication network. Especially, mission

H. Claus Christmann; Eric N. Johnson

441

Controller Design of Quadrotor Aerial Robot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deduced the nonlinear dynamic model of a quadrotor aerial robot, which was a VTOL (vertical tale-off and landing) unmanned air vehicle. Since that is a complex model with the highly nonlinear multivariable strongly coupled and under-actuated property, the controller design of it was very difficult. Aimed at attaining the excellent controller, the whole system can be divided into three interconnected parts: attitude subsystem, vertical subsystem, position subsystem. Then nonlinear control strategy of them has been described, such as SDRE and Backstepping. The controller design was presented to stabilize the whole system. Through simulation result indicates, the various models have shown that the control law stabilize a quadrotor aerial robot with good tracking performance and robotness of the system.

Yali, Yu; SunFeng; Yuanxi, Wang

442

An evaluation of NASA's program in human factors research: Aircrew-vehicle system interaction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in human factors in the aircraft cockpit and a proposed program augmentation were reviewed. The dramatic growth of microprocessor technology makes it entirely feasible to automate increasingly more functions in the aircraft cockpit; the promise of improved vehicle performance, efficiency, and safety through automation makes highly automated flight inevitable. An organized data base and validated methodology for predicting the effects of automation on human performance and thus on safety are lacking and without such a data base and validated methodology for analyzing human performance, increased automation may introduce new risks. Efforts should be concentrated on developing methods and techniques for analyzing man machine interactions, including human workload and prediction of performance.

1982-01-01

443

Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize. and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cowl-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale. risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

2000-01-01

444

Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) Experimental Aerodynamics Test Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper provides an overview of the experimental aerodynamics test program to ensure mission success for the autonomous flight of the Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV). The HXRV is a 12-ft long, 2700 lb lifting body technology demonstrator designed to flight demonstrate for the first time a fully airframe integrated scramjet propulsion system. Three flights are currently planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10, beginning in the fall of 2000. The research vehicles will be boosted to the prescribed scramjet engine test point where they will separate from the booster, stabilize, and initiate engine test. Following 5+ seconds of powered flight and 15 seconds of cow-open tares, the cowl will close and the vehicle will fly a controlled deceleration trajectory which includes numerous control doublets for in-flight aerodynamic parameter identification. This paper reviews the preflight testing activities, wind tunnel models, test rationale, risk reduction activities, and sample results from wind tunnel tests supporting the flight trajectory of the HXRV from hypersonic engine test point through subsonic flight termination.

Holland, Scott D.; Woods, William C.; Engelund, Walter C.

2000-01-01

445

Aerial coastline of Kilauea  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An aerial photograph looking west along the coastline of the current flow field. The Ki entry continues to produce a small plume, which is distributed along the newly formed delta. The color change in the ocean near the entry is due to the wave erosion of material from the delta and the lava itself....

2010-06-18

446

Aerial photographic reproductions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

1971-01-01

447

Aerial Photography - USDA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Minnesota Land Management Information Center provides a collection of aerial photographs from agencies within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These photographs date from the mid-1930s to the present. Information and links related to these agencies are provided.

Center, Land M.; Minnesota, State O.

448

40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

2011-07-01

449

40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

2012-07-01

450

40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

2013-07-01

451

Environmental statement for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science, launch vehicle and propulsion programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA OSS Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs are responsible for the launch of approximately 20 automated science and applications spacecraft per year. These launches are for NASA programs and those of other U. S. government agencies, private organizations, such as the Comsat Corporation, foreign countries, and international organizations. Launches occur from Cape Kennedy, Florida; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; Wallops Island, Virginia; and the San Marco Platform in the Indian Ocean off Kenya. Spacecraft launched by this program contribute in a variety of ways to the control of and betterment of the environment. Environmental effects caused by the launch vehicles are limited in extent, duration, and intensity and are considered insignificant.

1972-01-01

452

A data reduction technique and associated computer program for obtaining vehicle attitudes with a single onboard camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed discussion of the application of a previously method to determine vehicle flight attitude using a single camera onboard the vehicle is presented with emphasis on the digital computer program format and data reduction techniques. Application requirements include film and earth-related coordinates of at least two landmarks (or features), location of the flight vehicle with respect to the earth, and camera characteristics. Included in this report are a detailed discussion of the program input and output format, a computer program listing, a discussion of modifications made to the initial method, a step-by-step basic data reduction procedure, and several example applications. The computer program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data 6000 series digital computer.

Bendura, R. J.; Renfroe, P. G.

1974-01-01

453

Stereo Vision Based Aerial Mapping Using GPS and Inertial Sensors  

E-print Network

for a teleoperated unmanned vehicle. This thesis details the design and implementation of the hardware and softwareStereo Vision Based Aerial Mapping Using GPS and Inertial Sensors Adam Tawfik Sharkasi Thesis Keywords: Stereo Vision, 3D Mapping, Inertial Measurement, GPS, Unmanned Systems #12;Stereo Vision Based

Kochersberger, Kevin

454

Reactive tabu search in unmanned aerial reconnaissance simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply a Reactive Tabu Search (RTS) heuristic within a discrete-event simulation to solve routing problems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Our formulation represents this problem as a multiple Traveling Salesman Problem with time windows (mTSPTW), with the objective of maximizing expected target coverage. Incorporating weather and probability of UAV survival at each target as random inputs, the RTS heuristic

Joel L. Ryan; T. Glenn Bailey; James T. Moore; William B. Carlton

1998-01-01

455

Unmanned aerial systems integration to National Airspace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven their values and capabilities via various applications around the globe. Initiated by the military, today, UAVs are on high demand since they provide endurances and flight environments that are beyond the limits of manned systems. Civil government, scientific research institutes and commercial markets have already seized the low-cost, flexible, simple

Adrian V. Gheorghe; Ersin Ancel

2008-01-01

456

Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

1995-11-01

457

A Survey of Commercial & Open Source Unmanned Vehicle Simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a survey of computer based simulators for unmanned vehicles. The simulators examined cover a wide spectrum of vehicles including unmanned aerial vehicles, both full scale and micro size; unmanned surface and subsurface vehicles; and unmanned ground vehicles. The majority of simulators use simple numerical simulation and simplistic visualization using custom OpenGL code. An emerging trend is to

Jeff Craighead; Robin Murphy; Jenny Burke; Brian Goldiez

2007-01-01

458

40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations...General provisions. If you are a highway-motorcycle manufacturer, this section allows you to introduce into commerce a new highway motorcycle with an engine below 50...

2011-07-01

459

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...would have to have been a dedicated-fuel vehicle; (iii) If the vehicle purchased was not a dedicated-fuel vehicle, then the fleet owner would...had been operated only on the clean alternative fuel on which the vehicle had been...

2010-07-01

460

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3: Program cost estimates. Book 2: WBS and dictionary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the products and services to be developed, tested, produced, and operated for the Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Program. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS Dictionary are program management tools used to catalog, account by task, and summarize work packages of a space system program. The products or services to be delivered or accomplished during the STV C/D phase are the primary focus of this work breakdown structure document.

Peffley, A. F.

1991-01-01