Sample records for aerial vehicles program

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

    This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

  2. Receding horizon control of autonomous aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Bellingham; Arthur Richards

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to trajectory optimization for autonomous fixed-wing aerial vehicles performing large-scale maneuvers. The main result is a planner which designs nearly minimum time planar trajectories to a goal, constrained by no-fly zones and the vehicle's maximum speed and turning rate. Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) is used for the optimization, and is well suited to trajectory

  3. Aerial Work Platform Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Aerial Work Platform Safety Program Updated: July 22, 2013 #12;Aerial Work Platform Safety Program..................................................................................................................................7 Electrical Hazards ..........................................................................................................11 #12;Aerial Work Platform Safety Program 1 The official version of this information will only

  4. Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

  5. Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    1 Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination F.B. da Silva S.D. Scott-mail: halab@mit.edu #12;2 Design Methodology for Unmannded Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Team Coordination by F.B. da Silva, S.D. Scott, and M.L. Cummings Executive Summary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems, despite

  6. A Historical Perspective on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Valavanis; M. Kontitsis

    This ‘pictorial’ Chapter presents a historical perspective on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) starting from Ancient Greece\\u000a to the beginning of the 21st Century. The UAV history, from a very early dream to today’s reality is illustrated through a series of figures with detailed\\u000a legends that are arranged mostly chronologically; they reveal the unmanned vehicle evolution and designs over a period

  7. The WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrik Dohrty; Gösta H. Granlund; Krzysztof Kuchcinski; Erik Sandewall; Klas Nordberg; Erik Skarman; Johan Wiklund

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project. The WITAS UAV project is an ambitious, long-term basic research project with the goal of developing technologies and functionalities necessary for the suc- cessful deployment of a fully autonomous UAV operating over di- verse geographical terrain containing road and traffic networks. The

  8. Hybrid Aerial/Rover Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachelder, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A proposed instrumented robotic vehicle called an "aerover" would fly, roll along the ground, and/or float on bodies of liquid, as needed. The aerover would combine features of an aerobot (a robotic lighter-than-air balloon) and a wheeled robot of the "rover" class. An aerover would also look very much like a variant of the "beach-ball" rovers. Although the aerover was conceived for use in scientific exploration of Titan (the largest moon of the planet Saturn), the aerover concept could readily be adapted to similar uses on Earth.

  9. Robust trajectory planning for unmanned aerial vehicles in uncertain environments

    E-print Network

    Luders, Brandon (Brandon Douglas)

    2008-01-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) take on more prominent roles in aerial missions, it becomes necessary to increase the level of autonomy available to them within the mission planner. In order to complete realistic mission ...

  10. Morphing Inflatable Wing Development for Compact Package Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cadogan; Tim Smith; Matt MacKusick

    any military and commercial applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been identified and numerous vehicles are under development. Many of these vehicles have a need to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun launch or packaging into aircraft mounted aerial drop assemblies. One technology that has shown promise in achieving this goal is

  11. Modeling and adaptive control of indoor unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Michini, Bernard (Bernard J.)

    2009-01-01

    The operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in constrained indoor environments presents many unique challenges in control and planning. This thesis investigates modeling, adaptive control and trajectory optimization ...

  12. Trajectory optimization for target localization using small unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Ponda, Sameera S

    2008-01-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. One particular mission of interest ...

  13. Trajectory Optimization for Target Localization Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    How, Jonathan P.

    Trajectory Optimization for Target Localization Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Sameera S dependent on the vehicle trajectory, motivating the development of optimal UAV trajectories. This work presents methods for designing trajectories that increase the amount of information provided

  14. Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

  15. Development of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Zimmer, Uwe

    stage to prevent potential danger to workforce and material, and carbon capture and sequestration (CCSDevelopment of a Carbon Dioxide Monitoring Rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Florian Poppa and Uwe the development of a carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV) and the experiences

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, is a game for the PC. The player controls a UAV, which

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, or UAV, is a game for the PC. The player controls a UAV, which the player must use to eliminate a target with a missile while maximizing the casualties player driven narrative. -Mechanics Movement is controlled by the WASD keys. In order to simulate UAV

  17. Development of a spherical aerial vehicle for urban search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Kang; Sun, Hanxu; Jia, Qingxuan; Zhang, Yanheng

    2014-06-01

    With the ability to provide close surveillance in narrow space or urban areas, spherical aerial vehicles have been of great interest to many scholars and researchers. The spherical aerial vehicle offers substantial design advantages over the conventional small aerial vehicles. As a kind of small aerial vehicles, spherical aerial vehicle is presented in this paper. Firstly, the unique structure of spherical aerial vehicle is presented in detail. And then as the key component of the spherical aerial vehicle, the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The shell is made of carbon fiber and is used to protect the inner devices, so the deformation of the shell is analyzed and simulated. Then the experimental results verify the above analysis and the composite carbon fiber material makes the mesh spherical shell small deformation. Considering the whole vehicle has a shell outside, the lift affect of the meshed spherical shell is analyzed. The simulation and experiment results are basically consistent with theoretical analysis, and the impact of the meshed shell has small resistance for the airflow through the sphere.

  18. Small thermal optics design for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Kyu; Na, Jun Hee; Yoon, Chang Jun; Oh, Seung Eun; Choi, Joongkyu; Pyo, Hyo Jin

    2010-08-01

    Now, Military demands focused attention on small and light-weight system development. Above all, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is necessary to reduce weight of equipments. Therefore, we invest some expense in many years so that it might design more light optical system for UAV. Consequently, we can build new miniaturization and light-weight system. The most important thing is the system using just two motors for continuous zoom(x3 ~ x20), NUC(nonuniformity correction), Narcissus, Athermalization, and auto-focus functions. An MTF (modulation transfer function) and a detection range are also satisfied by the demands. We use CODE V and NVTherm program for design and analysis.

  19. Modeling and Simulation Research on Tailless Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Fan; Jia-qiang ZHU; Zeng-qi Sun

    2006-01-01

    Unmanned aerial fighting platform is of vital importance in future war. Tailless unmanned aerial vehicle (TUAV) not only has the ability of stealth, but also has good maneuverability. In order to realize super maneuverability and reconfigurable ability, the description of the flight state of TUAV, which depends on the syncretic control technology of aerodynamics control flips and thrust vector, is

  20. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

  1. Low altitude threat evasive trajectory generation for autonomous aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Pettit, Ryan L. (Ryan Louis), 1978-

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles have been used to great success in combat operations, providing both reconnaissance as well as weapon launch platforms for time critical targets. Interest is now ...

  2. A distributed embedded software architecture for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Matczynski, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    In order to deploy intelligent, next-generation applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), we must first develop a software architecture that supports onboard computation and flexible communication. This thesis ...

  3. Natural language processing for unmanned aerial vehicle guidance interfaces

    E-print Network

    Craparo, Emily M. (Emily Marie), 1980-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, the opportunities and challenges involved in applying natural language processing techniques to the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are addressed. The problem of controlling an unmanned aircraft ...

  4. Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

  5. Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Corp., Brookpark, OH (United States). Aerospace Technology Development

    1996-12-31

    An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

  6. Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahveci, Nazli E.

    The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with anti-windup compensation. Our analysis on the indirect adaptive scheme reveals that the perturbation terms due to parameter errors do not cause any unbounded signals in the closed-loop. The stability of the adaptive system is established, and the properties of the proposed control scheme are demonstrated through simulations on a UAV model with input magnitude saturation constraints. The robust adaptive control design is further developed to extend our results to rate-saturated systems.

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  8. Temporal Range Registration for Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Madhavan; Tsai Hong; Elena Messina

    2004-01-01

    An iterative temporal registration algorithm is presented in this paper for registering 3D range images obtained from unmanned ground and aerial vehicles traversing unstructured environments. We are primarily motivated by the development of 3D registration algorithms to overcome both the unavailability and unreliability of Global Positioning System (GPS) within required accuracy bounds for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) navigation. After suitable

  9. A comprehensive software system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangxu Dong; Miaobo Dong; Biao Wang; Ben M. Chen; Tong H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a comprehensive software system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles. More specif­ ically, a top-down divide and conquer method is utilized in developing the logical representation of the overall system, with standard professional approaches, such as ftow diagram and task structure diagram. The overall system consisting of two unmanned vehicles and a ground control system is

  10. A Practical Visual Servo Control for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Guenard; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony

    2008-01-01

    An image-based visual servo control is presented for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of stationary or quasi-stationary flight with the camera mounted onboard the vehicle. The target considered consists of a finite set of stationary and disjoint points lying in a plane. Control of the position and orientation dynamics is decoupled using a visual error based on spherical centroid

  11. Rapid prototyping framework for visual control of autonomous micro aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio Mellado-Bataller; Luis Mejias; Pascual Campoy; Miguel A. Olivares-Mendez

    2012-01-01

    Rapid prototyping environments can speed up the research of visual control algorithms. We have designed and implemented a software framework for fast prototyping of visual control algorithms for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV). We have applied a combination of a proxy-based network communication architecture and a custom Application Programming Interface. This allows multiple experimental configurations, like drone swarms or distributed processing

  12. Development and evaluation of a collision avoidance system for supervisory control of a micro aerial vehicle

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Kimberly F

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) to become increasingly prevalent in a variety of domains. From military surveillance to disaster relief to ...

  13. Avionics and control system development for mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Park, Sanghyuk, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    A flight control system was developed to achieve mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a part of the Parent Child Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (PCUAV) project at MIT and the Draper Laboratory. A lateral ...

  14. FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.

    PubMed

    Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle?s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user?s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding. PMID:24650983

  15. A Neuro-evolutionary Approach to Control Surface Segmentation for Micro Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tumer, Kagan

    A Neuro-evolutionary Approach to Control Surface Segmentation for Micro Aerial Vehicles Max.tumer@oregonstate.edu Abstract This paper addresses control surface segmentation in Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) by leveraging not be accomplished by larger Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). MAVs can accomplish such demanding missions without

  16. Temporal Range Registration for Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rad Madhavan; Tsai Hong; Elena Messina

    2005-01-01

    An iterative temporal registration algorithm is presented in this article for registering 3D range images obtained from unmanned\\u000a ground and aerial vehicles traversing unstructured environments. We are primarily motivated by the development of 3D registration\\u000a algorithms to overcome both the unavailability and unreliability of Global Positioning System (GPS) within required accuracy\\u000a bounds for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) navigation. After suitable

  17. Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable

    E-print Network

    across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were

  18. Optoelectronic instrumentation systems in an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (AUAV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lamela; J. R. Lopez; E. Garcia; M. A. Ferreras

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is the development of the laser rangefinder systems for an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (AUAV), that is being specifically designed for the inspection of electrical lines. This system allows for automated inspection of the power lines, replacing the manned helicopter which is nowadays employed for these inspection tasks. This work includes the development of two

  19. Decentralized Hybrid Formation Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Lemmon, Michael

    Decentralized Hybrid Formation Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ali Karimoddini1, Mohammad for two unmanned helicopters that are involved in a leader-follower formation mission. Using a polar. Then, a discrete supervisor is designed in a modular way for different components of the formation

  20. The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric N. Johnson; Daniel P. Schrage

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system that has been developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology, called the GTMax. This description will include the processes put in place to enable the system to be used for UAV-technology research, including effective flight testing. Research UAVs are characterized by the need for

  1. Obstacle avoidance for teleoperated underactuated aerial vehicles using telemetric measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minh-Duc Hua; Hala Rifai

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the obstacle avoidance problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) operating in teleoperated mode. First, a feedback controller that we proposed recently for the stabilization of the UAV's linear velocity is recalled. Then, based on sensory measurements, a control strategy is proposed in order to modify the reference velocity on-line in the neighborhood of obstacles so as

  2. Formation of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. John KOO; Shahram M. Shahruz

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, control laws are designed to achieve desired flight formations for a group of unmanned (uninhabited) aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that the formation is led and managed by a leader UAV, which determines desired (for instance, safe and achievable) flight trajectories for a group of follower UAVs. Having the desired trajectories, control laws are designed to

  3. High throughput phenotyping using an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials are expensive and labor-intensive to carry out. Strategies to maximize data collection from these trials will improve research efficiencies. We have purchased a small unmanned aerial vehicle (AEV) to collect digital images from field plots. The AEV is remote-controlled and can be guided...

  4. Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    How, Jonathan P.

    and planning. This thesis inves- tigates modeling, adaptive control and trajectory optimization methods is then used by a Gauss pseudospectral optimization tool to find dynamically feasible trajectories for speciModeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Bernard Michini B

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle route optimization using ant system algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jevtic; Diego Andina; Aldo Jaimes; Jose Gomez; Mo Jamshidi

    2010-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is defined as aircraft without the onboard presence of pilots. UAVs have been used to perform intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. The UAVs are not limited to military operations, they can also be used in commercial applications such as telecommunications, ground traffic control, search and rescue operations, crop monitoring, etc. In this paper, we propose a

  6. Adaptive tracking control of an underactuated aerial vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DongBin Lee; C. Nataraj; Timothy C. Burg; Darren M. Dawson

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, adaptive tracking control of an underactuated quadrotor is addressed. Position and yaw trajectory tracking is designed using state feedback control system and an integrator backstepping approach is applied to this coupled and cascaded dynamic system. The control design is further complicated by considering the parametric uncertainty of the dynamic modeling of the quadrotor aerial- robot vehicle. Projection-based

  7. NONLINEAR CONTROL OF A HELICOPTER BASED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MODEL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. JOHN KOO; YI MA; S. SHANKAR SASTRY

    In this paper, output tracking control of a helicopter based unmanned aerial vehicle model is investigated. First, based on Newton-Euler equations, a dynamical model is derived by considering the helicopter as a rigid body upon which a set of forces and moments act. Second, we show that the model cannot be converted into a controllable linear system via exact state

  8. Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Bayraktar, Selcuk

    2006-01-01

    VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

  9. Aerial surveillance vehicles augment security at shipping ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Robert C.; Al Akkoumi, Muhammad K.; Cheng, Samuel; Sluss, James J., Jr.; Landers, Thomas L.

    2008-10-01

    With the ever present threat to commerce, both politically and economically, technological innovations provide a means to secure the transportation infrastructure that will allow efficient and uninterrupted freight-flow operations for trade. Currently, freight coming into United States ports is "spot checked" upon arrival and stored in a container yard while awaiting the next mode of transportation. For the most part, only fences and security patrols protect these container storage yards. To augment these measures, the authors propose the use of aerial surveillance vehicles equipped with video cameras and wireless video downlinks to provide a birds-eye view of port facilities to security control centers and security patrols on the ground. The initial investigation described in this paper demonstrates the use of unmanned aerial surveillance vehicles as a viable method for providing video surveillance of container storage yards. This research provides the foundation for a follow-on project to use autonomous aerial surveillance vehicles coordinated with autonomous ground surveillance vehicles for enhanced port security applications.

  10. Visual odometry learning for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitor Guizilini; Fabio Ramos

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using visual information to estimate vehicle motion (a.k.a. visual odometry) from a machine learning perspective. The vast majority of cur- rent visual odometry algorithms are heavily based on geometry, using a calibrated camera model to recover relative translation (up to scale) and rotation by tracking image features over time. Our method eliminates the need

  11. Multi-party Collision Avoidance among Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sislak; P. Volf; M. Pechoucek

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of distributed cooperative collision avoidance that supports efficient utilization of air space shared by several autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. The novel multi-party collision avoidance (MPCA) algorithm is described. It is compared to the iterative peer-to-peer collision avoidance (IPPCA) algorithm that iteratively optimizes social welfare. The paper provides a set of experiments and a comparison of

  12. A Vision System for Landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Courtney S. Sharp; Orriid Shakernia; S. Shankar Sastry

    2001-01-01

    We present the design ami implementation of a real-time computer vision syslem for a rotor-craft un- manned aerial vehicle to land onto a known land- ing target. This vision system consists of customized software and off-the-shelf harc!ware which perform im- age processing, segmentation, feature point extraction, camera pan\\/tilt control, and motion estimation. We introduce the design of a landing target

  13. Registration of Range Data from Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Downs; Raj Madhavan; Tsai Hong

    2003-01-01

    In the research reported in this paper, we propose to overcometheunavailabilityofGlobalPositioningSystem (GPS)usingcombinedinformationobtainedfromascan- ning LADAR rangefinder on an Unmanned Ground Ve- hicle (UGV) and a LADAR mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that flies over the terrain being traversed. The approach to estimate and update the po- sition of the UGV involves registering range data from the two LADARs using

  14. Using unmanned aerial vehicles for rangelands: Current applications and future potentials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution aerial photographs have important rangeland applications such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. Acquisition of high resolution images by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has...

  15. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  16. Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    SciTech Connect

    Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

  17. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  18. Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for Segmentation of Aerial Photography Data Obtained Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinin, M. V.; Akinina, N. V.; Klochkov, A. Y.; Nikiforov, M. B.; Sokolova, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The report reviewed the algorithm fuzzy c-means, performs image segmentation, give an estimate of the quality of his work on the criterion of Xie-Beni, contain the results of experimental studies of the algorithm in the context of solving the problem of drawing up detailed two-dimensional maps with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles. According to the results of the experiment concluded that the possibility of applying the algorithm in problems of decoding images obtained as a result of aerial photography. The considered algorithm can significantly break the original image into a plurality of segments (clusters) in a relatively short period of time, which is achieved by modification of the original k-means algorithm to work in a fuzzy task.

  19. Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.

    PubMed

    González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

  20. Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

  1. Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

    2010-04-01

    We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

  2. Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

  3. A MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV): SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND IMAGE ACQUISITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Eisenbeiss

    2004-01-01

    In the last years UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-systems became relevant for applications in precision farming and in infrastructure maintenance, like road maintenance and dam surveillance. This paper gives an overview about UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) systems and their application for photogrammetric recording and documentation of cultural heritage. First the historical development of UAV systems and the definition of UAV-helicopte rs

  4. DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES

    E-print Network

    Camci, Cengiz

    Aerial Vehicles (UAV) (4) Turbomachinery Component Design Centrifugal compressor design for reduced sizeDESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

  5. A Factor Graph Approach to Estimation and Model Predictive Control on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Kobilarov, Marin

    A Factor Graph Approach to Estimation and Model Predictive Control on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Duy on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Over the years, factor graphs have established themselves as a useful tool graphs generalizes over many standard estimation algorithms such as the Extended Kalman Filter, dynamic

  6. Development of the unmanned aerial vehicle flight recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Kwasniewski, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a telemetric flight recorder which can be used in unmanned aerial vehicles. The device can store GPS position and altitude, measured with the use of pressure sensor HP03M, a flying platform. The most important subassembly of the recorder is an M2M family device H24 modem developed by Telit company. The modem interface communicates with the use of UART interface and AT commands. The autonomic work is provided by a microcontroller which is master component of the recorder. The ATmega 664P-AU from AVR family microcontrollers developed by Atmel is used. The functionality of the measurement system was developed in such a way that a GSM module can send current position to the base station on demand. In the paper the general description of the device and achieved results of tests are presented.

  7. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

    The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

  8. A new robust control for minirotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, M Rida; Cherki, Brahim

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a new robust control based on finite-time Lyapunov stability controller and proved with backstepping method for the position and the attitude of a small rotorcraft unmanned aerial vehicle subjected to bounded uncertainties and disturbances. The dynamical motion equations are obtained by the Newton-Euler formalism. The proposed controller combines the advantage of the backstepping approach with finite-time convergence techniques to generate a control laws to guarantee the faster convergence of the state variables to their desired values in short time and compensate for the bounded disturbances. A formal proof of the closed-loop stability and finite-time convergence of tracking errors is derived using the Lyapunov function technique. Simulation results are presented to corroborate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed control method. PMID:25677710

  9. A coupled estimation and control analysis for attitude stabilisation of mini aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Mahony; Sung-Han Cha; Tarek Hamel

    Commercially viable aerial robotic vehicles require robust and e-cient, but low-cost attitude (vehicle orientation) stabilisation systems. A typical attitude stabilisation system employs a low-cost IMU and con- sists of an attitude estimator as well as an attitude controller. This paper proposes a coupled non-linear attitude estimation and control design for the atti- tude stabilisation of low-cost aerial robotic vehicles. Attitude

  10. Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ying

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by properly utilizing wind energy. Further research is proposed for the application of optimal flight in wind.

  11. Aerospace vehicle synthesis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A modified version of the Aerospace Vehicle Synthesis Program (VSP) to simulate a space shuttle on the computer is presented. The effects of various changes such as payload weight, and orbital velocity can be determined along with minimum costs in vehicle design. The program logic, and weight estimating equations are discussed, and an example case of a solid propellant boosted, drop tank orbiter is included to indicate the type of results produced by the VSP.

  12. Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Surmann; Dirk Holz; Sebastian Blumental; Thorsten Linder; Peter Molitor; Viatcheslav Tretyakov

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces our robotic system named UGAV (Unmanned Ground-Air Vehicle) consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The paper focuses on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and UAV: (A) teleoperated control by means of cell or smart phones with a new concept of automatic configuration

  13. Human-RRT collaboration in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle mission path planning

    E-print Network

    Griner, Alina

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used for a variety of military and commercial purposes, including surveillance, combat, and search and rescue. Current research is looking into combining automation with human supervision ...

  14. Autonomous navigation and tracking of dynamic surface targets on-board a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle

    E-print Network

    Selby, William Clayton

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of an independent, on-board visual servoing system which allows a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle to autonomously identify and track a dynamic surface target. Image ...

  15. Effect of auditory peripheral displays on unmanned aerial vehicle operator performance

    E-print Network

    Graham, Hudson D

    2008-01-01

    With advanced autonomy, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations will likely be conducted by single operators controlling multiple UAVs. As operator attention is divided across multiple supervisory tasks, there is a need ...

  16. Auditory Decision Aiding in Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Donmez, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of sonification, continuous auditory alert mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. Background: UAV supervisory ...

  17. StarVis : a configural decision support tool for schedule management of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Brzezinski, Amy S

    2008-01-01

    As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) become increasingly autonomous, current single-UAV operations involving multiple personnel could transition to a single operator simultaneously supervising multiple UAVs in high-level ...

  18. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

  19. Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

    2010-04-01

    The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 ?m pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 ?m and 25 ?m microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

  20. Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Máté; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-12-01

    Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts. PMID:21098957

  1. The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

    2008-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS(FAA Certificate of Authorization), and training(remote control piloting, UAV-specific instruction, FAA ground school and testing, FAA observer procedures, FAA medical Class 2 exam, and a private pilot's license). The relevance and need of all these to developing a UAV capability will be explained. While working through the necessary requirements above, we have also learned that we need to know how to handle extremely large and easily acquired data sets as well as to develop tools to orthorectify and mosaic individual UAV images for analysis.

  2. Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

    2011-01-01

    Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  3. Multi-volume occupancy grids: An efficient probabilistic 3D mapping model for micro aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Dryanovski; William Morris; Jizhong Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Advancing research into autonomous micro aerial vehicle navigation requires data structures capable of representing indoor and outdoor 3D environments. The vehicle must be able to update the map structure in real time using readings from range-finding sensors when mapping unknown areas; it must also be able to look up occupancy information from the map for the purposes of localization and

  4. Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes

    E-print Network

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision wind-energy is one possible way to ex- tend flight duration for Unmanned Arial Vehicles. Wind-energy can also be used to minimise energy consumption for a planned path. In this paper, we consider

  5. From Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariusz Wzorek; Gianpaolo Conte; Piotr Rudol; Torsten Merz; Simone Duranti; Patrick Doherty

    2006-01-01

    The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which can operate autonomously in dynamic and complex operational environments is becoming increasingly more common. While the application domains in which they are currently used are still predominantly military in nature, in the future we can expect widespread usage in the civil and commercial sectors. In order to insert such vehicles into commercial

  6. Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Scheiman, D.A.; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Setar Inc., Brookpark, OH (United States); Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

    1994-12-31

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  7. Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Scheiman, D.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J.; Colozza, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

  8. The development of an autonomous gust insensitive unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, William James

    The study of a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is designed towards eventual operation in harsh storm-like conditions is presented. Investigation of the aircraft equations of motion shows that the selection of certain aerodynamic derivatives has a significant effect on the gust response of a small unmanned aircraft. Analytical comparison of this newly formulated Autonomous Gust Insensitive Aircraft (AGIA) to a conventionally designed aircraft shows a significant reduction in undesirable roll motion caused by gusts. A simulation is presented showing that the AGIA is capable of operating in more extreme environments than a conventional aircraft, and puts less strain on the control system components in both extreme and calm environments. The role that aircraft size plays in gust response is also studied. Pilot instinct dictates that smaller aircraft are more difficult to fly in windy environments than larger ones. This phenomenon is investigated using an analytic approach, providing insight into why smaller aircraft are indeed more difficult to fly in more challenging environments. As an aircraft gets smaller, its natural aerodynamic modes and response get faster. In an ideal system, this does not limit small aircraft to poor performance (in fact it will be shown that idealized small aircraft theoretically perform better than their larger counterparts). A more realistic system is presented that includes not only aerodynamics, but also realistic sensor and actuator dynamics. It is shown that these additional dynamics become a limiting factor in control system performance, and thus limit the closed-loop flight performance of small aircraft in turbulent environments. It is shown that the AGIA design approach plays a more significant role the as an aircraft gets smaller. To provide experimental validation of the gust insensitive theory presented herein, a representative small conventional aircraft was built alongside a similar aircraft that incorporated the AGIA design characteristics. These two aircraft were flown simultaneously and autonomously using the autopilot developed by the Author. Data from this experiment strongly supports the hypothesis that the AGIA is less sensitive to gusts than its conventional counterpart, and that flight of the AGIA puts less strain on the control system components in flight.

  9. Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1984-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

  10. Vehicle Management Driver Safety Program

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    enforcement, or otherwise used to provide information relative to compliance investigations. Driver NameVehicle Management and Driver Safety Program Manual Facilities & Operations / Finance & Administration Version 2 April 2012 #12;© 2012 University of Alberta. #12;The Vehicle Management and Driver

  11. Vision Based Victim Detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Mykhaylo Andriluka1, Paul Schnitzspan1, Johannes Meyer2, Stefan Kohlbrecher1,

    E-print Network

    Stryk, Oskar von

    Vision Based Victim Detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Mykhaylo Andriluka1, Paul Schnitzspan1 lying on the ground in images taken from the on-board camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV to significantly boost the detection performance over the current de-facto standard, which provides a substantial

  12. Tracking and Control of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a Ground-Based 3D Laser Scanner

    E-print Network

    Ohya, Akihisa

    Tracking and Control of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using a Ground-Based 3D Laser Scanner Ryan and orientation of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a ground-based 3D laser scanner. A method attempt to tackle tracking and control of an air robot using a ground-based 3D laser scanner

  13. Reconfigurable Path Planning for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariusz Wzorek; Patrick Doherty

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a motion planning framework for a fully deployed autonomous unmanned aerial ve- hicle which integrates two sample-based motion plan- ning techniques, Probabilistic Roadmaps and Rapidly Exploring Random Trees. Additionally, we incorporate dynamic reconfigurability into the framework by inte- grating the motion planners with the control kernel of the UAV in a novel manner with little

  14. Stability and Control Properties of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Ifju, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of considerable interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing concept has also been developed that has exhibited desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations and competition. This paper presents results from a wind tunnel investigation that sought to quantify stability and control properties for a family of vehicles using the aeroelastic design. The results indicate that the membrane wing does exhibit potential benefits that could be exploited to enhance the design of future flight vehicles.

  15. AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Adamkovics, Mate; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

    2011-01-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within a New Frontiers budget.

  16. Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

  17. Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antarctic research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Funaki; Naohiko Hirasawa

    2008-01-01

    As part of the Ant-Plane project for summertime scientific research and logistics in the coastal region of Antarctica, we developed six types of small autonomous UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to drones; we term these vehicles ‘Ant-Planes’) based on four types of airframe. In test flights, Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 20m accuracy along a straight course during calm weather at

  18. A Frugal Fuzzy Logic Based Approach for Autonomous Flight Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sefer Kurnaz; Emre Eroglu; Okyay Kaynak; Umit Malkoc

    2005-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based autonomous flight controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Three fuzzy logic\\u000a modules are developed for the control of the altitude, the speed, and the roll angle, through which the altitude and the latitude-longitude\\u000a of the air vehicle are controlled. The implementation framework utilizes MATLAB’s standard configuration and the Aerosim Aeronautical\\u000a Simulation Block Set

  19. A Biologically-Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicle - Sensing, Modeling and Control Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jayant Ratti; George Vachtsevanos

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for the design, modeling and control of a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). The vehicle’s\\u000a conceptual design is based on biologically-inspired principles and emulates a dragonfly (Odonata–Anisoptera). We have taken\\u000a inspiration from the flight mechanism features of the dragonfly and have developed indigenous designs in creating a novel\\u000a version of a Flapping Wing MAV (FWMAV).

  20. Beach monitoring using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: results of a multi-temporal study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Casella, Marco; Pedroncini, Andrea; Ferrari, Marco; Vacchi, Matteo; Firpo, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing. In this study, we show how we applied small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to the study of topographic changes of a beach in Italy, NW Mediterranean Sea. We surveyed the same stretch of coastline three times in 5 months, obtaining ortophotos and digital elevation models of the beach using a structure from motion approach. We then calculated the difference in beach topography between each time step, and we related topography changes to both human and natural modifications of the beach morphology that can be inferred from aerial photos or wave data. We conclude that small drones have the potential to open new possibilities for beach monitoring studies, and can be successfully employed for multi-temporal monitoring studies at relatively low cost.

  1. Estimation of the Concentration from a Gaseous Moving Source Using Collaborating Sensing Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Tatiana; Demetriou, Michael A.; Gatsonis, Nikolaos A.

    2012-11-01

    This work considers the estimation of the concentration field caused by a moving gaseous source. A model-based estimation scheme incorporates the vehicle dynamics in the estimation scheme in order to arrive at a guidance control law that is dictated by the performance of the estimator. The model-based estimation scheme provides on-line estimates of the concentration field and of the proximity of the moving source. The process state estimate is realized through the use of multiple sensing aerial vehicles (SAVs) that have collaborating capabilities. Each SAV implements its own model-based estimator using its own sensor measurements and shares its estimate with the remaining SAVs. The advantage of the collaborating scheme is the faster convergence of the process state estimate. Computational results demonstrate the advantage of the SAV collaboration in estimating the process state and the proximity of the moving source. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Dynamics and Control Program, grant FA9550-12-1-0114.

  2. Key Parameters and Conceptual Configuration of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Ganglin

    2009-01-01

    The nature and characteristics of attack unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) are analyzed. The principles of selecting takeoff thrust-weight ratio and takeoff weight of attack UCAV are presented by analyzing the statistical data of weights for various main combat aircraft. The UCAV airborne weapons are analyzed, followed by the preliminary estimation of the payload weight. Various typical engines are analyzed

  3. Design of a GaAs\\/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Scheiman; David J. Brinker; David J. Bents; Anthony J. Colozza

    1994-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is being funded under

  4. Design of a GaAs\\/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Scheiman; David J. Brinker; David J. Bents; Anthony J. Colozza

    1995-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded

  5. Fast trajectory planning based on in-flight waypoints for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Babaei; M. Mortazavi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose an efficient algorithm for trajectory planning of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in 2D spaces. This paper has been motivated by the challenge to develop a fast trajectory planning algorithm for autonomous UAVs through mid-course waypoints (WPs). It is assumed that there is no prior knowledge of these WPs, and their

  6. Probabilistic Roadmap Based Path Planning for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Olof Pettersson; Patrick Doherty

    The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research challenges for artificial intelligence. For both military and civil applications, there is a desire to develop more sophisticated UAV platforms where the emphasis is placed on development of intelligent capabil-ities. Imagine a mission scenario where a

  7. Hybrid formation control of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ali Karimoddini a,b

    E-print Network

    Benmei, Chen

    Hybrid formation control of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ali Karimoddini a,b , Hai Lin b, , Ben M and Engineering (NGS), Centre for Life Sciences (CeLS), #05-01, 28 Medical Drive, 117456 Singapore, Singapore b Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore

  8. A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Funaki

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems.

  9. An ultracompact laser terrain mapper for deployment onboard unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marwan W. Hussein; Jeffrey W. Tripp; Brian R. Hill

    2009-01-01

    Airborne laser terrain mapping systems have redefined the realm of topographic mapping. Lidars with kilohertz collection rates and long ranges have made airborne surveying a quick, efficient and highly productive endeavor. Despite the current industry efforts toward improving airborne lidar range, collection rate, resolution and accuracies, and with the advent of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their myriad advantages, military

  10. Rapid damage assessment using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for earthquake Supervisors: Dr Zhenhong Li(1)

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Rapid damage assessment using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for earthquake hazards Supervisors of Glasgow (2) : Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Glasgow Earthquake. It is vital to assess damage as quickly as possible to direct relief teams to areas of greatest damage

  11. Development of a PWM precision spraying controller for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a new pulse width modulation (PWM) controller for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) precision sprayer for agriculture using a TL494 fix-frequency pulse width modulator together with a data acquisition board and developed software. The PWM controller was implemented through the guidan...

  12. Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

  13. Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we examine the potential of using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for rangeland inventory, assessment and monitoring. Imagery with 8-cm resolution was acquired over 290 ha in southwestern Idaho. We developed a semi-automated orthorectification procedure suitable for handling lar...

  14. Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

  15. Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Jin; Yan Liao; Ali A. Minai; Marios M. Polycarpou

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some

  16. A Multiagent Swarming System for Distributed Automatic Target Recognition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prithviraj Dasgupta

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, automatic target recognition (ATR) has emerged as an essential image analysis tool to identify objects from temporally and spatially disjoint possibly noisy image data. For many current applications, ATR is performed by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that fly within a reconnaissance area to collect image data through sensors and upload the data to a central

  17. Simultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    UAV using only linear and angular positions. In [2] and [3], sliding-mode observers based control convergence. All the results cited above are obtained using linear and angular positions. In [9], the authorsSimultaneous observer based sensor diagnosis and speed estimation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle H

  18. Vision based control of aerial robotic vehicles using the port Hamiltonian framework

    E-print Network

    Trumpf, Jochen

    Vision based control of aerial robotic vehicles using the port Hamiltonian framework Robert Mahony the particular case of vision based control and develops a model for an "infinite dimensional" visual energy port that uses optical flow in the image plane as a `velocity' in the port Hamiltonian formalism. I. INTRODUCTION

  19. Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Yang Singhania

    2008-01-01

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key

  20. Identifying Contingency Requirements Using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn R. Lutz; Stacy Nelson; Ann Patterson-Hine; Chad R. Frost

    This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: (1) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the

  1. Autolanding of unmanned aerial vehicles based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xiong; Jian-qiang Yi; Guo-liang Fan; Feng-shui Jing; Ru-yi Yuan

    2009-01-01

    The safe landing of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under various wind conditions has been a challenging task for decades. We design an autolanding control system which consists of a throttle control subsystem and an altitude control subsystem based on the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC). In contrast to previous methods, our approach can directly and real-timely estimate the UAV's internal

  2. Automatic takeoff of unmanned aerial vehicle based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Xiong; Feng-shui Jing; Jian-qiang Yi; Guo-liang Fan

    2009-01-01

    The safe takeoff of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) under various wind conditions has been a challenging research for decades. We design an automatic takeoff control system based on the Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC). The automatic takeoff control system consists of a taxiing control subsystem, an attack angle control subsystem, a pitch angle control subsystem, and a smooth switch control

  3. Multiresolution On-Line Path Planning for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Tsiotras, Panagiotis

    Multiresolution On-Line Path Planning for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Dongwon Jung) to get a multiresolution cell decomposition of the environment, whose dimension is commensurate to the on- board computational resources. A topological graph represen- tation of the multiresolution cell

  4. Backstepping control with exact 2-sliding mode estimation for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek Madani; Abdelaziz Benallegue

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a backstepping controller using sliding mode estimation technique which aims to simplify the control procedure. This approach, applied to a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle, differs from standard backstepping in that the virtual control inputs are designed based on estimates of the previous virtual control inputs. This eliminates the need to take derivatives of the

  5. Project of a hardware and software architecture for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djalma Maranhao; Pablo Alsina

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple hardware\\/software architecture for a micro UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). This architecture follows the master-slave model and uses the Standard USB as communication interface. The main contribution of this paper is a C++ library, which makes possible communicate an embedded PC with several microcontrollers. Through this interface, it is possible to build a robot using a

  6. Controllability issues in flapping flight for biomimetic micro aerial vehicles (MAVs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Schenato; Domenico Campolo; Shankar Sastry

    2003-01-01

    We explore controllability in flapping flight for micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), inch-size robots capable of autonomous flight. Differently from previous work, we focus on a MAV with very limited wing kinematics and simple input control schemes. In particular, in the first part we show how an MAV provided with a pair of wings, each with a single degree of freedom

  7. Tactical unmanned aerial vehicle localization using ground-based acoustic sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kam W. Lo; Brian G. Ferguson

    2004-01-01

    Tactical unmanned aerial vehicles (TUAV) are low observable aircraft that are susceptible to acoustic detection by unattended ground sensors because of the high levels of radiated noise generated by the propulsion mechanism (engine and propeller). This paper presents an acoustic signature analysis of a typical TUAV and demonstrates, using real data, the potential of both narrowband and broadband single-sensor based

  8. Identification and control of a miniature rotorcraft Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Neamtu; Razvan Deac; Robin De Keyser; Clara Ionescu; Ioan Nascu

    2010-01-01

    We present in this paper an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) based on a miniature helicopter. The UAV platform consists of sensors that sense the movement of the helicopter, wireless communication and a PC based controller. The model identification for the yaw movement is described. Based on the identified model, an incremental PID controller was designed and implemented, with very good results.

  9. Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and range science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low fligh...

  10. Solving the SLAM Problem for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Smoothed Estimates

    E-print Network

    Schön, Thomas

    present a solution to the simulta- neous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) using a camera and inertial sensors. A good SLAM solution is an important enabler the most commonly used sensors in SLAM. This has spawned a field where the SLAM problem is solved

  11. Design and characterization of Hover Nano Aerial Vehicle (HNAV) propulsion system

    E-print Network

    Sato, Sho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    On October 4th 2005, DARPA released a request for proposals for a Nano-Air Vehicle (NAV) program. The program sought to develop an advanced urban reconnaissance vehicle. According the requirement imposed by DARPA, the NAV ...

  12. Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

  13. Automatic Vehicle Trajectory Extraction for Traffic Analysis from Aerial Video Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apeltauer, J.; Babinec, A.; Herman, D.; Apeltauer, T.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to simultaneous detection and tracking of vehicles moving through an intersection in aerial images acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Detailed analysis of spatial and temporal utilization of an intersection is an important step for its design evaluation and further traffic inspection. Traffic flow at intersections is typically very dynamic and requires continuous and accurate monitoring systems. Conventional traffic surveillance relies on a set of fixed cameras or other detectors, requiring a high density of the said devices in order to monitor the intersection in its entirety and to provide data in sufficient quality. Alternatively, a UAV can be converted to a very agile and responsive mobile sensing platform for data collection from such large scenes. However, manual vehicle annotation in aerial images would involve tremendous effort. In this paper, the proposed combination of vehicle detection and tracking aims to tackle the problem of automatic traffic analysis at an intersection from visual data. The presented method has been evaluated in several real-life scenarios.

  14. VISION BASED CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR AN AUTONOMOUS AERIAL VEHICLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B. Corbets

    This report examines the current research on the navi- gationofanautonomousunmannedaerialvehiclethrough an unknown area with obstacles. In areas where GPS is unavailable, the use of vision-based navigation sys- tems is required, and complicated algorithms to map the obstacles and plan a trajectory to avoid the obsta- cles must be used. Performance of the vehicle directly affects the necessary quality of map

  15. Fault detection and multiclassifier fusion for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizhong Yan

    2001-01-01

    UAVs demand more accurate fault accommodation for their mission manager and vehicle control system in order to achieve a reliability level that is comparable to that of a pilot aircraft. This paper attempts to apply multi-classifier fusion techniques to achieve the necessary performance of the fault detection function for the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works (LMSW) UAV Mission Manager. Three different

  16. Visualization of ground target designation from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah J. Violette Pierce; John J. Santapietro

    1998-01-01

    The common ground station (CGS) receives data from the joint surveillance and target attack radar system aircraft and from other airborne platforms. High-resolution imagery such as that provided by an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) carrying an IR and\\/or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor will be incorporated into an advanced imagery CGS operation. While this level of integration provides a wealth

  17. Motion Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Resource Constraints

    E-print Network

    Sundar, Kaarthik

    2012-10-19

    can carry. In the thesis, we consider a single UAV routing problem where there are multiple depots and the vehicle is allowed to refuel at any depot. The objective of the problem is to find a path for the UAV such that each target is visited at least...

  18. A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

  19. First results for an image processing workflow for hyperspatial imagery acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Very high-resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for use in rangeland monitoring and assessment, because the imagery fills the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial or satellite sensors. However, because UAV imagery is ofte...

  20. Simulation and Flight Control of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin; Davidson, John B.; Ifju, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of continued interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing has also been developed that exhibits desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations, competition, and in prior aerodynamics studies. This paper presents a simulation model and an assessment of flight control characteristics of the vehicle. Linear state space models of the vehicle associated with typical trimmed level flight conditions and which are suitable for control system design are presented as well. The simulation is used as the basis for the design of a measurement based nonlinear dynamic inversion control system and outer loop guidance system. The vehicle/controller system is the subject of ongoing investigations of autonomous and collaborative control schemes. The results indicate that the design represents a good basis for further development of the micro aerial vehicle for autonomous and collaborative controls research.

  1. Parameterized trajectories for target localization using small and micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B. Corbets; Jack W. Langelaan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to near-optimal target localization for small and micro uninhabited aerial vehicles using a family of pre-computed parameterized trajectories. These trajectories are pre-computed for a set of nominal target locations uniformly distributed over the sensor field of view and stored offline as a sequence of non-dimensional waypoints. Upon target detection, a trajectory corresponding to the nearest

  2. Agent-Based Multi-Layer Collision Avoidance to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sislak; P. Volf; A. Komenda; J. Samek; M. Pechoucek

    2007-01-01

    This contribution presents a distributed, multi-layer collision avoidance architecture supporting efficient utilization of air space shared by several autonomous aerial vehicles. Presented multi-layer architecture is based on deliberative deployment of several collision avoidance methods by the aircraft at the same time. Both cooperative and non-cooperative collision avoidance methods are presented in the paper. The robustness of the architecture is justified

  3. Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

  4. Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cyrus Abdollahi

    2010-01-01

    The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor,

  5. Development of an Onboard Software System for Mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on VxWorks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoning Ma; Jiancheng Fang; Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The development of flight software for mini unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is presented in this paper. The flight software,\\u000a based on the embedded real-time operating system VxWorks, performs multiple tasks including data acquisition, strapdown solution,\\u000a kalman filter, flight control, communication and fault handling. The framework of flight software and scheme of module partitioning\\u000a is discussed in the paper. The flight

  6. Measuring the Wind Vector Using the Autonomous Mini Aerial Vehicle M2AV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aline van den Kroonenberg; Tim Martin; Marco Buschmann; Jens Bange; Peter Vörsmann

    2008-01-01

    The meteorological mini unmanned aerial vehicle (M2AV) was used for measuring the meteorological wind. The wind is the vector difference between the aircraft speed relative to the earth (inertial velocity) and relative to the airflow (true airspeed). The latter was computed from five-hole-probe pressure mea- surements in combination with calibration-coefficient polynomials obtained during wind tunnel calibration. The aircraft inertial velocity,

  7. Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Mallinger

    2004-08-27

    Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

  8. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  9. Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

    2014-04-01

    Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

  10. Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

    2013-12-01

    Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively useful remote sensing reflectance from airborne imagery. Measurements collected near the water's surface or from adjacent shoreline areas are being used to refine the spectral corrections or assess the validity of the hyperspectral imagery. The imagery collected corroborates the importance of validation measurements, sensor selection, and radiative transfer models for the interpretation of UAV based imagery. The fieldwork and subsequent analysis show some of the technical challenges that exist for radiometric and atmospheric corrections, and the use of UAVs for coastal research.

  11. Visualization of ground target designation from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violette Pierce, Deborah J.; Santapietro, John J.

    1998-08-01

    The common ground station (CGS) receives data from the joint surveillance and target attack radar system aircraft and from other airborne platforms. High-resolution imagery such as that provided by an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) carrying an IR and/or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor will be incorporated into an advanced imagery CGS operation. While this level of integration provides a wealth of valuable information, it also increase the complexity of planning, assessment and exploitation which in turn dictates flexible simulation tools for mission rehearsal and operator training. MITRE has developed a ModSAF-driven model for a UAV equipped with a moving target indicator (MTI) radar for wide-area surveillance, and a battlefield combat identification system for positive identification of friendly forces. The imaging functions are performed by integrating the UAV model with visualization software in order to render the sensor's view in real-time. This model forms the basis for a multisensor CGS simulation controls imaging task assignments which taken place when an MTI track is selected for imaging by means of a mouse click entry on an active MTI display. At that time, the UAV is commanded to fly an automatically determined trajectory in order to align MTI display. At that time, the UAV is commanded to fly an automatically determined trajectory in order to align itself for the imaging task. A beam footprint whose position, size and shape is determined by the sensor position, attitude, and field-of-view appears on the display as an indication of the relationship of the image display to the terrain in the operational scenario. A 3D visualization of the designated target area then takes place on a separate display.

  12. Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

  13. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  14. Electric and hybrid vehicles program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-05-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (EHV) Program is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to encourage the use of electricity and alternative fuels for transportation. This program supports the expanded DOE involvement as recommended in the National Energy Strategy. The transportation sector is the single largest user of petroleum; it consumed 63 percent of all petroleum used in the United States last year. Only a small fraction (5 percent) of electricity is generated from petroleum. Electric vehicles, which are themselves virtually pollution-free, could play a key role in helping to reduce both urban pollution and our dependence on petroleum imports. The program's goals are to develop, in cooperation with industry, the technology that will lead to the production and introduction of pollution-free electric vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet and substitute domestic sources of energy for petroleum-based fuels. This report describes progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY-91. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY-91 in the areas of battery, fuel-cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. In accordance with the reporting requirements of the Act, this annual report contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components and concludes with a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  15. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the UAV DSM could be as good as LiDAR data, and is ready for other applications. The quality of the data set provides not only geoinfomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

  16. Brief Communication: The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle in a rockfall emergency scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Facello, A.; Baldo, M.; dell'Anese, F.; Allasia, P.; Dutto, F.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in civilian/commercial contexts are becoming increasingly common, as well as for applications concerning anthropic and natural disasters. In this paper, we present the first results of a research project aimed at defining a possible methodology for the use of micro-UAVs in emergency scenarios relevant to rockfall phenomena. To develop and support the method presented herein, the results relevant to a rockfall emergency occurred on 7 March 2014 in the San Germano municipality (north-western Italy) are presented and discussed.

  17. An Analysis of Fuel Cell Options for an All-electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance characteristics of both PEM and SOFC-based fuel cell systems for an all-electric high altitude, long endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Primary and hybrid systems were considered. Fuel options include methane, hydrogen, and jet fuel. Excel-based models were used to calculate component mass as a function of power level and mission duration. Total system mass and stored volume as a function of mission duration for an aircraft operating at 65 kft altitude were determined and compared.

  18. On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochala, Zdzis?aw

    2012-02-01

    This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

  19. Modeling and optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles system architecture alternatives.

    PubMed

    Qin, Dongliang; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

  20. Modeling and Optimization of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles System Architecture Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

  1. Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haro, Helida C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

  2. Beam divergence changing mechanism for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle optical communications.

    PubMed

    Heng, Kiang Huat; Zhong, Wen-De; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Liu, Ning; He, Yingjie

    2009-03-10

    The problems associated with using a single fixed beam divergence for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle free-space optical communications are discussed. To overcome the problems, a beam divergence changing mechanism is proposed. Four different methods are then proposed to implement the beam divergence changing mechanism. The performance of these methods is evaluated in terms of transmission distance under adverse weather conditions. The results show that the performance is greatly improved when the beam divergence changing mechanism is used. PMID:19277090

  3. Flight validation of an embedded structural health monitoring system for an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kressel, I.; Dorfman, B.; Botsev, Y.; Handelman, A.; Balter, J.; Pillai, A. C. R.; Prasad, M. H.; Gupta, N.; Joseph, A. M.; Sundaram, R.; Tur, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the design and flight validation of an embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) based structural health monitoring (SHM) system for the Indian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Nishant. The embedding of the sensors was integrated with the manufacturing process, taking into account the trimming of parts and assembly considerations. Reliable flight data were recorded on board the vehicle and analyzed so that deviations from normal structural behaviors could be identified, evaluated and tracked. Based on the data obtained, it was possible to track both the loads and vibration signatures by direct sensors’ cross correlation using principal component analysis (PCA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Sensor placement combined with proper ground calibration, enabled the distinction between strain and temperature readings. The start of a minor local structural temporary instability was identified during landing, proving the value of such continuous structural airworthy assessment for UAV structures.

  4. Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leachman, Jacob; Street, Melissa Jean; Graham, Teira

    2012-06-01

    As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand, the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV, onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently, large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However, the mass, size, and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues, this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff, cruise, and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

  5. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  6. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

    2013-01-01

    Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

  7. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Assessment of Controllability of Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, David A.; Ifju, Peter G.; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Olipra, Scott

    2002-01-01

    In the last several years, we have developed unique types of micro air vehicles that utilize flexible structures and extensible covering materials. These MAVs can be operated with maximum dimensions as small as 6 inches and carry reasonable payloads, such as video cameras and transmitters. We recently demonstrated the potential of these vehicles by winning the Fourth International Micro Air Vehicle Competition, held at Ft. Huachucha, Arizona in May 2000. The pilots report that these vehicles have unusually smooth flying characteristics and are relatively easy to fly, both in the standard RC mode and "through the camera" when at greater distances. In comparison, they find that similar sized vehicles with more conventional rigid construction require much more input from the pilot just to maintain control. To make these subjective observations more quantitative, we have devised a system that can conveniently record a complete history of all the RC transmitter stick movements during a flight. Post-flight processing of the stick movement data allows for direct comparisons between different types of MAVs when flown by the same pilot, and also comparisons between pilots. Eventually, practical micro air vehicles will be autonomously controlled, but we feel that the smoothest flying and easiest to fly embodiments will also be the most successful in the long run. Comparisons between several types of micro air vehicles will be presented, along with interpretations of the data.

  8. A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, M.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

  9. AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. A Titan airplane mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Ádámkovics, Máté; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

    2012-03-01

    We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments—2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector—AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel `gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within a New Frontiers budget.

  10. Fuzzy Logic Based Approach to Design of Flight Control and Navigation Tasks for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sefer Kurnaz; Omer Cetin; Okyay Kaynak

    This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based autonomous navigation controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Three fuzzy\\u000a logic modules are developed under the main navigation system for the control of the altitude, the speed, and the heading,\\u000a through which the global position (latitude–longitude) of the air vehicle is controlled. A SID (Standard Instrument Departure)\\u000a and TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) approach

  11. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    E-print Network

    Kelly, Maggi

    (UAV) Images José Manuel Peña1* , Jorge Torres-Sánchez1 , Ana Isabel de Castro1 , Maggi Kelly2 of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near

  12. Towards digital terrain modeling with unmanned aerial vehicles and SfM point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Niels; Masselink, Rens; Keesstra, Saskia

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are excellent tools for the acquisition of very high-resolution digital surface models using low altitude aerial photography and photogrammetric, 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), processing. Terrain reconstructions are produced by interpolating ground points after removal of non-ground points. While extremely detailed in non-vegetated areas, UAV point clouds are less suitable for terrain reconstructions of vegetated areas due to the inability of aerial photography to penetrate through vegetation for collecting ground points. This hinders for example detailed modeling of sediment transport on hillslopes towards vegetated lower areas and channels with riparian vegetation. We propose complementing UAV SfM point cloud data with alternative data sources to fill in the data gaps in vegetated areas. Firstly, SfM point clouds are classified into ground and non-ground points based on both color values and neighborhood statistics. Secondly, non-ground points are removed and data gaps are complemented with external data points. Thirdly, the combined point cloud is interpolated into a digital terrain model (DTM) using the natural neighbor interpolation technique. We demonstrate the methodology with three scenarios of terrain reconstructions in two study areas in North and Southeast Spain: i.e. a linear slope below sparsely distributed trees without the need of supplementary data points (1), and a gully with riparian vegetation combined with 5 m LiDAR data (2) or with manually measured dGPS data points (3). While the spatial resolution is significantly less below vegetated areas compared to non-vegetated areas, the results suggest significant improvements of the reconstructed topography, making the DTM more useful for soil erosion studies and sediment modeling.

  13. Three-Dimensional Building Reconstruction Using Images Obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wefelscheid, C.; Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

    2011-09-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer several new possibilities in a wide range of applications. One example is the 3D reconstruction of buildings. In former times this was either restricted by earthbound vehicles to the reconstruction of facades or by air-borne sensors to generate only very coarse building models. This paper describes an approach for fully automatic image-based 3D reconstruction of buildings using UAVs. UAVs are able to observe the whole 3D scene and to capture images of the object of interest from completely different perspectives. The platform used by this work is a Falcon 8 octocopter from Ascending Technologies. A slightly modi?ed high-resolution consumer camera serves as sensor for data acquisition. The ?nal 3D reconstruction is computed of?ine after image acquisition and follows a reconstruction process originally developed for image sequences obtained by earthbound vehicles. The per- formance of the described method is evaluated on benchmark datasets showing that the achieved accuracy is high and even comparable with Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). Additionally, the results of the application of the complete processing-chain starting at image acquisition and ending in a dense surface-mesh are presented and discussed.

  14. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  15. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Lung; Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Teng, Yao-Jen; Hao, Shu-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft's nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft's nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path. PMID:26184213

  16. Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

    2012-09-01

    In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  17. Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Chelaru, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed.

  18. Optimal Beamforming and Performance Analysis of Wireless Relay Networks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Jian; Lin, Min

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate a wireless communication system employing a multi-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as the relay to improve the connectivity between the base station (BS) and the receive node (RN), where the BS-UAV link undergoes the correlated Rician fading while the UAV-RN link follows the correlated Rayleigh fading with large scale path loss. By assuming that the amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol is adopted at UAV, we first propose an optimal beamforming (BF) scheme to maximize the mutual information of the UAV-assisted dual-hop relay network, by calculating the BF weight vectors and the power allocation coefficient. Then, we derive the analytical expressions for the outage probability (OP) and the ergodic capacity (EC) of the relay network to evaluate the system performance conveniently. Finally, computer simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed scheme as well as the performance analysis.

  19. Simulation study of unmanned aerial vehicle communication networks addressing bandwidth disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Lu, Chao

    2014-06-01

    To date, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used for numerous applications. UAVs can directly connect to ground stations or satellites to transfer data. Multiple UAVs can communicate and cooperate with each other and then construct an ad-hoc network. Multi-UAV systems have the potential to provide reliable and timely services for end users in addition to satellite networks. In this paper, we conduct a simulation study for evaluating the network performance of multi-UAV systems and satellite networks using the ns-2 networking simulation tool. Our simulation results show that UAV communication networks can achieve better network performance than satellite networks and with a lower cost and increased timeliness. We also investigate security resiliency of UAV networks. As a case study, we simulate false data injection attacks against UAV communication networks in ns-2 and demonstrate the impact of false data injection attacks on network performance.

  20. Implementation of an Onboard Visual Tracking System with Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    E-print Network

    Qadir, Ashraf; Neubert, Jeremiah

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a visual tracking system that is capable or running real time on-board a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The tracking system is computationally efficient and invariant to lighting changes and rotation of the object or the camera. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and there are two different methods for creation of the image patches. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch created prior to flight with previous flight data. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The tracking system is capable of re-detecting the object of interest in the events of tracking failure. Performance of the tracking system was verified both in the lab and during actual flights of the UAV. Results show that the system can run on-board and track a diverse set of objects in real time.

  1. Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

    2013-08-01

    In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance. PMID:24422345

  2. Spatially-Averaged Temperature Structure Parameter Over a Heterogeneous Surface Measured by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Martin, S.; Beyrich, F.; Bange, J.

    2012-01-01

    The structure parameter of temperature, {CT2} , in the lower convective boundary layer was measured using the unmanned mini aerial vehicle M2AV. The measurements were carried out on two hot summer days in July 2010 over a heterogeneous land surface around the boundary-layer field site of the Lindenberg Meteorological Observatory—Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service. The spatial series of {CT2} showed considerable variability along the flight path that was caused by both temporal variations and surface heterogeneity. Comparison of the aircraft data with {CT2} values derived from tower-based in situ turbulence measurements showed good agreement with respect to the diurnal variability. The decrease of {CT2} with height as predicted by free-convection scaling could be confirmed for the morning and afternoon flights while the flights around noon suggest a different behaviour.

  3. Cooperative Damage Inspection with Unmanned Surface Vehicle and Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle at Hurricane Wilma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin R. Murphy; Sam Stover; Kevin S. Pratt; Chandler Griffin

    2006-01-01

    On Oct 24, 2005, Hurricane Wilma made landfall at Cape Romano, Florida. Two days later, the Center for Robot-Assisted Search and Rescue (CRASAR) deployed an iSENSYS helicopter and an unmanned surface vehicle to survey damage in parts of Marco Island, 11 miles from landfall. Assistance was provided by the National Science Foundation's industry\\/university cooperative research center on safety security rescue

  4. Observing Entrainment Processes Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sabrina; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Measurement flights with the meteorological mini aerial vehicle (MAV) were performed in spring 2011 to assess the capability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to measure the structure of the transition zone between the convective boundary layer and the stably stratified free atmosphere. The campaign took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg/Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service. Besides the MAV flights, observations were made from a 12-m and a 99-m tower, a sodar, two ceilometers, radiosondes, and a tethered balloon with sensor packages at six different levels. MAV measurements were intentionally combined with remote sensing systems. The height range of the entrainment zone as well as its diurnal cycle were provided by the remote sensing instruments. The UAV provided the high-resolution in situ data of temperature and wind for the study of turbulent processes. It is shown that the MAV is able to maintain constant altitude with very small deviations—a pre-requisite to study processes inside the often quite thin entrainment zone and that MAV high-resolution wind and temperature measurements allow for very detailed studies of the fine structure of the atmosphere and thus for the identification of quite local and/or short-duration processes such as overshooting thermals or downward intrusions of warm air. Spatial series measured by the MAV during horizontal flights show turbulent exchange of heat in short turbulent bursts at heights close to and within the entrainment zone. Scaled vertical profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature variance, and sensible heat flux confirm the general shape found by previous measurements and numerical studies.

  5. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  6. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ifju, Peter G.; Ettinger, Scott; Jenkins, David; Martinez, Luis

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss the development of the University of Florida's Micro Air Vehicle concept. A series of flexible wing based aircraft that possess highly desirable flight characteristics were developed. Since computational methods to accurately model flight at the low Reynolds numbers associated with this scale are still under development, our effort has relied heavily on trial and error. Hence a time efficient method was developed to rapidly produce prototype designs. The airframe and wings are fabricated using a unique process that incorporates carbon fiber composite construction. Prototypes can be fabricated in around five man-hours, allowing many design revisions to be tested in a short period of time. The resulting aircraft are far more durable, yet lighter, than their conventional counterparts. This process allows for thorough testing of each design in order to determine what changes were required on the next prototype. The use of carbon fiber allows for wing flexibility without sacrificing durability. The construction methods developed for this project were the enabling technology that allowed us to implement our designs. The resulting aircraft were the winning entries in the International Micro Air Vehicle Competition for the past two years. Details of the construction method are provided in this paper along with a background on our flexible wing concept.

  7. Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ford Motor Company

    2005-03-01

    The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

  8. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

  9. Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation thru the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The application of many different types of AI techniques for flight will be explored during this research effort. The research concentration will be directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI approaches, which will include Expert Systems, Neural Networks, Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems thus providing new intellectual merit to this research field. The major area of discussion will be limited to the UAV. The systems of interest include small aircraft, insects, and miniature aircraft. Although flight systems will be explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers, Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. The flight system will be broken down into control agents that will represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework of applying a Security Overseer will be added in an attempt to address errors, emergencies, failures, damage, or over dynamic environment. The chosen control problem was the landing phase of UAV operation. The initial results from simulation in FlightGear are presented.

  10. Approaching morphing wing concepts on the basis of micro aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, C.; Kuo, C.-M.; Qin, N.

    2007-04-01

    Morphing wings have been discussed since the early days of smart structures. Concepts and demonstrations started mainly in the context of real existing fixed wing aircraft. The complexity of existing aircraft and the limitations in terms of energy required and thus resulting cost made morphing wings mainly impossible to be successfully integrated into existing aircraft designs. Going however to smaller scaled aircraft where designs are less or possibly even not defined at all makes demonstration of morphing wings much more feasible. This paper will therefore discuss some morphing wing issues for micro aerial vehicle (MAV) designs where an MAV is considered to be an air vehicle of around 30 to 50 cm in span and a weight of less than 250 grams. At first the aerodynamics in terms of different wing shapes for such a small type of aircraft will be discussed followed by a design procedure on how to successfully design and analyse a morphing wing MAV. A more detailed description will then be given with regard to adaptively changing a wing's thickness where the actuation principles applied will be outlined in terms of conventional mechanical as well as smart structural solutions. Experimental results achieved in real flight tests will be described and discussed.

  11. Sitting in the Pilot's Seat; Optimizing Human-Systems Interfaces for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queen, Steven M.; Sanner, Kurt Gregory

    2011-01-01

    One of the pilot-machine interfaces (the forward viewing camera display) for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle called the DROID (Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone) will be analyzed for optimization. The goal is to create a visual display for the pilot that as closely resembles an out-the-window view as possible. There are currently no standard guidelines for designing pilot-machine interfaces for UAVs. Typically, UAV camera views have a narrow field, which limits the situational awareness (SA) of the pilot. Also, at this time, pilot-UAV interfaces often use displays that have a diagonal length of around 20". Using a small display may result in a distorted and disproportional view for UAV pilots. Making use of a larger display and a camera lens with a wider field of view may minimize the occurrences of pilot error associated with the inability to see "out the window" as in a manned airplane. It is predicted that the pilot will have a less distorted view of the DROID s surroundings, quicker response times and more stable vehicle control. If the experimental results validate this concept, other UAV pilot-machine interfaces will be improved with this design methodology.

  12. Control and display stations for simultaneous multiple dissimilar unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne von Berg, Dale C.; Duncan, Michael D.; Howard, John G.; Kruer, Melvin R.; Lee, John N.

    2005-05-01

    The NRL Optical Sciences Division has developed and demonstrated ground and airborne-based control, display, and exploitation stations for simultaneous use of multiple dissimilar unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. The demonstrated systems allow operation on airborne and ground mobile platforms and allow for the control and exploitation of multiple on-board airborne and/or remote unmanned sensor systems simultaneously. The sensor systems incorporated into the control and display stations include visible and midwave infrared (EO/MWIR) panchromatic and visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) hyperspectral (HSI) sensors of various operational types (including step-stare, push-broom, whisk-broom, and video). Demonstrated exploitation capabilities include real-time screening, sensor control, pre-flight and real-time payload/platform mission planning, geo-referenced imagery mosaicing, change detection, stereo imaging, moving target tracking, and networked dissemination to distributed exploitation nodes (man-pack, vehicle, and command centers). Results from real-time flight tests using ATR, Finder, and TERN UAV's are described.

  13. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model's channel flow prediction performance through a cross-comparison with reference flow measured at the catchment outlet. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. In the examined case study, we find that the different imperviousness maps only have a limited influence on modelled surface runoff and pipe flows. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications due to the possibility to flexibly acquire up-to-date aerial images at a superior quality and a competitive price. Our analyses furthermore suggest that spatially more detailed urban drainage models can even better benefit from the full detail of UAV imagery.

  14. National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Light, Donald L.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

  15. Design of a four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle capable of sustaining zero-roll and zero-pitch flight using vector thrusting

    E-print Network

    Hilton, Danny Charles

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades, remote controlled airplanes and helicopters equipped with video cameras have been used by the movie industry, photographers, and for surveillance. The military deploys these unmanned aerial vehicles ...

  16. Rapid, repeat-sample monitoring of crustal deformations and environmental phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASAs Science Mission Directorate. UAVSARs unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near-real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSARs data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  17. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  18. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisheng; Jia, Limin; Niu, Shuyun; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Lu; Zhou, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs' route planning for small and medium-scale networks. PMID:26076404

  19. Rapid, Repeat-sample Monitoring of Crustal Deformations and Environmental Phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASA s Science Mission Directorate. UAVSAR's unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSAR s data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

  20. Experiment of telecom\\/broadcasting mission using a high-altitude solar-powered aerial vehicle Pathfinder Plus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryu Miura; Masaaki Maruyama; M. Suzuki; H. Tsuji; M. Oodo; Yuichiro Nishi

    2002-01-01

    A series of telecommunication and broadcasting tests using a high-altitude platform in the stratosphere at an altitude of 20 km was carried out on the Hawaiian island of Kauai in June-July 2002. For the high-altitude platform, we used a NASA solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), Pathfinder Plus. The tests were successfully completed, and the first in the world. This paper

  1. Optic flow-based vision system for autonomous 3D localization and control of small aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid Kendoul; Isabelle Fantoni; Kenzo Nonami

    2009-01-01

    The problem considered in this paper involves the design of a vision-based autopilot for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The proposed autopilot is based on an optic ?ow-based vision system for autonomous localization and scene mapping, and a nonlinear control system for ?ight control and guidance. This paper focusses on the development of a real-time 3D vision algorithm

  2. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-Y?O?OMH/NEK?/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated on an UAV.

  3. Telesurgery via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a field deployable surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; King, Hawkeye; Friedman, Diana C W; Donlin, Gina; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Harnett, Brett; Huffman, Lynn; Doarn, Charles; Broderick, Timothy; Hannaford, Blake

    2007-01-01

    Robotically assisted surgery stands to further revolutionize the medical field and provide patients with more effective healthcare. Most robotically assisted surgeries are teleoperated from the surgeon console to the patient where both ends of the system are located in the operating room. The challenge of surgical teleoperation across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New development has shifted towards deploying a surgical robot system in mobile settings and/or extreme environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly. As a collaborator in the HAPs/MRT (High Altitude Platform/Mobile Robotic Telesurgery) project, The University of Washington surgical robot was deployed in the desert of Simi Valley, CA for telesurgery experiments on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were performed telerobotically with a maximum time delay between the surgeon's console (master) and the surgical robot (slave) of 20 ms for the robotic control signals and 200 ms for the video stream. This was our first experiment in the area of Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (MRT). The creation and initial testing of a deployable surgical robot system will facilitate growth in this area eventually leading to future systems saving human lives in disaster areas, on the battlefield or in other remote environments. PMID:17377292

  4. AKSED: adaptive knowledge-based system for event detection using collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Sean; Lee, Byung Suk; Sadjadi, Firooz

    2006-05-01

    Advances in sensor technology and image processing have made it possible to equip unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with economical, high-resolution, energy-efficient sensors. Despite the improvements, current UAVs lack autonomous and collaborative operation capabilities, due to limited bandwidth and limited on-board image processing abilities. The situation, however, is changing. In the next generation of UAVs, much image processing can be carried out onboard and communication bandwidth problem will improve. More importantly, with more processing power, collaborative operations among a team of autonomous UAVs can provide more intelligent event detection capabilities. In this paper, we present ideas for developing a system enabling target recognitions by collaborative operations of autonomous UAVs. UAVs are configured in three stages: manufacturing, mission planning, and deployment. Different sets of information are needed at different stages, and the resulting outcome is an optimized event detection code deployed onto a UAV. The envisioned system architecture and the contemplated methodology, together with problems to be addressed, are presented.

  5. GPR investigation of karst guided by comparison with outcrop and unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Antonio L.; Medeiros, Walter E.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Oliveira, Josibel G.; Cazarin, Caroline L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing importance of carbonate rocks as aquifers, oil reservoirs, and for urban problems is demanding detailed characterization of karst systems, a demand that can be partially satisfied with GPR imaging. However, the goal of imaging and interpreting karstified carbonate rocks is notoriously difficult due to the complex nature of the geometry of the dissolution and the GPR intrinsic limitations. One way forward is the direct comparison of GPR images with similar outcropping rocks. A joint study involving a 200 MHz GPR survey, unmanned aerial vehicle imagery (UAV), and outcrop characterization is presented aiming to improve the interpretation of sedimentary structures, fractures and karst structures in GPR images. The study area is a 500 m wide and 1000 m long carbonate outcrop of the Jandaíra Formation in Potiguar basin, Brazil, where sedimentary, fracture, and karst features can be directly investigated in both vertical and horizontal plan views. The key elements to interpret GPR images of karstified carbonate rocks are: (1) primary sedimentary structures appear in radargrams as unaltered imaged strata but care must be taken to interpret complex primary sedimentary features, such as those associated with bioturbation; (2) subvertical fractures might appear as consistent discontinuities in the imaged strata, forming complex structures such as negative flowers along strike-slip faults; (3) dissolution may create voids along subhorizontal layers, which appear in radargrams as relatively long amplitude shadow zones; and (4) dissolution may also create voids along subvertical fractures, appearing in radargrams as amplitude shadow zones with relatively large vertical dimensions, which are bounded by fractures.

  6. Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

    2014-12-01

    Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

  7. Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and Ozone concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; Illingworth, S. M.; Percival, C.; Hayes, H.; Hollingsworth, P.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ ozone (O3) concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at Hough End and Heaton Park, Manchester, UK on 28th June 2012. The Skywalker was equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurements taken by the Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN), and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured O3 was a reliable indicator of background O3 concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

  8. Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and trace gas concentration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl; Gallagher, Martin; Ricketts, Hugo; Hollingsworth, Peter; Hayes, Harry; Roberts, Gareth; Ladosz, Pawel; Crawley, David

    2014-05-01

    This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ trace gas concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at in Manchester, UK, with the Skywalker equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz, and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurement, and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured concentrations were a reliable indicator of background concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

  9. Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Gloria L.; Draper, Mark H.; Abernathy, Michael F.; Patzek, Michael; Delgado, Francisco

    2005-05-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g., terrain, cultural features, pre-mission plan, etc.), as well as numerous information updates via networked communication with other sources (e.g., weather, intel). This information is overlaid conformal, in real time, onto the dynamic camera video image display presented to operators. Synthetic vision overlay technology is expected to improve operator situation awareness by highlighting key spatial information elements of interest directly onto the video image, such as threat locations, expected locations of targets, landmarks, emergency airfields, etc. Also, it may help maintain an operator"s situation awareness during periods of video datalink degradation/dropout and when operating in conditions of poor visibility. Additionally, this technology may serve as an intuitive means of distributed communications between geographically separated users. This paper discusses the tailoring of synthetic overlay technology for several UAV applications. Pertinent human factors issues are detailed, as well as the usability, simulation, and flight test evaluations required to determine how best to combine synthetic visual data with live camera video presented on a ground control station display and validate that a synthetic vision system is beneficial for UAV applications.

  10. An ultracompact laser terrain mapper for deployment onboard unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.; Hill, Brian R.

    2009-05-01

    Airborne laser terrain mapping systems have redefined the realm of topographic mapping. Lidars with kilohertz collection rates and long ranges have made airborne surveying a quick, efficient and highly productive endeavor. Despite the current industry efforts toward improving airborne lidar range, collection rate, resolution and accuracies, and with the advent of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their myriad advantages, military and civil applications alike are looking for very compact and rugged lidar systems that can fit within the tight volumetric, form-factor, mass and power constraints imposed by UAVs. Optech has developed a very compact airborne laser terrain mapper that's geared toward UAV deployment. The system is composed of a highly integrated unit that combines a lidar transceiver, a position orientation sensor and control electronics in a 1 cubic foot - 57 lb package. Such level of compactness is achieved by employing the latest laser technology trends along with featuring very compact optical design, and using the latest control and data collection architecture technology. This paper describes the UAV requirements that drove the system design, the technology employed and optimizations implemented in the system to achieve its ultra-compact size.

  11. Simultaneous observations of aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G. C.; Ramana, M. V.; Corrigan, C.; Kim, D.; Ramanathan, V.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as ?60 W m?2 per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol–cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol–cloud–albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  12. Vibration control of a camera mount system for an unmanned aerial vehicle using piezostack actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-08-01

    This work proposes an active mount for the camera systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in order to control unwanted vibrations. An active actuator of the proposed mount is devised as an inertial type, in which a piezostack actuator is directly connected to the inertial mass. After evaluating the actuating force of the actuator, it is combined with the rubber element of the mount, whose natural frequency is determined based on the measured vibration characteristics of UAV. Based on the governing equations of motion of the active camera mount, a robust sliding mode controller (SMC) is then formulated with consideration of parameter uncertainties and hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Subsequently, vibration control performances of the proposed active mount are experimentally evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In addition, a full camera mount system of UAVs that is supported by four active mounts is considered and its vibration control performance is evaluated in the frequency domain using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method.

  13. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  14. A simulation model for predicting unscheduled maintenance actions for an unmanned aerial vehicle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Amy J.

    1998-12-01

    This dissertation develops a simulation model for predicting unscheduled maintenance actions (UMAs) for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system by subsystem and subassembly category. The research utilizes five years of historical maintenance data from the Hunter UAV System. This maintenance data is a element of the Hunter System's Failure Reporting, Analysis, and Corrective Action System. The results of this research indicate that UMAs for the UAV System can be predicted with the developed simulation model. Performance parameters for the UAV system can be estimated from the model to include the mean time between UMAs, the number and proportion of UMAs that occur on each UAV subsystem and subassembly, and the maximum time between UMAs for each subsystem. In addition, the simulation permits the evaluation of three UAV scenarios of use which differ based on the number of each subsystem included in the system. The utility of the UAV UMA simulation is illustrated through sixteen independent runs of the simulation and through a demonstration of an UAV scenario analysis. The simulation model was developed using QBASIC.

  15. Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

    2008-05-27

    Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

  16. Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

    2014-01-01

    The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

  17. Absolute High-Precision Localisation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle by Using Real-Time Aerial Video Imagery for Geo-referenced Orthophoto Registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Lars; Ax, Markus; Langer, Matthias; Nguyen van, Duong; Kuhnert, Klaus-Dieter

    This paper describes an absolute localisation method for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) if GPS is unavailable for the vehicle. The basic idea is to combine an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to the ground vehicle and use it as an external sensor platform to achieve an absolute localisation of the robotic team. Beside the discussion of the rather naive method directly using the GPS position of the aerial robot to deduce the ground robot's position the main focus of this paper lies on the indirect usage of the telemetry data of the aerial robot combined with live video images of an onboard camera to realise a registration of local video images with apriori registered orthophotos. This yields to a precise driftless absolute localisation of the unmanned ground vehicle. Experiments with our robotic team (AMOR and PSYCHE) successfully verify this approach.

  18. Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

  19. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program

  20. High-Resolution Monitoring of Coastal Dune Erosion and Growth Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruessink, G.; Markies, H.; Van Maarseveen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal foredunes lose and gain sand through marine and aeolian processes, but coastal-evolution models that can accurately predict both wave-driven dune erosion and wind-blown dune growth are non-existing. This is, together with a limited understanding of coastal aeolian process dynamics, due to the lack of adequate field data sets from which erosion and supply volumes can be studied simultaneously. Here, we quantify coastal foredune dynamics using nine topographic surveys performed near Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands, between September 2011 and March 2014 using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The approximately 0.75-km long study site comprises a 30-100 m wide sandy beach and a 20-25 m high foredune, of which the higher parts are densely vegetated with European marram grass. Using a structure-from-motion workflow, the 200-500 photographs taken during each UAV flight were processed into a point cloud, from which a geo-referenced digital surface model with a 0.25 x 0.25 m resolution was subsequently computed. Our data set contains two dune-erosion events, including that due to storm Xaver (December 2013), which caused one of the highest surge levels in the southern North Sea region for the last decades. Dune erosion during both events varied alongshore from the destruction of embryonic dunes on the upper beach to the slumping of the entire dune face. During the first storm (January 2012), erosion volumes ranged from 5 m3/m in the (former) embryonic dune field to over 40 m3/m elsewhere. During the subsequent 11 (spring - autumn) months, the foredune accreted by (on average) 8 m3/m, again with substantial alongshore variability (0 - 20 m3/m). Intriguingly, volume changes during the 2012-2013 winter were minimal. We will compare the observed aeolian supply rates with model predictions and discuss reasons for their temporal variability. Funded by the Dutch Organisation for Scientific Research NWO.

  1. Using small unmanned aerial vehicle for instream habitat evaluation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Luca; Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Lingua, Andrea; Spairani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in digital image collection and processing have led to the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for river research and management. In this paper, we assess the capabilities of a small UAV to characterize physical habitat for fish in three river stretches of North-Western Italy. The main aim of the study was identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for environmental river management, in the context of the increasing river exploitation for hydropower production. The UAV used to acquire overlapping images was a small quadcopter with a two different high-resolution (non-metric) cameras (Nikon J1™ and Go-Pro Hero 3 Black Edition™). The quadcopter was preprogrammed to fly set waypoints using a small tablet PC. With the acquired imagery, we constructed a 5-cm resolution orthomosaic image and a digital surface model (DSM). The two products were used to map the distribution of aquatic and riparian habitat features, i.e., wetted area, morphological unit distributions, bathymetry, water surface gradient, substrates and grain sizes, shelters and cover for fish. The study assessed the quality of collected data and used such information to identify key reach-scale metrics and important aspects of fluvial morphology and aquatic habitat. The potential and limitations of using UAV for physical habitat survey were evaluated and the collected data were used to initialize and run common habitat simulation tools (MesoHABSIM). Several advantages of using UAV-based imagery were found, including low cost procedures, high resolution and efficiency in data collection. However, some challenges were identified for bathymetry extraction (vegetation obstructions, white waters, turbidity) and grain size assessment (preprocessing of data and automatic object detection). The application domain and possible limitation for instream habitat mapping were defined and will be used as a reference for future studies. Ongoing activities include the possibility of using topographic data and discharge measurements to extract average values of flow velocity in cross sections.

  2. Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhania, Hong Yang

    Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key challenge of exploiting wind energy in practical UAV operations lies in the availability of reliable and timely wind field information in the operational region. This thesis presents a practical onboard strategy that attempts to over-come this challenge, to enable UAVs in utilizing wind energy effectively during flights, and therefore to enhance performance. We propose and explore a strategy that combines wind measurement and optimal trajectory planning onboard UAVs. During a cycle of a loiter flight, a UAV can take measurements of wind velocity components over the flight region, use these measurements to estimate the local wind field through a model-based approach, and then compute a flight trajectory for the next flight cycle with the objective of optimizing fuel. As the UAV follows the planned trajectory, it continues to measure the wind components and repeats the process of updating the wind model with new estimations and planning optimal trajectories for the next flight cycle. Besides presenting an onboard trajectory planning strategy of wind energy exploration, estimation, and utilization, this research also develops a semi-analytical linearized solution to the formulated nonlinear optimal control problem. Simulations and numerical results indicate that the fuel savings of trajectories generated using the proposed scheme depend on wind speed, wind estimation errors, rates of change in wind speed, and the wind model structures. For a given wind field, the magnitude of potential fuel savings is also contingent upon UAVs' performance capabilities.

  3. A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Ahmad, A.; Akib, W. A. A. W. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.

    2014-02-01

    This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies.

  4. Stream Restoration Monitoring Utilizing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Teton Creek, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegman, T.

    2014-12-01

    Stream restoration is a growing field in fluvial geomorphology. As demands on water resources increase the need for sustainable and healthy waterways becomes even more essential. This research investigates how an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be utilized for data collection necessary in stream restoration design and evaluation. UAV's offer an inexpensive method to collect information on channel geometry and map grain size distributions of the bed material. This data is critical in hydraulic flow modeling and engineering plans needed to create a restoration design, as well as evaluate if an implemented project has met its goals. This research utilized a UAV and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to monitor a recent stream restoration project designed to reduce erosion on a 1.9 km reach of Teton Creek in Eastern Idaho. A digital elevation model of difference was created from an as-built field survey and a UAV derived terrain model to identify areas of erosion and deposition in the restoration reach. The data has shown relatively small areas of channel instability in the restoration reach, and has also identified sections which may require additional restoration activities in Teton Creek. The grain size distribution of Teton Creek was also mapped utilizing a UAV and digital photosieving techniques, for use in sediment transport equations in the restoration reach. Data collected quickly and inexpensively from a UAV is valuable to river managers to monitor restoration work. This research identifies the methods and materials needed for river managers to conduct UAV surveys of streams for use in restoration design and monitoring.

  5. A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2013-08-01

    In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  6. Damage prognosis of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of unmanned aerial vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gobbato, Maurizio [UCSD; Conte, Joel [UCSD; Kosmatke, John [UCSD; Oliver, Joseph A [UCSD

    2009-01-01

    The extensive use of lightweight advanced composite materials in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drastically increases the sensitivity to both fatigue- and impact-induced damage of their critical structural components (e.g., wings and tail stabilizers) during service life. The spar-to-skin adhesive joints are considered one of the most fatigue sensitive subcomponents of a lightweight UAV composite wing with damage progressively evolving from the wing root. This paper presents a comprehensive probabilistic methodology for predicting the remaining service life of adhesively-bonded joints in laminated composite structural components of UAVs. Non-destructive evaluation techniques and Bayesian inference are used to (i) assess the current state of damage of the system and, (ii) update the probability distribution of the damage extent at various locations. A probabilistic model for future loads and a mechanics-based damage model are then used to stochastically propagate damage through the joint. Combined local (e.g., exceedance of a critical damage size) and global (e.g.. flutter instability) failure criteria are finally used to compute the probability of component failure at future times. The applicability and the partial validation of the proposed methodology are then briefly discussed by analyzing the debonding propagation, along a pre-defined adhesive interface, in a simply supported laminated composite beam with solid rectangular cross section, subjected to a concentrated load applied at mid-span. A specially developed Eliler-Bernoulli beam finite element with interlaminar slip along the damageable interface is used in combination with a cohesive zone model to study the fatigue-induced degradation in the adhesive material. The preliminary numerical results presented are promising for the future validation of the methodology.

  7. Runway detection of an unmanned landing aerial vehicle based on vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqun; Peng, Jiaxiong; Li, Lingling

    2005-10-01

    When an monocular vision-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on vision is flown to the final approach fix to intercept the glide slope without the navigation of Global Positioning System (GPS), the position and orientation of the airport runway in image must be detected accurately so as to a host of suitable procedures have to be followed. The optimum length of the final approach is about five miles from the runway threshold. The front view of the runway, which is achieved at the moment, is very illegible. The approaching marking (cross bar) of the runway are showed as some white spots of high intensity and the complicated backgrounds of the airport are included in the images. In this case, spots with high intensity should be extracted and classified, some of these spots are just the images of the background noises and the pseudo-targets, which can't be separated with the spots of the runway as in the view there is no significant characteristic difference among them ostensibly. Fortunately, in the terrestrial coordinate space, most of the runway marks are located at the apexes of a rectangle, having some geometric relationships. The relationship among the projection coordinates of the runway spots in the images can be determined according to the perspective principle, the constraint condition of the rectangle as well as the front shot constraint condition of the target, by using this relationship, the runway approaching marks can be separated, the position and the direction of the runway in the images can be identified. In this paper, the clustering management is adopted so as to greatly reduce the computing time. The consequence of the experiments shows that by this algorithm, even from a place far away from the runway whose marks are unclear, we also can effectively detect the runway.

  8. 3D Map Information to Support Camera Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltman, J. A.; Oving, A. B.

    2002-09-01

    The control of cameras of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the content of the monitor, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) weak situation awareness due to the remote position of the operator and the small field of view of the camera images. Therefore, it is important to assist the operator with adequate tools. A 3D (three dimensional) digital map with information about the predicted viewing direction of the camera was constructed and evaluated in a simulator experiment. Participants had to inspect roads and forest areas with and without a 3D map. A 2D (two dimensional) map with the same information as the 3D map was available in all conditions. With the 3D map the participants were able to inspect larger areas, especially when the task became more difficult due to time delays and low update rates. Furthermore they were better able to perform an additional task when they were supported by the 3D map. The participants also reported lower workload in the condition with the 3D map. These subjective workload results were not supported by objective workload measures (physiological measures). Analysis of eye movements showed that the 3D map was used very frequently, especially in conditions with time delays and low update rates. Because a 3D map is very intuitive it can be used for alternative steering control methods (apart from stick control) such as pointer devices (mouse control or touch screen control).

  9. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from several field experiments and using multiple optical instruments will be showed at the meeting, discussing the new possibilities rotary wing UAVs can offer for surf zone research.

  10. Using unmanned aerial vehicle-borne magnetic sensors to detect and locate improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trammell, Hoke S., III; Perry, Alexander R.; Kumar, Sankaran; Czipott, Peter V.; Whitecotton, Brian R.; McManus, Tobin J.; Walsh, David O.

    2005-05-01

    Magnetic sensors configured as a tensor magnetic gradiometer not only detect magnetic targets, but also determine their location and their magnetic moment. Magnetic moment information can be used to characterize and classify objects. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and thus many types of improvised explosive device (IED) contain steel, and thus can be detected magnetically. Suitable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, both gliders and powered craft, can enable coverage of a search area much more rapidly than surveys using, for instance, total-field magnetometers. We present data from gradiometer passes over different shells using a gradiometer mounted on a moving cart. We also provide detection range and speed estimates for aerial detection by a UAV.

  11. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  12. Aerial vehicle navigation over unknown terrain environments using inertial measurements and dual airborne laser scanners or flash ladar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadlamani, Ananth K.; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2007-04-01

    A precise navigation system for uninhabited or inhabited aerial vehicles is discussed in this paper. The navigational capability of an aerial vehicle must be robust and not easily influenced by external factors. Nowadays, many navigation systems rely somehow on the Global Positioning System (GPS), wherein the GPS signals may be rendered unusable due to unintentional interference caused by atmospheric effects, interference from communication equipment, as well as intentional jamming. The navigation method discussed in this paper integrates measurements from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) with measurements from either two airborne laser scanners (ALS) or an airborne Flash LADAR (AFL) to provide autonomous navigational capability and a reliable alternative to GPS. The proposed system has applications in unknown or partially known terrain environments or it may also be used for autonomous landing systems in Lunar or Martian environments. Two approaches are described in this paper, one approach uses Dual Airborne Laser Scanners (DALS) (one pointing forward, the other pointing aft) and the other approach uses an AFL. Advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed. The proposed navigation system uses strapdown IMU measurements to estimate the aerial vehicle position and attitude and to geo-reference the laser sensor data. It then uses the maps created from both the fore and aftpointing scanning LADARS or the consecutive Flash LADAR range-images to estimate systematic IMU errors such as position and velocity drifts. The proposed navigation algorithm is evaluated using flight test data from Ohio University's DC3 aircraft and synthesized ALS and AFL measurements. Initial results are observed to achieve meter level accuracies in the system's position drift performance.

  13. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in monitoring applications and management of natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, Marco; Aicardi, Irene; Lingua, Andrea; Noardo, Francesca; Chiabrando, Filiberto

    2015-04-01

    In the last years following the damages derived by the climate change (such as flooding and so on) it is growing the necessity to monitor the watercourses with effective and quickly method, where low cost solutions are particularly interested. In some cases, it is essential to have information about the riverbed, the river banks and to analyze the springs and the way in which the water moves. For the terrestrial point of view this knowledge can be acquired through GNSS and topographic methods, but they are still too manually so that they are time-consuming with respect the acquisition of information about the entire area. Another possibility is to perform a laser scanner survey, but the most common instruments (economically sustainable) have some problems to acquire information of sub-water-layer. Moreover, terrestrial surveys from cameras (such as visible, thermic or hyperspectral sensors) can't always offer a useful view of the case study due to the fact that they have a limited range of possible points of acquisition. For these reasons, it can be more effective to have an aerial point of view of the river, for example using UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), which have been experimented in these last years for environmental investigations. The proposed studies include photogrammetric and thermographic applications in order to investigate a new post-flooding riverbed arrangement and to identify some sub-riverbed springs inside a stream in order to monitor the behavior of two studied watercourses. The tests have been carried out with a customized low-cost mini-UAV based on the Mikrokopter Hexakopter solution embedded with a navigation system for the autonomous flight (GNSS/IMU) and with the possibility to house different kind of sensors, such as a camera, a GNSS receiver, a LiDAR sensor, a thermographic camera and more other sensors, but with the limitation of a 1.2 Kg payload. The most significant innovation is the possibility to perform quickly and economical acquisitions and to acquire the data in an autonomous way. The acquisition and the storage of the data can be fully automatic and can be performed through a dedicated embedded pc (for example, in the case of the thermography a dedicated on-board pc is needed) or with special cables (it is the case of the camera for the photogrammetric acquisitions) that give the pulse to acquire the data. Using these systems it is possible to have a large amount of data in a short time. This permits to quickly process the photogrammetric data with a SFM (Structure From Motion) approach and extract 3D information in terms of sections, 3D models, riverbed reconstruction, orthophoto; furthermore the thermal information can be immediately read using dedicated software. All these data can be also the basis for specific detailed investigations.

  14. Application of active flow control technology in an unmanned aerial vehicle 

    E-print Network

    Gaurav,

    2009-05-15

    A low speed wind tunnel experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the leading edge pulsed blowing and the trailing edge jet blowing/ Gurney flap on the improvement of aerodynamic performance of an unmanned aerial...

  15. Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera.

    PubMed

    Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems' SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft(®)'s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

  16. Spatial distribution of water stress and evapotranspiration estimates using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauneker, P.; Lischeid, G.

    2012-04-01

    The estimation of spatial distribution of evapotranspiration poses a particular challenge in quantitative hydrology. Conventional methods provide punctual measurements of evapotranspiration rates which may be transformed into aggregated mean values by extrapolation or the application of empirical models. The influence of spatial structures (heterogeneity of the landscape) in relevant small spatial scales is captured insufficiently by these methods. Modern optical remote sensors aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provide the basis for the generation of high spatial resolution data. Spectral data in the optical, near infrared and thermal infrared domain will be used as input into a surface energy balance (SEB) model to produce evapotranspiration maps. The spectral properties of vegetation are of particular importance for the calculation, since plants are the link between soil and atmosphere and thus have major impact on evapotranspiration rates of land surfaces. First estimates of plant status and indicators of transpiration behavior will be obtained by applying and combining water stress parameters of different wavelengths. As opposed to satellite data, time-series of self-determined spatial and temporal resolution may be created by varying flight altitude and turnaround times. Thus it is possible to analyze the influence of landscape structures, as well as the chronological development of the observed parameters. Located at the interface between hydrology and remote sensing this work utilizes an innovative remote sensing platform to gain distributed spectral information. This information will be used to visualize evapotranspiration patterns in hydrological heterogeneous areas. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of transition zones of varying water supply and under the influence of selected environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture, depth of GW-table). To reach that goal it is essential to generate a robust processing chain, involving all necessary processing steps. These include camera calibration, geometric and radiometric correction of the image data, as well as automatic image stitching at different scales. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on the spectral information of the surface have to be considered and, if necessary, corrected for the application of a SEB model. Data collection is conducted at several ZALF research sites in NE-Germany.

  17. Sensor Fusion Based Fault-Tolerant Attitude Estimation Solutions for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Jason Nicholas

    Navigation-grade inertial sensors are often too expensive and too heavy for use in most Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) systems. Low-cost Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors provide an attractive alternative, but currently do not provide an adequate navigation solution alone due to the presence of sensor bias. Toward addressing this problem, this research focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of sensor fusion algorithms to combine partially redundant information from low-cost sensor to achieve accurate SUAV attitude estimation. To conduct this research, several sets of SUAVs flight data that include measurements from a low-cost MEMS based Inertial Measurement Unit, a Global Positioning System receiver, and a set of low-grade tri-axial magnetometers are used to evaluate a variety of algorithms. In order to provide a baseline for performance evaluation, attitude measurements obtained directly with a high-quality mechanical vertical gyroscope are used as an independent attitude 'truth'. In addition, as a part of this project, a custom SUAV avionics system was developed to provide a platform for fault-tolerant flight control research. The overall goal of this research is to provide high-accuracy attitude estimation during nominal sensor performance conditions and in the event of sensors failures, while using only low-cost components. To achieve this goal, this study is carried out in three phases. The specific aim of the first phase is to obtain high-accuracy under nominal sensor conditions. During this phase, two different nonlinear Kalman filtering methods are applied to various sensor fusion formulations and evaluated with respect to estimation accuracy over diverse sets of flight data. Next, during the second phase, sensor fusion based calibration techniques are explored to further enhance estimation accuracy. Finally, the third phase of the study considers the design of a sensor fusion attitude estimation architecture that rejects sensor failures and supports a graceful loss of performance in the event of sensor failures. This algorithm is based on a nonlinear information filter and features a novel Failure Detection, Identification, and Accommodation (FDIA) approach. During this phase, it is shown that the sensor fusion algorithm handles both abruptly occurring large magnitude sensor failures, as well as gradually growing small magnitude sensor failures.

  18. Vision-based state estimation for uninhabited aerial vehicles using the coplanarity constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas Philip

    2007-12-01

    We developed and evaluated a vision-based state estimation algorithm for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the implicit extended Kalman filter (IEKF) and the coplanarity constraint (also known as the epipolar or essential constraint). The coplanarity constraint, a well-known property in the structure from motion (SFM) field, has advantages for this application in that the feature point locations in three dimensional space do not have to be known and tracked and that feature points can be discarded and acquired as necessary. This reduces the computational load which is important for real time applications such as aircraft control. Advantages of the IEKF are that, in principle, the current estimate uses all previous information, not just the current observations, and that the estimate will propagate forward in an orderly fashion in the case of interrupted or reduced measurements. The dynamics of the aircraft are included in the process model which improves the observability of the states and resolves the SFM scale factor ambiguity. The algorithm was implemented in a numerical simulation and exhibited divergence problems in the presence of measurement noise. These effects were particularly evident in the velocity estimates. The problems were eliminated by zeroing out the small velocity dependent terms in the measurement matrix. The algorithm was exercised in a Monte Carlo fashion and found to be robust to errors in the process model and to measurement noise. Sensitivities to filter and focal plane implementation parameters including camera depression angle, field of view, measurement interval, and feature point location and number were also assessed. The modified estimator was then employed in a closed loop UAV simulation to provide feedback to a simple autopilot. The simulation demonstrated that the state estimates provided were sufficiently accurate to allow control of the UAV through successful waypoint navigation. This simulation used feature points generated at random locations in the field of view. A second closed loop simulation was successfully run using synthetic imagery from the University of Florida's vision laboratory and a Lucas-Kanade feature point tracking algorithm.

  19. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be feasible and can collect imagery for very large areas in a short period of time. It was accurate for bare ground and grasses. Both UAV systems have limitations, but these will be reduced as the technology advances. In both cases, the UAV systems collected data at a much faster rate than possible on the ground. The study concluded that improvements in automating the image processing efforts would greatly improve use of the technology. In the near future, UAV technology may revolutionize rangeland monitoring in the same way Global Positioning Systems have affected navigation while conducting field activities.

  20. A runway tracking model using Zernike moments and particle filters for a landing unmanned aerial vehicle based on vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, XinFeng; Wang, HongQun

    2007-11-01

    An advanced runway tracking model for landing of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based on vision is proposed. This model builds on existing work, but extends it to achieve efficiency, robustness, and address some critical situations such as instant sun glare, instant heave fog, cloud hold back, and instant extinction of approaching marking, and so on. These situations always have bad effects to our visual landing system of UAV. So, two different schemes containing several approaches constitute the core of our visual system to address these situations. We use Zernike moments as a region-based shape descriptor of runway and save the changing pattern through landing process of pretest. At the real flight time, we use particle filter to track the change of the Zernike moments that calculated on each potential region of runway at each frame. When this change is too big, exceed the threshold, we use the pretest data to reconstruct the shape of the runway. The performance of the presented schemes has been assessed throuth processing several video sequences that captured by the real landing plane. The experiment shows, this tracking model is more efficient and robust and can be used on a vision sensor for landing equipment of UAV or for an aerial vehicle's aided system.

  1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-08-01

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

  2. Efficient C-Space and Cost Function Updates in 3D for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Sebastian

    than ground vehicles. Any object close to the intended path of an air vehicle must be avoided as opposed to ground vehicles where the ground is always close and deviations from the nominal ground plane with a computer, a GPS, an inertial measurement unit, and a ladar scanner to sense the environment. The size

  3. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Aerial lifts include the following types of vehicle-mounted

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    , if they can be installed safely. Aerial Lifts Safety Tip #11 A spill, a slip, a hospital trip #12;Additional Information for Presenters Review the information provided on the reverse side of this safety tip sheet. Please refrain from reading the information verbatim--paraphrase it instead. The University of Minnesota

  4. StarVis: A Configural Decision Support Tool for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    StarVis: A Configural Decision Support Tool for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial 2 #12; StarVis: A Configural Decision Support Tool for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned management decision support tools (DSTs) for singleoperator supervisory control of four UAVs

  5. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

    1994-03-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use; (3) increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 14 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. The topics of this report include participants' experience with EV operation; an appraisal of the overall current status of EV's for transportation; program management; and a program experience overview, the result of analyzing Site Operator inputs, provides an insight into the variables that can affect electric vehicle performance and operating cost.

  6. Developing a Control Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Search and Localize RF Time-Varying Mobile Targets: Part I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Pack; George W. P. York

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a control architecture that allows multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively detect mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. The architecture is developed under the premise that UAVs are controlled as a distributed system. The distributed system-based technique maximizes the search and detection capabilities of multiple UAVs. We use a hybrid approach that combines

  7. Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles Koray C elik Student Member, IEEE, Soon-Jo Chung Member, IEEE, Matthew Clausman Student Member, IEEE,

    E-print Network

    Chung, Soon-Jo

    such as the Scheimpflug principle, structure from motion, optical flow, and stereo vision. None of these have a potential1 Monocular Vision SLAM for Indoor Aerial Vehicles Koray C¸ elik Student Member, IEEE, Soon GPS-denied environments. An MAV with vision based on-line simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM

  8. From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework

    E-print Network

    Doherty, Patrick

    . Those contingencies can be inserted via ground operator/UAV interaction to dynamically change UAV flight,giaco,pioru,g-torme,simdu,patdo}@ida.liu.se ABSTRACT The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which can operate autonomously in dynamic and complex such plans during their execution in order to deal with contingencies which arise during the course

  9. Fusion of aerial images and sensor data from a ground vehicle for improved semantic mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Persson; Tom Duckett; Achim J. Lilienthal

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of semantic infor- mation to link ground-level occupancy maps and aerial images. A ground-level semantic map is obtained by a mobile robot equipped with an omnidirectional camera, differential GPS and a laser range finder. The mobile robot uses a virtual sensor for building detection (based on omnidirectional images) to compute the ground-level semantic map, which

  10. Object-based spatiotemporal analysis of vine canopy vigor using an inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery provides a rapid assessment of spatial variability in grapevine canopy vigor that correlates with crop performance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a low-cost image acquisition platform with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Using a UAV and digital cameras, aerial images of a Texas vineyard were captured at postflowering, veraison, and harvest. Imagery was processed to generate orthophotos in units of reflectance, which were then segmented to extract per-vine estimates of canopy area (planimetric extent) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-based canopy density. Derived canopy area and density values were compared to the harvest variables of number of clusters, cluster size, and yield to explore correlations. Planimetrically derived canopy area yielded significant, positive relationships, whereas NDVI-based canopy density exhibited no significant relationships due to sensor-related radiometric inaccuracy. A vine performance index was calculated to map spatial variation in canopy vigor for the entire growing season. Future management zones were delineated using spatial grouping analysis.

  11. Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  12. Development and Integration of a Solar Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Greenhouse Gases

    PubMed Central

    Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

  13. Vehicle misalignment prediction and vehicle/experiment pointing compatibility assessment. [as used in Skylab Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoverkamp, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A technique for predicting vehicle misalignment, the relationship of vehicle misalignment to the total vehicle/experiment integration effort, and the methodology used in performing a vehicle/experiment pointing compatibility assessment, are presented. The technique is demonstrated in detail by describing how it was used on the Skylab Program.

  14. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Tang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  15. Modeling and Inverse Controller Design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on the Self-Organizing Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a SOM-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV.

  16. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

  17. Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

  18. Piezo-stack vortex generators for boundary layer control of a delta wing micro-aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mystkowski, Arkadiusz

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an idea for the control of flow separation over solid surfaces by piezo-stack vortex generators. The vortex generators are small vibrating plates attached to the delta wing surface. A model of the micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) controlled by vortex piezo-generators is presented. The vortex generators are applied to produce the appropriate aerodynamical forces and moments controlling the flight of the aircraft. The efficiency of the vortex generators is proved by the wind tunnel test results. The oscillatory added lift and drag coefficients versus angle of attack are presented. The optimal vortex generator amplitude and frequency are investigated. Boundary layer control (BLC) for delta wing micro-aircraft increases the manoeuvrability and performance of the MAV.

  19. An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

  20. Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

  1. Visual control of an unmanned aerial vehicle for power line inspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian Golightly; Dewi Jones

    2005-01-01

    Using a robotic vehicle to inspect overhead power lines has many attractions. The concept of a small, rotorcraft which draws its power from the lines is introduced here. Some of its advantages compared with a free-flying aircraft are discussed. Achieving the required degree of autonomy and reliable power pick-up needs good control of the position and attitude of the vehicle

  2. Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Singh

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating

  3. Impact of aerial infrared roof moisture scans on the U.S. Army's ROOFER program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Al Knehans; Jim Ledford

    1993-01-01

    The ROOFER program is being used by the U.S. Army to inspect and evaluate its built-up and single-ply membrane roofs. The results of the inspection effort are used to develop an overall roof condition index. The condition of the roof insulation can greatly alter the final condition index. By using an aerial infrared (IR) roof moisture scan, all the insulated

  4. BACKGROUND IMAGE: PHOTODISC nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to

    E-print Network

    Pappas, George J.

    of targets on the ground. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) can be deployed to accurately standard solutions to low-level control of UAVs and UGVs and inexpensive off- the-shelf sensors for target

  5. System design of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for marine environmental sensing

    E-print Network

    Leighton, Joshua (Joshua C.)

    2013-01-01

    Technological improvements over the past decade have led to the widespread use of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles for data collection in marine environmental sensing and modeling in coastal environments. However, ...

  6. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  7. Aerial robotic data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

  8. Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Rabinovich, William S.; Meehan, Timothy J.; Vilcheck, Michael J.; Mahon, Rita; Burris, Ray; Ferraro, Mina; Sokolsky, Ilene; Vasquez, John A.; Bovais, Chris S.; Cochrell, Kerry; Goins, Kim C.; Barbehenn, Robin; Katzer, D. Scott; Ikossi-Anastasiou, Kiki; Montes, Marcos J.

    2001-07-01

    We describe progress in the development of a multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector, including a description of recent demonstrations of an infrared data link between a small rotary-wing unmanned airborne vehicle and a ground-based laser interrogator using the device designed and fabricated at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Modulating retroreflector systems couple an optical retroreflector, such as a corner cube, and an electro-optic shutter to allow two-way optical communications using a laser, telescope, and pointer-tracker on only one platform. The NRL modulating retroreflector uses a semiconductor-based multiple quantum well shutter capable of modulation rates greater than 10 Mbps, depending on link characteristics. The technology enables the use of near-infrared frequencies, which is well known to provide covert communications immune to frequency allocation problems. This specific device has the added advantage of being compact, lightweight, covert, and requires very low paper. Up to an order of magnitude in onboard power can be saved using a small array of these devices instead of the radio frequency equivalent. In the described demonstration, a Mbps optical link to an unmanned aerial vehicle in flight at a range of 100 to 200 feet is shown. Near real-time compressed video was also demonstrated at the Mbps level and is described.

  9. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiser, D. M.; Brown, H. L.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 13 program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  10. Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

  11. Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altug, Erdinc

    Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

  12. Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

    2011-09-01

    Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4-200 Microdrones is an UAV which can be programmed to follow a route defined by several way-points and actions. The ground-based device was a Pacific Vision, Inc. multispectral radiometer. Four images with both systems were taken during the crop season and an index related with nitrogen crop status was calculated from them and compared in a sunflower field that had four irrigation treatments and eight nitrogen application rates, resulting in 32 plots of 7 m by 3.4 m, with a plant density of 7.1 plants m-2. Calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both measurement systems was a good indicator of nitrogen applied, but the UAV-based system provided a better estimate than ground-based system because in the first system was possible to eliminate the soil and shadows for calculating the index..

  13. Terminal configured vehicle program: Test facilities guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program was established to conduct research and to develop and evaluate aircraft and flight management system technology concepts that will benefit conventional take off and landing operations in the terminal area. Emphasis is placed on the development of operating methods for the highly automated environment anticipated in the future. The program involves analyses, simulation, and flight experiments. Flight experiments are conducted using a modified Boeing 737 airplane equipped with highly flexible display and control equipment and an aft flight deck for research purposes. The experimental systems of the Boeing 737 are described including the flight control computer systems, the navigation/guidance system, the control and command panel, and the electronic display system. The ground based facilities used in the program are described including the visual motion simulator, the fixed base simulator, the verification and validation laboratory, and the radio frequency anechoic facility.

  14. Visually Guided Micro-aerial Vehicle: Automatic Take Off, Terrain Following, Landing and Wind Reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franck Ruffier; Nicolas H. Franceschini

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a visually based autopilot which is able to make a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) automatically take off, cruise and land, while reacting adequately to wind disturbances. We built a proof-of-concept, tethered rotorcraft that can travel indoors over an environment composed of contrasting features randomly arranged on the floor. Here we show the feasibility of a visuomotor control

  15. The Impact of Intelligent Aiding for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Schedule Management

    E-print Network

    Cummings, M. L.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in designing systems such that the current many-to-one ratio of operators to unmanned vehicles (UVs) can be inverted. Instead of lower-level tasks performed by today’s UV teams, the sole operator ...

  16. Vehicle systems and payload requirements evaluation. [computer programs for identifying launch vehicle system requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, F. G.; Pittenger, J. L.; Conlon, R. J.; Allen, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques developed for identifying launch vehicle system requirements for NASA automated space missions are discussed. Emphasis is placed on development of computer programs and investigation of astrionics for OSS missions and Scout. The Earth Orbit Mission Program - 1 which performs linear error analysis of launch vehicle dispersions for both vehicle and navigation system factors is described along with the Interactive Graphic Orbit Selection program which allows the user to select orbits which satisfy mission requirements and to evaluate the necessary injection accuracy.

  17. Statistical techniques applied to aerial radiometric surveys (STAARS): principal components analysis user's manual. [NURE program

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, C.D.; Pirkle, F.L.; Schmidt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) has been written to aid in the interpretation of multivariate aerial radiometric data collected by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The variations exhibited by these data have been reduced and classified into a number of linear combinations by using the PCA program. The PCA program then generates histograms and outlier maps of the individual variates. Black and white plots can be made on a Calcomp plotter by the application of follow-up programs. All programs referred to in this guide were written for a DEC-10. From this analysis a geologist may begin to interpret the data structure. Insight into geological processes underlying the data may be obtained.

  18. Using virtual instruments to develop an actuator-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation test-bed for autopilot of unmanned aerial vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Ping Sun; Jiun-Yan Ju; Yen-Chu Liang

    2008-01-01

    Since the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bring forth many innovative applications in scientific, civilian, and military fields, the development of UAVs is rapidly growing every year. The on-board autopilot that reliably performs attitude and guidance control is a vital part for out-of-sight flights. However, the control law in autopilot is designed according to a simplified plant model in which the

  19. Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for establishing a three-dimensional model in urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, F.; Tseng, F.; Wen, J.; Chang, K.

    2010-12-01

    Applying the satellite and aerial images to establish a 3-D model is helpful for urban planning, monitoring the environment, and assessing disasters. But the image acquired from satellites and aircrafts are generally expensive and time-consuming. Using UAV to acquire the images has the advantages of gaining immediate results and being inexpensive cost-wise. Because we do not know the position of UAV while in the air, the images are only used for classification and interpretation. This study combines the UAV system and surveying instruments to acquire the position and direction of the UAV in the air, and then uses the UAV system to photograph buildings. After acquiring the images from UAV, software was used to analyze the images. The assignment included correcting photos, sharpening images, and matching mosaic images. Finally, the images were combined with the measurement data to establish a 3-D model. Comparison of the true features of the buildings with the 3-D model from this study proved to be effective. The UAV system was combined with the surface surveyed system to improve the applicability of the images from UAV. Future work is to improve the accuracy of the 3-D model.

  20. Lightweight aerial vehicles for monitoring, assessment and mapping of radiation anomalies.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, J W; Payton, O D; Keatley, A C; Scott, G P T; Pullin, H; Crane, R A; Smilion, M; Popescu, I; Curlea, V; Scott, T B

    2014-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) incident released a significant mass of radioactive material into the atmosphere. An estimated 22% of this material fell out over land following the incident. Immediately following the disaster, there was a severe lack of information not only pertaining to the identity of the radioactive material released, but also its distribution as fallout in the surrounding regions. Indeed, emergency aid groups including the UN did not have sufficient location specific radiation data to accurately assign exclusion and evacuation zones surrounding the plant in the days and weeks following the incident. A newly developed instrument to provide rapid and high spatial resolution assessment of radionuclide contamination in the environment is presented. The device consists of a low cost, lightweight, unmanned aerial platform with a microcontroller and integrated gamma spectrometer, GPS and LIDAR. We demonstrate that with this instrument it is possible to rapidly and remotely detect ground-based radiation anomalies with a high spatial resolution (<1 m). Critically, as the device is remotely operated, the user is removed from any unnecessary or unforeseen exposure to elevated levels of radiation. PMID:24949582

  1. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M.

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications. PMID:26107174

  2. Sensitivity analyses for the DTMs derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in gully erosion mapping: Nallihan badland area (Ankara, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdan, Ugur; Gorum, Tolga; Comert, Resul; Nefeslioglu, Hakan

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the spatial resolutions for the Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in gully erosion mapping. For the purpose, Nallihan badland area (Ankara, Turkey) was selected to be the experimental site. The investigations were carried out in 3 stages; (i) production of the DTMs having 3 cm and 9 cm spatial resolutions by using the orthophoto imagery acquired from the UAV at 97.5 m and 292.4 m altitudes, respectively, (ii) Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) of the experimental site and production of the DTMs derived from the TLS data resampled at 3 cm and 9 cm spatial resolutions, and (iii) spatial and profile comparisons of the derived data. The average altitude differences were obtained on the intervals (-0.1, 0.1) m and (-0.2, 0.2) m for the comparisons between TLS-3cm and UAV-3cm, and TLS-9cm and UAV-9cm data, respectively. Additionally, considering the profile comparisons, it is revealed that depending on the decreasing of spatial resolution, the erosion rates calculated from the DTMs increase artificially.

  3. The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be able to carry up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), shown here during final construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif., will be able to carry up to 700 lbs. of sensors, imaging equipment and other instruments for Earth science missions. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  4. Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China).

    PubMed

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  5. Quantifying efficacy and limits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for weed seedling detection as affected by sensor resolution.

    PubMed

    Peña, José M; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5-6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations. PMID:25756867

  6. Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.

    PubMed

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD?=?0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD?=?1.0). PMID:23785513

  7. High-Throughput 3-D Monitoring of Agricultural-Tree Plantations with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; Serrano, Nicolás; Arquero, Octavio; Peña, José M

    2015-01-01

    The geometric features of agricultural trees such as canopy area, tree height and crown volume provide useful information about plantation status and crop production. However, these variables are mostly estimated after a time-consuming and hard field work and applying equations that treat the trees as geometric solids, which produce inconsistent results. As an alternative, this work presents an innovative procedure for computing the 3-dimensional geometric features of individual trees and tree-rows by applying two consecutive phases: 1) generation of Digital Surface Models with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology and 2) use of object-based image analysis techniques. Our UAV-based procedure produced successful results both in single-tree and in tree-row plantations, reporting up to 97% accuracy on area quantification and minimal deviations compared to in-field estimations of tree heights and crown volumes. The maps generated could be used to understand the linkages between tree grown and field-related factors or to optimize crop management operations in the context of precision agriculture with relevant agro-environmental implications. PMID:26107174

  8. The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  9. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Cao, Libo; Harrington, Peter de B; Harden, Charles S; McHugh, Vincent M; Thomas, Martin A

    2004-02-15

    Linear and nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) data are compared and evaluated. IMS provides low detection limits and rapid response for many compounds. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra reduced the data to 4-5% of its original size, while eliminating artifacts in the reconstructed spectra that occur with linear compression, and the root-mean-square reconstruction error was 0.17-0.20% of the maximum intensity of the uncompressed spectra. Furthermore, nonlinear wavelet compression precisely preserves the peak location (i.e., drift time). Small variations in peak location may occur in the reconstructed spectra that were linearly compressed. A method was developed and evaluated for optimizing the compression. The compression method was evaluated with in-flight data recorded from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Plumes of dimethyl methylphosphonate were disseminated for interrogation by the UAV-mounted IMS system. The daublet 8 wavelet filter exhibited the best performance for these evaluations. PMID:14961740

  10. Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

    2014-01-01

    Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2?ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

  11. Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD?=?0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD?=?1.0). PMID:23785513

  12. Fault-Tolerant Trajectory Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Immunity-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilburn, Brenton K.

    This dissertation presents the design, development, and simulation testing of an adaptive trajectory tracking algorithm capable of compensating for various aircraft subsystem failures and upset conditions. A comprehensive adaptive control framework, here within referred to as the immune model reference adaptive control (IMRAC) algorithm, is developed by synergistically merging core concepts from the biologically- inspired artificial immune system (AIS) paradigm with more traditional optimal and adaptive control techniques. In particular, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithm is enhanced with the detection and learning capabilities of a novel, artificial neural network augmented AIS scheme. With the given modifications, the MRAC scheme is capable of detecting and identifying a given failure or upset condition, learning how to adapt to the problem, responding in a manner specific to the given failure condition, and retaining the learning parameters for quicker adaptation to subsequent failures of the same nature. The IMRAC algorithm developed in this dissertation is applicable to a wide range of control problems. However, the proposed methodology is demonstrated in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. The results presented show that the IMRAC algorithm is an effective and valuable extension to traditional optimal and adaptive control techniques. The implementation of this methodology can potentially have significant impacts on the operational safety of many complex systems.

  13. Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

    2013-04-02

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  14. Long-term monitoring of a large landslide by using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Gerald; Schraml, Klaus; Mansberger, Reinfried; Hübl, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Currently UAVs become more and more important in various scientific areas, including forestry, precision farming, archaeology and hydrology. Using these drones in natural hazards research enables a completely new level of data acquisition being flexible of site, invariant in time, cost-efficient and enabling arbitrary spatial resolution. In this study, a rotary-wing Mini-UAV carrying a DSLR camera was used to acquire time series of overlapping aerial images. These photographs were taken as input to extract Digital Surface Models (DSM) as well as orthophotos in the area of interest. The "Pechgraben" area in Upper Austria has a catchment area of approximately 2 km². Geology is mainly dominated by limestone and sandstone. Caused by heavy rainfalls in the late spring of 2013, an area of about 70 ha began to move towards the village in the valley. In addition to the urgent measures, the slow-moving landslide was monitored approximately every month over a time period of more than 18 months. A detailed documentation of the change process was the result. Moving velocities and height differences were quantified and validated using a dense network of Ground Control Points (GCP). For further analysis, 14 image flights with a total amount of 10.000 photographs were performed to create multi-temporal geodata in in sub-decimeter-resolution for two depicted areas of the landslide. Using a UAV for this application proved to be an excellent choice, as it allows short repetition times, low flying heights and high spatial resolution. Furthermore, the UAV acts almost weather independently as well as highly autonomously. High-quality results can be expected within a few hours after the photo flight. The UAV system performs very well in an alpine environment. Time series of the assessed geodata detect changes in topography and provide a long-term documentation of the measures taken in order to stop the landslide and to prevent infrastructure from damage.

  15. Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

  16. Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grymin, David J.

    This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory. Simulations in a realistic operational environment as well as flight testing with the feedback controller demonstrate the capabilities of the approach. The TSM is also applied for system identification of an aircraft using motion capture data. In this application, time domain system identification techniques are used to identify both linear and nonlinear aerodynamic models of large-amplitude pitching motions driven by control surface deflections. The resulting models are assessed based on both their predictive capabilities as well as simulation results.

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J. F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  18. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  19. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 1: Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 1 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices)focuses on periodic motor vehicle inspection by: (1) outlining the purpose and objectives of vehicle inspection, (2) establishing Federal authority for the program, and (3) citing general and…

  20. Electric Vehicle Service Personnel Training Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Gerald

    2013-06-21

    As the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid (PHEV), electric (EV) and fuel-cell (FCV) vehicles grows in the national automotive fleet, an entirely new set of diagnostic and technical skills needs to be obtained by the maintenance workforce. Electrically-powered vehicles require new diagnostic tools, technique and vocabulary when compared to existing internal combustion engine-powered models. While the manufacturers of these new vehicles train their own maintenance personnel, training for students, independent working technicians and fleet operators is less focused and organized. This DOE-funded effort provided training to these three target groups to help expand availability of skills and to provide more competition (and lower consumer cost) in the maintenance of these hybrid- and electric-powered vehicles. Our approach was to start locally in the San Francisco Bay Area, one of the densest markets in the United States for these types of automobiles. We then expanded training to the Los Angeles area and then out-of-state to identify what types of curriculum was appropriate and what types of problems were encountered as training was disseminated. The fact that this effort trained up to 800 individuals with sessions varying from 2- day workshops to full-semester courses is considered a successful outcome. Diverse programs were developed to match unique time availability and educational needs of each of the three target audiences. Several key findings and observations arising from this effort include: • Recognition that hybrid and PHEV training demand is immediate; demand for EV training is starting to emerge; while demand for FCV training is still over the horizon • Hybrid and PHEV training are an excellent starting point for all EV-related training as they introduce all the basic concepts (electric motors, battery management, controllers, vocabulary, testing techniques) that are needed for all EVs, and these skills are in-demand in today’s market. • Faculty training is widely available and can be relatively quickly achieved. Equipment availability (vehicles, specialized tools, diagnostic software and computers) is a bigger challenge for funding-constrained colleges. • A computer-based emulation system that would replicate vehicle and diagnostic software in one package is a training aid that would have widespread benefit, but does not appear to exist. This need is further described at the end of Section 6.5. The benefits of this project are unique to each of the three target audiences. Students have learned skills they will use for the remainder of their careers; independent technicians can now accept customers who they previously needed to turn away due to lack of familiarity with hybrid systems; and fleet maintenance personnel are able to lower costs by undertaking work in-house that they previously needed to outsource. The direct job impact is estimated at 0.75 FTE continuously over the 3 ½ -year duration of the grant.

  1. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Imagery to Investigate Surface Displacements and Surface Features of the Super-Sauze Earthflow (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Tizzard, S.; Niethammer, U.

    2014-12-01

    We present the result of using imagery collected with a small rotary wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) to investigate surface displacements and fissures on the Super-Sauze earthflow (France); a slow moving earthflow with the potential to develop into rapid and highly destructive mud flows. UAV imagery acquired in October 2009 was processed using a structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) approach in PhotoScan software. Identification of ~200 ground control points throughout the image set was facilitated by automated image matching in SfM_georef software[1] and the data incorporated into PhotoScan for network optimisation and georeferencing. The completed 2009 model enabled an ~5 cm spatial resolution orthoimage to be generated with an expected accuracy (based on residuals on control) of ~0.3 m. This was supported by comparison to a previously created 2008 model, which gave standard deviations on tie points (located on stationary terrain) of 0.27 m and 0.43 m in Easting and Northing respectively. The high resolution of the orthoimage allowed an investigation into surface displacements and geomorphology of surface features (compared to the 2008 model). The results have produced a comprehensive surface displacement map of the Super-Sauze earthflow, as well as highlighting interesting variations in fissure geomorphology and density between the 2008 and 2009 models. This study underscored the capability for UAV imagery and SfM-MVS to generate highly detailed orthographic imagery and DEMs with a low cost approach that offers significant potential for landslide hazard assessments. [1] http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm

  2. Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.

    PubMed

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  3. Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

  4. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. ??, ISPRS ICWG I/V UAV-g (unmanned aerial vehicle in geomatics) conference, Zurich, Switzerland. 2011

    E-print Network

    Fua, Pascal

    . 2.1 1. INTRODUCTION Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV) has a long history in the military applications. ??, ISPRS ICWG I/V UAV-g (unmanned aerial vehicle in geomatics) conference, Zurich, Switzerland. 2011 PHOTOGRAMMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF AN ULTRA LIGHT WEIGHT SWINGLET "UAV" J. Vallet a, *, F. Panissod a , C. Strecha b

  5. Rotorcraft aerial robot-challenges and solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Gordon; S. Kondor; E. Corban; D. Schrage

    1993-01-01

    The Georgia Tech Aerial Robotics Team has been working on autonomous control of an unmanned aerial vehicle for three years as both a research project and a competition entry. The three annual International Autonomous Aerial Vehicle Competitions (1991-93) have attracted university teams from across the country as well as from Europe, Canada, and Asia. At the third annual competition in

  6. A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

    2011-01-01

    A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

  7. Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1991-01-01

    K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State's Site Operator Program continues to get the word-out'' about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State's G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states's program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State's program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

  8. Controlled manipulation using autonomous aerial systems

    E-print Network

    Srikanth, Manohar B. (Manohar Balagatte)

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of the thesis is to design and control Autonomous Aerial Systems, also referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are able to hover and navigate in space using the thrust forces generated by the ...

  9. Observing high flow with the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: the case study from upper Nysa Klodzka basin (SW Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar; Slopek, Jacek; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Recent developments of the HydroProg system (research project no. 2011/01/D/ST10/04171 of the National Science Centre of Poland), which aims to issue warnings against floods, are associated with predicting inundation, and hence there is a need for verifying the prognoses of overbank flow extent. The progress in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology causes that UAVs are now easily available and - provided formal flight requirements are fulfilled - can be used for observing numerous features of the natural environment. This intrinsically concerns hydrological applications in which dynamics is a key issue. Hence, in order to observe true extent of water during flood, UAV can be used on demand. However, unanswered is the problem of the minimum size, understood in terms of flooded area, of water increment which is detectable when inferred from the orthophoto image. The present study aims to address the above-mentioned problem by applying the small-sample statistical inference methods to a sample of nine study sites observed during five UAV observational campaigns in the vicinity of the gauge in Gorzuchow, situated along the Scinawka river (SW Poland). Since November 2012 we have carried our regular flights using the swinglet CAM fixed-wing UAV, and the areas adjacent to the gauge itself have been monitored in detail. We produced a series high-resolution orthotphoto images, corresponding to low-, normal- and high-flow situations. We sketched shapes of terrain covered by water on a basis of the detailed analysis of the ortophoto images, and the judgment was supported by our geomorphological knowledge about the channel characteristics. The resulting data were subsequently presented as percentages, and later a logarithm transformation was applied. The assumptions of Student's t-test were found to be fulfilled, and thus we used the t-test and its Bootstrap version to detect significant increments of water, inside or outside the channel. We explicitly identified the high flow events which can be observed using UAV. This means that UAV is suitable for observing not only inundation but also high flows, and such an observation is statistically meaningful.

  10. Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

    2009-01-22

    The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

  11. Navy Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowen, Hillery

    1994-01-01

    The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome conditions of reduced traction, ship motion, decks heeled at high angles, obstacles, and confined spaces. Under the Navy program, ODV technology was investigated and a series of experimental vehicles were built and successfully tested under extremely demanding conditions. The ODV drive system has been found to be applicable to autonomous, remotely, or manually operated vehicles. Potential commercial applications include multi-directional forklift trucks, automatic guided vehicles employed in manufacturing environments, and remotely controlled platforms used in nuclear facilities or for hazardous waste clean up tasks.

  12. Navy Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowen, Hillery

    1994-02-01

    The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome conditions of reduced traction, ship motion, decks heeled at high angles, obstacles, and confined spaces. Under the Navy program, ODV technology was investigated and a series of experimental vehicles were built and successfully tested under extremely demanding conditions. The ODV drive system has been found to be applicable to autonomous, remotely, or manually operated vehicles. Potential commercial applications include multi-directional forklift trucks, automatic guided vehicles employed in manufacturing environments, and remotely controlled platforms used in nuclear facilities or for hazardous waste clean up tasks.

  13. Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SIngh

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs,

  14. Reusable launch vehicle: Technology development and test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) assess the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology development and test programs in the most critical component technologies. At a time when discretionary government spending is under close scrutiny, the RLV program is designed to reduce the cost of access to space through a combination of robust vehicles and a streamlined infrastructure. Routine access to space has obvious benefits for space science, national security, commercial technologies, and the further exploration of space. Because of technological challenges, knowledgeable people disagree about the feasibility of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The purpose of the RLV program proposed by NASA and industry contractors is to investigate the status of existing technology and to identify and advance key technology areas required for development and validation of an SSTO vehicle. This report does not address the feasibility of an SSTO vehicle, nor does it revisit the roles and responsibilities assigned to NASA by the National Transportation Policy. Instead, the report sets forth the NRC committee's findings and recommendations regarding the RLV technology development and test program in the critical areas of propulsion, a reusable cryogenic tank system (RCTS), primary vehicle structure, and a thermal protection system (TPS).

  15. An investigation of the accuracy of empirical aircraft design for the development of an unmanned aerial vehicle intended for liquid hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Christopher Scott

    A study was conducted to assess the accuracy of empirical techniques used for the calculation of flight performance for unmanned aerial vehicles. This was achieved by quantifying the error between a mathematical model developed with these techniques and experimental test data taken using an unmanned aircraft. The vehicle utilized for this study was developed at Washington State University for the purpose of flying using power derived from hydrogen stored as a cryogenic liquid. The vehicle has a mass of 32.8 kg loaded and performed a total of 14 flights under battery power for 3.58 total flight hours. Over these flights, the design proved it is capable of sustaining level flight from the power available from a PEM fuel cell propulsion system. The empirical techniques used by the model are explicitly outlined within. These yield several performance metrics that are compared to measurements taken during flight testing. Calculations of required thrust for steady flight over all airspeeds and rates of climb modeled are found to have a mean percent error of 3.2%+/-7.0% and a mean absolute percent error of 34.6%+/-5.1%. Comparison of the calculated and measured takeoff distance are made and the calculated thrust required to perform a level turn at a given rate is compared to flight test data. A section of a test flight is analyzed, over which the vehicle proves it can sustain level flight under 875 watts of electrical power. The aircraft's design is presented including the wing and tail, propulsion system, and build technique. The software and equipment used for the collection and analysis of flight data are given. Documentation and validation is provided of a unique test rig for the characterization of propeller performance using a car. The aircraft remains operational to assist with research of alternative energy propulsion systems and novel fuel storage techniques. The results from the comparison of the mathematical model and flight test data can be utilized to assist in the development of similar Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, express the uncertainty in calculated vehicle performance numbers, and assist in identifying error in control system design.

  16. Multiscale assessment of green leaf area in a semi-arid rangeland with a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spatial variability in green leaf cover of a western rangeland was studied by comparing field measurements on 50 m crossed transects to aerial and satellite imagery. The normalized difference vegetation index was calculated for multiple 2 cm resolution images collected over the field transects with ...

  17. Remote Sensing of Almond and Walnut Tree Canopy Temperatures Using an Inexpensive Infrared Sensor on a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Kellen Ethan

    Improving water use efficiency in agriculture will become increasingly important in the face of decreasing water resources and a growing population. Increasing water use efficiency, or water productivity, has been shown to greatly reduce irrigation water usage in many orchard crops with little to no impact on yield. In some specialty crops, improving water productivity can even lead to a higher value crop. Current irrigation practices depend largely on uniform applications of water over large fields with varying degrees of heterogeneity. As a result, much of the field receives more water than it needs. A system to monitor the needs of each plant or smaller groups of plants within the field would be helpful in distributing irrigation water according to each plant or group of plants' needs. Such a system would help conserve water resources. Stomatal conductance is a good indicator of plant water-based stress, as it is the main response a plant has to limit transpiration-related water losses. The difference between leaf temperature and air temperature, when adjusted for environmental conditions, can give a good indication of stomatal conductance. Recent efforts at UC Davis have employed a handheld sensor suite to measure leaf temperature and other environmental variables like wind speed, air temperature, and humidity in almond and walnut trees. Though effective, this method requires walking or driving through the orchard and measuring several leaves on a given tree, so it is impractical for large-scale monitoring. Satellite and aircraft can measure canopy temperatures remotely, but these applications typically do not have the spatial resolution for precise monitoring or the temporal resolution necessary for irrigation decisions, and they are too expensive and impractical for smaller-scale farms. A smaller unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) could employ the same methods as satellite and larger aircraft-based systems, but relatively inexpensively and at a scale catered to the needs of a given field for more precise monitoring. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of using an inexpensive temperature sensor (Melexis MLX90614; NV Melexis SA, Rozendaalstraat 12, 8900 Ieper, Belgium) on a small UAV (Mikrokopter OktoXL; Hisystems GmbH Flachsmeerstrasse 2, 26802 Moormerland, Germany) to sense the canopy temperatures of almond and walnut trees. To accomplish this goal, we installed an infrared temperature sensor and a digital camera on a small UAV. The camera provided a spatial awareness of the IR temperature measurements which would otherwise require a very expensive thermal imager to obtain. The UAV was flown above almond and walnut trees recording images and temperatures, which were aligned temporally in post-processing. The pixels of each image were classified in to four classes: sunlit leaves, shaded leaves, sunlit soil, and shaded soil. Assuming that the measured temperature could be described as a weighted sum of each class in the field of view of the IR sensor, a linear system of equations was established to estimate the temperature of each class using at least several measurements of the same tree. Results indicated a good correlation between the temperatures estimated from the linear system of equations and the temperatures of those classes sampled on the ground immediately following each flight. With leaf temperatures ranging from about 12 to 40 degrees Celsius between 23 flights over two years, the linear solver was able to estimate the temperature of the sunlit and shaded leaves to within several degrees Celsius of the sampled temperature in most cases, with a coefficient of determination (r2 value) of 0.96 during the first year, and 0.73 during the second year. An additional study was undertaken to detect spatial temperature distribution within the orchard. Ground measurements were taken of every other tree in two walnut rows and one almond row using the handheld sensor, and the UAV was flown over those rows immediately following each ground sampling. An interpolated temperature map of the UAV's temperature

  18. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

  19. Utility vehicle safety Operator training program

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    with the following: · Operable brakes · Departmental identification displayed horizontally on each side and rear, strange sounds or behavior · Lighting: headlamps, tail lamps, brake lights and turn signals · Brakes: work smoothly without noise or pulling · Slow moving vehicle sign: in place and visible · Equipment and supplies

  20. MOTOR VEHICLE USE PROGRAM DRIVER SAFETY TIPS

    E-print Network

    or improper driving habits of other drivers. Potentially dangerous acts include speeding, improper turn - Employees who drive Institute or privately owned vehicles on Institute business must possess and carry employees driving on Institute business have a copy of the state's General Liability Insurance

  1. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland

    E-print Network

    Schindler, Konrad

    . XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland DIRECT GEOREFERENCING OF UAVS M. Bláha *, H. Eisenbeiss, D. Grimm, P. Limpach Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry.limpach)@geod.baug.ethz.ch and mblaha@student.ethz.ch Commission VI, WG VI/4 KEY WORDS: UAV, Falcon 8, direct georeferencing, GPS

  2. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  3. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  4. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  5. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  6. 10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

  7. Development of a biologically inspired multi-modal wing model for aerial-aquatic robotic vehicles through empirical and numerical modelling of the common guillemot, Uria aalge.

    PubMed

    Lock, Richard J; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Burgess, Stuart C; Loveless, John

    2010-12-01

    The common guillemot, Uria aalge, a member of the auk family of seabirds, exhibits locomotive capabilities in both aerial and aquatic substrates. Simplistic forms of this ability have yet to be achieved by robotic vehicle designs and offer significant potential as inspiration for future concept designs. In this investigation, we initially investigate the power requirements of the guillemot associated with different modes of locomotion, empirically determining the saving associated with the retraction of the wing during aquatic operations. A numerical model of a morphing wing is then created to allow power requirements to be determined for different wing orientations, taking into account the complex kinematic and inertial dynamics associated with the motion. Validation of the numerical model is achieved by comparisons with the actual behaviour of the guillemot, which is done by considering specific mission tasks, where by the optimal solutions are found utilizing an evolutionary algorithm, which are found to be in close agreement with the biological case. PMID:21057174

  8. Kansas State University Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1991-01-01

    During the past fifteen years Kansas State's faculty has been involved in research of alternative fuel vehicles. From formulation of fuels and automotive fuel storage to development of electronic controls, K-State's faculty research has been ongoing. With the increased awareness of what is occurring to the world's environment, the catalyst -- to ensure applied results from faculty research will occur -- has been activated. The Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program is the platform being used to demonstrate international efforts to bring a more acceptable daily mode of transportation to our highways. The first new electrical vehicle procured at K-State in the last ten years, a G-Van, is a technological dinosaur. It does not incorporate leading edge control or drive systems nor does it provide the type of vehicle frame and body to meet a majority of the daily commuter needs required by the American market. Yet, this vehicle represents initial efforts to bring a federally crash certified vehicle to the commercial automotive market. As such, it is an evolutionary step in the mass production of electric vehicle products.

  9. Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

  10. The DARPA/USAF Falcon Program Small Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, David J.; Walker, Steven H.; Thompson, Tim L.; Sackheim, Robert; London, John R., III

    2006-01-01

    Earlier in this decade, the U.S. Air Force Space Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), in recognizing the need for low-cost responsive small launch vehicles, decided to partner in addressing this national shortcoming. Later, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) joined in supporting this effort, dubbed the Falcon Program. The objectives of the Small Launch Vehicle (SLV) element of the DARPA/USAF Falcon Program include the development of a low-cost small launch vehicle(s) that demonstrates responsive launch and has the potential for achieving a per mission cost of less than $5M when based on 20 launches per year for 10 years. This vehicle class can lift 1000 to 2000 lbm payloads to a reference low earth orbit. Responsive operations include launching the rocket within 48 hours of call up. A history of the program and the current status will be discussed with an emphasis on the potential impact on small satellites.

  11. FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Singh

    2006-01-01

    This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE

  12. Aerial of the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Even in this aerial view at KSC, the Vehicle Assembly Building is imposing. In front of it is the Launch Control Center. In the background is the Rotation/Processing Facility, next to the Banana Creek. In the foreground is the Saturn Causeway that leads to Launch Pads 39A and 39B.

  13. Enhancing the effects of the Brazilian program to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions from vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lila Szwarcfiter; Francisco Eduardo Mendes; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the potential for reducing vehicle atmospheric pollutant emissions as a result of the implementation of Accelerated Vehicle Retirement and Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance Programs. Application of both programs, together and individually, is simulated for the period 2003–2010, targeting the light-duty vehicles of the largest Brazilian urban agglomeration. This article also quantifies the impact of implementing the Brazilian

  14. Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.

    PubMed

    West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

    2014-04-18

    A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

  15. Assessment of US electric vehicle programs with ac powertrains

    SciTech Connect

    Kevala, R.J. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Bethesda, MD (USA). Transportation Consulting Div.)

    1990-02-01

    AC powertrain technology is a promising approach to improving the performance of electric vehicles. Four major programs are now under way in the United States to develop ac powertrains: the Ford/General Electric single-shaft electric propulsion system (ETX-II), the Eaton dual-shaft electric propulsion system (DSEP), the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) integrated ac motor drive and recharge system, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) variable reluctance motor (VRM) drive. The JPL program is sponsored by EPRI; the other three programs are funded by the US Department of Energy. This preliminary assessment of the four powertrain programs focuses on potential performance, costs, safety, and commercial feasibility. Interviews with program personnel were supplemented by computer simulations of electric vehicle performance using the four systems. Each of the four powertrains appears superior to standard dc powertrain technology in terms of performance and weight. The powertrain technologies studied in this assessment are at varying degrees of technological maturity. One or more of the systems may be ready for incorporation into an advanced electric vehicle during the early 1990s. Each individual report will have a separate abstract. 5 refs., 37 figs., 29 tabs.

  16. Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV)-2 program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, James; Brooks, Paul; Korevaar, Eric J.; Arnold, Graham S.; Das, Alok; Stubstad, John; Hay, R. G.

    2000-11-01

    The STRV-2 program is the second in a series of three collaborative flight test programs between the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and the United Kingdom (UK) Minstry of Defence (MoD). The STRV-2 Experiment Module contains five major experiments to provide proof-of-concept data on system design, data on the mid-earth orbit (MEO) space environment, and data on durability of materials and components operating in the MEO environment. The UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) has provided a mid- wavelength infrared (MWIF) imager to evaluate passive detection of aircraft from space. BMDO, in conjunction with the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have provided experiments to evaluate use of adaptive structures for vibration suppression, to investigate the use of high bandwidth laser communications to transmit data from space to ground or airborne receivers, to study the durability of materials and components in the MEO space environment, and to measure radiation and micrometeoroid/debris fluence. These experiments are mounted on all- composite structure. This structure provides a significant reduction in weight and cost over comparable aluminum designs while maintaining the high stiffness required by optical payloads. In 1994, STRV-2 was manifested for launch by the DOD Space Test Program. STRV-2, the primary payload on the Tri-Service eXperiment (TSX)-5 spacecraft, was successfully launched on 7 June 2000 on a Pegasus XL from Vandenbery AFB, CA. The STRV-2 program, like the companion STRV-1 program, validates the viability of multi-national, multi-agency collaborations to provide cost effective acquisition of space test data. The experimental data to be obtained will reduce future satellite risk and provide guidelines for further system development.

  17. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

    2005-10-01

    The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

  18. Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Charmaine Gilbreath; William S. Rabinovich; Timothy J. Meehan; Michael J. Vilcheck; Rita Mahon; Ray Burris; Mina Ferraro; Ilene Sokolsky; John A. Vasquez; Chris S. Bovais; Kerry Cochrell; Kim C. Goins; Robin Barbehenn; D. Scott Katzer; Kiki Ikossi-Anastasiou; Marcos J. Montes

    2001-01-01

    We describe progress in the development of a multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector, including a description of recent demonstrations of an infrared data link between a small rotary-wing unmanned airborne vehicle and a ground-based laser interrogator using the device designed and fabricated at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Modulating retroreflector systems couple an optical retroreflector, such as a corner cube,

  19. Towed-body trajectory tracking in aerial recovery of micro air vehicle in the presence of wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Sun; Randal W. Beard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for recovering Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) in flight using a mothership and towed drogue, in which the mothership executes an orbit that places the drogue in a stable, slower orbit that can be tracked by a MAV. This paper is particularly challenging in the presence of wind. The equations of motion of the cable using

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles City Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01

    Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

  1. 77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION...information collection associated with FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the...

  2. Control of a remotely operated quadrotor aerial vehicle and camera unit using a fly-the-camera perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DongBin Lee; Vilas Chitrakaran; T imothy Burg; Darren Dawson; Bin Xian

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a mission-centric approach to controlling the optical axis of a video camera mounted on a camera manipulator and fixed to a quadrotor remotely operated vehicle. A four-DOF quadrotor, UAV model will be combined with a two-DOF camera kinematic model to create a single system to provide a full six DOF actuation of the camera view. This work

  3. System Integration and Operation of a Research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Eric N. Johnson* and Daniel P. Schrage

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric N.

    in conjunction with the DARPA Software Enabled Control program, are summarized. #12;2 I. Introduction Recently research under the Army/NASA sponsored Center of Excellence in Rotorcraft Technology (CERT) program and JDAM programs as well as to NASA studies2-5 . Other researchers have also had success utilizing Yamaha

  4. UAVs in climate research: The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R.

    1994-05-01

    In the last year, a Department of Energy/Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project known as ``ARM-UAV`` has made important progress in developing and demonstrating the utility of unmanned aerospace vehicles as platforms for scientific measurements. Recent accomplishments include a series of flights using an atmospheric research payload carried by a General Atomics Gnat UAV at Edwards AFB, California, and over ground instruments located in north-central Oklahoma. The reminder of this discussion will provide background on the program and describe the recent flights.

  5. A Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking of Multiple Ground Targets from Aerial Video with Dynamic Sensor Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Arambel; Matthew Antone; Constantino Rago; Herbert Landau; Thomas Strat

    The goal of the DARPA Video Verification of Identity (VIVID) program is to develop an automated video- based ground targeting system for unmanned aerial vehicles that significantly improves operator combat efficiency and effectiveness while minimizing collateral damage. One of the key components of VIVID is the Multiple Target Tracker (MTT), whose main function is to track many ground targets simultaneously

  6. Training set size, scale, and features in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis of very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Ma, Xiaoxue

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has been used increasingly for natural resource applications in recent years due to their greater availability and the miniaturization of sensors. In addition, Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) has received more attention as a novel paradigm for remote sensing earth observation data. However, GEOBIA generates some new problems compared with pixel-based methods. In this study, we developed a strategy for the semi-automatic optimization of object-based classification, which involves an area-based accuracy assessment that analyzes the relationship between scale and the training set size. We found that the Overall Accuracy (OA) increased as the training set ratio (proportion of the segmented objects used for training) increased when the Segmentation Scale Parameter (SSP) was fixed. The OA increased more slowly as the training set ratio became larger and a similar rule was obtained according to the pixel-based image analysis. The OA decreased as the SSP increased when the training set ratio was fixed. Consequently, the SSP should not be too large during classification using a small training set ratio. By contrast, a large training set ratio is required if classification is performed using a high SSP. In addition, we suggest that the optimal SSP for each class has a high positive correlation with the mean area obtained by manual interpretation, which can be summarized by a linear correlation equation. We expect that these results will be applicable to UAV imagery classification to determine the optimal SSP for each class.

  7. Using virtual instruments to develop an actuator-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation test-bed for autopilot of unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yun-Ping; Ju, Jiun-Yan; Liang, Yen-Chu

    2008-12-01

    Since the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bring forth many innovative applications in scientific, civilian, and military fields, the development of UAVs is rapidly growing every year. The on-board autopilot that reliably performs attitude and guidance control is a vital part for out-of-sight flights. However, the control law in autopilot is designed according to a simplified plant model in which the dynamics of real hardware are usually not taken into consideration. It is a necessity to develop a test-bed including real servos to make real-time control experiments for prototype autopilots, so called hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. In this paper on the basis of the graphical application software LabVIEW, the real-time HIL simulation system is realized efficiently by the virtual instrumentation approach. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller in autopilot for the pitch angle control loop is experimentally determined by the classical Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule and exhibits good transient and steady-state response in real-time HIL simulation. From the results the differences between numerical simulation and real-time HIL simulation are also clearly presented. The effectiveness of HIL simulation for UAV autopilot design is definitely confirmed

  8. Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

    2014-02-15

    Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. PMID:24473345

  9. Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, Gary

    2013-12-13

    The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

  10. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-12-31

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  11. RACORO: ROUTINE AERIAL VEHICLE PROGRAM (AVP) CLOUDS WITH LOW OPTICAL WATER DEPTHS (CLOWD) OPTICAL RADIATIVE OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    pressing scientific problems. Boundary layer clouds often have liquid-water paths (LWPs) less than 100 g m2: This manuscript has been authored by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02 for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable

  12. Aerial Shepherds: Coordination among UAVs and Swarms of Robots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Chaimowicz; Vijay Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We address the problem of deploying groups of tens or hundreds of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in urban environments where a group of aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to coordinate the ground vehicles. We envision a hi- erarchy in which UAVs with aerial cameras can be used to monitor and command a swarm of UGVs, controlling the splitting and

  13. Characterization of Shrubland-Atmosphere Interactions through Use of the Eddy Covariance Method, Distributed Footprint Sampling, and Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Robles-Morua, A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2012-12-01

    Ecohydrological dynamics can be evaluated from field observations of land-atmosphere states and fluxes, including water, carbon, and energy exchanges measured through the eddy covariance method. In heterogeneous landscapes, the representativeness of these measurements is not well understood due to the variable nature of the sampling footprint and the mixture of underlying herbaceous, shrub, and soil patches. In this study, we integrate new field techniques to understand how ecosystem surface states are related to turbulent fluxes in two different semiarid shrubland settings in the Jornada (New Mexico) and Santa Rita (Arizona) Experimental Ranges. The two sites are characteristic of Chihuahuan (NM) and Sonoran (AZ) Desert mixed-shrub communities resulting from woody plant encroachment into grassland areas. In each study site, we deployed continuous soil moisture and soil temperature profile observations at twenty sites around an eddy covariance tower after local footprint estimation revealed the optimal sensor network design. We then characterized the tower footprint through terrain and vegetation analyses derived at high resolution (<1 m) from imagery obtained from a fixed-wing and rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Our analysis focuses on the summertime land-atmosphere states and fluxes during which each ecosystem responded differentially to the North American monsoon. We found that vegetation heterogeneity induces spatial differences in soil moisture and temperature that are important to capture when relating these states to the eddy covariance flux measurements. Spatial distributions of surface states at different depths reveal intricate patterns linked to vegetation cover that vary between the two sites. Furthermore, single site measurements at the tower are insufficient to capture the footprint conditions and their influence on turbulent fluxes. We also discuss techniques for aggregating the surface states based upon the vegetation and soil classifications obtained from the high-resolution aerial imagery. Overall, the integration of the different techniques yielded new insight into the spatiotemporal variation of land surface states and their relation to sensible and latent heat fluxes in two shrubland sites, with the potential application in other ecosystems worldwide.

  14. An Accuracy Assessment of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereo Techniques Applied to Imagery Acquired via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwin, S.; Lucieer, A.

    2012-08-01

    Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming viable environmental remote sensing tools. Sensor and battery technology is expanding the data capture opportunities. The UAV, as a close range remote sensing platform, can capture high resolution photography on-demand. This imagery can be used to produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis techniques (MVS) combining computer vision and photogrammetry. This study examines point clouds produced using MVS techniques applied to UAV and terrestrial photography. A multi-rotor micro UAV acquired aerial imagery from a altitude of approximately 30-40 m. The point clouds produced are extremely dense (<1-3 cm point spacing) and provide a detailed record of the surface in the study area, a 70 m section of sheltered coastline in southeast Tasmania. Areas with little surface texture were not well captured, similarly, areas with complex geometry such as grass tussocks and woody scrub were not well mapped. The process fails to penetrate vegetation, but extracts very detailed terrain in unvegetated areas. Initially the point clouds are in an arbitrary coordinate system and need to be georeferenced. A Helmert transformation is applied based on matching ground control points (GCPs) identified in the point clouds to GCPs surveying with differential GPS. These point clouds can be used, alongside laser scanning and more traditional techniques, to provide very detailed and precise representations of a range of landscapes at key moments. There are many potential applications for the UAV-MVS technique, including coastal erosion and accretion monitoring, mine surveying and other environmental monitoring applications. For the generated point clouds to be used in spatial applications they need to be converted to surface models that reduce dataset size without loosing too much detail. Triangulated meshes are one option, another is Poisson Surface Reconstruction. This latter option makes use of point normal data and produces a surface representation at greater detail than previously obtainable. This study will visualise and compare the two surface representations by comparing clouds created from terrestrial MVS (T-MVS) and UAV-MVS.

  15. Online trajectory planning for UAVs using mixed integer linear programming

    E-print Network

    Culligan, Kieran Forbes

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a improved path planner using mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) to solve a receding horizon optimization problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's). Using MILP, hard constraints for obstacle ...

  16. Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

    2014-09-01

    Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

  17. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is a recently developed instrument dedicated to trace gas measurements from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The payload is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built UAV is an electrically powered flying wing and can reach an altitude of 3 km at a mean airspeed of 100 km/h. The whole flight can be preprogrammed and controlled by an autopilot. The spectra are analyzed using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). One major objective is the mapping of NO2 columns at high spatial resolution allowing to subsample satellite measurements within the extent of a typical ground pixel. We present the preliminary results of two test flights of the SWING-UAV observation system in the vicinity of Galati, Romania (45.45°N, 28.05°E), performed on 11 May 2013 and 20 September 2013. Several atmospheric species are identified in the spectral range covered by the spectrometer (300-600 nm): NO2, water vapor, O4, and O3. From the measurements, the detection limit for NO2 is estimated to lie around 2 ppb. We investigate: (1) the georeferencing issues and the effective spatial resolution achievable with SWING-UAV from the instantaneous field of view and the plane dynamics (2) the main parameters influencing the air mass factors, and (3) the reproducibility of NO2 measurements over the same area during the second flight which included repeated transects. We also present the near-future (2014-2015) campaigns planned for the SWING-UAV observation system.

  18. Quantifying the Accuracy of a Quad-Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle as a Platform for Atmospheric Pressure, Temperature and Humidity Measurements near the Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    Miniature multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to directly sample the lower atmosphere over land and over the ocean in the vicinity of ships or shorelines. These UAVs are generally inexpensive and easy to operate. The author used the InstantEye quad-rotor UAV, manufactured by Physical Sciences Inc., as a test platform for meteorological measurements. In this case, the atmospheric sensor was the RS-92 radiosonde manufactured by Vaisala Inc. The author will present quantitative results of several experiments performed over land at Camp Roberts, California in which the InstantEye with radiosonde sensors was flown alongside a calibrated meteorological tower, thus allowing the accuracy of the UAV measurements to be quantified. Measurements near the surface were most strongly affected by turbulent fluctuations during sunny, low wind days over a dry surface. The rotor wash (1) provides sensor aeration which counteracts radiation contamination effects (2) creates a dynamic pressure effect in lowest 1.5 m and (3) moves air from a different level (1 - 2 m). Horizontal motion of the UAV had little effect on the measurements. The accuracy of the mean temperature measurements in the surface layer during unstable conditions was estimated to be 0.2 to 0.3 C, if samples are taken for at least one minute, except in the lowest 1.5 m above the surface, where rotor wash effects brought hot surface air to the sensors, degrading the accuracy. Above the turbulent surface layer, the temperature measurements approached a 0.1 C accuracy.

  19. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Results from the 2014 AROMAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is an instrument dedicated to atmospheric trace gas retrieval from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The payload is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built 2.5 m flying wing UAV is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km/h, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. Both the payload and the UAV were developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) and the Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. We present here SWING-UAV test flights dedicated to NO2 measurements and performed in Romania on 10 and 11 September 2014, during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign. The UAV performed 5 flights in the vicinity of the large thermal power station of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.4° E). The UAV was operated in visual range during the campaign, up to 900 m AGL , downwind of the plant and crossing its exhaust plume. The spectra recorded on flight are analyzed with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The retrieved NO2 Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) are up to 1.5e17 molec/cm2 and reveal the horizontal gradients around the plant. The DSCDs are converted to vertical columns and compared with coincident car-based DOAS measurements. We also present the near-future perspective of the SWING-UAV observation system, which includes flights in 2015 above the Black Sea to quantify ship emissions, the addition of SO2 as a target species, and autopilot flights at higher altitudes to cover a typical satellite pixel extent (10x10 km2).

  20. Assessing the quality of Digital Elevation Models obtained from mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, J. P.; Moy de Vitry, M.; Scheidegger, A.; Rieckermann, J.

    2015-06-01

    Precise and detailed Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. Unfortunately, traditional sources of DEM remain a bottleneck for detailed and reliable overland flow models, because the resulting DEMs are too coarse to provide DEMs of sufficient detail to inform urban overland flows. Interestingly, technological developments of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) suggest that they have matured enough to be a competitive alternative to satellites or airplanes. However, this has not been tested so far. In this this study we therefore evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, fourteen UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs: (i) flight altitude, (ii) image overlapping, (iii) camera pitch and (iv) weather conditions. In addition, we compared the best quality UAV DEM to a conventional Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-based DEM. To evaluate both the quality of the UAV DEMs and the comparison to LiDAR-based DEMs, we performed regression analysis on several qualitative and quantitative metrics, such as elevation accuracy, quality of object representation (e.g., buildings, walls and trees) in the DEM, which were specifically tailored to assess overland flow modelling performance, using the flight parameters as explanatory variables. Our results suggested that, first, as expected, flight altitude influenced the DEM quality most, where lower flights produce better DEMs; in a similar fashion, overcast weather conditions are preferable, but weather conditions and other factors influence DEM quality much less. Second, we found that for urban overland flow modelling, the UAV DEMs performed competitively in comparison to a traditional LiDAR-based DEM. An important advantage of using UAVs to generate DEMs in urban areas is their flexibility that enables more frequent, local and affordable elevation data updates, allowing, for example, to capture different tree foliage conditions.

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

  2. Simulation of fully autonomous control of unmanned air vehicles for maritime surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luke Ng; Paul Hubbard; Siu O'Young

    2010-01-01

    As the usage of unmanned systems become more prevalent, defence departments around the world are looking for new modes of human-system interaction that increase the level of autonomy of the vehicle, while maintaining operator control and trust. Defence R&D Canada is currently engaged in a research program on the simulation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and methods to increase autonomous

  3. Use of the Aerosonde Unihabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hipskind, R. Stephen; Curry, Judy; Holland, Greg

    2001-01-01

    The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4) was a scientific field experiment based in Florida in summer 2001 focused on the study of hurricanes off the east coast of the United States. Sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Office of Earth Science, and conducted in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's annual hurricane research program, CAMEX 4 utilized aircraft, ground-based and satellite instrumentation to obtain unprecedented, three dimensional characterizations of these important storms. The Aerosonde UAV was selected by NASA to participate in CAMEX 4 because it provided a unique capability to obtain measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer in and around the storms, unattainable by other platforms or measurement capabilities. This talk focuses on the NASA review process that was followed to coordinate the UAV activity with the conventional aircraft operations, as well as with the other participating agencies and the FAA. We will discuss how Aerosonde addressed the issues of safety, coordination and communication and summarize the lessons learned.

  4. Space Vehicle Powerdown Philosophies Derived from the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsey, Mark; Bailey, Brad

    2011-01-01

    In spaceflight, electrical power is a vital but limited resource. Almost every spacecraft system, from avionics to life support systems, relies on electrical power. Since power can be limited by the generation system s performance, available consumables, solar array shading, or heat rejection capability, vehicle power management is a critical consideration in spacecraft design, mission planning, and real-time operations. The purpose of this paper is to capture the powerdown philosophies used during the Space Shuttle Program. This paper will discuss how electrical equipment is managed real-time to adjust the overall vehicle power level to ensure that systems and consumables will support changing mission objectives, as well as how electrical equipment is managed following system anomalies. We will focus on the power related impacts of anomalies in the generation systems, air and liquid cooling systems, and significant environmental events such as a fire, decrease in cabin pressure, or micrometeoroid debris strike. Additionally, considerations for executing powerdowns by crew action or by ground commands from Mission Control will be presented. General lessons learned from nearly 30 years of Space Shuttle powerdowns will be discussed, including an in depth case-study of STS-117. During this International Space Station (ISS) assembly mission, a failure of computers controlling the ISS guidance, navigation, and control system required that the Space Shuttle s maneuvering system be used to maintain attitude control. A powerdown was performed to save power generation consumables, thus extending the docked mission duration and allowing more time to resolve the issue.

  5. Design of an agile unmanned combat vehicle: a product of the DARPA UGCV program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey D. Thornhill; Alan Walls; Ronald C. Arkin; Joseph H. Beno; Chuck Bergh; Don Bresie; Anthony Giovannetti; Benny M. Gothard; Larry H. Matthies; Porfirio Nogueiro; Jim Scanlon; Ron Scott; Miguel Simon; Wilford Smith; Kenneth J. Waldron

    2003-01-01

    The unmanned ground compat vehicle (UGCV) design evolved by the SAIC team on the DARPA UGCV Program is summarized in this paper. This UGCV design provides exceptional performance against all of the program metrics and incorporates key attributes essential for high performance robotic combat vehicles. This performance includes protection against 7.62 mm threats, C130 and CH47 transportability, and the ability

  6. Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

  7. Atmospheric radiation measurement unmanned aerospace vehicle (ARM-UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, W.R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    ARM-UAV is part of the multi-agency U.S. Global Change Research Program and is addressing the largest source of uncertainty in predicting climatic response: the interaction of clouds and the sun`s energy in the Earth`s atmosphere. An important aspect of the program is the use of unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) as the primary airborne platform. The ARM-UAV Program has completed two major flight series: The first series conducted in April, 1994, using an existing UAV (the General Atomics Gnat 750) consisted of eight highly successful flights at the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. The second series conducted in September/October, 1995, using two piloted aircraft (Egrett and Twin Otter), featured simultaneous measurements above and below clouds and in clear sky. Additional flight series are planned to continue study of the cloudy and clear sky energy budget in the Spring and Fall of 1996 over the DOE climate site in Oklahoma. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

    1999-12-13

    As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

  9. The DOE/NREL Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Walkowicz; Denny Stephens; Kevin Stork

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NG-NGV) Program that is led by the U.S. Department Of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of this program is to develop and implement one Class 3-6 compressed natural gas (CNG) prototype vehicle and one Class 7-8 liquefied natural gas (LNG) prototype vehicle in the 2004 to 2007 timeframe. OHVT intends for these vehicles to have 0.5 g/bhp-hr or lower emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) by 2004 and 0.2 g/bhp-hr or lower NOx by 2007. These vehicles will also have particulate matter (PM) emissions of 0.01 g/bhp-hr or lower by 2004. In addition to ambitious emissions goals, these vehicles will target life-cycle economics that are compatible with their conventionally fueled counterparts.

  10. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  11. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You...

  12. 40 CFR 89.913 - What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? 89.913...COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exemption Provisions...What provisions apply to engines certified under the motor-vehicle program? You...

  13. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  14. Support to X-33/Resusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) Peer Review Team (PRT) was formed to assess the integrated X-33 vehicle GN&C system in order to identify any areas of disproportionate risk for initial flight. The eventual scope of the PRT assessment encompasses the GN&C algorithms, software, avionics, control effectors, applicable models, and testing. The initial (phase 1) focus of the PRT was on the GN&C algorithms and the Flight Control Actuation Subsystem (FCAS). The PRT held meetings during its phase 1 assessment at X-33 assembly facilities in Palmdale, California on May 17-18, 2000 and at Honeywell facilities in Tempe, Arizona on June 7, 2000. The purpose of these meetings was for the PRT members to get background briefings on the X-33 vehicle and for the PRT team to be briefed on the design basis and current status of the X-33 GN&C algorithms as well as the FCAS. The following material is covered in this PRT phase 1 final report. Some significant GN&C-related accomplishments by the X-33 development team are noted. Some topics are identified that were found during phase 1 to require fuller consideration when the PRT reconvenes in the future. Some new recommendations by the PRT to the X-33 program will likely result from a thorough assessment of these subjects. An initial list of recommendations from the PRT to the X-33 program is provided. These recommendations stem from topics that received adequate review by the PRT in phase 1. Significant technical observations by the PRT members as a result of the phase 1 meetings are detailed. (These are covered in an appendix.) There were many X-33 development team members who contributed to the technical information used by the PRT during the phase 1 assessment, who supported presentations to the PRT, and who helped to address the many questions posed by the PRT members at and after the phase 1 meetings. In all instances the interaction between the PRT and the X-33 development team members was cordial and very professional. The members of the PRT are grateful for the time and effort applied by all of these individuals and hope that the contents of this report will help to make the X-33 program a success.

  15. Heavy vehicle hybrid propulsion systems R and D program plan, FY 2000-2005

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2000-07-01

    This report contains the program plan and background information for the Heavy Vehicle Hybrid Propulsion R and D Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The program is a collaboration between industry and government established for the development of advanced hybrid-electric propulsion technology for urban cycle trucks and buses. It targets specific applications to enhance potential market success. Potential end-users are also involved.

  16. AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-09

    Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

  17. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  18. Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1993-06-01

    In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

  19. Abstract--The unmanned aerial vehicle can be an efficient and economical solution to real-time surveillance of highway traffic.

    E-print Network

    Dong, Liang

    . A video signal captured by the surveillance camera can be either displayed on the terminals in real time surveillance video is captured by cameras mounted on the UAV platform. The video signal is encoded implemented an airborne traffic surveillance system that encodes the video data of an aerial view

  20. Hybrid propulsion for launch vehicle boosters: A program status update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. L.; Boardman, T. A.; Claflin, S. E.; Harwell, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Results obtained in studying the origin and suppression of large-amplitude pressure oscillations in a 24 in. diameter hybrid motor using a liquid oxygen/hydroxylterminated polybutadiene/polycyclopentadiene propellant system are discussed. Tests conducted with liquid oxygen flow rates varying from 10 to 40 lbm/sec were designed to gauge the effectiveness of various vaporization chamber flow fields, injector designs, and levels of heat addition in suppressing high-frequency longitudinal mode oscillations. Longitudinal acoustic modes did not arise in any tests. However, initial testing revealed the presence of high-amplitude, sinusoidal, nonacoustic oscillations persisting throughout the burn durations. Analysis showed this to be analogous to chug mode instability in liquid rocket engines brought about by a coupling of motor combustion processes and the liquid oxygen feed system. Analytical models were developed and verified by test data to predict the amplitude and frequency of feed-system-coupled combustion pressure oscillations. Subsequent testing showed that increasing the feed system impedance eliminated the bulk mode instability. This paper documents the work completed to date in performance of the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters Program (NAS8-39942) sponsored by NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. A Comprehensive Design of Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Ready For Manufacturing using Computing Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. O. Beck

    2006-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to study and evaluate a comprehensive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system, ready for manufacturing, using computing programs. The methods and means of hybrid electric vehicle technology have been investigated. Special needs of technology transfer of alternative energy industry and business development experience have been considered with special interest to enable use to be

  2. DOE\\/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

    1998-01-01

    As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE\\/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV),

  3. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

  4. Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production Facilities

    E-print Network

    Alternative and Renewable fuels and Vehicle Technology Program Subject Area: Biofuels production: Commercial Facilities · Applicant's Legal Name: Yokayo Biofuels, Inc. · Name of project: A Catalyst for Success · Project Description: Yokayo Biofuels, an industry veteran with over 10 years experience

  5. Use of remote sensing measurements to evaluate vehicle emission monitoring programs: results from Phoenix, Arizona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Wenzel

    2003-01-01

    Vehicle emission inspection and maintenance (I\\/M) programs are the US EPA’s primary policy to reduce on-road emissions of in-use vehicles. The EPA is preparing guidance for states on how to use on-road emissions measurements made by roadside sensors (remote sensing) to evaluate the effectiveness of their I\\/M programs. In its guidance EPA describes three methods of using remote sensing data

  6. 77 FR 73458 - Vehicle Technologies Program; Request for Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...alternative fuels such as electricity, ethanol, natural gas, or biodiesel. This tool has a basic widget version, which allows users...each focus on a specific type of alternative fuel vehicle (biodiesel, compressed natural gas, E85, and electric drive)....

  7. LOAC: a small aerosol optical counter/sizer for ground-based and balloon measurements of the size distribution and nature of atmospheric particles - Part 2: First results from balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, J.-B.; Dulac, F.; Berthet, G.; Lurton, T.; Vignelle, D.; Jégou, F.; Tonnelier, T.; Thaury, C.; Jeannot, M.; Couté, B.; Akiki, R.; Mineau, J.-L.; Verdier, N.; Mallet, M.; Gensdarmes, F.; Charpentier, P.; Mesmin, S.; Duverger, V.; Dupont, J.-C.; Elias, T.; Crenn, V.; Sciare, J.; Giacomoni, J.; Gobbi, M.; Hamonou, E.; Olafsson, H.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Mazel, C.; Décamps, T.; Piringer, M.; Surcin, J.; Daugeron, D.

    2015-01-01

    In a companion (Part 1) paper (Renard et al., 2015), we have described and evaluated a new versatile optical particle counter/sizer named LOAC (Light Optical Aerosols Counter) based on scattering measurements at angles of 12 and 60°. that allows some speciation of particles (droplets, carbonaceous, salts, and mineral dust) in addition to size segregated counting in a large diameter range from 0.2 up to possibly more than 100 ?m depending on sampling conditions. Its capabilities overwhelm those of preceding optical particle counters (OPCs) allowing the characterization of all kind of aerosols from submicronic-sized absorbing carbonaceous particles in polluted air to very coarse particles (> 10-20 ?m in diameter) in desert dust plumes or fog and clouds. LOAC light and compact design allows measurements under all kinds of balloons, on-board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and at ground level. We illustrate here the first LOAC airborne results obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and a variety of scientific balloons. The UAV was deployed in a peri-urban environment near Bordeaux in France. Balloon operations include (i) tethered balloons deployed in urban environments in Wien (Austria) and Paris (France), (ii) pressurized balloons drifting in the lower troposphere over the western Mediterranean (during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment - ChArMEx campaigns), (iii) meteorological sounding balloons launched in the western Mediterranean region (ChArMEx) and from Aire-sur-l'Adour in south-western France (VOLTAIRE-LOAC campaign). More focus is put on measurements performed in the Mediterranean during (ChArMEx) and especially during African dust transport events to illustrate the original capability of balloon-borne LOAC to monitor in situ coarse mineral dust particles. In particular, LOAC has detected unexpected large particles in desert sand plumes.

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-07-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

  9. Dispersion analysis and linear error analysis capabilities of the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Previous error analyses conducted by the Guidance and Dynamics Branch of NASA have used the Guidance Analysis Program (GAP) as the trajectory simulation tool. Plans are made to conduct all future error analyses using the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program. A study was conducted to compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU) error simulations of the two programs. Results of the GAP/SVDS comparison are presented and problem areas encountered while attempting to simulate IMU errors, vehicle performance uncertainties and environmental uncertainties using SVDS are defined. An evaluation of the SVDS linear error analysis capability is also included.

  10. Algorithm for constructing the programmed motion of a bounding vehicle for the flight phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapshin, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    The construction of the programmed motion of a multileg bounding vehicle in the flight was studied. An algorithm is given for solving the boundary value problem for constructing this programmed motion. If the motion is shown to be symmetrical, a simplified use of the algorithm can be applied. A method is proposed for nonimpact of the legs during lift-off of the vehicle, and for softness at touchdown. Tables are utilized to construct this programmed motion over a broad set of standard motion conditions.

  11. Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) To promote truck and bus safety programs and

    E-print Network

    Technology in Motion Vehicle (TMV) Goal To promote truck and bus safety programs and technologies messages at multiple venues Demonstrate proven and emerging safety technologies to state and motor carrier stakeholders Promote deployment of safety technologies by fleets and state MCSAP agencies Evaluate program

  12. 40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which...

  13. Fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system using Matlab computing program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Beck

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this paper is to study and evaluate a comprehensive fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle system. The methods and means of fuel cells technology have been investigated. Special needs of technology transfer of alternative energy industry and business development experience have been considered with special interest to enable use to be more effective in this field, to

  14. Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles. Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    INNOVATRIX, Inc., Ingomar, PA.

    Guidelines for organizing and administering the three-part Emergency Vehicle Operation (EVO) Course are provided. The first section of the guide describes the course structure and lists the unit objectives (by unit module) for each of the courses's three parts. Part I contains seven units, organized into twenty-one modules, to be taken by all…

  15. Aerial Video Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    When Michael Henry wanted to start an aerial video service, he turned to Johnson Space Center for assistance. Two NASA engineers - one had designed and developed TV systems in Apollo, Skylab, Apollo- Soyuz and Space Shuttle programs - designed a wing-mounted fiberglass camera pod. Camera head and angles are adjustable, and the pod is shaped to reduce vibration. The controls are located so a solo pilot can operate the system. A microprocessor displays latitude, longitude, and bearing, and a GPS receiver provides position data for possible legal references. The service has been successfully utilized by railroads, oil companies, real estate companies, etc.

  16. Sampling-based real-time motion planning under state uncertainty for autonomous micro-aerial vehicles in GPS-denied environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Dachuan; Li, Qing; Cheng, Nong; Song, Jingyan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time motion planning approach for autonomous vehicles with complex dynamics and state uncertainty. The approach is motivated by the motion planning problem for autonomous vehicles navigating in GPS-denied dynamic environments, which involves non-linear and/or non-holonomic vehicle dynamics, incomplete state estimates, and constraints imposed by uncertain and cluttered environments. To address the above motion planning problem, we propose an extension of the closed-loop rapid belief trees, the closed-loop random belief trees (CL-RBT), which incorporates predictions of the position estimation uncertainty, using a factored form of the covariance provided by the Kalman filter-based estimator. The proposed motion planner operates by incrementally constructing a tree of dynamically feasible trajectories using the closed-loop prediction, while selecting candidate paths with low uncertainty using efficient covariance update and propagation. The algorithm can operate in real-time, continuously providing the controller with feasible paths for execution, enabling the vehicle to account for dynamic and uncertain environments. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can generate feasible trajectories that reduce the state estimation uncertainty, while handling complex vehicle dynamics and environment constraints. PMID:25412217

  17. A vehicle scheduling algorithm using non-serial discrete dynamic programming with space shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupnick, E.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the development and operation of a vehicle-scheduling algorithm which has applications to the NASA problem of assigning payloads to space delivery vehicles. The algorithm is based on a discrete, integer-valued, nonserial, dynamic-programming solution to the classical problem of developing resource utilization plans with limited resources. The algorithm places special emphasis on incorporating interpayload (precedence) relationships; maintaining optimal alternate schedule definitions (a unique feature of dynamic programming) in the event of contingencies (namely, resource inventory changes) without problem resolution; and, by using a special information storage technique, reducing the computational complexity of solving realistic problems.

  18. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  19. The future of structural fieldwork - UAV assisted aerial photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollgger, Stefan; Cruden, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, are opening new and low cost possibilities to acquire high-resolution aerial images and digital surface models (DSM) for applications in structural geology. UAVs can be programmed to fly autonomously along a user defined grid to systematically capture high-resolution photographs, even in difficult to access areas. The photographs are subsequently processed using software that employ SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) and SFM (structure from motion) algorithms. These photogrammetric routines allow the extraction of spatial information (3D point clouds, digital elevation models, 3D meshes, orthophotos) from 2D images. Depending on flight altitude and camera setup, sub-centimeter spatial resolutions can be achieved. By "digitally mapping" georeferenced 3D models and images, orientation data can be extracted directly and used to analyse the structural framework of the mapped object or area. We present UAV assisted aerial mapping results from a coastal platform near Cape Liptrap (Victoria, Australia), where deformed metasediments of the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt are exposed. We also show how orientation and spatial information of brittle and ductile structures extracted from the photogrammetric model can be linked to the progressive development of folds and faults in the region. Even though there are both technical and legislative limitations, which might prohibit the use of UAVs without prior commercial licensing and training, the benefits that arise from the resulting high-resolution, photorealistic models can substantially contribute to the collection of new data and insights for applications in structural geology.

  20. Electric and hybrid vehicle program, site operator program quarterly progress report for April through June 1996 (third quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The goals of the Site Operator Program include the field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments; the advancement of electric vehicle technologies; the development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The Site Operator Program currently consists of eleven participants under contract and two other organizations that have data-sharing agreements with the Program (Table ES-1). Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of electric vehicles, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for electric vehicles; and (2) DOE, the Department of Transportation, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of electric vehicles. The current focus of the Program is the collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real-world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus.

  1. Detecting Anomalies in Unmanned Vehicles Using the Mahalanobis Distance

    E-print Network

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) demonstrate the efficacy of the approach by detecting the vehicles deviations from nominal behavior. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned and pa- trolling ([1]), aerial search [8], and more. Increasing depen- dence on UAVs and UGVs (UVs

  2. Titan Aerial Daughtercraft (TAD) for Surface Studies from a Lander or Balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthies, L.; Tokumaru, P.; Sherrit, S.; Beauchamp, P.

    2014-06-01

    Recent rapid progress on autonomous navigation of micro air vehicles for terrestrial applications opens new possibilities for a small aerial vehicle that could deploy from a Titan lander or balloon to acquire samples for analysis on the mothership.

  3. Object and event recognition for aerial surveillance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Li; Indriyati Atmosukarto; Masaharu Kobashi; Jenny Yuen; Linda G. Shapiro

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles with high quality video cameras are able to provide videos from 50,000 feet up that show a surprising amount of detail on the ground. These videos are difficult to analyze, because the airplane moves, the camera zooms in and out and vibrates, and the moving objects of interest can be in the scene, out of the scene,

  4. Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Antonelli; F. Blackmon

    2002-01-01

    Detecting underwater objects such as debris fields, submarines or mines for littoral area clearance, while in the air, would increase the autonomy and flexibility of subsurface, surface and air vehicles engaged in undersea warfare and could have a variety of commercial and oceanographic applications. Experimental research into a laser-based active sonar concept is being conducted for remote, aerial detection of

  5. Using Humorous Programs as a Vehicle for Humorous Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Stephen D.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Shows that an increased level of humor in commercials was beneficial to recall and purchase intention; increased humor in the television program was detrimental to recall of products advertised; and gender interacted with program humor levels, such that products were viewed less negatively by men when they were exposed to commercials in a more…

  6. An interdisciplinary program for education and outreach in hybrid & Electric Drive Vehicle Engineering at Michigan Technological University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Weaver; Carl Anderson; Jeffrey Naber; Jason Keith; Jeremy Worm; John Beard; Bo Chen; Steven Hackney

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is in a transformation towards powertrain electrification, requiring automotive engineers to develop and integrate technologies from multiple disciplines. Michigan Technological University is rolling out a new program in interdisciplinary master of engineering degree and graduate and undergraduate certificates in Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Engineering. Distinctively we are focusing our education program at the vehicle level and the

  7. A Licensing Program for Operators of Two-Wheeled Motor Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Lewis Alvin

    This study was conducted to develop and evaluate a licensing program for operators of two-wheeled motor vehicles. Materials specifically developed for the study were: (1) a driver's handbook, (2) two forms of a written test, (3) an off-street driving test, and (4) a driving range. Once developed, these materials were the basis of the separate…

  8. Pragmatic Genetic Programming strategy for the problem of vehicle detection in airborne reconnaissance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Howard; Simon C. Roberts; Conor Ryan

    2006-01-01

    A Genetic Programming (GP) method uses multiple runs, data decomposition stages, to evolve a hierarchical set of vehicle detectors for the automated inspection of infrared line scan imagery that has been obtained by a low flying aircraft. The performance on the scheme using two different sets of GP terminals (all are rotationally invariant statistics of pixel data) is compared on

  9. A survey of electric and hybrid vehicles simulation programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted for the Department of Energy by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Volume 1 of this report summarizes and discusses the results contained in Volume 2.

  10. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 6: Five year program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The five year program plan for the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) is presented. The planning, schedules, cost estimates, and supporting data (objectives, constraints, assumptions, etc.) associated with the development of the MOTV are discussed. The plan, in addition to the above material, identifies the supporting research and technology required to resolve issues critical to MOTV development.

  11. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Reference design process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The airplane design process and its interfaces with manufacturing and customer operations are documented to be used as criteria for the development of integrated programs for the analysis, design, and testing of aerospace vehicles. Topics cover: design process management, general purpose support requirements, design networks, and technical program elements. Design activity sequences are given for both supersonic and subsonic commercial transports, naval hydrofoils, and military aircraft.

  12. Development of a semi-empirical program for predicting the braking performance of a passenger vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-H. Lee; J.-M. Lee; M.-S. Choi; C.-K. Kim; E.-B. Koh

    2011-01-01

    Since the invention of automobiles, the need to know the braking performance of vehicles has been acknowledged. However, because\\u000a there are numerous design variables as well as nonlinearities in the braking system, it is difficult to predict the performance\\u000a accurately. In this paper, a computational program is developed to estimate the braking performance numerically. This synthetic\\u000a braking performance program accounts

  13. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

  14. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

  15. Orbital transfer vehicle concept definition and system analysis study, 1985. Volume 3: System and program trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, James H.; Mohrman, Gordon W.; Callan, Daniel R.

    1986-01-01

    The key system and program trade studies performed to arrive at a preferred Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) system concept and evolutionary approach to the acquisition of the requisite capabilites is documented. These efforts were expanded to encompass a Space Transportation Architecture Study (STAS) mission model and recommended unmanned cargo vehicle. The most important factors affecting the results presented are the mission model requirements and selection criteria. The reason for conducting the OTV concept definition and system analyses study is to select a concept and acquisition approach that meets a delivery requirement reflected by the mission model.

  16. Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Year 1 third quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

  17. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

  18. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  19. Decentralized Cooperative Aerial Surveillance Using Fixed-Wing Miniature UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randal W. Beard; Timothy W. McLain; Derek B. Nelson; Derek Kingston; David Johanson

    2006-01-01

    Numerous applications require aerial surveillance. Civilian applications include monitoring forest fires, oil fields, and pipelines and tracking wildlife. Applications to homeland security include border patrol and monitoring the perimeter of nuclear power plants. Military applications are numerous. The current approach to these applications is to use a single manned vehicle for surveillance. However, manned vehicles are typically large and expensive.

  20. Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program. Year 1, second quarter report, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1991-12-31

    K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State`s Site Operator Program continues to get the ``word-out`` about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State`s G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states`s program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State`s program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

  1. Distribution of guidance, navigation, and control functionality in the explosive ordnance disposal autonomous underwater vehicle robotic work packages program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Trimble; R. E. Markett

    1994-01-01

    The Explosive Ordnance Disposal Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Robotic Work Packages Program has developed a unique distribution of guidance, navigation, and control functions which facilitates the autonomous operation of small multi-thrustered unmanned underwater vehicles maintaining portability across various platforms which supply varying navigation information and employ differing control regimes. The unique distribution of these functions and shared mode-directed access to sensor

  2. A heuristically constrained dynamic perception architecture for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Robotic Work Packages Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Trimble

    1994-01-01

    A unique mission control and vehicle management architecture which facilitates machine-based interaction with underwater ordnance has been derived for the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Robotic Work Packages Program (EODRWP). A number of key concepts have been integrated to provide for deliberative sequential and reactive mission plan execution. These include dynamic perception, which provides for active sensor management and

  3. Phase 1 of the near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Appendix B: Trade-off studies. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traversi, M.; Piccolo, R.

    1979-01-01

    The SPEC '78 computer program which consists of mathematical simulations of any vehicle component and external environment is described as are configuration alternatives for the propulsion system. Preliminary assessments of the fundamental characteristics of the lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries are included and procedures are given for estimating the cost of a new vehicle in mass production.

  4. Human Power Vehicle Program. Final report, June 15, 1993--June 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Crowell, J.; Graves, P.

    1995-11-01

    The Human Power Vehicle Program was an intensive, five day a week, four week program designed to give middle school students the opportunity to ``be engineers``. During the month of July, Delta College, the Macro Michigan Multicultural Pre-Technical Education Partnership (M3PEP), and the United States Department of Energy sponsored a four-week learning experience in human-powered vehicles. This unique experience introduced students to the physiology of exercise, the mechanics of the bicycle, and the physics and mathematics of the bicycle. Students also participated in a three day bike tour. The Program used the Bike Lab facility at Delta College`s International Centre in Saginaw, Michigan. Students had the opportunity to explore the development and refinement of the bicycle design and to investigate it`s power machine-the human body. Interactive instruction was conducted in groups to assure that all students experienced the satisfaction of understanding the bicycle. The purpose of the Program was to increase minority students` awareness and appreciation of mathematics and science. The premise behind the Program was that engineers and scientists are made, not born. The Program was open to all minority youth, grades 8 and 9, and was limited to 25 students. Students were selected to participate based upon their interest, desire, maturity, and attitude.

  5. Aerial Image Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Robert E.

    1987-09-01

    Aerial images produce the best stereoscopic images of the viewed world. Despite the fact that every optic in existence produces an aerial image, few persons are aware of their existence and possible uses. Constant reference to the eye and other optical systems have produced a psychosis of design that only considers "focal planes" in the design and analysis of optical systems. All objects in the field of view of the optical device are imaged by the device as an aerial image. Use of aerial images in vision and visual display systems can provide a true stereoscopic representation of the viewed world. This paper discusses aerial image systems - their applications and designs and presents designs and design concepts that utilize aerial images to obtain superior visual displays, particularly with application to visual simulation.

  6. Numerical Simulation and Laboratory Testing of Time-Frequency MUSIC Beamforming for Identifying Continuous and Impulsive Ground Targets from a Mobile Aerial Platform 

    E-print Network

    Silva, Ramon Alejandro

    2013-04-25

    When a microphone array is mounted on a mobile aerial platform, such as an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), most existing beamforming methods cannot be used to adequately identify continuous and impulsive ground. Here, ...

  7. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  8. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  9. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moe, Donald; Longhenry, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Since 1972, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, has provided fi lm-based products to the public. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from 1937 to the present. The archive contains collections from both aerial and satellite platforms including programs such as the National High Altitude Program (NHAP), National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP), U.S. Antarctic Resource Center (USARC), Declass 1(CORONA, ARGON, and LANYARD), Declass 2 (KH-7 and KH-9), and Landsat (1972 – 1992, Landsat 1–5).

  10. Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program (update to automatic flight trajectory design, performance prediction, and vehicle sizing for support of Shuttle and Shuttle derived vehicles) engineering manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Trajectory Evaluation (MASTRE) program and its predecessors, the ROBOT and the RAGMOP programs, have had a long history of supporting MSFC in the simulation of space boosters for the purpose of performance evaluation. The ROBOT program was used in the simulation of the Saturn 1B and Saturn 5 vehicles in the 1960's and provided the first utilization of the minimum Hamiltonian (or min-H) methodology and the steepest ascent technique to solve the optimum trajectory problem. The advent of the Space Shuttle in the 1970's and its complex airplane design required a redesign of the trajectory simulation code since aerodynamic flight and controllability were required for proper simulation. The RAGMOP program was the first attempt to incorporate the complex equations of the Space Shuttle into an optimization tool by using an optimization method based on steepest ascent techniques (but without the min-H methodology). Development of the complex partial derivatives associated with the Space Shuttle configuration and using techniques from the RAGMOP program, the ROBOT program was redesigned to incorporate these additional complexities. This redesign created the MASTRE program, which was referred to as the Minimum Hamiltonian Ascent Shuttle TRajectory Evaluation program at that time. Unique to this program were first-stage (or booster) nonlinear aerodynamics, upper-stage linear aerodynamics, engine control via moment balance, liquid and solid thrust forces, variable liquid throttling to maintain constant acceleration limits, and a total upgrade of the equations used in the forward and backward integration segments of the program. This modification of the MASTRE code has been used to simulate the new space vehicles associated with the National Launch Systems (NLS). Although not as complicated as the Space Shuttle, the simulation and analysis of the NLS vehicles required additional modifications to the MASTRE program in the areas of providing additional flexibility in the use of the program, allowing additional optimization options, and providing special options for the NLS configuration.

  11. DUKSUP: A Computer Program for High Thrust Launch Vehicle Trajectory Design and Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurlock, O. Frank; Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    From the late 1960s through 1997, the leadership of NASAs Intermediate and Large class unmanned expendable launch vehicle projects resided at the NASA Lewis (now Glenn) Research Center (LeRC). One of LeRCs primary responsibilities --- trajectory design and performance analysis --- was accomplished by an internally-developed analytic three dimensional computer program called DUKSUP. Because of its Calculus of Variations-based optimization routine, this code was generally more capable of finding optimal solutions than its contemporaries. A derivation of optimal control using the Calculus of Variations is summarized including transversality, intermediate, and final conditions. The two point boundary value problem is explained. A brief summary of the codes operation is provided, including iteration via the Newton-Raphson scheme and integration of variational and motion equations via a 4th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Main subroutines are discussed. The history of the LeRC trajectory design efforts in the early 1960s is explained within the context of supporting the Centaur upper stage program. How the code was constructed based on the operation of the AtlasCentaur launch vehicle, the limits of the computers of that era, the limits of the computer programming languages, and the missions it supported are discussed. The vehicles DUKSUP supported (AtlasCentaur, TitanCentaur, and ShuttleCentaur) are briefly described. The types of missions, including Earth orbital and interplanetary, are described. The roles of flight constraints and their impact on launch operations are detailed (such as jettisoning hardware on heating, Range Safety, ground station tracking, and elliptical parking orbits). The computer main frames on which the code was hosted are described. The applications of the code are detailed, including independent check of contractor analysis, benchmarking, leading edge analysis, and vehicle performance improvement assessments. Several of DUKSUPs many major impacts on launches are discussed including Intelsat, Voyager, Pioneer Venus, HEAO, Galileo, and Cassini.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  13. Traveling Salesperson Problems for the Dubins Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ketan Savla; Emilio Frazzoli; Francesco Bullo

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study minimum-time motion planning and routing problems for the Dubins vehicle, i.e., a nonholonomic vehicle that is constrained to move along planar paths of bounded curvature, without reversing direction. Motivated by autonomous aerial vehicle applications, we consider the traveling salesperson problem for the Dubins vehicle (DTSP): given n points on a plane, what is the shortest

  14. Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Project Integrated Into NASA's Vehicle Systems Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    The Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project is formulated according to the Office of Aerospace Technology's objectives as outlined in the NASA Strategic Plan. It is directly related to the "protect the environment" objective and will make progress toward the "increase mobility" and "support national security" objectives as well. UEET technologies will impact future civil and military aircraft and will benefit the development of future space transportation propulsion systems. UEET Project success will, therefore, depend on developing revolutionary, but affordable, technology solutions that are inherently safe and reliable and thus can be incorporated in future propulsion system designs. In fiscal year 2003, UEET became part of NASA's Vehicle Systems Program and continues to evolve its programmatic role. The Vehicle Systems Program aims to develop breakthrough technologies and methodologies, push the boundaries of flight through research on advanced vehicle concepts, respond quickly to industry and the Department of Defense on critical safety and other issues, and provide facilities and expert consultation for industry and other Government agencies during product development.

  15. 76 FR 67287 - Alternative Fuel Transportation Program; Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program (Subpart F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ...Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, EE-2G...Mr. Dana V. O'Hara, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE-2G...these vehicles, as well as their energy efficiency (i.e., fuel economy),...

  16. C-20A\\/GIII Precision Autopilot Development In Support of NASA's UAVSAR Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Lee; Brian Strovers; Victor Lin

    The NASA Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) program is developing a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for ground measurements. A key element for the success of this program is a Platform Precision Autopilot (PPA). An interim vehicle (NASA C-20A\\/GIII) was selected to carry the radar pod and develop the PPA. The PPA interfaces with the C-20A\\/GIII aircraft by imitating

  17. EMERGING INTERFACE TECHNOLOGIES SUMMER PROGRAM FOR INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCHAND EDUCATION

    E-print Network

    Mayfield, John

    Teleoperation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Immersive Virtual Reality Art and Design Virtual Part Assembly with Haptic Feeback Immersive Virtual Reality Video Games Fire Safety Training using Virtual Reality Virtual residents. Women and minorities are strongly encouraged to apply. The program will be held at the Virtual

  18. Driving/Braking Force Distribution of Four Wheel Vehicle by Quadratic Programming with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Yuichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Chida, Yuichi

    This paper proposes a yaw rate tracking control method that distributes the driving/ braking force exerted on vehicles at the time of negotiating sharp turns and driving at high speeds. The proposed method employs quadratic programming to distribute the driving/braking force in order to equalize the tire load factor on all wheels and consider the limits of the driving/braking force. The yaw rate tracking performance can be improved even while driving at high speeds and negotiating sharp turns by setting limits for the driving/braking force, differential moment, etc. The effectiveness of our proposed method is proven by a numerical simulation.

  19. 64 FR 23906 - Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles; Compliance Programs for New Light-Duty Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-05-04

    ...approve each durability process. The Agency is requiring...manufacturer's durability processes to effectively predict...vehicles.'' During this review the Agency will evaluate...that the durability process will reflect in-use...improve the predictive capability of their...

  20. Environmental statement for National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Space Science, launch vehicle and propulsion programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA OSS Launch Vehicle and Propulsion Programs are responsible for the launch of approximately 20 automated science and applications spacecraft per year. These launches are for NASA programs and those of other U. S. government agencies, private organizations, such as the Comsat Corporation, foreign countries, and international organizations. Launches occur from Cape Kennedy, Florida; Vandenberg Air Force Base, California; Wallops Island, Virginia; and the San Marco Platform in the Indian Ocean off Kenya. Spacecraft launched by this program contribute in a variety of ways to the control of and betterment of the environment. Environmental effects caused by the launch vehicles are limited in extent, duration, and intensity and are considered insignificant.

  1. A data reduction technique and associated computer program for obtaining vehicle attitudes with a single onboard camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendura, R. J.; Renfroe, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the application of a previously method to determine vehicle flight attitude using a single camera onboard the vehicle is presented with emphasis on the digital computer program format and data reduction techniques. Application requirements include film and earth-related coordinates of at least two landmarks (or features), location of the flight vehicle with respect to the earth, and camera characteristics. Included in this report are a detailed discussion of the program input and output format, a computer program listing, a discussion of modifications made to the initial method, a step-by-step basic data reduction procedure, and several example applications. The computer program is written in FORTRAN 4 language for the Control Data 6000 series digital computer.

  2. Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, Douglas D.

    1999-03-01

    The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  7. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05...

  9. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  11. Hydrology with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic remote sensing currently depends on expensive and infrequent aircraft observations for validation of operational satellite products, typically conducted during field campaigns that also include ground-based measurements. With the advent of new, hydrologically-relevant satellite missions, ...

  12. Digital autoland system for unmanned aerial vehicles 

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Thomas William, Jr.

    2007-09-17

    performance in the presence of modeling uncertainties, and exogenous inputs such as turbulence. Quantitative Feedback Theory is an attractive control methodology for this application, since it provides good performance and robustness for systems...

  13. An Almost Global Tracking Control Scheme for Maneuverable Autonomous Vehicles and its

    E-print Network

    Chyba, Monique

    1 An Almost Global Tracking Control Scheme for Maneuverable Autonomous Vehicles and its control problem of tracking a desired continuous trajectory for a maneuverable autonomous vehicle. While applications of this control scheme include autonomous aerial and underwater vehicles, we focus

  14. Vehicle Routing for Food Rescue Programs: A Comparison of Different Approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes, Canan; van Hoeve, Willem-Jan; Tayur, Sridhar

    The 1-Commodity Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (1-PDVRP) asks to deliver a single commodity from a set of supply nodes to a set of demand nodes, which are unpaired. That is, a demand node can be served by any supply node. In this paper, we further assume that the supply and demand is unsplittable, which implies that we can visit each node only once. The 1-PDVRP arises in several practical contexts, ranging from bike-sharing programs in which bikes at each station need to be redistributed at various points in time, to food rescue programs in which excess food is collected from, e.g., restaurants and schools, and redistributed through agencies to people in need. The latter application is the main motivation of our study.

  15. A digital mileage calculating program for electronic toll collection by using vehicle positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chi-Chung; Tsai, Ching-Jung

    2007-11-01

    One of the fairest mechanisms of Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) would be distance-based charging, where vehicles would pay fees at a pre-specified rate per kilometer throughout the trip. The vehicle positioning system (VPS) based on GPS (Global Positioning System) has become the main ETC technology worldwide recently. One of the key algorithms for VPS is how to provide accurate distance calculation data. Therefore, a digital mileage calculating program utilizing the position information from a commercial GPS receiver to filter out noises should be developed to accumulate the total distance of a voyage incrementally. Due to environmental climates and built-up in a metropolitan area such as high buildings, bridges, radio stations, tunnels and traffic subways, signals of GPS satellites are easily susceptible to noises or even totally blocked. In such cases, the GPS position information loses fidelity. This paper presents a procedural program, incorporating an algorithmic software filter adaptive to different situations, is an answer to the above problems and is capable of providing the mileage of a voyage in real-time base with high accuracy compared to a mechanic mileage meter.

  16. Hierarchical distributed control for search and tracking by heterogeneous aerial robot networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jack Elston; Eric W. Frew

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical control archi- tecture that enables cooperative surveillance by a heterogeneous aerial robot network comprised of mothership unmanned aircraft and daughtership micro air vehicles. Combining the endurance, range, and processing capabilities of the motherships with the stealth, flexibility, and maneuverability of swarms of daughter- ships enables robust control of aerial robot networks conducting collaborative operations. The

  17. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3: Program cost estimates. Book 2: WBS and dictionary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    This document describes the products and services to be developed, tested, produced, and operated for the Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Program. The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS Dictionary are program management tools used to catalog, account by task, and summarize work packages of a space system program. The products or services to be delivered or accomplished during the STV C/D phase are the primary focus of this work breakdown structure document.

  18. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  19. Inherently low-emission vehicle program, estimated emission benefits and impact on high-occupancy vehicle lanes. Technical report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wyborny

    1992-01-01

    According to the detailed analysis in the report, ILEVs would provide substantial emission reductions compared to LEVs and other conventional vehicles. The evaporative and refueling emissions (vapor emissions) from ILEVs are estimated to be near zero. With the near-elimination of vapor emissions, ILEVs are expected to emit about one-half the volatile organic compound emissions as other LEVs. The report also

  20. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements study. Volume 3, book 1: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peffley, Al F.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study cost estimate and program planning analysis is presented. The cost estimating technique used to support STV system, subsystem, and component cost analysis is a mixture of parametric cost estimating and selective cost analogy approaches. The parametric cost analysis is aimed at developing cost-effective aerobrake, crew module, tank module, and lander designs with the parametric cost estimates data. This is accomplished using cost as a design parameter in an iterative process with conceptual design input information. The parametric estimating approach segregates costs by major program life cycle phase (development, production, integration, and launch support). These phases are further broken out into major hardware subsystems, software functions, and tasks according to the STV preliminary program work breakdown structure (WBS). The WBS is defined to a low enough level of detail by the study team to highlight STV system cost drivers. This level of cost visibility provided the basis for cost sensitivity analysis against various design approaches aimed at achieving a cost-effective design. The cost approach, methodology, and rationale are described. A chronological record of the interim review material relating to cost analysis is included along with a brief summary of the study contract tasks accomplished during that period of review and the key conclusions or observations identified that relate to STV program cost estimates. The STV life cycle costs are estimated on the proprietary parametric cost model (PCM) with inputs organized by a project WBS. Preliminary life cycle schedules are also included.

  1. Autonomous vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meyrowitz, A.L. [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States)] [Navy Center for Applied Research in Artificial Intelligence, Washington, DC (United States); Blidberg, D.R. [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States)] [Autonomous Undersea Systems Inst., Lee, NH (United States); Michelson, R.C. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States)] [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Smyrna, GA (United States); [International Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems, Smyrna, GA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    There are various kinds of autonomous vehicles (AV`s) which can operate with varying levels of autonomy. This paper is concerned with underwater, ground, and aerial vehicles operating in a fully autonomous (nonteleoperated) mode. Further, this paper deals with AV`s as a special kind of device, rather than full-scale manned vehicles operating unmanned. The distinction is one in which the AV is likely to be designed for autonomous operation rather than being adapted for it as would be the case for manned vehicles. The authors provide a survey of the technological progress that has been made in AV`s, the current research issues and approaches that are continuing that progress, and the applications which motivate this work. It should be noted that issues of control are pervasive regardless of the kind of AV being considered, but that there are special considerations in the design and operation of AV`s depending on whether the focus is on vehicles underwater, on the ground, or in the air. The authors have separated the discussion into sections treating each of these categories.

  2. Drogue tracking using 3D flash lidar for autonomous aerial refueling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao-I. Chen; Roger Stettner

    2011-01-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) is an important capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to increase its flying range and endurance without increasing its size. This paper presents a novel tracking method that utilizes both 2D intensity and 3D point-cloud data acquired with a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor to establish relative position and orientation between the receiver vehicle and drogue

  3. Kansas State University Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Year 1: First quarter report, July 2, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1991-12-31

    During the past fifteen years Kansas State`s faculty has been involved in research of alternative fuel vehicles. From formulation of fuels and automotive fuel storage to development of electronic controls, K-State`s faculty research has been ongoing. With the increased awareness of what is occurring to the world`s environment, the catalyst -- to ensure applied results from faculty research will occur -- has been activated. The Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program is the platform being used to demonstrate international efforts to bring a more acceptable daily mode of transportation to our highways. The first new electrical vehicle procured at K-State in the last ten years, a G-Van, is a technological dinosaur. It does not incorporate leading edge control or drive systems nor does it provide the type of vehicle frame and body to meet a majority of the daily commuter needs required by the American market. Yet, this vehicle represents initial efforts to bring a federally crash certified vehicle to the commercial automotive market. As such, it is an evolutionary step in the mass production of electric vehicle products.

  4. Aerial Photography Summary Record System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    The Aerial Photography Summary Record System (APSRS) describes aerial photography projects that meet specified criteria over a given geographic area of the United States and its territories. Aerial photographs are an important tool in cartography and a number of other professions. Land use planners, real estate developers, lawyers, environmental specialists, and many other professionals rely on detailed and timely aerial photographs. Until 1975, there was no systematic approach to locate an aerial photograph, or series of photographs, quickly and easily. In that year, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) inaugurated the APSRS, which has become a standard reference for users of aerial photographs.

  5. Quadratic programming-based approach for autonomous vehicle path planning in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Han, Jianda; Wu, Huaiyu

    2012-07-01

    Path planning for space vehicles is still a challenging problem although considerable progress has been made over the past decades. The major difficulties are that most of existing methods only adapt to static environment instead of dynamic one, and also can not solve the inherent constraints arising from the robot body and the exterior environment. To address these difficulties, this research aims to provide a feasible trajectory based on quadratic programming(QP) for path planning in three-dimensional space where an autonomous vehicle is requested to pursue a target while avoiding static or dynamic obstacles. First, the objective function is derived from the pursuit task which is defined in terms of the relative distance to the target, as well as the angle between the velocity and the position in the relative velocity coordinates(RVCs). The optimization is in quadratic polynomial form according to QP formulation. Then, the avoidance task is modeled with linear constraints in RVCs. Some other constraints, such as kinematics, dynamics, and sensor range, are included. Last, simulations with typical multiple obstacles are carried out, including in static and dynamic environments and one of human-in-the-loop. The results indicate that the optimal trajectories of the autonomous robot in three-dimensional space satisfy the required performances. Therefore, the QP model proposed in this paper not only adapts to dynamic environment with uncertainty, but also can satisfy all kinds of constraints, and it provides an efficient approach to solve the problems of path planning in three-dimensional space.

  6. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program semiannual progress report for October 1996 through March 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designers; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) cost effective high performance materials and processing; (2) advanced manufacturing technology; (3) testing and characterization; and (4) materials and testing standards.

  7. Evaluation of the vehicle inspection/maintenance program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Vera, M; Guzmán, E; Durán, J; Ramos, F; López-Salinas, E

    2003-01-01

    The Inspection/Maintenance Program in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) mandates a test every 6 months for all gasoline motor vehicles as one of the strategies to decrease emissions of vehicular pollutants. FTP-75 and ASM procedures were performed in our facilities to a fleet of 108 in-use motor vehicles before and after the approval of the I/M mandatory test When our laboratory-simulated ASM data were compared with those of the official certificate, a large difference was observed between them. On the other hand, audits at the test-only centers indicate poor maintenance of the analytical instruments and dynamometers. On the basis of our FTP results, an estimation of the emissions change for the MAMC fleet shows a net 4% decrease in CO emissions, while total hydrocarbons and NOx increased 9 and 8%, respectively. Our results indicate that the I/M system in the MAMC lacks the technical capability and investment to ensure that software and hardware are properly maintained, calibrated, and upgraded. Sometimes limited attention is paid to ensure adequate training of inspectors, auditors, and quality control staff. PMID:12542311

  8. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-03-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping.

  9. Detection and counting of cars in aerial images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hinz

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to automatic car detection in monocular large scale aerial images. The ex- traction is based on a hierarchical 3D-model that descri- bes the prominent geometric features of cars on different levels of detail. Furthermore, vehicle color, windshield color, and intensity of a car's shadow area are included as radiometric features. The model automatically adapts

  10. Obstacle avoidance during aerial inspection of power lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Williams; D. I. Jones; G. K. Earp

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overview of a research programme that aims to apply machine vision for guiding a small, unmanned helicopter during inspection of overhead electrical distribution lines. Briefly discusses the background and requirements for aerial inspection of power lines and states the advantages of using a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). Identifies the main obstacle to the use of RPVs in this

  11. 27. AERIAL VIEW OF ARVFS FIELD TEST SITE AS IT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. AERIAL VIEW OF ARVFS FIELD TEST SITE AS IT LOOKED IN 1983. OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST. BUNKER IS IN FOREGROUND, PROTECTIVE SHED FOR WFRP AT TOP OF IMAGE. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 83-574-12-1, TAKEN IN 1983. PHOTOGRAPHER: ROMERO. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  13. DOE KSU EV Site Operator Program. [United States Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas State University (KSU) Electric Vehicle (EV)

    SciTech Connect

    Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

    1992-01-01

    Kansas State University, with funding from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the DOE Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric of hybrid vehicle technology. This will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four(4) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort station wagons. This quarter's report describes ongoing public relations activities and meetings as well as presenting performance data for the electric vehicles. (GHH)

  14. Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

    1995-11-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

  15. A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

    2000-01-01

    Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

  16. AERIAL-MONITORING OPERATIONS DEVELOPMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rehm

    1961-01-01

    Operations were conducted in Plumbbob operation to obtain information by ; aerial, automotive, and ground monitoring radiological surveys for the purpose of ; evaluating and correlating the data and methods. Correlations were developed for ; the CDV-710 meter which perunit aerial readings as ground-level radiation ; intensities. However, development of a more suitable instrument is recommended ; for aerial monitoring.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  18. Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

    1999-01-01

    Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)

  19. Photochemical modeling of the impact of fuels and vehicles on urban ozone using auto/oil program data

    SciTech Connect

    Dunker, A.M. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States)] [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States); Morris, R.E.; Pollack, A.K.; Yarwood, G. [Systems Applications International, San Rafael, CA (United States)] [Systems Applications International, San Rafael, CA (United States); Schleyer, C.H. [Mobil Research and Development Corporation. Paulsboro, NJ (United States)] [Mobil Research and Development Corporation. Paulsboro, NJ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    An extensive set of emission tests has been conducted in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program on different fuel/vehicle systems. These emission tests have been used to model the impact of fuel/vehicle changes on ozone formation in Los Angeles, Dallas-Fort Worth, and New York in 1995 and 2005/2010. Light-duty vehicles are estimated to contribute 28-37% of the peak ozone in 1980/1985, decreasing to 7-18% in 1995, and further decreasing to 5-9% in 2005/2010. Gasoline changes that show promise in reducing the contribution of light-duty vehicles to ozone formation are reductions in olefin content, 90% distillation temperature, sulfur content, and vapor pressure. Results for a methanol/gasoline blend (M85) used in prototype flexible/variable fuel vehicles depend on the assumptions used to project future M85 emissions. A research test gasoline produced less ozone than the M85 cases in Los Angeles and New York and either more or less ozone than M85 in Dallas-Fort Worth, depending on the assumptions. Sensitivity tests for Los Angeles addressed uncertainties in the overall magnitude of emissions from light-duty vehicles, in the biogenic inventory, and in the representation of the atmospheric chemistry. 51 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Natural environmental service support to NASA vehicle, technology, and sensor development programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this contract involved definition of the natural environmental parameters affecting the design, development, and operation of space and launch vehicles. The Universities Space Research Association (USRA) provided the manpower and resources to accomplish the following tasks: defining environmental parameters critical for design, development, and operation of launch vehicles; defining environmental forecasts required to assure optimal utilization of launch vehicles; and defining orbital environments of operation and developing models on environmental parameters affecting launch vehicle operations.

  1. 73 FR 77577 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-12-19

    ...effects of aircraft and launch vehicles and impulsive noise due to...polar orbit on expendable (unmanned) launch vehicles, and for testing and evaluation...F-22 fighters, V/X-22, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, and KC-135 tankers....

  2. 40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-05...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

  4. Control allocation for yaw stabilization in automotive vehicles using multiparametric nonlinear programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tondel; T. A. Johansen

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the use of a nonlinear control allocation scheme for automotive vehicles. Such a scheme is useful in e.g. yaw or roll stabilization of the vehicle. The control allocation allows a modularization of the control task, such that a higher level control system specifies a desired moment to work on the vehicle, while the control allocation distributes this moment

  5. Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

  6. Aerial View of Slide

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Aerial view of slide at Daly City. This is the largest slide triggered by the earthquake in San Mateo County, displacing approximately 36,700 cubic meters (48,000 cubic yards) of material. The base is about 152 me (500 ft) across at its widest point....

  7. Aerial photographic reproductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1971-01-01

    Geological Survey vertical aerial photography is obtained primarily for topographic and geologic mapping. Reproductions from this photography are usually satisfactory for general use. Because reproductions are not stocked, but are custom processed for each order, they cannot be returned for credit or refund.

  8. Aerial Photography - USDA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Land Management Information Center

    This site from the Minnesota Land Management Information Center provides a collection of aerial photographs from agencies within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These photographs date from the mid-1930s to the present. Information and links related to these agencies are provided.

  9. Waikupanaha Aerial View

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Aerial view of the Waikupanaha (large plume) and West Waikupanaha ocean entries. The West Waikupanaha entry spans the coastline where the numerous small, wispy plumes are visible. The entries remain active as lava continues to enter the ocean through both lava tubes and surface flows....

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program. Quarterly progress report, April--June, 1994 (3rd quarter of FY-1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1994-10-01

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories; advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  11. Aerial view of Safe Haven roadway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This aerial photo captures many of the facilities involved in Space Shuttle processing. At center is the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). The curved road is the newly restored crawlerway leading into the VAB high bay 2. The road restoration and high bay 2 are part of KSC's Safe Haven project, enabling the storage of orbiters during severe weather. The road circles around the Orbiter Processing Facility 3 (OPF-3) at left. OPF1 and OPF-2 are on the right below the curving road. East of the VAB, the crawlerway also extends from high bays 1 and 3 to the two Shuttle launch pads.

  12. Experience with Ada on the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regenie, Victoria A.; Earls, Michael; Le, Jeanette; Thomson, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considerable experience has been acquired with Ada at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility during the on-going High Alpha Technology Program. In this program, an F-18 aircraft has been highly modified by the addition of thrust-vectoring vanes to the airframe. In addition, substantial alteration was made in the original quadruplex flight control system. The result is the High Alpha Research Vehicle. An additional research flight control computer was incorporated in each of the four channels. Software for the research flight control computer was written Ada. To date, six releases of this software have been flown. This paper provides a detailed description of the modifications to the research flight control system. Efficient ground-testing of the software was accomplished by using simulations that used the Ada for portions of their software. These simulations are also described. Modifying and transferring the Ada flight software to the software simulation configuration has allowed evaluation of this language. This paper also discusses such significant issues in using Ada as portability, modifiability, and testability as well as documentation requirements.

  13. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.

    1998-01-01

    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very nature will require specialized support for new databases and analyses for wind, atmospheric parameters (pressure, temperature, and density versus altitude), and weather. It is for this reason that project managers are encouraged to collaborate with natural environment specialists early in the conceptual design phase. Such action will give the lead time necessary to meet the natural environment design and operational requirements, and thus, reduce development costs.

  14. Control System Architecture for Unmanned Land Vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandor Szabo; Karl N. Murphy; Harry A. Scott; Steven A. Legowik; Roger V. Bostelman

    A second major effort is currently underway toward the development of vehicles with autonomous capabilities. The Autonomous Land Vehicle and Advanced Ground Vehicle Technology programs highlighted the first efforts in autonomous vehicles. The second push is fueled by the Office of the Secretary of Defense's (OSD) Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) program. The Surrogate Teleoperated Vehicle and Demo I programs have

  15. Development of a multi-media crew-training program for the terminal configured vehicle mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhouck, J. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center on the development of a multi-media crew-training program for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Mission Simulator. Brief descriptions of the goals and objectives of the TCV Program and of the TCV Mission Simulator are presented. A detailed description of the training program is provided along with a description of the performance of the first group of four commercial pilots to be qualified in the TCV Mission Simulator.

  16. Development of a multi-media crew-training program for the Terminal Configured Vehicle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. A.; Markos, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center on the development of a multi-media crew-training program for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) Mission Simulator. Brief descriptions of the goals and objectives of the TCV Program and of the TCV Mission Simulator are presented. A detailed description of the training program is provided along with a description of the performance of the first group of four commercial pilots to be qualified in the TCV Mission Simulator.

  17. A NASA F/A-18, participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project, flies over the Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A NASA F/A-18 flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center and Rogers Dry Lake on December 11, 2002. The aircraft is participating in the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) project. The 300-gallon aerial refueling store seen on the belly of the aircraft carries fuel and a refueling drogue. This aircraft acts as a tanker in the study to develop an aerodynamic model for future automated aerial refueling, especially of unmanned vehicles.

  18. Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

  19. Aerial Photography: Florida

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Millions of people fly over Florida each year, but how many of them really see anything? The University of Florida Map & Digital Imagery Library contains over 160,000 aerial photographs of the Sunshine State, and it is a tremendous resource for agronomists, ecologists, geographers, and historians. These particular aerial images were originally created to assist farmers in accurately assessing their farms and to provide information on soil conservation. This collection contains 120 maps that range from 1937 to 1990, and visitors to the site can use a Google Maps interface to search the maps by location. Alternately, visitors can use the "Flights By County" to look through the maps in places like Hillsborough and Alachua County.

  20. Evaluation of the National Archives program to convert nitrate aerial photographs of the United States to a stable-base safety film.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S., Jr.; Lyons, T.R.; Ferrigno, J.G.; Quinn, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the programme on reproducing the 1930's and early 1940's nitrate aerial photographs of large areas of the US onto stable-base safety film, and the proceedings of a February 1981 meeting at the National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, which discussed the programme and inspected the results of the new full-size (1:1), roll-to-roll conversions. The latter process was found to be acceptable to all current and envisaged future users of this photography.-R.House