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1

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is concerned with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A UAV\\u000a is a remotely piloted or self-piloted aircraft that can carry a payload\\u000a of cameras, sensors, communications, and electronic warfare equipment. A UAV may carry also a weapon, in which case it is\\u000a called an Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV). UCAV\\u000a s are effective attack weapons. Typical missions of UAVs

Alan Washburn; Moshe Kress

2

Robustness analysis of genetic programming controllers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While evolving evolutionary robotics controllers for real ve- hicles is an active area of research, most research robots do not require any assurance prior to operation that an evolved controller will not damage the vehicle. For con- trollers evolved in simulation where testing a poorly per- forming controller might damage the vehicle, thorough test- ing in simulation—subject to multiple sources

Gregory J. Barlow; Choong K. Oh

2006-01-01

3

Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided

Juan Carlos Gomez; Ephrahim Garcia

2011-01-01

4

Linear Programming and Language Processing for Human-Unmanned Aerial-Vehicle Team Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a manned-vehicle\\/unmanned-aerial-vehicle (UAV) mission system that enables an operator in a manned aircraft to issue mission level commands to an autonomous aircraft in real time. A natural language interface allows the manned and unmanned vehicle to communicate in languages understood by both agents. A task scheduler transforms the commands into a dynamic mission plan consisting of task

Tom Schouwenaars; M. Valenti; E. Feron; Emmanuel Roche

2006-01-01

5

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the subject of considerable attention in the governmental, scientific, and research communities. They are operated by onboard flight automation systems or remotely by a human pilot. Recently employed in Afghanistan and Iraq, UAVs can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, and even combat. They also have many non-military applications. These sites illustrate the diversity of UAVs and discuss new technologies being used in their design.An article from West Virginia University (1) gives an overview of UAV research being conducted at the institution. In addition to describing the software development for UAV control, the article effectively conveys what UAVs are and how they are used. Another resource that demonstrates the multitude of UAV applications comes from a company that specializes in their design (2). The UAVs described on the site range from high-flying solar powered aircraft to tiny MicroAir Vehicles. Many of the aircraft featured on the site were developed in conjunction with NASA, and a technical paper describing the development of one of the UAVs is provided. A Congressional Research Service report (3) focuses on military acquisition and utilization of UAVs. It briefly discusses early trials dating back to World War I and later efforts by the Israeli Air Force, but the majority of the report deals with current models and the gradual phasing out of certain manned flight missions. The High-Altitude, Long-Endurance UAV Certification & Regulatory Roadmap (4) is a massive online document intended to facilitate the creation of a National Airspace System that includes UAV flight. The downloadable version is nearly 500 pages in length and addresses the integration of UAVs in civil, commercial, and military applications. The University of Sydney has a group of students and faculty that are very active in UAV research and development. The group's homepage (5) showcases four UAVs created at the university, as well as providing several research papers that explore related design issues. A report from the University of Florida (6) proposes a computer vision-based system for creating a fully autonomous Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). The authors note that while considerable progress has been made in remotely piloted MAVs, efforts to develop a MAV that can pilot itself have met with limited success. To curb this trend, the researchers created a system that uses an onboard camera for horizon detection, and the details are presented in the paper. A news article from October 2003 (7) documents a groundbreaking achievement in aviation: the first laser-powered aircraft. Developed by researchers from NASA and the University of Alabama, the UAV is the target of a ground-based laser that charges the photovoltaic cells on board the aircraft. Another news story offers some surprising comments, including the suggestion that manned fighter jets will soon be a thing of the past. Published by Wired News in November 2003, the article cites several experts in unmanned aerial vehicle development. [CL

6

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Master Plan, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988 Congress directed the consolidation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) programs within the military Services into a joint program managed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the submission of a UAV Master Plan. The first UAV Master P...

1991-01-01

7

Biomimetic flapping wing aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vertical take-off and hover capable flapping wing aerial vehicle using a biomimetic approach; replicating the hovering patterns of dragonflies and hummingbirds. The prototype uses a spatial mechanism driven by a rotary actuator which generates an angle of attack during each wing stroke. A 98 g, 380 mm span two wing prototype capable of vertical take-off and

M. A. A. Fenelon

2009-01-01

8

A Javat universal vehicle router for routing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider vehicle routing problems in the context of the Air Force operational problem of routing unmanned aerial vehicles from base locations to various reconnaissance sites. The unmanned aerial vehicle routing problem requires consideration of heterogeneous vehicles, vehicle endurance limits, time windows, and time walls for some of the sites requiring coverage, site priorities, and asymmetric travel distances. We propose

R. W. Hardera

9

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles -- Benefits to the Warfighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the first crude aerial vehicles to the current systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have sought to garner some advantage over the enemy. The benefits to the warfighter also have evolved over the years from basic delivery platforms to enhanced sur...

S. Yadali

2006-01-01

10

Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

2011-01-01

11

C++ Architecture for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The C++ computer language is well suited to model multi-vehicle engagements. Its prowess is exemplified by the conversion of a unmanned aerial vehicle simulation from FORTRAN to C++. The new architecture accommodates besides UAVs and moving targets also t...

P. H. Zipfel

2007-01-01

12

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Maneuver System Schedule Includes Unnecessary Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We are currently reviewing the Joint Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program, including (1) the Hunter UAV system; (2) a variant of the Hunter, referred to as the Maneuver system; and (3) another Hunter variant for shipboard use. These systems are ...

1995-01-01

13

A Historical Perspective on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This ‘pictorial’ Chapter presents a historical perspective on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) starting from Ancient Greece\\u000a to the beginning of the 21st Century. The UAV history, from a very early dream to today’s reality is illustrated through a series of figures with detailed\\u000a legends that are arranged mostly chronologically; they reveal the unmanned vehicle evolution and designs over a period

K. P. Valavanis; M. Kontitsis

14

Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open project, dealing with autopilot design for autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is introduced in this paper. Networked hierarchical distributed control system is being proposed and its hardware and software structure is briefly described. Mathematical model of a small rotorcraft is presented and identification methodology and state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter are discussed. Control algorithms, based on PI, LQG

O. Spinka; S. Kroupa; Z. Hanzalek

2007-01-01

15

Spread spectrum applications in unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis is part of an ongoing Naval Postgraduate School research project to develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) using current off the shelf (COTS) technology. This thesis specifically evaluated a spread spectrum UHF data link between a UAV and ground terminal. The command and control (C2) process and its role as the fundamental premise of the warfare commander were discussed.

Philip K. Bess

1994-01-01

16

Usability Evaluation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Symbology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Symbology to represent fixed-wing and rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) was developed and compared to MIL-STD-1787C symbology. The symbology was evaluated in several simulated UAV operator tasks. In the first portion of the study, static screen-...

C. Hart H. P. Williams

2008-01-01

17

Modeling of sub-mini aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems in modeling of sub-mini aerial vehicles(SMAV) are discussed in this paper. Contraposing properties of SMAV, various\\u000a factors affecting dynamic performances and the airplane control are analyzed. Based on experiments, simulations, and computations,\\u000a a corrected result for dynamic characteristics of fixed-wing SMAV and several instances of simulation are given, and the model\\u000a of control and multi-stage PD control law are

liang Liu; yin-zhe Deng; yu-yi Zhai; zhen-bang Gong

2004-01-01

18

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been referred to in many ways: RPV (remotely piloted vehicle), drone, robot plane, and pilotless aircraft. Most often called UAVs, they are defined by the Department of Defense (DoD) as powered, aerial vehicles that do...

C. Bolkcom E. Bone

2003-01-01

19

Morphing Inflatable Wing Development for Compact Package Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

any military and commercial applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been identified and numerous vehicles are under development. Many of these vehicles have a need to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun launch or packaging into aircraft mounted aerial drop assemblies. One technology that has shown promise in achieving this goal is

David Cadogan; Tim Smith; Matt MacKusick

20

Continuous Airborne Communication Relay Approach Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of unmanned aerial vehicles being widely used in different areas, studies about increasing the autonomous capabilities\\u000a of unmanned aerial vehicles are gaining momentum. Today, unmanned aerial vehicle platforms are especially used in reconnaissance,\\u000a surveillance and communications areas. In this study, in order to achieve continuous long-range communication relay infrastructure,\\u000a artificial potential field based path planning of Unmanned

Omer Cetin; Ibrahim Zagli

21

Aerial Terrain Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper looks into the latest achievement in the low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology in their capacity to map the semi-development areas. The objectives of this study are to establish a new methodology or a new algorithm in image registration during interior orientation process and to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric products by using UAV images. Recently, UAV technology has been used in several applications such as mapping, agriculture and surveillance. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the usage of UAV to map the semi-development areas. The performance of the low cost UAV mapping study was established on a study area with two image processing methods so that the results could be comparable. A non-metric camera was attached at the bottom of UAV and it was used to capture images at both sites after it went through several calibration steps. Calibration processes were carried out to determine focal length, principal distance, radial lens distortion, tangential lens distortion and affinity. A new method in image registration for a non-metric camera is discussed in this paper as a part of new methodology of this study. This method used the UAV Global Positioning System (GPS) onboard to register the UAV image for interior orientation process. Check points were established randomly at both sites using rapid static Global Positioning System. Ground control points are used for exterior orientation process, and check point is used for accuracy assessment of photogrammetric product. All acquired images were processed in a photogrammetric software. Two methods of image registration were applied in this study, namely, GPS onboard registration and ground control point registration. Both registrations were processed by using photogrammetric software and the result is discussed. Two results were produced in this study, which are the digital orthophoto and the digital terrain model. These results were analyzed by using the root mean square errors and mean absolute error to determine the level of accuracy and the precision of photogrammetric products. It can be concluded that the new method of image registration by using the GPS onboard of the UAV produces medium accuracy result compared to the method that uses the ground control point. This new method can be used for the medium accuracy requirements. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can be used for several applications, which requires a medium accuracy.

Tahar, K. N.

2012-08-01

22

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress Toward Meeting High Altitude Endurance Aircraft Price Goals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Section 216 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1998 directed us to review the Department of Defense's (DOD) High Altitude Endurance (HAE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program to determine whether the average flyaway cost for the Gl...

1998-01-01

23

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

24

INFLATABLE AND RIGIDIZABLE WINGS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent shifts in tactical defense operations have led to a need for improved capabilities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Several vehicle types such as the Predator are currently operational, and numerous smaller specialized vehicles are under development. Many of the vehicles under development require the ability to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun

David Cadogan; William Graham; Tim Smith

25

Study of visual cues for unmanned aerial vehicle waypoint allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual cues for an operator station for unmanned aerial vehicles were evaluated in a simulation study. Vehicle position and heading information was displayed on a platform map, and simulated video imagery from the vehicle was provided. Two video camera orientations were used, facing forward or sideways from the vehicle. A camera field-of-view icon on the map was also tested. Subjects

Tan T. Trinh; James K. Kuchar

1999-01-01

26

Small thermal optics design for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, Military demands focused attention on small and light-weight system development. Above all, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is necessary to reduce weight of equipments. Therefore, we invest some expense in many years so that it might design more light optical system for UAV. Consequently, we can build new miniaturization and light-weight system. The most important thing is the system using just two motors for continuous zoom(x3 ~ x20), NUC(nonuniformity correction), Narcissus, Athermalization, and auto-focus functions. An MTF (modulation transfer function) and a detection range are also satisfied by the demands. We use CODE V and NVTherm program for design and analysis.

Lee, Sun Kyu; Na, Jun Hee; Yoon, Chang Jun; Oh, Seung Eun; Choi, Joongkyu; Pyo, Hyo Jin

2010-08-01

27

Real-time aerial video exploitation station for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

SET Corporation, under contract to the Air Force Research Laboratory, Sensors Directorate, is building a Real-time Aerial Video Exploitation (RAVE) Station for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). Users of SUAVs have in general been underserved by the exploitation community because of the unique challenges of operating in the SUAV environment. SUAVs are often used by small teams without the benefits

Jason B. Gregga; Art Pope; Kathy Kielmeyer; Yang Ran

2008-01-01

28

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs

A. Rango; A. Laliberte; C. Winters; C. Maxwell; C. Steele

2008-01-01

29

Moving Target Indicator (MTI) applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an overview of Moving Target Indicator (MTI) applications and employment on DoD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The ability to receive MTI data on ground, maritime\\/littoral or aerial moving systems significantly enhances the ability of a UAV to locate, track, classify, and identify enemy targets or platforms of interest An overview of the United States Air Force (USAF)

A. B. Muccio; T. B. Scruggs

2003-01-01

30

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: A Tool for the Operational Commander.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has become more dependent upon technology to maintain its warfighting edge in an era of reduced manpower and increasing weapon lethality. This paper addresses the employment of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to achieve a force multipl...

C. D. Perry

2000-01-01

31

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to improve border security is a technique that has garnered congressional attention. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the northern and southern borders of the United Stat...

C. Bolkcom

2005-01-01

32

Role of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Future Armed Conflict Scenarios.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not something new to write about. Especially since the Gulf War numerous articles on the subject have been published in military and aviation periodicals. The war added significantly to the information available on the c...

D. A. Longino

1994-01-01

33

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Their Value in Security Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Value of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Security Operations' was the focus of the Sixth Annual James H. Doolittle Conference, held on 21 April 1999 at the MIT Faculty Club in Cambridge, Massachusetts. General Doolittle, an aviation pioneer and military ...

L. J. Samborowski

2000-01-01

34

Search and Pursuit with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Road Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Across many rescue, surveillance, and scientific applications, there exists a broad need to perform wide-area reconnaissance and terrain surveys for which unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly popular. This thesis considers the task of using on...

M. Dille

2013-01-01

35

Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

2008-05-01

36

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

DeBusk, Wesley M.

2009-01-01

37

Radiation surveillance using an unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

Radiation surveillance equipment was mounted in a small unmanned aerial vehicle. The equipment consists of a commercial CsI detector for count rate measurement and a specially designed sampling unit for airborne radioactive particles. Field and flight tests were performed for the CsI detector in the area where (137)Cs fallout from the Chernobyl accident is 23-45 kBq m(-2). A 3-GBq (137)Cs point source could be detected at the altitude of 50 m using a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) and data acquisition interval of 1s. Respective response for (192)Ir point source is 1 GBq. During the flight, the detector reacts fast to ambient external dose rate rise of 0.1 microSv h(-1), which gives for the activity concentration of (131)I less than 1 kB qm(-3). Operation of the sampler equipped with different type of filters was investigated using wind-tunnel experiments and field tests with the aid of radon progeny. Air flow rate through the sampler is 0.2-0.7 m(3)h(-1) at a flight speed of 70 km h(-1) depending on the filter type in question. The tests showed that the sampler is able to collect airborne radioactive particles. Minimum detectable concentration for transuranium nuclides, such as (239)Pu, is of the order of 0.2 Bq m(-3) or less when alpha spectrometry with no radiochemical sample processing is used for activity determination immediately after the flight. When a gamma-ray spectrometer is used, minimum detectable concentrations for several fission products such as (137)Cs and (131)I are of the order of 1 Bq m(-3). PMID:19046635

Pöllänen, Roy; Toivonen, Harri; Peräjärvi, Kari; Karhunen, Tero; Ilander, Tarja; Lehtinen, Jukka; Rintala, Kimmo; Katajainen, Tuure; Niemelä, Jarkko; Juusela, Marko

2009-02-01

38

Mobile military security with concentration on unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigates the increasingly complex issues confronted when implementing security in the mobile computing and operations efforts with military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The new arenas, which have emerged within the last several years, include Homeland Security efforts, multiple simultaneous UAV operation, combat surveillance, arsenal delivery, and applications of Micro-UAV vehicles. These newer avenues for application of UAV technology

Warren R. Dufrene

2005-01-01

39

Nonlinear adaptive regulation control of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive regulation controller is presented for a class of underactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The vehicle's dynamics is subject to modeling impression associated with the inertia matrix, aerodynamic damping coefficients, and some other system parameters. The on-line parameter estimation scheme is combined with feedback control to develop the adaptive control laws. Lyapunov based approaches

Wei Zeng; Bin Xian; Chen Diao; Qiang Yin; Haotao Li; Yungao Yang

2011-01-01

40

MOTION PLANNING OF A FULLY ACTUATED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to generate a desired flight path to be followed by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with specified boundary conditions. The space is supposed without obstacles. After the user has defined the goal tasks, the path generator then determines a path for the vehicle that is a trajectory in space. The problem of path planning

Yasmina Bestaoui; Chouki Sentouh

2003-01-01

41

A Conceptual Analysis Surveillance and Armed Aerial Vehicles (Manned and Unmanned).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is a conceptual analysis of drones in the aerial surveillance and armed aerial vehicle role. Generic manned and unmanned aerial subsystems are compared against a generalized mission to address the question: 'what happens if we have drones'; and...

W. J. Tropf S. J. Lanigan W. A. Gilchrist

1969-01-01

42

Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

43

Developing safety critical software for an unmanned aerial vehicle situational awareness tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our application of the SPARK programming language to the development of flight control software for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The SPARK language was used during a senior-level software engineering course at the US Air Force Academy. This paper uses the year-long project from this course as an example application of SPARK. The process we

Ricky E. Sward; Mark Gerken

2006-01-01

44

Vision Assisted Autonomous Path Following for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a vision-based controller for an underactuated, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a pan-tilt camera unit (PTCU) to achieve the objective of following a leader vehicle autonomously. The relative position and orientation information is obtained from the monocular camera utilizing homography-based techniques. The proposed controller, built upon Lyapunov design methods, achieves uniform ultimate bounded

Vilas K. Chitrakaran; Darren M. Dawson; Hariprasad Kannan; Matthew Feemster

2006-01-01

45

Vision-Based Tracking for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a vision-based con- troller for an underactuated, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with ap an-tilt camera unit (PTCU) to achieve the objective of following a leader vehicle au- tonomously. The relative position and orientation in- formation is obtained from the monocular camera uti- lizing homography-based techniques. The proposed con- troller, built upon Lyapunov design

Vilas K. Chitrakaran; Darren M. Dawson; Hariprasad Kannan; Matthew Feemster

46

Unmanned aerial vehicles: modeling signal latency effects using arena#8482  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent military operations have showcased the abilities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), particularly in their ability to effectively perform those tasks too dangerous for manned aircraft. We examine non-autonomous operations of an UAV in those instances where the vehicle is used for laser target designation in support of precision guided munitions with non-line-of-sight command and control of the UAV. Non-line

Shane Dougherty; Raymond R. Hill; James T. Moore

2002-01-01

47

Target Tracking and Adversarial Reasoning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their ability to reach unique vantage points without endangering a human operator, camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are effective tools for military and civilian surveillance missions, such as target tracking. However, visually tracking targets can be challenging because of the inherent clutter and occlusions. To add to this challenge, adversarial targets will attempt to escape. To counter these

Ben Ludington; Johan Reimann; George Vachtsevanos

2007-01-01

48

Collaboration Network for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operation, Research and Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The type and number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is increasing rapidly. However, operational UAVs are a high-demand, low-density asset and access is extremely limited due to higher priority taskings of these systems. Researchers and developers of UA...

A. White

2005-01-01

49

Formation of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, control laws are designed to achieve desired flight formations for a group of unmanned (uninhabited) aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that the formation is led and managed by a leader UAV, which determines desired (for instance, safe and achievable) flight trajectories for a group of follower UAVs. Having the desired trajectories, control laws are designed to

T. John KOO; Shahram M. Shahruz

2001-01-01

50

RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class

Roberto Innocenti

2005-01-01

51

The Simulation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Stability Under Atmospheric Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preflight simulation plays a vital part in the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) design process to minimize the risk of loss during flight-testing. This paper describes the design of a simulation platform, using linear decoupling and small disturbance theory, to simulate the response of a UAV to gust disturbances. Comparison with actual flight data shows a close correlation with the simulated

Fei-Bin Hsiao; Min-Ju Hsieh; Meng-Tse Lee; Wen-Yin Chang; Yu-Hsu Chien; Tsung-Liang Liu; Sheng-Yen Hsieh; Richard Hirst

2005-01-01

52

Forced landing technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles : towards safer operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While using unmanned systems in combat is not new, what will be new in the foreseeable future is how such systems are used and integrated in the civilian space. The potential use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in civil and commercial applications is becoming a fact, and is receiving considerable attention by industry and the research community. The majority of Unmanned

Luis Mejias; Daniel L. Fitzgerald; Pillar C. Eng; Liu Xi

2009-01-01

53

Software Architecture for Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) performs various kinds of missions such as mobile tactical reconnaissance, surveillance, law enforcement, search and rescue, land management, environmental monitoring, disaster management. UAV is a complex and challenging system to develop. It operates autonomously in unknown and dynamically changing environment. This requires different types of subsystems to cooperate. In order to realize all functionalities of the

Mladjan Jovanovic; Dusan Starcevic

2008-01-01

54

A Failure of Imagination: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and International Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes recent advances in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and draws three conclusions. First, conventional military forces are highly vulnerable to armed UAVs. A small force of UAVs could decimate entire divisions of soldiers, armor, and artillery, eliminate the ability to resupply and sustain armies in the field, destroy all aircraft in a given theater, and put Nimitz-class

Stuart S. Yeh

2011-01-01

55

Information-Based Cooperative Control for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a distributed control algorithm to locate multiple mobile radio frequency (RF) targets using cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped only with Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and angle of arrival sensors. The proposed control algorithm considers the number of UAVs involved, sensor schedules, and sensor trajectories to increase the performance of cooperative UAVs localizing ground

Daniel Pack; George York; Rafael Fierro

2006-01-01

56

Nonlinear Adaptive Close Formation Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper treats the question of formationflight control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Inclose formation the wing UAV motion is affected by the vortexof the adjacent lead aircraft. The forces produced by these vorticesare complex functions of the relative position coordinates ofthe UAVs. In this paper, these forces are treated as unknownfunctions. For simplicity, it is assumed that the

Sahjendra N. Singh; Phil Chandler; Corey Schumacher; Siva Banda; Meir Pachter

2000-01-01

57

Simulation system of telemetering and telecontrol for unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) which is capable to observe the Earth has wide applications and large quantities, such as reconnaissance and surveillance, attack on the ground, fire-proof forest, and marine search and rescue, and so on. The system of simulation composed of tracking, navigation, telecontrol, telemetering, and flight control is introduced in this paper. The method of simulation on

Ding Wang; Jiadong Xu; Rugui Yao; Ruifeng Miao

2006-01-01

58

Conceptual designing — Unmanned aerial vehicle flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design procedure of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control system is discussed in this paper. Detailed discussion of important aspects of UAV relating to its role, mission, capabilities and their implications on the flight control system are discussed. This leads to the basic requirements for the flight control and then translates to the type of controller to be used

Tahir Hameed; Wang Wei; Ren Zhang

2009-01-01

59

Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment.

Eid, B. M.; Chebil, J.; Albatsh, F.; Faris, W. F.

2013-12-01

60

Fiber optic strain monitor for an uninhabited aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute for Scientific Research (ISR) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) will build and operate portable real-time fiber Bragg grating interrogator systems for monitoring strain in ISR's Multi-Modal Sensor (MMS) uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). ISR's UAV is constructed of fiberglass composites with aluminum stiffeners. The cargo bay and on-board electronics are intended to accommodate a variety of compact sensors.

Thomas Owens; Philip Pesavento; Robert Ice; Steven Knudsen; Mary Ann Harrison

2006-01-01

61

Autonomous Target Detection and Localization Using Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we present sensor implementation issues encountered in developing a team of cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles\\u000a (UAVs) for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance missions. UAVs that compose the cooperative team are equipped with\\u000a heterogeneous sensors and onboard processing capability. The sensor information collected by each UAV is constantly shared\\u000a among the neighboring UAVs and processed locally using Out-of-Order Sigma-Point

Youngrock Yoon; Scott Gruber; Lucas Krakow; Daniel Pack

62

Wind tunnel test of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted for full-scale model of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in Korea Aerospace Research\\u000a Institute (KARI) Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). The purpose of the presented paper is to illustrate the general aerodynamic\\u000a and performance characteristics of the UAV that was designed and fabricated in KARI. Since the testing conditions were represented\\u000a minor

Chung Jindeog; Lee Jangyeon; Sung Bongzoo; Koo Samok

2003-01-01

63

Visibility-constrained routing of unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Standard vehicle routing problems have been studied for decades in fields such as transportation, manufacturing, and commodity distribution. In this work, we proposed a variation of these problems that arise in routing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's) in the presence of terrain obscuration. Specifically, the UAV must visit a location from which the object on the ground in mountainous regions can be viewed without actually flying over the object. Numerical results are presented for near optimal and real time algorithms which have been developed using Lagrangian relaxation techniques. Directions for future work that include priorities, time windows, and routing multiple UAV's with periodic and dynamic changes in the object locations are discussed.

Buck, Keith R.; Gassner, Richard R.; Poore, Aubrey B.; Yan, Xin

1999-07-01

64

Pressurized structures-based hybrid unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the initial results of an investigation into building unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with pressurized structures-based (PSB) technologies. Basically, the UAV will be constructed in such a way that a considerable percentage of its weight will be supported by or composed of inflatable structures containing air or helium. PSB technologies can be employed in any number of UAV designs. The goals of this research are to ascertain feasibility of UAV construction using PSB technology and finding methods and designs employing PSB technology to increase vehicle performance for missions of interest to the military.

Edge, Harris L.; Brown, Ainsmar; Collins, Jason

2010-04-01

65

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

1994-09-01

66

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

1994-01-01

67

Infrared microsensor payload for miniature unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a category of aircraft small enough to be transported, launched, operated, and retrieved by a crew of one or two. The concept is not new, having been in limited use by the U.S. military over the past fifteen years, but interest in potential applications is growing as size and cost of the vehicles come down. An application that is particularly significant to the military and law-enforcement agencies is remote reconnaissance, with one or more onboard sensors transmitting data back to the operator(s) in real time. Typically, a miniature UAV is capable of flying a pre-programmed route autonomously, with manual override as an option. At the conclusion of the mission, the vehicle returns for landing, after which it can be quickly disassembled and stowed until its next use. Thermal imaging extends the utility of miniature UAVs to operations in complete darkness and limited visibility, but historically thermal imagers have been too large and heavy for this application. That changed in 1999 with the introduction of Indigo System"s AlphaTM camera, which established a new class of thermal imaging product termed the infrared "microsensor". Substantially smaller and lighter than any other infrared imaging product available at the time, AlphaTMwas the first camera that could be readily packaged into the nose of a miniature UAV. Its low power consumption was also a key enabling feature. Building upon the success of AlphaTM, Indigo then took the microsensor class a step further with its OmegaTM camera, which broke all the records established by AlphaTM for small size, weight, and power. OmegaTM has been successfully integrated into several miniature UAVs, including AeroVironment"s Pointer and Raven, as well as the Snake Eye UAV manufactured by BAI Aerosystems. Aspects of the OmegaTM design that have led to its utility on these and other platforms are described, and future prospects for even smaller microsensors are discussed.

Kostrzewa, Joseph; Meyer, William H.; Laband, Stan; Terre, William A.; Petrovich, Peter; Swanson, Kyle; Sundra, Carrie; Sener, Ward; Wilmott, Jay

2003-09-01

68

Development of a PWM Precision Spraying Controller for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controller for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) precision sprayer for agriculture using a TL494 fixed-frequency pulse width modulator together with a data acquisition board and developed software. An UAV can be remotely controlled or flown autonomously by pre-programmed flight plans. The PWM controller was implemented through the guidance system on the UAV

Hang Zhu; Yubin Lan; Wenfu Wu; W. Clint Hoffmann; Yanbo Huang; Xinyu Xue; Jian Liang; Brad Fritz

2010-01-01

69

Optimised flight control system with fault tolerance for an unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is a powered aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator and uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift which can fly autonomously. The optimal system parameters are efficiently shaped using the Integral squared error optimization and to improve the reliability of UAV the nominal control of UAV is improved. This is achieved by

V. Rajeswari; L. Padma Suresh

2012-01-01

70

Mesh stability of formations of unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Co-ordinated maneuvers are becoming more and more important in military as well as civilian applications. Advances in sensing, communication and computation are aiding in the design and development of advanced control technologies for these distributed, multi-vehicle systems. Some of the applications where coordinated control of a multi-vehicle system is required are, automated highway systems, formation flying of unmanned aerial vehicles for military surveillance and coordinated ocean floor mapping for autonomous underwater vehicles. For successful formation maneuvers of these vehicles we need to design the controller and communication structure so as to achieve classical stability of the formations. In addition to classical Lyapunov stability, one can imagine that these formations need to have the property of damping any disturbances which may and will arise in the course of operation. This thesis is concerned with the analysis and design of cluster controllers which achieve such disturbance damping. Roughly speaking, this property of disturbance damping and error attenuation is called mesh stability. The contributions of this thesis can be seen in three parts. The first part concerns analysis of a cluster of linear dynamical systems. It is shown that it is not possible to get scalable clusters if the cluster controllers focus only on the local information. The second part is analysis of a nonlinear look-ahead interconnected system. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing mesh stability have been presented. The results obtained using the Lyapunov theory based approach are compared with the input-output gain results for linear systems. Third part is the applications of the above theoretical results to a case of formation flying of unmanned aerial vehicles. A nonlinear helicopter model is used to test the results offered by previous theoretical work. As an initial step, a regulation layer controller based on differential flatness and dynamic surface control is designed for the helicopter. The thesis ends with some suggestions for future work along the directions presented in the main part.

Pant, Aniruddha G.

71

Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.  

PubMed

The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

2014-01-01

72

Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion  

PubMed Central

The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored.

2014-01-01

73

Unmanned aerial vehicle based agile optical beam steering system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the potential augmentation of a quasi-stationary Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with a highly agile beam steering optical system. In addition to the primary application of relaying laser power from a ground station to low earth orbit satellites, applications include (1) precision tracking and ranging at distances of a few hundred kilometers, (2) covert communications to distances of 80 km utilizing only a modulable corner cube at the receiving end and (3) pollution detection and control and (4) continuous meteorological analysis of high altitude wind, CO2 content, liquid water content, ice particle effective radius, effective drop size, optical depth and density, turbulence structure and emissivity profile.

DeSandre, Lewis F.; Bennett, Harold E.; Hyman, Howard

1995-04-01

74

Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

2014-06-01

75

Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2010-04-01

76

A MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV): SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND IMAGE ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-systems became relevant for applications in precision farming and in infrastructure maintenance, like road maintenance and dam surveillance. This paper gives an overview about UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) systems and their application for photogrammetric recording and documentation of cultural heritage. First the historical development of UAV systems and the definition of UAV-helicopte rs

Henri Eisenbeiss

2004-01-01

77

Visual Scan Patterns During Simulated Control of an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

TVARYANAS AP. Visual scan patterns during simulated control of an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV). Aviat Space Environ Med 2004; 75:531- 8. Background: This study investigated pilots' visual scan patterns on an uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) flight display that used moving textbox symbology to emulate vertical moving pointers for the primary flight instruments. Methods: Eye tracking measurements were recorded for five

Anthony P. Tvaryanas

2004-01-01

78

Fault tolerant attitude sensing and force feedback control for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two aspects of an unmanned aerial vehicle are studied in this work. One is fault tolerant attitude determination and the other is to provide force feedback to the joy-stick of the UAV so as to prevent faulty inputs from the pilot. Determination of attitude plays an important role in control of aerial vehicles. One way of defining the attitude is

Chirag Jagadish

2009-01-01

79

Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles: Airpower by the People, For the People, But Not With the People.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In one form or another, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have been employed for over 2,000 years. Lt Col Richard M. Clark's Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicles: Airpower by the People, For the People, But Not With the People, draws on that long history to ga...

R. M. Clark

2000-01-01

80

Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.  

PubMed

With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

2005-01-01

81

Unmanned aerial vehicle measurements of volcanic carbon dioxide fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first measurements of volcanic gases with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The data were collected at La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Italy, during April 2007, with a helicopter UAV of 3 kg payload, carrying an ultraviolet spectrometer for remotely sensing the SO2 flux (8.5 Mg d-1), and an infrared spectrometer, and electrochemical sensor assembly for measuring the plume CO2/SO2 ratio; by multiplying these data we compute a CO2 flux of 170 Mg d-1. Given the deeper exsolution of carbon dioxide from magma, and its lower solubility in hydrothermal systems, relative to SO2, the ability to remotely measure CO2 fluxes is significant, with promise to provide more profound geochemical insights, and earlier eruption forecasts, than possible with SO2 fluxes alone: the most ubiquitous current source of remotely sensed volcanic gas data.

McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Tamburello, G.; Hodson, A. J.; Gurrieri, S.

2008-03-01

82

Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by properly utilizing wind energy. Further research is proposed for the application of optimal flight in wind.

Qi, Ying

83

Distributed Actuation and Sensing on an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of effectors and sensors has been designed, tested and implemented on a Blended Wing Body Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The UAV is modified to serve as a flying, controls research, testbed. This effector/sensor array provides for the dynamic vehicle testing of controller designs and the study of decentralized control techniques. Each wing of the UAV is equipped with 12 distributed effectors that comprise a segmented array of independently actuated, contoured control surfaces. A single pressure sensor is installed near the base of each effector to provide a measure of deflections of the effectors. The UAV wings were tested in the North Carolina State University Subsonic Wind Tunnel and the pressure distribution that result from the deflections of the effectors are characterized. The results of the experiments are used to develop a simple, but accurate, prediction method, such that for any arrangement of the effector array the corresponding pressure distribution can be determined. Numerical analysis using the panel code CMARC verifies this prediction method.

Barnwell, William Garrard

2003-01-01

84

Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

Sabo, Chelsea

85

Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique featur...

S. M. Schoenung S. S. Wegener

1999-01-01

86

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - The Key to Effective Situational Awareness in Littoral Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the Vital Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) should play in providing much needed 'Eye in the Sky' situational awareness to Amphibious Ready Group (ARG) Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (MEU) operations in highly challenging littoral ...

D. M. Jacobsen

2001-01-01

87

Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment...

H. C. Haro

2010-01-01

88

Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV)Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment...

H. C. Haro

2010-01-01

89

Performance Analysis of a Cooperative Search Algorithm for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles under Limited Communication Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigates the impacts of realistic wireless communications upon a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) utilizing a distributed search algorithm. The UAVs are used to survey an area for mobile targets and they require communication to ...

K. M. Morris

2006-01-01

90

An Improved SIFT Algorithm for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform has the benefits of low cost and convenience compared with satellites. Recently, UAVs have shown a wide range of applications such as land use change, mineral resources management and local topographic mapping. Because of the instability of the UAV air gesture, an image matching method is necessary to match different images of an object or scene. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are invariant to image scaling, rotation and translation. However, the main drawback of a SIFT algorithm is its significant memory consumption and low computational speed, particularly in the case of high-resolution imagery. In this study, in order to overcome these drawbacks, we have analysed the construction of the scale-space in the SIFT algorithm and selected new parameters to construct the SIFT scale-space to improve the memory consumption and computational speed for the processing of UAV imagery. Here, we propose a restriction on the number of octaves and levels for Gaussian image pyramids. Our experiment shows that the proposed algorithm effectively reduces memory consumption and significantly improves the operational efficiency of the feature point extraction and matching under the premise of maintaining the precision of the extracted feature points.

Li, J. M.; Yan, D. M.; Wang, G.; Zhang, L.

2014-03-01

91

RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class II UAV. Consequently, these designs may favor combining simple RF sensor hardware with digital-signal processing (DSP) solutions over more sophisticated radar hardware. In this paper, we show the potential of simple, low cost RF sensors with hemispherical antenna coverage to overcome these limitations. The proposed RF sensor system used DSP and pre-defined UAV flight pattern to detect and track moving targets from range and Doppler information. Our objective is to conceive and model a suite of software options that, by combining UAV flight patterns and processing algorithms, will be able to detect and track moving targets. In order to accomplish this, we are building a simulation that uses sensor models, target models, and battlefield dynamics to predict the targeting capabilities of the RF sensor system. We will use this simulation (1) to determine the tradeoffs between sensor complexity (and cost) and the military significance of the information gathered, and (2) to describe sensor error budgets for endgame lethality models

Innocenti, Roberto

2005-05-01

92

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS(FAA Certificate of Authorization), and training(remote control piloting, UAV-specific instruction, FAA ground school and testing, FAA observer procedures, FAA medical Class 2 exam, and a private pilot's license). The relevance and need of all these to developing a UAV capability will be explained. While working through the necessary requirements above, we have also learned that we need to know how to handle extremely large and easily acquired data sets as well as to develop tools to orthorectify and mosaic individual UAV images for analysis.

Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

2008-12-01

93

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

2004-01-01

94

Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

2011-01-01

95

An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

1998-12-01

96

Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Routing with a Java-Encoded Reactive Tabu Search Metaheuristic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we consider the dynamic routing of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) currently in operational use with the US Air Force. Dynamic vehicle routing problems (VRP) have always been challenging, and the airborne version of the VRP adds dimensions a...

K. P. O'Rourke

1999-01-01

97

Vehicle detection and tracking in wide field-of-view aerial video  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a joint probabilistic relation graph approach to simultaneously detect and track a large number of vehicles in low frame rate aerial videos. Due to low frame rate, low spatial resolution and sheer number of moving objects, detection and tracking in wide area video poses unique challenges. In this paper, we explore vehicle behavior model from road structure

Jiangjian Xiao; Hui Cheng; Harpreet S. Sawhney; Feng Han

2010-01-01

98

The landing problem of a VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle on a moving platform using optical flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for hovering flight and landing control on a moving platform for a Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) by exploiting the measurement of the average optical flow. The VTOL vehicle is assumed to be equipped with a minimum sensor suite (a camera and an IMU), manoeuvring over a textured flat target

Bruno Herisse; Tarek Hamel; Robert Mahony; Francois-Xavier Russotto

2010-01-01

99

Technical Note: A low cost unmanned aerial vehicle for ship based science missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is compared with those already available and the motivation for its development is established. It is targeted at ship-based science missions and potential applications are described including a specific science case to measure white capping in the deep ocean. The current vehicle includes a range of more than 1000 Km, carrying a payload of 2

E. Waugh; M. Mowlem

2010-01-01

100

Assignment scheduling capability for unmanned aerial vehicles: a discrete event simulation with optimization in the loop approach to solving a scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many military planning problems are difficult to solve using pure mathematical programming techniques. One such problem is scheduling unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in military operations subject to dynamic movement and control constraints. This problem is instead formulated as a dynamic programming problem whose approximate solution is obtained via the Assignment Scheduling Capability for UAVs (ASC-U) model using concepts from both

Darryl K. Ahner; Arnold H. Buss; John Ruck

2006-01-01

101

Assignment Scheduling Capability for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - A Discrete Event Simulation with Optimization in the Loop Approach to Solving a Scheduling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many military planning problems are difficult to solve using pure mathematical programming techniques. One such problem is scheduling unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in military operations subject to dynamic movement and control constraints. This problem is instead formulated as a dynamic programming problem whose approximate solution is obtained via the assignment scheduling capability for UAVs (ASC-U) model using concepts from both

Darryl K. Ahner; Arnold H. Buss; John Ruck

2006-01-01

102

The development of an autonomous gust insensitive unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is designed towards eventual operation in harsh storm-like conditions is presented. Investigation of the aircraft equations of motion shows that the selection of certain aerodynamic derivatives has a significant effect on the gust response of a small unmanned aircraft. Analytical comparison of this newly formulated Autonomous Gust Insensitive Aircraft (AGIA) to a conventionally designed aircraft shows a significant reduction in undesirable roll motion caused by gusts. A simulation is presented showing that the AGIA is capable of operating in more extreme environments than a conventional aircraft, and puts less strain on the control system components in both extreme and calm environments. The role that aircraft size plays in gust response is also studied. Pilot instinct dictates that smaller aircraft are more difficult to fly in windy environments than larger ones. This phenomenon is investigated using an analytic approach, providing insight into why smaller aircraft are indeed more difficult to fly in more challenging environments. As an aircraft gets smaller, its natural aerodynamic modes and response get faster. In an ideal system, this does not limit small aircraft to poor performance (in fact it will be shown that idealized small aircraft theoretically perform better than their larger counterparts). A more realistic system is presented that includes not only aerodynamics, but also realistic sensor and actuator dynamics. It is shown that these additional dynamics become a limiting factor in control system performance, and thus limit the closed-loop flight performance of small aircraft in turbulent environments. It is shown that the AGIA design approach plays a more significant role the as an aircraft gets smaller. To provide experimental validation of the gust insensitive theory presented herein, a representative small conventional aircraft was built alongside a similar aircraft that incorporated the AGIA design characteristics. These two aircraft were flown simultaneously and autonomously using the autopilot developed by the Author. Data from this experiment strongly supports the hypothesis that the AGIA is less sensitive to gusts than its conventional counterpart, and that flight of the AGIA puts less strain on the control system components in flight.

Pisano, William James

103

Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

1999-01-01

104

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J.; Colozza, A.J.

1995-03-01

105

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

1995-01-01

106

Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

None

1984-06-01

107

Hardware Implementation of COTS Avionics System on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can serve as low cost and low risk platforms for flight testing in Aeronautics research. The NASA Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) and Experimental Sensor-Controlled Aerial Vehicle (X-SCAV) UAVs were developed in support of control systems research at NASA Ames Research Center. The avionics hardware for both systems has been redesigned and updated, and the structure of the EAV has been further strengthened. Preliminary tests show the avionics operate properly in the new configuration. A linear model for the EAV also was estimated from flight data, and was verified in simulation. These modifications and results prepare the EAV and X-SCAV to be used in a wide variety of flight research projects.

Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Kumar, Parth; Ishihara, Abraham; Ippolito, Corey

2010-01-01

108

Unmanned aerial vehicle micro platform for airborne radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Am icro-scale airborne sensor platform based on am icrocopter model that is equipped with a time-domain subsampling impulse radar will be presented in this work. A microcopter is an unmanned aerial system that uses all available engines for lift solely and is remote controlled by purely changing the rotational speed of the individual engines. The microcopter is used as an

Berthold Panzner; Andreas Jostingmeier; Abbas Omar

2011-01-01

109

76 FR 61750 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts...Comments on this Notice and Internet Access to Comments and Submissions...for assistance in using the Internet to locate docket...

2011-10-05

110

Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a theoretical perspective.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

111

Stability and Control Properties of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of considerable interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing concept has also been developed that has exhibited desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations and competition. This paper presents results from a wind tunnel investigation that sought to quantify stability and control properties for a family of vehicles using the aeroelastic design. The results indicate that the membrane wing does exhibit potential benefits that could be exploited to enhance the design of future flight vehicles.

Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Ifju, Peter

2001-01-01

112

Radiolocation System Using Distributed Sensor Array Onboard a High Altitude Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

High altitude aerial vehicle, or platform, is expected to help public safety by monitoring various kinds of radio transmission\\u000a with a high resolution, such as search and rescue signals and emergency calls, in addition to the optical monitoring and wireless\\u000a relay. Unmanned aircrafts or airships are the candidates for the platform vehicle with those purposes. This paper proposes\\u000a a system

Ryu Miura; Hiroyuki Tsuji; Derek P. Gray

2010-01-01

113

A Frugal Fuzzy Logic Based Approach for Autonomous Flight Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based autonomous flight controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Three fuzzy logic\\u000a modules are developed for the control of the altitude, the speed, and the roll angle, through which the altitude and the latitude-longitude\\u000a of the air vehicle are controlled. The implementation framework utilizes MATLAB’s standard configuration and the Aerosim Aeronautical\\u000a Simulation Block Set

Sefer Kurnaz; Emre Eroglu; Okyay Kaynak; Umit Malkoc

2005-01-01

114

Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

2012-01-01

115

A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or

Blake Almy Moffitt

2010-01-01

116

Novel multiple access scheme for wireless sensor network employing unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new MAC protocol applied for a new kind of data collection applications that use a wireless sensor network employed with one unmanned aerial vehicle (WSN-UAV). In this protocol, the sensors are classified in different groups based on priorities and communicate with the UAV by a CDMA-based transmission scheme. The Prioritized Frame Selection based CDMA MAC protocol

Tu Dac Ho; Jingyu Park; Shigeru Shimamoto

2010-01-01

117

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some

Yan Jin; Yan Liao; Ali A. Minai; Marios M. Polycarpou

2006-01-01

118

Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle 'Intelligence'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a 'Turing Test' for UAVs. Such a 'UAV Turing test' would be conducted by means of mission simula...

L. A. Young

2007-01-01

119

Advanced capabilities of low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle technology has continuously evolved since its development in the early 1980s. As these systems have matured, they have proven to be dependable, safe, cost effective alternatives for applications ideally suited for UAVs. This paper discusses the evolution of low-cost UAV systems and describes the performance capabilities of a typical low-cost UAV system.

Richard K. Bernstein

1994-01-01

120

Robust observer-based fault diagnosis for an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) methodology for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed. The fault diagnosis scheme is constructed based on observer-based techniques according to fault models corresponding to each component (actuator, sensor, and struc- ture). The proposed fault diagnosis method takes advantage of the structural perturbation of the UAV model due to

M. M. Tousi; K. Khorasani

2011-01-01

121

Advanced capabilities of low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle technology has continuously evolved since its development in the early 1980s. As these systems have matured, they have proven to be dependable, safe, cost effective alternatives for applications ideally suited for UAVs. This paper discusses the evolution of low-cost UAV systems and describes the performance capabilities of a typical low-cost UAV system.

Bernstein, Richard K.

1994-10-01

122

MAVwork : a framework for unified interfacing between micro aerial vehicles and visual controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debugging control software for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) can be risky out of the simulator, especially with professional drones that might harm people around or result in a high bill after a crash. We have designed a framework that enables a software application to communicate with multiple MAVs from a single unified interface. In this way, visual controllers can be

Ignacio Mellado-Bataller; Jes'us Pestana; Miguel A. Olivares-Mendez; Pascual Campoy; Luis Mejias

2013-01-01

123

Investigation in Free Space Optical Communication Links Between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For critical civil and military missions, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are continuously attracting attention. UAVs should collect data for a defined area with a variety of sensors. When these UAVs are operating in swarm formation, the observation area could be increased and it would also be possible to deal with a loss of a UAV. The big amount of

E. Leitgeb; K. Zettl; S. Sheikh Muhammad; N. Schmitt; W. Rehm

2007-01-01

124

Evaluation of an OPNET model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) was first used as early as the American Civil War, when the North and the South launched balloons with explosive devices. Since the American Civil War, the UAV concept has been used in some form in subsequent military operations. Over the last few years, there has been an explosion in the use of

Clifton M. Durham; Todd R. Andel; Kenneth M. Hopkinson; Stuart H. Kurkowski

2009-01-01

125

Adaptive aerostructures: the first decade of flight on uninhabited aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many subscale aircraft regularly fly with adaptive materials in sensors and small components in secondary subsystems, only a handful have flown with adaptive aerostructures as flight critical, enabling components. This paper reviews several families of adaptive aerostructures which have enabled or significantly enhanced flightworthy uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), including rotary and fixed wing aircraft, missiles and munitions. More than

Ronald M. Barrett

2004-01-01

126

Initial experiments on 3D modeling of complex disaster environments using unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has the potential to significantly improve the situation awareness of emergency first responders working at urban disaster sites. Having the characteristics of being small, light-weight and quickly deployable, UAVs offer the ability to fly over an urban disaster and provide intelligence to Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task force efforts before precious operational

Alexander Ferworn; Jimmy Tran; Alex Ufkes; Andrew D'Souza

2011-01-01

127

Airspeed control for unmanned aerial vehicles: a nonlinear dynamic inversion approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear airspeed controller for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). It is designed using the technique of nonlinear dynamic inversion. The thrust force of the UAV is generated by a propeller. The nonlinear dynamics of the airspeed are appropriately expressed as a function of the thrust force, which is a nonlinear function of the engine speed. The

G. Ducard; H. P. Geering

2008-01-01

128

Toward developing an optimal cooperative search algorithm for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search and surveillance operations, a team of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide a robust solution that surpasses in efficiency what can be achieved by a single aircraft with comparatively superior mobility and sensors. The key to unlock such potential is in cooperative decentralized control strategies that allow each UAV to independently determine its actions while aiming at

Pedro DeLima; Daniel Pack

2008-01-01

129

Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics,

G. C. Roberts; M. V. Ramana; C. Corrigan; D. Kim; V. Ramanathan

2008-01-01

130

3-D path planning for the navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles by using evolutionary algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military missions are turning to more complicated and advanced automation technology for maximum endurance and efficiency as well as the minimum vital risks. The path planners which generate collision-free and optimized paths are needed to give autonomous operation capability to the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). This paper presents an off-line path planner for UAVs. The path planner is based on

Isil Hasircioglu; Haluk Rahmi Topcuoglu; Murat Ermis

2008-01-01

131

Vibration control of a camera mount system for an unmanned aerial vehicle using piezostack actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work proposes an active mount for the camera systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in order to control unwanted vibrations. An active actuator of the proposed mount is devised as an inertial type, in which a piezostack actuator is directly connected to the inertial mass. After evaluating the actuating force of the actuator, it is combined with the rubber

Jong-Seok Oh; Young-Min Han; Seung-Bok Choi

2011-01-01

132

Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL\\/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g.,

Gloria L. Calhoun; Mark H. Draper; Michael F. Abernathy; Michael Patzek; Francisco Delgado

2005-01-01

133

Collision avoidance in a recursive nested behaviour control structure for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the collision avoidance behaviour in a recursive nested behaviour control structure for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles will be discussed. The architecture is an extension of the behaviour-based recursive control structure, which has been applied successfully to mobile robot applications. The system structure, as an abstraction of multiple cascaded control loops with feedback mechanisms, is robust against disturbances and

Amr A. Kandil; Achim Wagner; Alexander Gotta; Essameddin Badreddin

2010-01-01

134

Comparison of Cooperative Search Algorithms for Mobile RF Targets Using Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we compare two cooperative control algorithms for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to search, detect, and locate multiple mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. We assume the UAVs are equipped with low-precision RF direction finding sensors with no ranging capability and the targets may emit signals randomly with variable duration. In the first algorithm the UAVs

George W. P. York; Daniel J. Pack; Jens Harder

135

Methods and means of the computer-aided design of unmanned aerial vehicle model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work contains the analysis of the design methodology of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), which is able to carry out environmental monitoring, define the location of various objects and targets with high accuracy, map the seats of fire and areas of environmental contamination, fulfil patrolling functions to solve the tasks of the National Armed Forces and police, carry out

A. Urbahs; M. Urbaha; V. Petrovs; A. Jakovlevs

2009-01-01

136

Adaptive beamforming antenna scheme to minimize the interference in a unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) MANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) network is a network consisting of lying UAVs with communication capabilities. There are many technical challenges and problems due to a highly dynamic and mobile UAV network environment. In this paper, we focus on an inter-node interference problem. To overcome the interference problem and guarantee the communication quality, we propose an adaptive beamforming antenna scheme to

Seong Hwan Kim; Byoung Hoon Jung; Dan Keun Sung

2009-01-01

137

Enabling persistent presence? Performing the embodied geopolitics of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle assemblage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used to provide surveillance and attack capabilities within war zones. At the heart of much of the rhetoric about these aircraft is their supposed ability to enable persistent presence across the battlespace. They are also unique in that they actively distance the aircrew from the aircraft. This paper seeks to question whether

Alison J. Williams

2011-01-01

138

Scene-centric identification and retrieval of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) video segments  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the acceptance of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a primary platform within the Department of Defense (DOD) for gathering intelligence data, the amount of video information being recorded, analyzed, and archived continues to grow. Mechanisms for quickly locating and retrieving video segments of interest amongst the many hours of recorded video are required to accommodate the rapid turnaround expected

WALTER T. BERRIDGE; MICHAEL L. TALBERT

2000-01-01

139

Stabilization of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Model without Velocity Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to design guidance and control laws for small vertical take off and landing unmanned aerial vehicles when no measurement of linear velocity or angular velocity is available. The control strategy is based on the introduction of virtual states in the state equation of the system and allows the design of stabilizing feedback controllers without using

Sylvain Bertrand; Tarek Hamel; Hélène Piet-lahanier

2007-01-01

140

Neural Adaptive Flight Control Testing on an Unmanned Experimental Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have demonstrated potential as being effective platforms for supporting scientific and exploratory missions. They are capable of performing long endurance flights, and reaching remote areas that may be too dangerous for humans. As their role and types of missions expand, challenges are presented which require onboard systems to have increasingly higher levels of intelligence and adaptability. Missions

Corey Ippolito; Yoo-Hsiu Yeh

141

Design considerations for a low altitude long endurance solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents design considerations for a low altitude long endurance solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle (LALE UAV). The considerations addressed include the determination of the available solar power, the design of the UAV wing for long endurance flights and the determination of the electrical power and energy balance of the UAV. Using these considerations, a solar powered UAV was

J. Meyer; J. A. F. du Plessis; P. Ellis; W. Clark

2007-01-01

142

Investigation of the Flight Control Requirements of a Half-Scale Ducted Fan Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this investigation was to study the requirements to fly a previously constructed half-scale ducted fan Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in horizontal and vertical flight as a proof of concept for a full-scale UAV of similar design. The following ...

M. A. Brynestad

1992-01-01

143

ANALYSIS OF A FEASIBLE PULSED-POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Electric Aircraft technology enables the power supply of electric energy weapons such as high-power microwave and laser weapons. Aspects of electric power generation, energy storage, distribution and pulse-conditioning systems for the power supply of directed energy weapons in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle are addressed in this paper. A trend in aircraft design is to electrify more parts of the aircraft

L. Austrin; M. Torabzadeh-Tari; A. Larsson

144

Using Continuous-Planning Techniques to Achieve Autonomy and Coordination Among Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems exhibit shortcomings in providing continuous, responsive, timely, and detailed information and targeting support to Army tactical commander's combat operations in an Army XXI battlespace. To synchronize Tactical UAV missions with supported operations, time is the critical element. Anything that can reduce TUAV planning time, while maintaining plan effectiveness, will expedite execution of a TUAV's

Gerald M. Powell

145

Nonlinear trajectory control of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a nonlinear control system for flight trajectory control of flapping Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs), subjected to wind. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the dynamic study and fabrication of the MAV, biomimetic principles are considered as the best inspiration for the MAV's flight as well as design constraints. The blade element theory, which

Esmaeel Khanmirza; Aghil Yousefi-Koma; Bahram Tarvirdizadeh

2012-01-01

146

Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance - is a small (120 kg), nuclear-powered Titan airplane in the Discovery\\/New Frontiers class based on the concept of Lemke (2008 IPPW). The scientific goals of the mission are designed around the unique flexibility offered by an airborne platform: to explore Titan's diversity of surface landforms, processes, and

Simon A. Kattenhorn; J. W. Barnes; C. P. McKay; L. Lemke; R. A. Beyer; J. Radebaugh; M. Adamkovics; D. H. Atkinson; D. M. Burr; T. Colaprete; R. Foch; S. Le Mouélic; J. Merrison; J. Mitchell; S. Rodriguez; E. Schaller

2010-01-01

147

On-board multi-objective mission planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for automated mission planning is presented with a view to operate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper describes methods for modelling decision variables, for enroute flight planning under visual flight rules (VFR). For demonstration purposes, the task of delivering a medical package to a remote location was chosen. Decision variables include fuel

Paul Pao-Yen Wu; Duncan Campbell; Torsten Merz

2009-01-01

148

Fast trajectory planning based on in-flight waypoints for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose an efficient algorithm for trajectory planning of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in 2D spaces. This paper has been motivated by the challenge to develop a fast trajectory planning algorithm for autonomous UAVs through mid-course waypoints (WPs). It is assumed that there is no prior knowledge of these WPs, and their

A. R. Babaei; M. Mortazavi

2010-01-01

149

Cyber security threat analysis and modeling of an unmanned aerial vehicle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in technology for miniature electronic military equipment and systems have led to the emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as the new weapons of war and tools used in various other areas. UAVs can easily be controlled from a remote location. They are being used for critical operations, including offensive, reconnaissance, surveillance and other civilian missions. The need to

Weiqing Sun

2012-01-01

150

Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications.

Udin, W. S.; Ahmad, A.

2014-02-01

151

Trajectory planning for unmanned aerial vehicles: a network optimization approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new approach for trajectory planning of air vehicles. It considers scenarios with risk areas and forbidden\\u000a zones and takes into account the maneuverability of the air vehicle. It is flexible as to allow different kinds of objective\\u000a functions such as minimizing risk, flight path length or flight time, and allows to implement constraints on fuel consumption

Luitpold Babel

152

Safe Receding Horizon Control of an Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of designing a real time high performance controller and trajectory generator for air vehicles. The control objective is to use information about terrain and enemy threats to fly low and avoid radar exposure on the way to a given target. The proposed algorithm builds on the well known approach of receding horizon control (RHC) combined

David A. Anisi; P. Ogren; J. W. C. Robinson

2006-01-01

153

Real Time Dynamic Trajectory Smoothing for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents a real-time, feasible, trajectory generation algorithm for unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) flyingthrough a sequence of waypoints. Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is used to demonstrate that the transitions generatedby the algorithm between straight-line path segments connecting waypoints are time optimal. In addition, the algorithmcan be configured so that the dynamically feasible trajectory has the same path length as

Erik P. Anderson; Randal W. Beard; Timothy W. McLain

2003-01-01

154

Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

2005-01-01

155

Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

156

Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite their lack of stereoscopy, insects infer distances to potential obstacles and other objects from image motion cues that result from their own motions in the environment. The concept of motion of texture in images as a source of motion cues is denoted generally as the concept of optic or optical flow. Computationally, a strategy based on optical flow is simpler than is stereoscopy for avoiding hazards and following terrain. Hence, this strategy offers the potential to design vision-based control computing subsystems that would be more compact, would weigh less, and would demand less power than would subsystems of equivalent capability based on a conventional stereoscopic approach.

Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2005-01-01

157

Monitoring agricultural crops using a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing has been identified as a key technology to allow near real-time detection and diagnosis of crop status at the field level. Although satellite based remote sensing techniques have already proven to be relevant for many requirements of crop inventory and monitoring, they might lack flexibility to support anomaly detection at specific moments over the growing season. Imagery taken from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are shown to be an effective alternative platform for crop monitoring, given their potential of high spatial and temporal resolution, and their high flexibility in image acquisition programming. In addition, several studies have shown that an increased spectral resolution as available from hyperspectral systems provide the opportunity to estimate biophysical properties like leaf-area-index (LAI), chlorophyll and leaf water content with improved accuracies. To investigate the opportunities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in operational crop monitoring, we have developed a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system (< 2 kg) suitable to be mounted on small UAVs. Its composed of an octocopter UAV-platform with a pushbroom spectrometer consisting of a spectrograph, an industrial camera functioning as frame grabber, storage device, and computer, a separate INS and finally a photogrammetric camera. The system is able to produce georeferenced and georectified hyperspectral data cubes in the 400-1000 nm spectral range at 10-50 cm resolution. The system is tested in a fertilization experiment for a potato crop on a 12 ha experimental field in the South of the Netherlands. In the experiment UAV-based hyperspectral images were acquired on a weekly basis together with field data on chlorophyll as indicator for the nitrogen situation of the crop and leaf area index (LAI) as indicator for biomass status. Initially, the quality aspects of the developed light-weight hyperspectral mapping system will presented with regard to its radiometric and geometric quality. Next we would like to present the relations between sensor derived spectral measurements and crop status variables for a time-series of measurements over the growing season. In addition, the spatial variation of crop characteristics within the field can be adopted for variable rate application of fertilizers within the field. The outcome of the experiments should guide the operational use of UAV based systems in precision agriculture systems.

Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Bartholomeus, Harm; Mücher, Sander; Becker, Rolf

2014-05-01

158

Simulation and Flight Control of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of continued interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing has also been developed that exhibits desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations, competition, and in prior aerodynamics studies. This paper presents a simulation model and an assessment of flight control characteristics of the vehicle. Linear state space models of the vehicle associated with typical trimmed level flight conditions and which are suitable for control system design are presented as well. The simulation is used as the basis for the design of a measurement based nonlinear dynamic inversion control system and outer loop guidance system. The vehicle/controller system is the subject of ongoing investigations of autonomous and collaborative control schemes. The results indicate that the design represents a good basis for further development of the micro aerial vehicle for autonomous and collaborative controls research.

Waszak, Martin; Davidson, John B.; Ifju, Peter G.

2002-01-01

159

An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

2002-01-01

160

Adaptive aerostructures: the first decade of flight on uninhabited aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although many subscale aircraft regularly fly with adaptive materials in sensors and small components in secondary subsystems, only a handful have flown with adaptive aerostructures as flight critical, enabling components. This paper reviews several families of adaptive aerostructures which have enabled or significantly enhanced flightworthy uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs), including rotary and fixed wing aircraft, missiles and munitions. More than 40 adaptive aerostructures programs which have had a direct connection to flight test and/or production UAVs, ranging from hover through hypersonic, sea-level to exo-stratospheric are examined. Adaptive material type, design Mach range, test methods, aircraft configuration and performance of each of the designs are presented. An historical analysis shows the evolution of flightworthy adaptive aerostructures from the earliest staggering flights in 1994 to modern adaptive UAVs supporting live-fire exercises in harsh military environments. Because there are profound differences between bench test, wind tunnel test, flight test and military grade flightworthy adaptive aerostructures, some of the most mature industrial design and fabrication techniques in use today will be outlined. The paper concludes with an example of the useful load and performance expansions which are seen on an industrial, military-grade UAV through the use of properly designed, flight-hardened adaptive aerostructures.

Barrett, Ronald M.

2004-07-01

161

Neural Network Control of a Parallel Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, or reconnaissance (ISR). The benefits in...

F. G. Harmon A. A. Frank J. Chattot S. S. Joshi

2004-01-01

162

Environmental Assessment for Routine and Recurring Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Operations at Edwards Air Force Base, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental impacts associated with the flight operations for test and evaluation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by the Air Force Flight Test Center within the R-2508 Complex of special use airspace and...

2006-01-01

163

Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cultural debate exists to determine if the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) should be operated by rated pilots, commissioned officers, or enlisted personnel. Each military service has historically tr...

K. L. Heiss

2012-01-01

164

Reliability in Automated Aids for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control: Evaluating a Model of Automation Dependence in High Workload.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-four participants flew a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through ten mission legs while searching for targets of opportunity and monitoring system parameters. Participants were assisted by automation which provided auditory alerts in respon...

C. D. Wickens S. Dixon

2004-01-01

165

Comparison of track-to-track fusion algorithms using video sensors on multiple unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance and ground target tracking using multiple electro-optical and infrared video sensors onboard unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has drawn a great deal of interest in recent years. We compare a number of track-to-track fusion algorithms using a single target with the nearly constant velocity dynamic model and two UAVs. A local tracker is associated with each UAV and processes video

Mahendra Mallick; K. C. Chang

2008-01-01

166

Cognitive Task Analysis for Developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Wilderness Search Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilderness search and rescue (WiSAR) requires thousands of hours of search over large and complex terrains. Mini-UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) may dramatically improve WiSAR search efficiency. Early field trials in UAV-enabled WiSAR indicated a need to improve the human-UAV interaction, the coordination between the UAV and ground search resources, and the UAV technology. A cognitive task analysis was conducted to

Julie A. Adams; Curtis M. Humphrey; Michael A. Goodrich; Joseph L. Cooper; Bryan S. Morse; Cameron Engh; Nathan Rasmussen

2009-01-01

167

Control and display stations for simultaneous multiple dissimilar unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRL Optical Sciences Division has developed and demonstrated ground and airborne-based control, display, and exploitation stations for simultaneous use of multiple dissimilar unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. The demonstrated systems allow operation on airborne and ground mobile platforms and allow for the control and exploitation of multiple on-board airborne and\\/or remote unmanned sensor systems

Dale C. Linne von Berg; Michael D. Duncan; John G. Howard; Melvin R. Kruer; John N. Lee

2005-01-01

168

Autonomous feature following for visual surveillance using a small unmanned aerial vehicle with gimbaled camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents the development of feature following control and distributed navigation algorithms for visual surveillance\\u000a using a small unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a low-cost imaging sensor unit. An efficient map-based feature generation\\u000a and following control algorithm is developed to make an onboard imaging sensor to track a target. An efficient navigation\\u000a system is also designed for real-time position

Deok-Jin Lee; Isaac Kaminer; Vladimir Dobrokhodov; Kevin Jones

2010-01-01

169

A Robust Mobile Target Localization Method for Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sensor Fusion Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current unmanned systems research areas at the US Air Force Academy is finding robust methods to locate ground\\u000a mobile targets using multiple, cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In our previous work (Plett et al., Lect Notes\\u000a Control Inf Sci 369:22–44, 2007), we showed an effective method to search, detect, and localize static ground targets. The current focus

Hyukseong Kwon; Daniel J. Pack

170

Neural network based feedback linearization control of an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a flight control design for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a nonlinear autoregressive moving average\\u000a (NARMA-L2) neural network based feedback linearization and output redefinition technique. The UAV investigated is non-minimum\\u000a phase. The output redefinition technique is used in such a way that the resulting system to be inverted is a minimum phase\\u000a system. The NARMA-L2 neural

Dan Necsulescu; Yi-Wu Jiang; Bumsoo Kim

2007-01-01

171

Conceptual Design of a Personal Aerial Vehicle Using Co Flow Jet Airfoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flying wing personal aerial vehicle (PAV) is designed using a co-flow jet airfoil (CFJ); it is designed to take-off and land on regular roads and highways, at take-off speed of 60mph. The advantages of using CFJ throughout the entire PAV are the enhanced lift\\/stall margin and thrust generation. It has a targeted range of 500miles, at a cruise mach

Patricia X. Coronado; Brandon Cuffie; Diego Saer; Ge-Cheng Zha

172

Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

2011-01-01

173

Decentralized target geolocation for unmanned aerial vehicle with sensor bias estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the decentralized approach of target geolocation and sensor bias estimation for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles with bearing angle sensors. The bias of bearing sensor is crucial source that impoverish accuracy of target geolocation. The decentralized estimation approach utilizes the information filtering and dual estimation. The local estimator running in each vehicle estimates the target motion and its sensor bias simultaneously in dual estimation framework. The dual estimation consists of two parallel filters, which are the state filter for target motion and the parameter filter for sensor bias. The information increments of target motion in local vehicles are shared with other vehicles in information filtering framework which is suitable for multiple sensor estimation than conventional Kalman filter. Performance comparison of the proposed decentralized geolocation algorithm with bias estimation with the centralized approaches is demonstrated by numerical simulation.

Baek, Kwangyul; Bang, Hyochoong

2012-11-01

174

Robust vehicle detection in aerial images based on salient region selection and superpixel classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For detecting vehicles in large scale aerial images we first used a non-parametric method proposed recently by Rosin to define the regions of interest, where the vehicles appear with dense edges. The saliency map is a sum of distance transforms (DT) of a set of edges maps, which are obtained by a threshold decomposition of the gradient image with a set of thresholds. A binary mask for highlighting the regions of interest is then obtained by a moment-preserving thresholding of the normalized saliency map. Secondly, the regions of interest were over-segmented by the SLIC superpixels proposed recently by Achanta et al. to cluster pixels into the color constancy sub-regions. In the aerial images of 11.2 cm/pixel resolution, the vehicles in general do not exceed 20 x 40 pixels. We introduced a size constraint to guarantee no superpixels exceed the size of a vehicle. The superpixels were then classified to vehicle or non-vehicle by the Support Vector Machine (SVM), in which the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and the Linear Binary Pattern (LBP) texture features were used. Both features were extracted at two scales with two size patches. The small patches capture local structures and the larger patches include the neighborhood information. Preliminary results show a significant gain in the detection. The vehicles were detected with a dense concentration of the vehicle-class superpixels. Even dark color cars were successfully detected. A validation process will follow to reduce the presence of isolated false alarms in the background.

Sahli, Samir; Duval, Pierre-Luc; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2011-05-01

175

US Army remotely piloted vehicle supporting technology program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Essential technology programs that lead to the full scale engineering development of the Aquila Remotely Piloted Vehicle system for U.S. Army are described. The Aquila system uses a small recoverable and reusable RPV to provide target acquisition, designation, and aerial reconnaissance mission support for artillery and smart munitions. Developments that will provide growth capabilities to the Aquila RPV system, as well as future RPV mission concepts being considered by the U.S. Army are presented.

Gossett, T. D.

1981-01-01

176

The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

2014-02-01

177

Reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

178

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

179

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

1992-05-01

180

Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

2014-04-01

181

Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively useful remote sensing reflectance from airborne imagery. Measurements collected near the water's surface or from adjacent shoreline areas are being used to refine the spectral corrections or assess the validity of the hyperspectral imagery. The imagery collected corroborates the importance of validation measurements, sensor selection, and radiative transfer models for the interpretation of UAV based imagery. The fieldwork and subsequent analysis show some of the technical challenges that exist for radiometric and atmospheric corrections, and the use of UAVs for coastal research.

English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

2013-12-01

182

Joint Application of Spread Spectrum and OFDM Modulation for Microwave Radio Communication Used for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless communication system used by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle has special requirements. Two separate data streams are used, one for telemetry and control of the vehicle, and one for payload. The first stream is of relatively low data rate, but must be very robust. The second stream requires high data rate, but a best effort approach is acceptable. Real-

Zoltan Belso; Tamas Szilagyi; Laszlo Pap; Kalman Elek; Istvan Koller

2011-01-01

183

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2005-09-01

184

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-09-01

185

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) associated DTM quality evaluation and hazard assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Concerning to the catastrophic landslides, the key information of landslide, including range of landslide, volume estimation and the subsequent evolution are important when analyzing the triggering mechanism, hazard assessment and mitigation. Thus, the morphological analysis gives a general overview for the landslides and been considered as one of the most fundamental information. We try to integrate several technologies, especially by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and multi-spectral camera, to decipher the consequence and the potential hazard, and the social impact. In recent years, the remote sensing technology improves rapidly, providing a wide range of image, essential and precious information. Benefited of the advancing of informatics, remote-sensing and electric technologies, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry mas been improve significantly. The study tries to integrate several methods, including, 1) Remote-sensing images gathered by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and by aerial photos taken in different periods; 2) field in-situ geologic investigation; 3) Differential GPS, RTK GPS and Ground LiDAR field in-site geoinfomatics measurements; 4) Construct the DTMs before and after landslide, as well as the subsequent periods using UAV and aerial photos; 5) Discrete element method should be applied to understand the geomaterial composing the slope failure, for predicting earthquake-induced and rainfall-induced landslides displacement. First at all, we evaluate the Microdrones MD4-1000 UAV airphotos derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The ground resolution of the DSM point cloud of could be as high as 10 cm. By integrated 4 ground control point within an area of 56 hectares, compared with LiDAR DSM and filed RTK-GPS surveying, the mean error is as low as 6cm with a standard deviation of 17cm. The quality of the UAV DSM could be as good as LiDAR data, and is ready for other applications. The quality of the data set provides not only geoinfomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

Huang, Mei-Jen; Chen, Shao-Der; Chao, Yu-Jui; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Chang, Kuo-Jen

2014-05-01

186

Microwave power transmission using a flexible rectenna for microwave-powered aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In exploiting the unique capabilities of smart actuators for applications in vehicle systems, even in unmanned or micro aerial vehicles, the power issues for smart actuators and devices have not been well addressed. This is due to the fact that the driving power for smart materials has not reached the level of the power specifications for conventional devices and systems. To answer the power issue, we have developed a wireless power transmission technology using a flexible rectenna system and implemented it for a microwave-powered aerial vehicle (MPAV) system. For this application, two flexible dipole rectennas were designed, manufactured and characterized over a frequency range of 9-12 GHz. These flexible dipole rectennas were attached and tested on the complex structure of small MPAVs. The maximum converted power output of a flexible dipole rectenna array was about 300 mA at 80 VDC. The power output from this rectenna was sufficient to run the propellers of the MPAV. Each electrically driven propeller requires approximately 2 W for operation.

Kim, Jaehwan; Yang, Sang-Yeol; Song, Kyo D.; Jones, Sean; Elliott, James R.; Choi, Sang H.

2006-10-01

187

Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

Haro, Helida C.

2010-01-01

188

Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

Haro, Helida C.

2010-01-01

189

An Analysis of Fuel Cell Options for an All-electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the performance characteristics of both PEM and SOFC-based fuel cell systems for an all-electric high altitude, long endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Primary and hybrid systems were considered. Fuel options include methane, hydrogen, and jet fuel. Excel-based models were used to calculate component mass as a function of power level and mission duration. Total system mass and stored volume as a function of mission duration for an aircraft operating at 65 kft altitude were determined and compared.

Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

2007-01-01

190

Beam divergence changing mechanism for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle optical communications.  

PubMed

The problems associated with using a single fixed beam divergence for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle free-space optical communications are discussed. To overcome the problems, a beam divergence changing mechanism is proposed. Four different methods are then proposed to implement the beam divergence changing mechanism. The performance of these methods is evaluated in terms of transmission distance under adverse weather conditions. The results show that the performance is greatly improved when the beam divergence changing mechanism is used. PMID:19277090

Heng, Kiang Huat; Zhong, Wen-De; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Liu, Ning; He, Yingjie

2009-03-10

191

On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

Rochala, Zdzis?aw

2012-02-01

192

Transition Flight Simulation of Flapping-Wing Micro-Aerial Vehicle Using Aerodynamic Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes how to simulate the flight of a flapping-wing micro-aerial vehicle (MAV). It uses an aerodynamic database generated using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The database is composed of the time mean aerodynamic forces and moments generated at various flapping wing motions in various flight modes. Flight is simulated utilizing the database by interpolation. The procedure is applied to transition flight of a dragonfly-type MAV with two-pairs of resonance-type flapping wings. The present MAV attains the mission of hovering, transition and cruising flights successfully with stable attitude.

Isogai, Koji; Kawabe, Hiroyasu

193

Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial

Frederick G. Harmon

2005-01-01

194

Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition.

Room, M. H. M.; Ahmad, A.

2014-02-01

195

Flight dynamic investigations of flying wing with winglet configured unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A swept wing tailless vehicle platform is well known in the radio control (RC) and sailing aircraft community for excellent spiral stability during soaring or thermaling, while exhibiting no Dutch roll behavior at high speed. When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is subjected to fly a mission in a rugged mountainous terrain where air current or thermal up-drift is frequently present, this is great aerodynamic benefit over the conventional cross-tailed aircraft which requires careful balance between lateral and directional stability. Such dynamic characteristics can be studied through vehicle dynamic modeling and simulation, but it requires configuration aerodynamic data through wind tunnel experiments. Obtaining such data is very costly and time consuming, and it is not feasible especially for low cost and dispensable UAVs. On the other hand, the vehicle autonomy is quite demanding which requires substantial understanding of aircraft dynamic characteristics. In this study, flight dynamics of an UAV platform based on flying wing with a large winglet was investigated through analytical modeling and numerical simulation. Flight dynamic modeling software and experimental formulae were used to obtain essential configuration aerodynamic characteristics, and linear flight dynamic analysis was carried out to understand the effect of wing sweep angle and winglet size on the vehicle dynamic characteristics.

Ro, Kapseong

2006-06-01

196

Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

Fredericks, William J.

2010-01-01

197

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

Sidney Diamond; D. Ray Johnson

1999-04-26

198

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study  

PubMed Central

Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys.

Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

2013-01-01

199

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.  

PubMed

Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

2013-01-01

200

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Assessment of Controllability of Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last several years, we have developed unique types of micro air vehicles that utilize flexible structures and extensible covering materials. These MAVs can be operated with maximum dimensions as small as 6 inches and carry reasonable payloads, such as video cameras and transmitters. We recently demonstrated the potential of these vehicles by winning the Fourth International Micro Air Vehicle Competition, held at Ft. Huachucha, Arizona in May 2000. The pilots report that these vehicles have unusually smooth flying characteristics and are relatively easy to fly, both in the standard RC mode and "through the camera" when at greater distances. In comparison, they find that similar sized vehicles with more conventional rigid construction require much more input from the pilot just to maintain control. To make these subjective observations more quantitative, we have devised a system that can conveniently record a complete history of all the RC transmitter stick movements during a flight. Post-flight processing of the stick movement data allows for direct comparisons between different types of MAVs when flown by the same pilot, and also comparisons between pilots. Eventually, practical micro air vehicles will be autonomously controlled, but we feel that the smoothest flying and easiest to fly embodiments will also be the most successful in the long run. Comparisons between several types of micro air vehicles will be presented, along with interpretations of the data.

Jenkins, David A.; Ifju, Peter G.; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Olipra, Scott

2002-01-01

201

Neural-network-based navigation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles for detecting unintended emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile aircraft with many applications, including the potential for use to detect unintended electromagnetic emissions from electronic devices. A particular area of recent interest has been helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. Because of the nature of these helicopters' dynamics, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via output feedback control for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic, virtual, and dynamic controllers and an observer. Optimal tracking is accomplished with a single NN utilized for cost function approximation. The controller positions the helicopter, which is equipped with an antenna, such that the antenna can detect unintended emissions. The overall closed-loop system stability with the proposed controller is demonstrated by using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for positioning the helicopter for unintended emissions detection.

Zargarzadeh, H.; Nodland, David; Thotla, V.; Jagannathan, S.; Agarwal, S.

2012-05-01

202

Tethered Operation of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles to Provide Extended Field of View for Autonomous Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aeri...

N. S. Phang

2006-01-01

203

U.S. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Network Centric Warfare (NCW): Impacts on Combat Aviation Tactics from Gulf War I Through 2007 Iraq.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an increasingly important element of many modern militaries. Their success on battlefields in Afghanistan, Iraq, and around the globe has driven demand for a variety of types of unmanned vehicles. Their proven value con...

C. Kurkcu K. Oveyik

2008-01-01

204

Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for the identification, control and general operation. A high-fidelity helicopter model is established with the lumped-parameter approach. With the lift and torque aerodynamic model of the main and tail rotors, a nonlinear simulation model is first constructed. The control models of the RUAVs used in our research are derived by the application of a time-domain parametric identification method to the flight data of target RUAVs. Two distinct control theories, namely classical control theory and modern linear robust control theory, are applied to the identified model. The proposed controllers are validated in a nonlinear simulation environment and tested in a series of test flights. With the successful implementation of the low-level vehicle controller, the guidance layer is designed. The waypoint navigator, which decides the adequate flight mode and the associated reference trajectory, serves as an intermediary between the low-level vehicle control layer and the high-level mission-planning layer. In order to interpret the abstract mission planning to commands that are compatible with the low-level structure, a novel framework called Vehicle Control Language (VCL) is developed. The key idea of VCL is to provide a mission-independent methodology to describe given flight patterns. The VCL processor and vehicle control layer are integrated into the hierarchical control structure, which is the backbone of our intelligent UAV system. The proposed idea is validated in the simulation environment and then fully tested in a series of flight tests.

Shim, Hyunchul

205

A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

Funaki, M.

2004-12-01

206

Aerosol, cloud, and radiometric measurements with small autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AUAV (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle) project is a part of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds project. It has been designed to allow for routine vertical profile measurements of aerosols and clouds using AUAVs above ground-based observatories in the Indo-Pacific Ocean region. The current scientific payloads consist of optical particle counters, condensation particle counters, cloud droplet probes, aethelometers, upward and downward facing pyranometers, and temperature-relative humidity sensors. Aerosol, cloud and radiometric instruments have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. Demonstration flights at the Yuma Proving Grounds, AZ show the potential for small AUAVs in atmospheric studies. The flights were performed on two aircraft, which flew autonomously up to 3000 m above sea level (asl) along programmed flight tracks. The aircraft flew in stacked formation for part of the flights. Once the aircraft were stacked (550 and 2100 m asl), the projected distances were less than 50 m - which translates to less than a 1.5 sec latency between the aircraft. Vertical profiles show a constant 8 K km-1 lapse rate and increasing relative humidity with altitude. At 2000 m asl (1600 m above ground level), an aerosol layer is evident in the total aerosol concentration profile (NCN = 2000 cm-3); relative humidity also increased by 10% in this layer. No such increase in 0.3 ?m aerosol (NOPC) is visible at 2000 m asl, suggesting transport from an urban center. Back trajectories indicate air masses originated from south and west across central Baja California, Mexico. Aerosol concentrations are fairly constant at 1000 cm-3 throughout the profile indicating a well-mixed boundary layer. Spikes in aerosol concentrations are a result of sampling the aircrafts' exhaust. The vertical profiles show that spikes occurred at levels where the aircraft maintained level, repeating holding patterns. The cloud droplet probe was flown; however, due to the flight ceiling, the aircraft was not allowed to ascend into the cloud base. The pyranometers performed well during straight and level portions of the flight as the autopilot maintained a level platform (pitch and roll) to within a degree. Circular tracks (at 2 miles diameter) cause oscillations in the aircraft's pitch and constantly bank the aircraft 3 to 4 degrees. Hence, a larger radius or long straight and level legs need to be used for radiometric measurements. We will also include data from three stacked aircraft flights to be conducted in November, to sample the boundary layer, clouds and cloud top layers simultaneously.

Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

2005-12-01

207

Fuzzy Logic Based Approach to Design of Flight Control and Navigation Tasks for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based autonomous navigation controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Three fuzzy\\u000a logic modules are developed under the main navigation system for the control of the altitude, the speed, and the heading,\\u000a through which the global position (latitude–longitude) of the air vehicle is controlled. A SID (Standard Instrument Departure)\\u000a and TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) approach

Sefer Kurnaz; Omer Cetin; Okyay Kaynak

208

Three-Dimensional Building Reconstruction Using Images Obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) offer several new possibilities in a wide range of applications. One example is the 3D reconstruction of buildings. In former times this was either restricted by earthbound vehicles to the reconstruction of facades or by air-borne sensors to generate only very coarse building models. This paper describes an approach for fully automatic image-based 3D reconstruction of buildings using UAVs. UAVs are able to observe the whole 3D scene and to capture images of the object of interest from completely different perspectives. The platform used by this work is a Falcon 8 octocopter from Ascending Technologies. A slightly modi?ed high-resolution consumer camera serves as sensor for data acquisition. The ?nal 3D reconstruction is computed of?ine after image acquisition and follows a reconstruction process originally developed for image sequences obtained by earthbound vehicles. The per- formance of the described method is evaluated on benchmark datasets showing that the achieved accuracy is high and even comparable with Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). Additionally, the results of the application of the complete processing-chain starting at image acquisition and ending in a dense surface-mesh are presented and discussed.

Wefelscheid, C.; Hänsch, R.; Hellwich, O.

2011-09-01

209

Hyperspectral imaging from a light-weight (up to 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicle platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 the Idaho National Lab (INL) has been developing advanced remote sensing capabilities that combine increasingly sophisticated miniaturized sensors with relatively affordable, light weight (under 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV-based hyperspectral sensing capabilities have been routinely refined via flight tests conducted at INL's UAV Runway Research Park in southeastern Idaho, and at the Orchard Training Area in central Idaho. Idaho State University (ISU) Boise Center Aerospace Lab (BCAL) has provided field data collection and image processing support to target ground versus aerial data comparisons, assess spectral and geometric data accuracy and determine classification algorithms appropriate for vegetation management applications. We report instrumentation, sensor and image validation results, optimal flight parameters, and methods for improving the geometric accuracies of the datasets. We also assess the accuracy of narrowband vegetation indices and shrub cover estimates derived from the imagery. Preliminary results indicate that the UAV-based hyperspectral imaging system has potential to bridge the gap between costly in-situ data collections, coarse resolution satellite data collections, or infrequent and costly manned hyperspectral data collections. Furthermore, new areas of research may be possible with this UAV platform by providing an affordable, on-demand platform that can rapidly collect transect data and stay on station for hours.

Mitchell, J.; Hruska, R.; Anderson, M.; Glenn, N. F.

2011-12-01

210

Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

2003-01-01

211

Aerial Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

2005-01-01

212

A guided-wave system for monitoring the wing skin-to-spar bond in unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in military as well as civil applications. A critical part of the structure is the adhesive bond between the wing skin and the supporting spar. If not detected early, bond defects originating during manufacturing or in service flight can lead to inefficient flight performance and eventual global failure. This paper will present

Howard Matt; Ivan Bartoli; Francesco Lanza di Scalea; Alessandro Marzani; Stefano Coccia; Joseph Oliver; John Kosmatka; Piervincenzo Rizzo; Gaetano Restivo

2005-01-01

213

The object recognition and adaptive threshold selection in the vision system for landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and implementation of a vision system for landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This vision system consists of the vision detection software and the self-made onboard camera platform. After accomplishing its mission, the UAV would return to the helipad and land on it autonomously and accurately. To achieve more, the head of the UAV must point

Zeng Fucen; Shi Haiqing; Wang Hong

2009-01-01

214

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor/Systems for In-Flight Wing Shape Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing an in-flight wing shape measurement system based on fiber bragg grating sensors for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is shown. The topics include: 1) MOtivation; 2) Objective; 3) Background; 4) System Design; 5) Ground Testing; 6) Future Work; and 7) Conclusions

Parker, Allen; Richards, Lance; Ko, William; Piazza, Anthony; Tran, Van

2006-01-01

215

Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of several ad hoc routing protocols in the context of a swarm of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It has been proposed that a wireless network where nodes have on average 5.1774 log n neighbors, where n is the total number of network nodes, has a high probability of having no partitions. By decreasing transmission

M. T. Hyland; Barry E. Mullins; Rusty O. Baldwin; Michael A. Temple

2007-01-01

216

Adding wavelet image technology and adaptive resonance theory to a common control system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a possible improvement for a common control system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The common control system will provide command, control and data dissemination for tactical UAVs. Adding wavelet image technology and adaptive resonance theory to the common control system will provide an advanced foundation for interoperability and commonality to the tactical UAV family and the common

Tai-Ching Chu; Harold H. Szu

1998-01-01

217

An improved particle swarm optimization and its application in maneuvering control laws design of the unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic population mechanism is introduced in this paper aiming at the optimal design of the maneuvering flight scheme of the unmanned aerial vehicle system which confronts complex nonlinear flight characteristics. The control law of the typical S maneuver in vertical plane is parameterized through spline method and the constraints are disposed by the

Jie Guo; Shengjing Tang; Qian Xu

2012-01-01

218

USAFA Discovery: Jul-Sep 2000. Research Activity in Support of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) at the Aeronautics Research Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The future of air warfare is undergoing a fundamental transformation with the move toward the increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV's). UAV's are capable of performing a number of missions in high-threat environments while minimizing the risk of ...

2000-01-01

219

Free flight simulations and pitch and roll control experiments of a sub-gram flapping-flight micro aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flapping-flight micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) pose an ongoing design problem to the scientific community, requiring careful consideration of both body structure and force production. Here, we examine a flapping MAV prototype with a passively rotating wing design. While at the current scale the lift force produced is not enough for liftoff, observing its performance under roll and pitch control can

Lindsey L. Hines; Veaceslav Arabagi; Metin Sitti

2011-01-01

220

An evolutionary algorithm for multiple waypoints planning with B-spline trajectory generation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we focus on multiple waypoints planning that take into account the stealthiness of autonomous UAVs; generating stealthy waypoints through a region laden with enemy radars. The important goal of waypoint planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is to generate an optimal path for UAVs to visit all of the specified waypoints. We use the Traveling Salesman Problems

Kan Ee May; Ho Jiun Sien; Yeo Swee Ping; Shao Zhen Hai

2010-01-01

221

Design and test of a situation-augmented display for an unmanned aerial vehicle monitoring task.  

PubMed

In this study, a situation-augmented display for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) monitoring was designed, and its effects on operator performance and mental workload were examined. The display design was augmented with the knowledge that there is an invariant flight trajectory (formed by the relationship between altitude and velocity) for every flight, from takeoff to landing. 56 participants were randomly assigned to the situation-augmented display or a conventional display condition to work on 4 (number of abnormalities) x 2 (noise level) UAV monitoring tasks three times. Results showed that the effects of situation-augmented display on flight completion time and time to detect abnormalities were robust under various workload conditions, but error rate and perceived mental workload were unaffected by the display type. Results suggest that the UAV monitoring task is extremely difficult, and that display devices providing high-level situation-awareness may improve operator monitoring performance. PMID:24422345

Lu, Jen-Li; Horng, Ruey-Yun; Chao, Chin-Jung

2013-08-01

222

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

223

Identifying Contingency Requirements using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: ( I ) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the eventual safety-criticality of such systems as they begin to fly over populated areas. The results reported here are preliminary but show that Obstacle Analysis helped (1) identify new contingencies that appeared as autonomy increased; (2) identify new alternatives for handling both previously known and new contingencies; and (3) investigate the continued validity of existing software requirements for contingency handling. Since many mobile, intelligent systems are built using a development process that poses the same challenges, the results appear to have applicability to other similar systems.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Nelson, Stacy; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Frost, Chad R.; Tal, Doron

2005-01-01

224

Design of an air sampler for a small unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of a nuclear accident or malevolent act, it is of paramount importance to have the capability to monitor airborne radioactive substances by collecting air samples. For potentially dangerous missions, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) has developed an air sampler to be used on a small unmanned aerial vehicle. When a Petrianov or Fluoropore filter is used in the sampler and the air velocity is 71 km h(-1), the air flow rate through the filter is 0.73 m(3) h(-1) or 0.23 m(3) h(-1), respectively. The present article introduces the developed air sampler using fluid dynamic simulations and wind tunnel data. The operation of the system was validated by collecting airborne radioactive aerosols from air. PMID:19091809

Peräjärvi, K; Lehtinen, J; Pöllänen, R; Toivonen, H

2008-01-01

225

Power beaming to a micro aerial vehicle using an active phased array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power beaming system to a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) using 5.8GHz microwaves has been developed. The system consists of three sub-systems; a pointing system, a tracking system, and a receiving system. The MAV is tracked using the phase information of pilot signal. Software retro-directive function has been realized through a PC control and a microwave beam is pointed to the MAV using an active phased array. The beam divergence was about 9deg and the beam steering angle was from -9deg to +9deg. Light-weight flexible rectenna array made of cupper tapes and a thin polyimide film was mounted on a wing of the MAV model, and the electric motor was driven by the received power. The weight per unit reception area was 26mg/cm2.

Sawahara, Hironori; Oda, Akinori; Alseny, Diallo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

2010-03-01

226

Observing Entrainment Processes Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: A Feasibility Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement flights with the meteorological mini aerial vehicle (MAV) were performed in spring 2011 to assess the capability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to measure the structure of the transition zone between the convective boundary layer and the stably stratified free atmosphere. The campaign took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg/Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service. Besides the MAV flights, observations were made from a 12-m and a 99-m tower, a sodar, two ceilometers, radiosondes, and a tethered balloon with sensor packages at six different levels. MAV measurements were intentionally combined with remote sensing systems. The height range of the entrainment zone as well as its diurnal cycle were provided by the remote sensing instruments. The UAV provided the high-resolution in situ data of temperature and wind for the study of turbulent processes. It is shown that the MAV is able to maintain constant altitude with very small deviations—a pre-requisite to study processes inside the often quite thin entrainment zone and that MAV high-resolution wind and temperature measurements allow for very detailed studies of the fine structure of the atmosphere and thus for the identification of quite local and/or short-duration processes such as overshooting thermals or downward intrusions of warm air. Spatial series measured by the MAV during horizontal flights show turbulent exchange of heat in short turbulent bursts at heights close to and within the entrainment zone. Scaled vertical profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature variance, and sensible heat flux confirm the general shape found by previous measurements and numerical studies.

Martin, Sabrina; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens

2014-03-01

227

Computational study of the effect of winglets on the performance of micro-aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of winglets on the performance of Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAV) has investigated computationally. The computations have been performed using the been commercially available finite-volume solver Cobalt. Although Cobalt has been used for a wide range of applications previously, the current study provides additional validation of its capabilities. The MAVs have low-aspect-ratio wings and operate at low-chord-Reynolds numbers, which both contribute to the difficulty of the design of such vehicles. At these low Reynolds numbers, the viscous effects are dominant in the flow-field and thus cannot be neglected been done in classical aerodynamics. Due to this difficulty only a limited number of studies have been done previously, and not much data is published to help the design of low-Reynolds-number aerial vehicles. For low-aspect-ratio wings, the induced drag or drag-due-to-lift is the dominating source of drag. Earlier studies have shown that the size of the tip vortex that causes the downwash and the induced drag on three-dimensional wings can cover over 50% of the half-span of a low-aspect-ratio wing. It has also been shown that the downwash can be weakened by the use of a properly designed winglet. However, most studies on the effect of winglets have been for higher Reynolds number flows and for larger-aspect-ratio wings and no computations have been performed previously for the current application. The addition of winglets to an MAV is an attractive method of improving their performance, as the goal of the MAV research effort is to minimize the maximum dimension of the vehicle while still achieving the required lift. The current study emphasizes the importance of validation and verification in computational studies. To gain further confidence in the results, grid convergence studies are presented. This step is of utmost importance for configurations for which computational data is presented without corresponding experimental results. A comparison between laminar and turbulent computations are presented. The current results show that carefully chosen winglets can improve the performance of an MAV significantly. The results also reveal that the flowfield over a wing without winglets can guide the initial design of winglets.

Monttinen, Jarmo Tapani

228

National aerial photography program as a geographic information system resource  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is jointly funded by Federal agencies and States that choose to participate in a 50-50 cost sharing cooperative arrangement. The NAPP is designed to acquire black-and-white (B&W) or color infrared (CIR) photography at a scale of 1:40,000. The status of NAPP flying, now going into the first year of its second 5-year cycle, is reviewed to inform the user community of NAPP's coverage. The resolution, geometric quality and flight parameters are used to estimate the system's cartographic potential to produce orthophotoquads, digital elevation models, topographic maps and digital information to meet national map accuracy standards at 1:12,000 and 1:24,000-scale and serve as a geographic information system resource. Also, a technique is presented to compute the optimum scanning spot size (15 ??m) and storage required for converting the B&W or CIR photography to digital, machine-readable pixel form. The resulting digital NAPP data are suitable for a wide variety of new applications, including use in geographic information systems.

Light, Donald, L.

1991-01-01

229

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the development of the University of Florida's Micro Air Vehicle concept. A series of flexible wing based aircraft that possess highly desirable flight characteristics were developed. Since computational methods to accurately model flight at the low Reynolds numbers associated with this scale are still under development, our effort has relied heavily on trial and error. Hence a time efficient method was developed to rapidly produce prototype designs. The airframe and wings are fabricated using a unique process that incorporates carbon fiber composite construction. Prototypes can be fabricated in around five man-hours, allowing many design revisions to be tested in a short period of time. The resulting aircraft are far more durable, yet lighter, than their conventional counterparts. This process allows for thorough testing of each design in order to determine what changes were required on the next prototype. The use of carbon fiber allows for wing flexibility without sacrificing durability. The construction methods developed for this project were the enabling technology that allowed us to implement our designs. The resulting aircraft were the winning entries in the International Micro Air Vehicle Competition for the past two years. Details of the construction method are provided in this paper along with a background on our flexible wing concept.

Ifju, Peter G.; Ettinger, Scott; Jenkins, David; Martinez, Luis

2002-01-01

230

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams.  

PubMed

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some (or all) targets are unknown a priori, requiring them to be located using cooperative search. In addition, the tasks to be performed at each target location by the team of cooperative UAVs need to be coordinated. The tasks must, therefore, be allocated to UAVs in real time as they arise, while ensuring that appropriate vehicles are assigned to each task. Each class of UAVs has its own sensing and attack capabilities, so the need for appropriate assignment is paramount. In this paper, an extensive dynamic model that captures the stochastic nature of the cooperative search and task assignment problems is developed, and algorithms for achieving a high level of performance are designed. The paper focuses on investigating the value of predictive task assignment as a function of the number of unknown targets and number of UAVs. In particular, it is shown that there is a tradeoff between search and task response in the context of prediction. Based on the results, a hybrid algorithm for switching the use of prediction is proposed, which balances the search and task response. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:16761811

Jin, Yan; Liao, Yan; Minai, Ali A; Polycarpou, Marios M

2006-06-01

231

Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antarctic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Ant-Plane project for summertime scientific research and logistics in the coastal region of Antarctica, we developed six types of small autonomous UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to drones; we term these vehicles ‘Ant-Planes’) based on four types of airframe. In test flights, Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 20 m accuracy along a straight course during calm weather at Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. During a period of strong winds (22 m/s) at Mt. Chokai, Akita Prefecture, Japan, Ant-Plane 2 maintained its course during a straight flight but deviated when turning leeward. An onboard 3-axis magneto-resistant magnetometer (400 g) recorded variations in the magnetic field to an accuracy of 10 nT during periods of calm wind, but strong magnetic noise was observed during high winds, especially head winds. Ant-Plane 4-1 achieved a continuous flight of 500 km, with a maximum flight altitude of 5690 m. The Ant-Plane can be used for various types of Antarctic research as a basic platform for airborne surveys, but further development of the techniques employed in takeoff and landing are required, as well as ready adjustment of the engine and the development of small onboard instruments with greater reliability.

Funaki, Minoru; Hirasawa, Naohiko; the Ant-Plane Group

232

Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

Yilmaz, Bahad?r.

2013-06-01

233

Sitting in the Pilot's Seat; Optimizing Human-Systems Interfaces for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the pilot-machine interfaces (the forward viewing camera display) for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle called the DROID (Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone) will be analyzed for optimization. The goal is to create a visual display for the pilot that as closely resembles an out-the-window view as possible. There are currently no standard guidelines for designing pilot-machine interfaces for UAVs. Typically, UAV camera views have a narrow field, which limits the situational awareness (SA) of the pilot. Also, at this time, pilot-UAV interfaces often use displays that have a diagonal length of around 20". Using a small display may result in a distorted and disproportional view for UAV pilots. Making use of a larger display and a camera lens with a wider field of view may minimize the occurrences of pilot error associated with the inability to see "out the window" as in a manned airplane. It is predicted that the pilot will have a less distorted view of the DROID s surroundings, quicker response times and more stable vehicle control. If the experimental results validate this concept, other UAV pilot-machine interfaces will be improved with this design methodology.

Queen, Steven M.; Sanner, Kurt Gregory

2011-01-01

234

Modeling and control for heave dynamics of a flexible wing micro aerial vehicle distributed parameter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much research has been motivated by the idea of biologically-inspired flight. It is a conjecture of the United States Air Force that incorporating characteristics of biological flight into air vehicles will significantly improve the maneuverability and performance of modern aircraft. Although there are studies which involve the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, modeling, and control of flexible wing micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), issues of control and vehicular modeling as a whole are largely unexplored. Modeling with such dynamics lends itself to systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) with nonlinearities, and limited control theory is available for such systems. In this work, a multiple component structure consisting of two Euler-Bernoulli beams connected to a rigid mass is used to model the heave dynamics of an aeroelastic wing MAV, which is acted upon by a nonlinear aerodynamic lift force. We seek to employ tools from distributed parameter modeling and linear control theory in an effort to achieve agile flight potential of flexible, morphable wing MAV airframes. Theoretical analysis of the model is conducted, which includes generating solutions to the eigenvalue problem for the system and determining well-posedness and the attainment of a C 0-semigroup for the linearly approximated model. In order to test the model's ability to track to a desired state and to gain insight into optimal morphing trajectories, two control objectives are employed on the model: target state tracking and morphing trajectory over time.

Kuhn, Lisa M.

235

Approach for Autonomous Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Intelligent Agents for Knowledge Creation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of a planned approach for Autonomous operation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). A Hybrid approach will seek to provide Knowledge Generation through the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Intelligent Agents (IA) for UAV control. The applications of several different types of AI techniques for flight are explored during this research effort. The research concentration is directed to the application of different AI methods within the UAV arena. By evaluating AI and biological system approaches. which include Expert Systems, Neural Networks. Intelligent Agents, Fuzzy Logic, and Complex Adaptive Systems, a new insight may be gained into the benefits of AI and CAS techniques applied to achieving true autonomous operation of these systems. Although flight systems were explored, the benefits should apply to many Unmanned Vehicles such as: Rovers. Ocean Explorers, Robots, and autonomous operation systems. A portion of the flight system is broken down into control agents that represent the intelligent agent approach used in AI. After the completion of a successful approach, a framework for applying an intelligent agent is presented. The initial results from simulation of a security agent for communication are presented.

Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2004-01-01

236

Fault tolerant attitude sensing and force feedback control for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two aspects of an unmanned aerial vehicle are studied in this work. One is fault tolerant attitude determination and the other is to provide force feedback to the joy-stick of the UAV so as to prevent faulty inputs from the pilot. Determination of attitude plays an important role in control of aerial vehicles. One way of defining the attitude is through Euler angles. These angles can be determined based on the measurements of the projections of the gravity and earth magnetic fields on the three body axes of the vehicle. Attitude determination in unmanned aerial vehicles poses additional challenges due to limitations of space, payload, power and cost. Therefore it provides for almost no room for any bulky sensors or extra sensor hardware for backup and as such leaves no room for sensor fault issues either. In the face of these limitations, this study proposes a fault tolerant computing of Euler angles by utilizing multiple different computation methods, with each method utilizing a different subset of the available sensor measurement data. Twenty-five such methods have been presented in this document. The capability of computing the Euler angles in multiple ways provides a diversified redundancy required for fault tolerance. The proposed approach can identify certain sets of sensor failures and even separate the reference fields from the disturbances. A bank-to-turn maneuver of the NASA GTM UAV is used to demonstrate the fault tolerance provided by the proposed method as well as to demonstrate the method of determining the correct Euler angles despite interferences by inertial acceleration disturbances. Attitude computation is essential for stability. But as of today most UAVs are commanded remotely by human pilots. While basic stability control is entrusted to machine or the on-board automatic controller, overall guidance is usually with humans. It is therefore the pilot who sets the command/references through a joy-stick. While this is a good compromise between complete automation and complete human control, it still poses some unique challenges. Pilots of manned aircraft are present inside the cockpit of the aircraft they fly and thus have a better feel of the flying environment and also the limitations of the flight. The same might not be true for UAV pilots stationed on the ground. A major handicap is that visual feedback is the only one available for the UAV pilot. An additional parameter like force feedback on the remote control joy-stick can help the UAV pilot to physically feel the limitation of the safe flight envelope. This can make the flying itself easier and safer. A method proposed here is to design a joy-stick assembly with an additional actuator. This actuator is controlled so as to generate a force feedback on the joy-stick. The control developed for this system is such that the actuator allows free movement for the pilot as long as the UAV is within the safe flight envelope. On the other hand, if it is outside this safe range, the actuator opposes the pilot's applied torque and prevents him/her from giving erroneous commands to the UAV.

Jagadish, Chirag

237

Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

Ford Motor Company

2005-03-01

238

Configuration and specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for early site specific weed management.  

PubMed

A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches). PMID:23483997

Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Peña-Barragán, José Manuel

2013-01-01

239

Configuration and Specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Early Site Specific Weed Management  

PubMed Central

A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches).

Torres-Sanchez, Jorge; Lopez-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Pena-Barragan, Jose Manuel

2013-01-01

240

Transference of Evolved Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Controllers to a Wheeled Mobile Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transference of controllers evolved in simulation to real vehicles is an important issue in evolutionary robotics (ER). We have previously evolved autonomous navigation controllers for fixed wing UAV applications using multi-objective genetic programming (GP). Controllers were evolved to locate a radar source, navigate the UAV to the source efficiently using on-board sensor measurements, and circle around the emitter. We successfully

Gregory J. Barlow; Leonardo S. Mattos; Edward Grant; Choong K. Oh

2005-01-01

241

Rapid, Repeat-sample Monitoring of Crustal Deformations and Environmental Phenomena with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) mission being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Dryden Flight Research Center in support of NASA s Science Mission Directorate. UAVSAR's unique ability to fly a repeatable flight path, along with an electronically steerable array, allows interferometric data to be obtained with accuracies measured in millimeters. Deploying the radar on an airborne platform will also allow for radar images to be collected and compared with images from the same area taken hours or even years later - providing for long-term trending and near real-time notification of changes and deformations. UAVSAR s data processing algorithms will provide for near-real time data reduction providing disaster planning and response teams with highly accurate data to aid in the prediction of, and response to, natural phenomena. UAVSAR data can be applied to increasing our understanding of the processes behind solid earth, cryosphere, carbon cycle and other areas of interest in earth science. Technologies developed for UAVSAR may also be applicable to a future earth-orbiting InSAR mission and possibly for missions to the Moon or Mars. The UAVSAR is expected to fly on a Gulfstream III aircraft this winter, followed by a flight test program lasting until the second half of 2007. Following radar calibration and data reduction activities, the platform will be ready for science users in the summer of 2008.

Smith, Robert C.

2006-01-01

242

Training to Operate a Simulated Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle With Continuous or Discrete Manual Control. Final rept. Jan 2006-Jun 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report investigates the effects of continuous vs. discrete control methods and the number of simultaneous camera views on operator performance during training to manually control a simulated micro-unmanned aerial vehicle (MAV). Seventy-two participan...

D. R. Billings J. L. Neumann P. J. Durlach

2008-01-01

243

A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using the surface oil flow visualization technique.

Roadman, Jason Markos

244

Evaluating the Use of a Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform in Acquiring Digital Imagery for Emergency Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project evaluates the utilization of a low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) digital imaging platform developed\\u000a in Manitoba, Canada for emergency response situations. Such a platform allows for the timely acquisition of high resolution\\u000a imagery during emergency situations by personnel with relatively limited UAV flight training.\\u000a \\u000a Although military use of UAVs has been around since the First World War,

G. Lewis

245

Solid oxide fuel cell\\/gas turbine hybrid system analysis for high-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are ideally suited to provide surveillance, remote sensing and communication relay capabilities for both military and civilian applications. HALE UAVs typically cruise at an altitude between 15km and 20km, travelling at low speed and circling specific areas of interest. The work reported aims to investigate alternative power system architectures that enable an efficiency

P. Aguiar; D. J. L. Brett; N. P. Brandon

2008-01-01

246

Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D) trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

Zhai, Ruiyong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

2014-03-01

247

Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imagery for Quantitative Monitoring of Wheat Crop in Small Plots  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines how light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be used in remote sensing for precision farming. It focuses on the combination of simple digital photographic cameras with spectral filters, designed to provide multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared domains. In 2005, these instruments were fitted to powered glider and parachute, and flown at six dates staggered over the crop season. We monitored ten varieties of wheat, grown in trial micro-plots in the South-West of France. For each date, we acquired multiple views in four spectral bands corresponding to blue, green, red, and near-infrared. We then performed accurate corrections of image vignetting, geometric distortions, and radiometric bidirectional effects. Afterwards, we derived for each experimental micro-plot several vegetation indexes relevant for vegetation analyses. Finally, we sought relationships between these indexes and field-measured biophysical parameters, both generic and date-specific. Therefore, we established a robust and stable generic relationship between, in one hand, leaf area index and NDVI and, in the other hand, nitrogen uptake and GNDVI. Due to a high amount of noise in the data, it was not possible to obtain a more accurate model for each date independently. A validation protocol showed that we could expect a precision level of 15% in the biophysical parameters estimation while using these relationships.

Lelong, Camille C. D.; Burger, Philippe; Jubelin, Guillaume; Roux, Bruno; Labbe, Sylvain; Baret, Frederic

2008-01-01

248

Telesurgery via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a field deployable surgical robot.  

PubMed

Robotically assisted surgery stands to further revolutionize the medical field and provide patients with more effective healthcare. Most robotically assisted surgeries are teleoperated from the surgeon console to the patient where both ends of the system are located in the operating room. The challenge of surgical teleoperation across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New development has shifted towards deploying a surgical robot system in mobile settings and/or extreme environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly. As a collaborator in the HAPs/MRT (High Altitude Platform/Mobile Robotic Telesurgery) project, The University of Washington surgical robot was deployed in the desert of Simi Valley, CA for telesurgery experiments on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were performed telerobotically with a maximum time delay between the surgeon's console (master) and the surgical robot (slave) of 20 ms for the robotic control signals and 200 ms for the video stream. This was our first experiment in the area of Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (MRT). The creation and initial testing of a deployable surgical robot system will facilitate growth in this area eventually leading to future systems saving human lives in disaster areas, on the battlefield or in other remote environments. PMID:17377292

Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; King, Hawkeye; Friedman, Diana C W; Donlin, Gina; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Harnett, Brett; Huffman, Lynn; Doarn, Charles; Broderick, Timothy; Hannaford, Blake

2007-01-01

249

Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and trace gas concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ trace gas concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at in Manchester, UK, with the Skywalker equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz, and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurement, and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured concentrations were a reliable indicator of background concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

Illingworth, Samuel; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl; Gallagher, Martin; Ricketts, Hugo; Hollingsworth, Peter; Hayes, Harry; Roberts, Gareth; Ladosz, Pawel; Crawley, David

2014-05-01

250

An ultracompact laser terrain mapper for deployment onboard unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne laser terrain mapping systems have redefined the realm of topographic mapping. Lidars with kilohertz collection rates and long ranges have made airborne surveying a quick, efficient and highly productive endeavor. Despite the current industry efforts toward improving airborne lidar range, collection rate, resolution and accuracies, and with the advent of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and their myriad advantages, military and civil applications alike are looking for very compact and rugged lidar systems that can fit within the tight volumetric, form-factor, mass and power constraints imposed by UAVs. Optech has developed a very compact airborne laser terrain mapper that's geared toward UAV deployment. The system is composed of a highly integrated unit that combines a lidar transceiver, a position orientation sensor and control electronics in a 1 cubic foot - 57 lb package. Such level of compactness is achieved by employing the latest laser technology trends along with featuring very compact optical design, and using the latest control and data collection architecture technology. This paper describes the UAV requirements that drove the system design, the technology employed and optimizations implemented in the system to achieve its ultra-compact size.

Hussein, Marwan W.; Tripp, Jeffrey W.; Hill, Brian R.

2009-05-01

251

Experimental measurement of the aerodynamic charateristics of two-dimensional airfoils for an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of the development of an airfoil for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system; the investigation involves the analysis of the aerodynamic performance for the gliding condition of two-dimensional airfoil models which have been tested. This development is based on the modification of a selected airfoil from the NACA four digits family. The modification of this base airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface since the UAV will have an internal propulsion system. This analysis involved obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients experimentally for the situation where there is not flow through the blowing outlet, called the no blowing condition by means of wind tunnel tests. The methodology to obtain the forces experimentally was through an aerodynamic wire balance. Obtained results were compared with numerical results by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from references and found in very good agreement. Finally, a selection of the airfoil with the best aerodynamic performance is done and proposed for further analysis including the blowing condition.

Velazquez, Luis; Noži?ka, Ji?í; Vav?ín, Jan

2012-04-01

252

Convolutional Neural Network-based Vision Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obstacle detection and avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task, requiring processing speed and accuracy. Although a number of sensor solutions are available for this task, optical sensors are particularly suited being cheap, light-weight and long range. Stereoscopic systems with 2 cameras can be calibrated and used to perform localization of detected features in 3D space, allowing a model of the environment in front of the UAV to be constructed. Stereoscopic methods can, however, be computationally intensive and prone to mismatches which further increases the computational burden of a potential system. This thesis proposes a new approach to horizon detection based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and uses knowledge of the sky, ground and horizon to simplify the search for potential obstacles to the horizon and sky region of an image. An edge feature based approach followed by stereo correspondence is then applied to detect and triangulate the location of potential obstacles, producing a 3D model as the system output which can be used by an obstacle avoidance algorithm to navigate the UAV.

Verbickas, Rytis

253

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rangeland comprises as much as 70% of the Earth's land surface area. Much of this vast space is in very remote areas that are expensive and often impossible to access on the ground. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management. UAVs have several advantages over satellites and piloted aircraft: they can be deployed quickly and repeatedly; they are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft; they are flexible in terms of flying height and timing of missions; and they can obtain imagery at sub-decimeter resolution. This hyperspatial imagery allows for quantification of plant cover, composition, and structure at multiple spatial scales. Our experiments have shown that this capability, from an off-the-shelf mini-UAV, is directly applicable to operational agency needs for measuring and monitoring. For use by operational agencies to carry out their mandated responsibilities, various requirements must be met: an affordable and reliable platform; a capability for autonomous, low altitude flights; takeoff and landing in small areas surrounded by rugged terrain; and an easily applied data analysis methodology. A number of image processing and orthorectification challenges have been or are currently being addressed, but the potential to depict the land surface commensurate with field data perspectives across broader spatial extents is unrivaled.

Rango, Albert; Laliberte, Andrea; Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Winters, Craig; Havstad, Kris; Steele, Caiti; Browning, Dawn

2009-08-01

254

Detecting pruning of individual stems using Airborne Laser Scanning data captured from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern forest management involves implementing optimal pruning regimes. These regimes aim to achieve the highest quality timber in the shortest possible rotation period. Although a valuable addition to forest management activities, tracking the application of these treatments in the field to ensure best practice management is not economically viable. This paper describes the use of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) data to track the rate of pruning in a Eucalyptus globulus stand. Data is obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and we describe automated processing routines that provide a cost-effective alternative to field sampling. We manually prune a 500 m2 plot to 2.5 m above the ground at rates of between 160 and 660 stems/ha. Utilising the high density ALS data, we first derived crown base height (CBH) with an RMSE of 0.60 m at each stage of pruning. Variability in the measurement of CBH resulted in both false positive (mean rate of 11%) and false negative detection (3.5%), however, detected rates of pruning of between 96% and 125% of the actual rate of pruning were achieved. The successful automated detection of pruning within this study highlights the suitability of UAV laser scanning as a cost-effective tool for monitoring forest management activities.

Wallace, Luke; Watson, Christopher; Lucieer, Arko

2014-08-01

255

Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

2007-01-01

256

Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

257

Cultivated land information extraction from high-resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of precision agriculture demands high accuracy and efficiency of cultivated land information extraction. Simultaneously, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been increasingly used for natural resource applications in recent years as a result of their greater availability, the miniaturization of sensors, and the ability to deploy UAVs relatively quickly and repeatedly at low altitudes. We examine the potential of utilizing a small UAV for the characterization, assessment, and monitoring of cultivated land. Because most UAV images lack spectral information, we propose a novel cultivated land information extraction method based on a triangulation for cultivated land information extraction (TCLE) method. Thus, the information on more spatial properties of a region is incorporated into the classification process. The TCLE comprises three main steps: image segmentation, triangulation construction, and triangulation clustering using AUTOCLUST. Experiments were conducted on three UAV images in Deyang, China, using TCLE and eCognition for cultivated land information extraction (ECLE). Experimental results show that TCLE, which does not require training samples and has a much higher level of automation, can obtain accuracies equivalent to ECLE. Comparing with ECLE, TCLE also extracts coherent cultivated land with much less noise. As such, cultivated land information extraction based on high-resolution UAV images can be effectively and efficiently conducted using the proposed method.

Ma, Lei; Cheng, Liang; Han, Wenquan; Zhong, Lishan; Li, Manchun

2014-01-01

258

Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and Ozone concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ ozone (O3) concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at Hough End and Heaton Park, Manchester, UK on 28th June 2012. The Skywalker was equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurements taken by the Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN), and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured O3 was a reliable indicator of background O3 concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

Allen, G.; Illingworth, S. M.; Percival, C.; Hayes, H.; Hollingsworth, P.; Gallagher, M. W.

2013-12-01

259

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

2014-01-01

260

Scaling forest phenology from trees to the landscape using an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation phenology monitoring has yielded a decades-long archive documenting the impacts of global change on the biosphere. However, the coarse spatial resolution of remote sensing obscures the organismic level processes driving phenology, while point measurements on the ground limit the extent of observation. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enable low altitude remote sensing at higher spatial and temporal resolution than available from space borne platforms, and have the potential to elucidate the links between organism scale processes and landscape scale analyses of terrestrial phenology. This project demonstrates the use of a low cost multirotor UAV, equipped with a consumer grade digital camera, for observation of deciduous forest phenology and comparison to ground- and tower-based data as well as remote sensing. The UAV was flown approximately every five days during the spring green-up period in 2013, to obtain aerial photography over an area encompassing a 250m resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) pixel at Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, USA. The imagery was georeferenced and tree crowns were identified using a detailed species map of the study area. Image processing routines were used to extract canopy 'greenness' time series, which were used to calculate phenology transition dates corresponding to early, middle, and late stages of spring green-up for the dominant canopy trees. Aggregated species level phenology estimates from the UAV data, including the mean and variance of phenology transition dates within species in the study area, were compared to model predictions based on visual assessment of a smaller sample size of individual trees, indicating the extent to which limited ground observations represent the larger landscape. At an intermediate scale, the UAV data was compared to data from repeat digital photography, integrating over larger portions of canopy within and near the study area, as a validation step and to see how well tower-based approaches characterize the surrounding landscape. Finally, UAV data was compared to MODIS data to determine how tree crowns within a remote sensing pixel combine to create the aggregate landscape phenology measured by remote sensing, using an area weighted average of the phenology of all dominant crowns.

Klosterman, S.; Melaas, E. K.; Martinez, A.; Richardson, A. D.

2013-12-01

261

First Experiences Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Volcano Observation in the Visible Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the most active volcanoes in the world are located in Middle and South America. While permanently installed sensors for seismicity give reliable supervision of volcanic activities, they lack the possibility to determine occurrence and extent of surface activities. Both from the point of science and civil protection, visible documentation of activities is of great interest. While satellites and manned aircraft already offer many possibilities, they also have disadvantages like delayed or poor image data availability or high costs. The Institute of Aerospace Systems of the Technical University of Braunschweig, in collaboration with the spin-off company Mavionics, developed a family of extremely small and lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), with the smallest aircraft weighting only 550~g (19~ounces) at a wing span of 50 cm (20~inch). These aircraft are operating completely automatically, controlled by a highly miniaturized autopilot system. Flight mission is defined by a list of GPS waypoints using a conventional notebook. While in radio range, current position and status of the aircraft is displayed on the notebook and waypoints can easily be changed by the user. However, when radio connection is not available, the aircraft operates on its on, completing the flight mission automatically. This greatly increases the operating range of the system. Especially for the purpose of volcano observation in South America, the aircraft Carolo~P330 was developed, weighting 5~kg (11~pounds) at a wing span of 3.3~m ( 11~ft). The whole system can be easily carried by car and the electric propulsion system avoids handling of flammable liquids. The batteries can be recharged in the field. Carolo~P330 has an endurance of up to 90~minutes at a flight speed of 25~m/s, giving it a maximum range of 67 km (41~miles). It was especially designed to operate under harsh conditions. The payload is a digital still camera, which delivers aerial images with a resolution of up to 8~megapixel. On a field campaign in 2005, the performance of the system was evaluated at the two active Ecuadorian volcanoes Cotopaxi and El~Reventador. After hand-launch at Mt. Cotopaxi, the autopilot brought the aircraft up to 7,000~m above sea level (starting from a plateau on 4,500~m a.s.l.), with temperatures around the freezing point. At El~Reventador active lava flows were documented in the tropical montane rain forest. Since the position and attitude of the aircraft is recorded within the autopilot system, the single aerial images can be referenced automatically after the flight to form a mosaic of images. The whole processing chain from mission planning to image mosaic takes less than half a day. Besides the technical details of this cost-effective remote sensing system, the results of the measurement campaign in 2005 will be presented. An outlook will discuss the installation of other payload for thermal imaging or air sampling.

Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Bange, J.

2007-05-01

262

3D Map Information to Support Camera Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of cameras of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be difficult due to several factors such as 1) time delays between steering input and changes of the content of the monitor, 2) low update rates of the camera images and 3) weak situation awareness due to the remote position of the operator and the small field of view of the camera images. Therefore, it is important to assist the operator with adequate tools. A 3D (three dimensional) digital map with information about the predicted viewing direction of the camera was constructed and evaluated in a simulator experiment. Participants had to inspect roads and forest areas with and without a 3D map. A 2D (two dimensional) map with the same information as the 3D map was available in all conditions. With the 3D map the participants were able to inspect larger areas, especially when the task became more difficult due to time delays and low update rates. Furthermore they were better able to perform an additional task when they were supported by the 3D map. The participants also reported lower workload in the condition with the 3D map. These subjective workload results were not supported by objective workload measures (physiological measures). Analysis of eye movements showed that the 3D map was used very frequently, especially in conditions with time delays and low update rates. Because a 3D map is very intuitive it can be used for alternative steering control methods (apart from stick control) such as pointer devices (mouse control or touch screen control).

Veltman, J. A.; Oving, A. B.

2002-09-01

263

Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key challenge of exploiting wind energy in practical UAV operations lies in the availability of reliable and timely wind field information in the operational region. This thesis presents a practical onboard strategy that attempts to over-come this challenge, to enable UAVs in utilizing wind energy effectively during flights, and therefore to enhance performance. We propose and explore a strategy that combines wind measurement and optimal trajectory planning onboard UAVs. During a cycle of a loiter flight, a UAV can take measurements of wind velocity components over the flight region, use these measurements to estimate the local wind field through a model-based approach, and then compute a flight trajectory for the next flight cycle with the objective of optimizing fuel. As the UAV follows the planned trajectory, it continues to measure the wind components and repeats the process of updating the wind model with new estimations and planning optimal trajectories for the next flight cycle. Besides presenting an onboard trajectory planning strategy of wind energy exploration, estimation, and utilization, this research also develops a semi-analytical linearized solution to the formulated nonlinear optimal control problem. Simulations and numerical results indicate that the fuel savings of trajectories generated using the proposed scheme depend on wind speed, wind estimation errors, rates of change in wind speed, and the wind model structures. For a given wind field, the magnitude of potential fuel savings is also contingent upon UAVs' performance capabilities.

Singhania, Hong Yang

264

Aerodynamic analysis and simulation of a twin-tail tilt-duct unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tilt-duct vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) concept has been around since the early 1960s; however, to date the design has never passed the research phase and development phase. Nearly 50 years later, American Dynamics Flight Systems (ADFS) is developing the AD-150, a 2,250lb weight class unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) configured with rotating ducts on each wingtip. Unlike its predecessor, the Doak VZ-4, the AD-150 features a V tail and wing sweep -- both of which affect the aerodynamic behavior of the aircraft. Because no aircraft of this type has been built and tested, vital aerodynamic research was conducted on the bare airframe behavior (without wingtip ducts). Two weeks of static and dynamic testing were performed on a 3/10th scale model at the University of Maryland's 7' x 10' low speed wind tunnel to facilitate the construction of a nonlinear flight simulator. A total of 70 dynamic tests were performed to obtain damping parameter estimates using the ordinary least squares methodology. Validation, based on agreement between static and dynamic estimates of the pitch and yaw stiffness terms, showed an average percent error of 14.0% and 39.6%, respectively. These inconsistencies were attributed to: large dynamic displacements not encountered during static testing, regressor collinearity, and, while not conclusively proven, differences in static and dynamic boundary layer development. Overall, the damping estimates were consistent and repeatable, with low scatter over a 95% confidence interval. Finally, a basic open loop simulation was executed to demonstrate the instability of the aircraft. As a result, it is recommended that future work be performed to determine trim points and linear models for controls development.

Abdollahi, Cyrus

265

A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

2013-08-01

266

Miniature hexaferrite axial-mode helical antenna for unmanned aerial vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexaferrite, axial-mode helical antenna is proposed to provide reliable communication for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. The conventional axial-mode helical antenna uses an air core or low dielectric material, resulting in large antenna size. To increase the miniaturization factor, n = (microrepsilonr0.5, a Co2Z hexaferrite-glass composite was used as an antenna core. The material properties of ferrite and antenna design were studied to yield the best antenna performance. Axial-mode helical antennas were designed and simulated as well as experimentally fabricated. The 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was performed to design a hexaferrite helical antenna and confirm the axial-mode operation at 2.44 GHz with gain of 2.0 dBi. The designed hexaferrite helical antenna showed 82% volume reduction and good impedance matching compared to the air-core antenna. The axial-mode hexaferrite antenna was fabricated based on the designed structure and characterized in an anechoic chamber. The maximum gain of 0.541 dBi was measured with a pitch angle of 10° at 2.39 GHz. Finally, a two-element axial-mode antenna array was designed based on the miniature hexaferrite antenna to further improve antenna gain. Maximum gain of 4.5 dBi at 2.43 GHz was simulated for the antenna array. Therefore, high gain and a miniature antenna can be achieved with the combination of Co2Z hexaferrite-glass composite and antenna design technology.

Neveu, Nicholas James

267

A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies.

Tahar, K. N.; Ahmad, A.; Akib, W. A. A. W. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.

2014-02-01

268

Fusing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery with High Resolution Hydrologic Modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After decades of development and applications, high resolution hydrologic models are now common tools in research and increasingly used in practice. More recently, high resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that provide information on land surface properties have become available for civilian applications. Fusing the two approaches promises to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in terms of hydrologic modeling capabilities. This combination will also challenge assumptions on model processes, parameterizations and scale as land surface characteristics (~0.1 to 1 m) may now surpass traditional model resolutions (~10 to 100 m). Ultimately, predictions from high resolution hydrologic models need to be consistent with the observational data that can be collected from UAVs. This talk will describe our efforts to develop, utilize and test the impact of UAV-derived topographic and vegetation fields on the simulation of two small watersheds in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (Green Valley, AZ) and the Jornada Experimental Range (Las Cruces, NM). High resolution digital terrain models, image orthomosaics and vegetation species classification were obtained from a fixed wing airplane and a rotary wing helicopter, and compared to coarser analyses and products, including Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). We focus the discussion on the relative improvements achieved with UAV-derived fields in terms of terrain-hydrologic-vegetation analyses and summer season simulations using the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) model. Model simulations are evaluated at each site with respect to a high-resolution sensor network consisting of six rain gauges, forty soil moisture and temperature profiles, four channel runoff flumes, a cosmic-ray soil moisture sensor and an eddy covariance tower over multiple summer periods. We also discuss prospects for the fusion of high resolution models with novel observations from UAVs, including synthetic aperture radar and multispectral imagery.

Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Anderson, C.; Saripalli, S.; Rango, A.

2013-12-01

269

Challenges of testing manned and unmanned aerial vehicles with reconnaissance payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe some challenges of testing aircraft and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with reconnaissance payloads, and discuss how the challenges are met. The Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) has participated in testing the Electro-Optical-Long Range Oblique Photography System upgrade for the RF-4C aircraft, the Medium Range UAV (MR UAV), the ARGUS remotely piloted reconnaissance UAV, and other recent programs. Lessons learned from the UTTR's wide variety of recent test experience with developmental reconnaissance aircraft and UAVs can be used to guide future development and flight testing of next-generation systems.

Bergevin, Dean H.

1993-12-01

270

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2006-04-01

271

Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems' SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft(®)'s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

2012-01-01

272

Point Cloud Generation from Aerial Image Data Acquired by a Quadrocopter Type Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Digital Still Camera  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems’ SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft®’s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation.

Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

2012-01-01

273

Sensor Fusion Based Fault-Tolerant Attitude Estimation Solutions for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Navigation-grade inertial sensors are often too expensive and too heavy for use in most Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) systems. Low-cost Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors provide an attractive alternative, but currently do not provide an adequate navigation solution alone due to the presence of sensor bias. Toward addressing this problem, this research focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of sensor fusion algorithms to combine partially redundant information from low-cost sensor to achieve accurate SUAV attitude estimation. To conduct this research, several sets of SUAVs flight data that include measurements from a low-cost MEMS based Inertial Measurement Unit, a Global Positioning System receiver, and a set of low-grade tri-axial magnetometers are used to evaluate a variety of algorithms. In order to provide a baseline for performance evaluation, attitude measurements obtained directly with a high-quality mechanical vertical gyroscope are used as an independent attitude 'truth'. In addition, as a part of this project, a custom SUAV avionics system was developed to provide a platform for fault-tolerant flight control research. The overall goal of this research is to provide high-accuracy attitude estimation during nominal sensor performance conditions and in the event of sensors failures, while using only low-cost components. To achieve this goal, this study is carried out in three phases. The specific aim of the first phase is to obtain high-accuracy under nominal sensor conditions. During this phase, two different nonlinear Kalman filtering methods are applied to various sensor fusion formulations and evaluated with respect to estimation accuracy over diverse sets of flight data. Next, during the second phase, sensor fusion based calibration techniques are explored to further enhance estimation accuracy. Finally, the third phase of the study considers the design of a sensor fusion attitude estimation architecture that rejects sensor failures and supports a graceful loss of performance in the event of sensor failures. This algorithm is based on a nonlinear information filter and features a novel Failure Detection, Identification, and Accommodation (FDIA) approach. During this phase, it is shown that the sensor fusion algorithm handles both abruptly occurring large magnitude sensor failures, as well as gradually growing small magnitude sensor failures.

Gross, Jason Nicholas

274

Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be feasible and can collect imagery for very large areas in a short period of time. It was accurate for bare ground and grasses. Both UAV systems have limitations, but these will be reduced as the technology advances. In both cases, the UAV systems collected data at a much faster rate than possible on the ground. The study concluded that improvements in automating the image processing efforts would greatly improve use of the technology. In the near future, UAV technology may revolutionize rangeland monitoring in the same way Global Positioning Systems have affected navigation while conducting field activities.

Robert Paul Breckenridge

2007-05-01

275

Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU) shows that the integrated system can reach position, velocity and attitude accuracies compatible with CAT-II precision approach requirements. Simulation of the second system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU/ADM) shows promising results since the achieved attitude accuracy is higher using the ADM/VBS/IMU than using VBS/IMU only. However, due to rapid divergence of the ADM virtual sensor, there is a need for a frequent re-initialisation of the ADM data module, which is strongly dependent on the UAV flight dynamics and the specific manoeuvring transitions performed. Finally, the output provided by the VBN and integrated navigation sensor systems is used to design a flight control system using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for the Aerosonde UAV.

Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

2012-05-01

276

KFB Program on Biobased Fuels for Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KFB supports research and demonstration projects for bio-based transport fuels, alcohols and biogas. The program started in 1991 and will continue through 1997. The program focuses on heavy vehicles, e.g. buses for public transportation. Projects and inte...

1996-01-01

277

Harvest: A Framework and Co-Simulation Environment for Analyzing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned vehicles have the capability to transform military operations. One relatively unexplored application involves cooperative unmanned vehicle systems called sensor swarms. We propose a conceptual unmanned vehicle swarm: a host of armed reconnaissance vehicles enabling surveillance and targeting (HARVEST). A HARVEST swarm is theoretically capable of autonomous refueling, cooperative search, information fusion, and munitions employment. To enable cooperative swarm capabilities,

Christopher J. Augeri; Kevin M. Morris; Barry E. Mullins

2006-01-01

278

The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.  

PubMed

A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission. PMID:16112553

Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

2005-01-01

279

Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is taking longer than expected to realize the immense potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)for civil applications due to the complexity of regulations being developed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) that can be applied to both manned and unmanned flight in the National Airspace System (NAS). As a result, FAA has required that for all UAV flights in the NAS, an external pilot must maintain line-of-sight contact with the UAV. Properly trained observers must also be present to assist the external pilot in collision avoidance. Additionally, in order to fly in the NAS, formal approval must be requested from FAA through application for a Certificate of Authorization (COA for government applicants or a Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) in the experimental category for non-government applicants. Flight crews of UAVs must pass exams also required for manned airplane pilots. Although flight crews for UAVs are not required to become manned airplane pilots, UAV flight missions are much more efficient if one or two of the UAV flight crew are also manned aircraft pilots so they can serve as the UAV mission commander. Our group has performed numerous UAV flights within the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Two developments with Jornada UAVs can be recommended to other UAV operators that would increase flight time experience and study areas covered by UAV images. First, do not overlook the possibility of obtaining permission to fly in Restricted Military Airspace (RMA). At the Jornada, our airspace is approximately 50% NAS and 50% RMA. With experiments ongoing in both types of airspace, we can fly in both areas and continue to increase UAV flights. Second, we have developed an air- and-ground vehicle approach for long distance, continuous pilot transport that always maintains line-of-sight requirements. This allows flying several target areas on a single mission and increasing the number of acquired UAV images - over 90,000 UAV images have now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

2013-12-01

280

Detection and classification of channel bedforms observed using the visual-light camera mounted to the unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophoto images, obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px, exceeding the available resolution of remote sensing satellites. Such an unprecedentedly small size of the grid is very useful in fluvial geomorphology, in particular in investigations of small or moderate bedforms. These underwater landforms form spatially complex patterns which are difficult to observe and detect in the field, especially in the considerably long river channels. Since November 2012 we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four rivers in the K?odzko County (SW Poland). These rivers are: Nysa K?odzka, Bia?a L?decka, Bystrzyca Dusznicka and ?cinawka. We have limited our research flights to small fragments of these rivers, and we have gathered aerial photographs taken using the visual-light camera during all seasons. Although visual-light cameras have a limited ability to penetrate underwater features, we have found that at certain environmental conditions (e.g. autumn, low flow, highly transparent water, low albedo), it is possible to record a significant signal of the underwater channel bedforms. Such orthophoto images have been processed to numerically detect and classify the aforementioned landforms. The work serves as a feasibility study, the aim of which is to present that UAV-acquired photographs, even taken using the visual-light cameras, may be used to infer the spatial setting of channel bedforms.

?lopek, Jacek; Wieczorek, Ma?gorzata; Migo?, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek; Jeziorska, Justyna; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar; Niedzielski, Tomasz

2014-05-01

281

Methods for In-Flight Wing Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Formulation of Ko Displacement Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ko displacement theory is formulated for a cantilever tubular wing spar under bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The Ko displacement equations are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. The bending and distortion strain data can then be input to the displacement equations to calculate slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the wing spar at the strain-sensing stations for generating the deformed shapes of flexible aircraft wing spars. The displacement equations have been successfully validated for accuracy by finite-element analysis. The Ko displacement theory that has been formulated could also be applied to calculate the deformed shape of simple and tapered beams, plates, and tapered cantilever wing boxes. The Ko displacement theory and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) form a powerful tool for in-flight deformation monitoring of flexible wings and tails, such as those often employed on unmanned aerial vehicles. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed in real time to the ground-based pilot for monitoring the deformed shape of unmanned aerial vehicles during flight.

Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

2010-01-01

282

Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

1989-07-01

283

A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were stored in the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The resolution of magnetic field decreased to 30nT, when the plane flew to the tail wind. However, it is worse against the head wind. Obtained anomaly pattern was compared with the magnetic anomaly pattern published by Geoscience Australia. Both patterns were essentially consistent, although a part of pattern in the head wind flights was not resemble. Ant-Plane 4 flew up to 5700 m in altitude with aerosol counter, thermometer and hygrometer at northern part of Japan. A drastic change of temperature, humidity and particle number was observed at the inversion layer of atmosphere. Consequently we conclude that the small drone Ant-Plane 4 can be used for geophysical research. We are making effort to develop Ant-Plane for more simple assemblage and more easy operation.

Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

2007-05-01

284

Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

2013-12-01

285

Road extraction from aerial and satellite images by dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic road extraction scheme which combines the wavelet decomposition for road sharpening and a model-driven linear feature extraction algorithm based on dynamic programming. Semi-automatic means that a road is extracted automatically after some seed points have been given coarsely by the operator through activation of a mouse using a convenient interactive image-graphics user interface.

Armin Gruen; Haihong Li

1995-01-01

286

VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1977-01-01

287

A nonlinear terrain-following controller for a VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle using translational optical flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for terrain following of a vertical take-off and landing vehicle (VTOL). The VTOL vehicle is assumed to be a rigid body, equipped with a minimum sensor suite (camera and IMU) along with a measure of the forward speed from another sensor such as global positioning system, maneuvering over a textured terrain made of planar

Bruno Herisse; Tarek Hamel; Robert Mahony; Francois-xavier Russotto

2009-01-01

288

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Good Tool for Aerospace Engineering Education and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace engineering is a vehicle-oriented discipline, which commonly incorporates a very wide variety of curricular subjects but with a hands -on training as an ultimate goal of education and research for the young students. The aerospace engineering education starts as a system approach, which shall, at least, include the design, manufacturing and maintenance of aerospace vehicles. It is essential to

Fei-Bin HSIAO; Ying-Chih LAI; Meng-Tse LEE; Tsong-Liang LIU; Woei-Leong CHAN; Sheng-Yen HSIEH; Chun-Chih CHEN

2005-01-01

289

A Study of the Effects of Large Scale Gust Generation in a Small Scale Atmospheric Wind Tunnel: Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer could benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an ``atmospheric wind tunnel'' is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including that of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other unmanned aircraft, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicles, and the study of bird and insect fight. The construction of an active ``gust generator'' for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to days ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using oil flow visualization.

Roadman, Jason; Mohseni, Kamran

2009-11-01

290

Developing a Control Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Search and Localize RF Time-Varying Mobile Targets: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control architecture that allows multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively detect mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. The architecture is developed under the premise that UAVs are controlled as a distributed system. The distributed system-based technique maximizes the search and detection capabilities of multiple UAVs. We use a hybrid approach that combines

Daniel J. Pack; George W. P. York

2005-01-01

291

Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map.  

PubMed

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV. PMID:16566471

Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A

2006-03-01

292

Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

2009-01-01

293

An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning  

PubMed Central

Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms.

Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

2014-01-01

294

An improved artificial bee colony algorithm based on balance-evolution strategy for unmanned combat aerial vehicle path planning.  

PubMed

Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

Li, Bai; Gong, Li-Gang; Yang, Wen-Lun

2014-01-01

295

Modeling and Inverse Controller Design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on the Self-Organizing Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a SOM-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV.

Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

296

Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented.

Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Ivan; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Anibal

2009-01-01

297

Piezo-stack vortex generators for boundary layer control of a delta wing micro-aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an idea for the control of flow separation over solid surfaces by piezo-stack vortex generators. The vortex generators are small vibrating plates attached to the delta wing surface. A model of the micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) controlled by vortex piezo-generators is presented. The vortex generators are applied to produce the appropriate aerodynamical forces and moments controlling the flight of the aircraft. The efficiency of the vortex generators is proved by the wind tunnel test results. The oscillatory added lift and drag coefficients versus angle of attack are presented. The optimal vortex generator amplitude and frequency are investigated. Boundary layer control (BLC) for delta wing micro-aircraft increases the manoeuvrability and performance of the MAV.

Mystkowski, Arkadiusz

2013-11-01

298

Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy\\/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE\\/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE\\/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc\\/air and sodium\\/sulfur

R. P. Clark

1993-01-01

299

A terrain-following control approach for a VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using average optical flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for terrain following of a vertical take-off and landing vehicle (VTOL). The VTOL\\u000a vehicle is assumed to be a rigid body, equipped with a minimum sensor suite (camera, IMU and barometric altimeter) maneuvering\\u000a over a textured rough terrain made of a concatenation of planar surfaces. Assuming that the forward velocity is separately\\u000a regulated to

Bruno Herisse; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony; Francois-Xavier Russotto

2010-01-01

300

DEPENDENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS ON VEHICLE LOAD: RESULTS FROM THE GTRP INSTRUMENTED VEHICLE PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation discussed the dependence of nitric oxide (NO) emissions on vehicle load, bases on results from an instrumented-vehicle program. The accuracy and feasibility of modal emissions models depend on algorithms to allocate vehicle emissions based on a vehicle operation...

301

Statistical techniques applied to aerial radiometric surveys (STAARS): principal components analysis user's manual. [NURE program  

SciTech Connect

A Principal Components Analysis (PCA) has been written to aid in the interpretation of multivariate aerial radiometric data collected by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The variations exhibited by these data have been reduced and classified into a number of linear combinations by using the PCA program. The PCA program then generates histograms and outlier maps of the individual variates. Black and white plots can be made on a Calcomp plotter by the application of follow-up programs. All programs referred to in this guide were written for a DEC-10. From this analysis a geologist may begin to interpret the data structure. Insight into geological processes underlying the data may be obtained.

Koch, C.D.; Pirkle, F.L.; Schmidt, J.S.

1981-01-01

302

Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

2010-04-01

303

Use of 3D laser radar for navigation of unmanned aerial and ground vehicles in urban and indoor environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the integration of Inertial measurements with measurements from a three-dimensional (3D) imaging sensor for position and attitude determination of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and autonomous ground vehicles (AGV) in urban or indoor environments. To enable operation of UAVs and AGVs at any time in any environment a Precision Navigation, Attitude, and Time (PNAT) capability is required that is robust and not solely dependent on the Global Positioning System (GPS). In urban and indoor environments a GPS position capability may not only be unavailable due to shadowing, significant signal attenuation or multipath, but also due to intentional denial or deception. Although deep integration of GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data may prove to be a viable solution an alternative method is being discussed in this paper. The alternative solution is based on 3D imaging sensor technologies such as Flash Ladar (Laser Radar). Flash Ladar technology consists of a modulated laser emitter coupled with a focal plane array detector and the required optics. Like a conventional camera this sensor creates an "image" of the environment, but producing a 2D image where each pixel has associated intensity vales the flash Ladar generates an image where each pixel has an associated range and intensity value. Integration of flash Ladar with the attitude from the IMU allows creation of a 3-D scene. Current low-cost Flash Ladar technology is capable of greater than 100 x 100 pixel resolution with 5 mm depth resolution at a 30 Hz frame rate. The proposed algorithm first converts the 3D imaging sensor measurements to a point cloud of the 3D, next, significant environmental features such as planar features (walls), line features or point features (corners) are extracted and associated from one 3D imaging sensor frame to the next. Finally, characteristics of these features such as the normal or direction vectors are used to compute the platform position and attitude changes. These "delta" position and attitudes are then used calibrate the IMU. Note, that the IMU is not only required to form the point cloud of the environment expressed in the navigation frame, but also to perform association of the features from one flash Ladar frame to the next. This paper will discuss the performance of the proposed 3D imaging sensor feature extraction, position change estimator and attitude change estimator using both simulator data and data collected from a moving platform in an indoor environment. The former consists of data from a simulated IMU and flash Ladar installed on an aerial vehicle for various trajectories through an urban environment. The latter consists of measurements from a CSEM Swissranger 3D imaging sensor and a MicroStrain low-cost IMU. Data was collected on a manually operated aerial vehicle inside the Ohio University School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science building.

Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Venable, Don; Smearcheck, Mark

2007-05-01

304

Aerial video and ladar imagery fusion for persistent urban vehicle tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the impact of supplementing two-dimensional video with three-dimensional geometry for persistent vehicle tracking in complex urban environments. Using recent video data collected over a city with minimal terrain content, we first quantify erroneous sources of automated tracking termination and identify those which could be ameliorated by detailed height maps. They include imagery misregistration, roadway occlusion and vehicle deceleration. We next develop mathematical models to analyze the tracking value of spatial geometry knowledge in general and high resolution ladar imagery in particular. Simulation results demonstrate how 3D information could eliminate large numbers of false tracks passing through impenetrable structures. Spurious track rejection would permit Kalman filter coasting times to be significantly increased. Track lifetimes for vehicles occluded by trees and buildings as well as for cars slowing down at corners and intersections could consequently be prolonged. We find high resolution 3D imagery can ideally yield an 83% reduction in the rate of automated tracking failure.

Cho, Peter; Greisokh, Daniel; Anderson, Hyrum; Sandland, Jessica; Knowlton, Robert

2007-04-01

305

Aerial robotic data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-31

306

Cost control in the Atlas\\/Centaur launch vehicle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief overview of the history of the Atlas and Centaur programs from their initial development to today's operational launch vehicles is presented. The management organizational structure and evolution are described, as well as the different versions of Atlas and Centaur produced during the program's history. The operational vehicles' performance and reliability are examined. Cost of Atlas and Centaur vehicles

G. L. Hansen; K. E. Newton; W. A. Roberts; P. J. O. Leary; J. E. Niesley

1975-01-01

307

Advanced Subsystems for Practical Electric Vehicles. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Subsystems Technology Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Subsystem Technology Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with developing the advanced technology base, other than energy storage, necessary for practical electric and hybrid vehicles. The success o...

1979-01-01

308

Vehicle Technologies Heavy Vehicle Program: FY 2008 Benefits Analysis, Methodology and Results- Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis of the petroleum and carbon reduction benefits associated with Heavy Vehicle technologies supported by the Vehicle Technologies Program has been completed for the FY 2008 Budget request. The analysis utilizes a series of spreadsheet models to ...

M. Singh

2008-01-01

309

Visually Guided Micro-aerial Vehicle: Automatic Take Off, Terrain Following, Landing and Wind Reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a visually based autopilot which is able to make a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) automatically take off, cruise and land, while reacting adequately to wind disturbances. We built a proof-of-concept, tethered rotorcraft that can travel indoors over an environment composed of contrasting features randomly arranged on the floor. Here we show the feasibility of a visuomotor control

Franck Ruffier; Nicolas H. Franceschini

2004-01-01

310

Application of Artificial Intelligent For Armour Vehicle Detection Using Digital Image Processing For Aerial Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will presents a new automatic target recognition (ATR) algorithm to detect targets such as battle tanks and armoured personal carriers especially that been used by Malaysia Armed Forces from air-to- ground scenario. Numerous friendly-fire incidents justify the need for identification of armour vehicle in both command control and weapon systems. Rapid and reliable identification of the targets at

Kamaruddin Abd Ghani; Hafizan Yosri

2011-01-01

311

Unmanned aerial vehicles: MultiUAV: a multiple UAV simulation for investigation of cooperative control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes MultiUAV, a simulation that is capable of simulating multiple unmanned aerospace vehicles which cooperate to accomplish a predefined mission. The simulation was constructed using the Mathwork's Simulink simulation software. Construction of the simulation satisfied the need for a simulation environment that researchers can use to implement and analyze cooperative control algorithms. The simulation is implemented in a

Steven J. Rasmussen; Phillip R. Chandler

2002-01-01

312

Modeling a prototype optical collision avoidance sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sense and avoid systems for civilian unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are essential in controlled airspace under visual flight rules (VFR). A prototype optical sensor accomplishes the task with attractive performance specifications. Key requirements include long-range detection (up to 10 km), wide field of view, discrimination of small threats against the background and tolerance of direct solar illumination. We demonstrate a

Cyrus Minwalla; Mussie Tekeste; Kyle Watters; Paul Thomas; Richard I. Hornsey; Kristopher Ellis; Sion Jennings

2010-01-01

313

Adaptive tracking control of underactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles via backstepping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers about the control problem for an underactuated quadrotor UAV system with model parameter uncertainty. Backstepping based techniques are utilized to design a nonlinear adaptive controller which can compensate for the mass uncertainty of the vehicle. Lyapunov based stability analysis shows that the proposed control design yields asymptotic tracking for the UAV's motion in x, y, z direction

Mu Huang; Bin Xian; Chen Diao; Kaiyan Yang; Yu Feng

2010-01-01

314

Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

Altug, Erdinc

315

Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4-200 Microdrones is an UAV which can be programmed to follow a route defined by several way-points and actions. The ground-based device was a Pacific Vision, Inc. multispectral radiometer. Four images with both systems were taken during the crop season and an index related with nitrogen crop status was calculated from them and compared in a sunflower field that had four irrigation treatments and eight nitrogen application rates, resulting in 32 plots of 7 m by 3.4 m, with a plant density of 7.1 plants m-2. Calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both measurement systems was a good indicator of nitrogen applied, but the UAV-based system provided a better estimate than ground-based system because in the first system was possible to eliminate the soil and shadows for calculating the index..

Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

2011-09-01

316

Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking of Multiple Ground Targets from Aerial Video with Dynamic Sensor Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of the DARPA Video Verification of Identity (VIVID) program is to develop an automated videobased ground targeting system for unmanned aerial vehicles that significantly improves operator combat efficiency and effectiveness while minimizing colla...

C. Rago H. Landau M. Antone P. Arambel T. Strat

2004-01-01

317

Overview of Sandia's electric vehicle battery program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved in several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

Clark, R. P.

1993-11-01

318

Progress on Platforms, Sensors and Applications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in soil science and geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent increase of performance and endurance of electronically controlled flying platforms, such as multi-copters and fixed-wing airplanes, and decreasing size and weight of different sensors and batteries leads to increasing popularity of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for scientific purposes. Modern workflows that implement UAS include guided flight plan generation, 3D GPS navigation for fully automated piloting, and automated processing with new techniques such as "Structure from Motion" photogrammetry. UAS are often equipped with normal RGB cameras, multi- and hyperspectral sensors, radar, or other sensors, and provide a cheap and flexible solution for creating multi-temporal data sets. UAS revolutionized multi-temporal research allowing new applications related to change analysis and process monitoring. The EGU General Assembly 2014 is hosting a session on platforms, sensors and applications with UAS in soil science and geomorphology. This presentation briefly summarizes the outcome of this session, addressing the current state and future challenges of small-platform data acquisition in soil science and geomorphology.

Anders, Niels; Suomalainen, Juha; Seeger, Manuel; Keesstra, Saskia; Bartholomeus, Harm; Paron, Paolo

2014-05-01

319

Lightweight aerial vehicles for monitoring, assessment and mapping of radiation anomalies.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) incident released a significant mass of radioactive material into the atmosphere. An estimated 22% of this material fell out over land following the incident. Immediately following the disaster, there was a severe lack of information not only pertaining to the identity of the radioactive material released, but also its distribution as fallout in the surrounding regions. Indeed, emergency aid groups including the UN did not have sufficient location specific radiation data to accurately assign exclusion and evacuation zones surrounding the plant in the days and weeks following the incident. A newly developed instrument to provide rapid and high spatial resolution assessment of radionuclide contamination in the environment is presented. The device consists of a low cost, lightweight, unmanned aerial platform with a microcontroller and integrated gamma spectrometer, GPS and LIDAR. We demonstrate that with this instrument it is possible to rapidly and remotely detect ground-based radiation anomalies with a high spatial resolution (<1 m). Critically, as the device is remotely operated, the user is removed from any unnecessary or unforeseen exposure to elevated levels of radiation. PMID:24949582

MacFarlane, J W; Payton, O D; Keatley, A C; Scott, G P T; Pullin, H; Crane, R A; Smilion, M; Popescu, I; Curlea, V; Scott, T B

2014-10-01

320

Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The CMAC neural network approximates the hyper-plane generated from the instantaneous optimization algorithm and produces torque commands for the internal combustion engine and electric motor. The CMAC neural network controller saves on the required memory as compared to a large look-up table by two orders of magnitude. The CMAC controller also prevents the need to compute a hyper-plane or complex logic every time step.

Harmon, Frederick G.

321

Experimental aerodynamic and static elastic deformation characterization of low aspect ratio flexible fixed wings applied to micro aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) is for a small, inexpensive and sometimes expendable platform, flying by remote pilot, in the field or autonomously. Because of the requirement to be flown either by almost inexperienced pilots or by autonomous control, they need to have very reliable and benevolent flying characteristics drive the design guidelines. A class of vehicles designed by the University of Florida adopts a flexible-wing concept, featuring a carbon fiber skeleton and a thin extensible latex membrane skin. Another typical feature of MAVs is a wingspan to propeller diameter ratio of two or less, generating a substantial influence on the vehicle aerodynamics. The main objectives of this research are to elucidate and document the static elastic flow-structure interactions in terms of measurements of the aerodynamic coefficients and wings' deformation as well as to substantiate the proposed inferences regarding the influence of the wings' structural flexibility on their performance; furthermore the research will provide experimental data to support the validation of CFD and FEA numerical models. A unique facility was developed at the University of Florida to implement a combination of a low speed wind tunnel and a visual image correlation system. The models tested in the wind tunnel were fabricated at the University MAV lab and consisted of a series of ten models with an identical geometry but differing in levels of structural flexibility and deformation characteristics. Results in terms of full-field displacements and aerodynamic coefficients from wind tunnel tests for various wind velocities and angles of attack are presented to demonstrate the deformation of the wing under steady aerodynamic load. The steady state effects of the propeller slipstream on the flexible wing's shape and its performance are also investigated. Analytical models of the aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics are proposed based on a multi dimensional linear regression analysis of non-linear functions. Conclusions are presented regarding the effects of the wing flexibility on some of the aerodynamic characteristics, including the effects of the propeller on the vehicle characteristics. Recommendations for future work will conclude this work.

Albertani, Roberto

322

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

323

Performance Characterization of a Lithium-Ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer chemistry.

Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

2004-01-01

324

Design, analysis and hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a MIMO controller for a VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle using H? synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the process of controller design and development for an advanced unmanned aerial vehicle is described. A design methodology based on H? control theory was used to design the controller. The control objectives, the synthesis model and the design results of this project are described. The control strategy was successfully tested using real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The test set

N. Sivashankar; Isaac Kaminer; D. Kuechenmeister

1994-01-01

325

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Vision-Guided Flight Stability and Autonomy for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Substantial progress has been made recently towards design building and test-flying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicle's (MAVs). We seek to complement this progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to.flight at very small scales with a vision stability and autonomy system. The developed system based on a robust horizon detection algorithm which we discuss in greater detail in a companion paper. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for MAV autonomy arguing that given current sensor technology, vision may he the only practical approach to the problem. We then briefly review our statistical vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification. Next we develop robust schemes for the detection of extreme MAV attitudes, where no horizon is visible, and for the detection of horizon estimation errors, due to external factors such as video transmission noise. Finally, we discuss our feed-back controller for self-stabilized flight, and report results on vision autonomous flights of duration exceeding ten minutes.

Ettinger, Scott M.; Nechyba, Michael C.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

2002-01-01

326

The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) will be able to carry up  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The payload bay in the nose of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), shown here during final construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif., will be able to carry up to 700 lbs. of sensors, imaging equipment and other instruments for Earth science missions. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

2002-01-01

327

Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01–0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%–12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD?=?0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD?=?1.0).

Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

2013-01-01

328

Monitoring the invasion of Spartina alterniflora using very high resolution unmanned aerial vehicle imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China).  

PubMed

Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2 ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population. PMID:24892066

Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Fu, Jingying; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

2014-01-01

329

Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.  

PubMed

To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD?=?0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD?=?1.0). PMID:23785513

Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

2013-01-01

330

Monitoring the Invasion of Spartina alterniflora Using Very High Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery in Beihai, Guangxi (China)  

PubMed Central

Spartina alterniflora was introduced to Beihai, Guangxi (China), for ecological engineering purposes in 1979. However, the exceptional adaptability and reproductive ability of this species have led to its extensive dispersal into other habitats, where it has had a negative impact on native species and threatens the local mangrove and mudflat ecosystems. To obtain the distribution and spread of Spartina alterniflora, we collected HJ-1 CCD imagery from 2009 and 2011 and very high resolution (VHR) imagery from the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The invasion area of Spartina alterniflora was 357.2?ha in 2011, which increased by 19.07% compared with the area in 2009. A field survey was conducted for verification and the total accuracy was 94.0%. The results of this paper show that VHR imagery can provide details on distribution, progress, and early detection of Spartina alterniflora invasion. OBIA, object based image analysis for remote sensing (RS) detection method, can enable control measures to be more effective, accurate, and less expensive than a field survey of the invasive population.

Wan, Huawei; Wang, Qiao; Jiang, Dong; Yang, Yipeng; Liu, Xiaoman

2014-01-01

331

The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at G  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The left wing of NASA's Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) rests in a jig during construction at General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., (GA-ASI) facility at Adelanto, Calif. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator to validate a variety of command and control technologies for UAVs, as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Eleven-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 86 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

2002-01-01

332

Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

Linear and nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) data are compared and evaluated. IMS provides low detection limits and rapid response for many compounds. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra reduced the data to 4-5% of its original size, while eliminating artifacts in the reconstructed spectra that occur with linear compression, and the root-mean-square reconstruction error was 0.17-0.20% of the maximum intensity of the uncompressed spectra. Furthermore, nonlinear wavelet compression precisely preserves the peak location (i.e., drift time). Small variations in peak location may occur in the reconstructed spectra that were linearly compressed. A method was developed and evaluated for optimizing the compression. The compression method was evaluated with in-flight data recorded from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Plumes of dimethyl methylphosphonate were disseminated for interrogation by the UAV-mounted IMS system. The daublet 8 wavelet filter exhibited the best performance for these evaluations. PMID:14961740

Cao, Libo; Harrington, Peter de B; Harden, Charles S; McHugh, Vincent M; Thomas, Martin A

2004-02-15

333

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Small-Scale Model of an Aerial Vehicle Supported by Tilting Ducted Fans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wind-tunnel investigation has been made to study the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a simplified aerial vehicle supported by ducted fans that tilt relative to the airframe. The ducts were in a triangular arrangement with one duct in front and two at the rear in order to minimize the influence of the downwash of the front duct on the rear ducts. The results of the investigation were compared with those of a similar investigation for a tandem two-duct arrangement in which the ducts were fixed (rather than tiltable) relative to the airframe, since the three-duct configuration had been devised in an attempt to avoid some of the deficiencies of the tandem fixed-duct configuration. The results of the investigation indicated that the tilting-duct arrangement had less noseup pitching moment for a given forward speed than the tandem fixed-duct arrangement. The model had less angle-of-attack instability than the tandem fixed-duct arrangement. The model was directionally unstable but had a positive dihedral effect throughout the test speed range.

Smith, Charles C., Jr.

1960-01-01

334

Autonomous Hovering and Landing of a Quad-rotor Micro Aerial Vehicle by Means of on Ground Stereo Vision System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On ground stereo vision system is used for autonomous hovering and landing of a quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). This kind of system has an advantage to support embedded vision system for autonomous hovering and landing, since an embedded vision system occasionally gives inaccurate distance calculation due to either vibration problem or unknown geometry of the landing target. Color based object tracking by using Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm was examined. Nonlinear model of quad-rotor MAV and a PID controller were used for autonomous hovering and landing. The result shows that the Camshift based object tracking algorithm has good performance. Additionally, the comparison between the stereo vision system based and GPS based autonomous hovering of a quad-rotor MAV shows that stereo vision system has better performance. The accuracy of the stereo vision system is about 1 meter in the longitudinal and lateral direction when the quad-rotor flies in 6 meters of altitude. In the same experimental condition, the GPS based system accuracy is about 3 meters. Additionally, experiment on autonomous landing gives a reliable result.

Pebrianti, Dwi; Kendoul, Farid; Azrad, Syaril; Wang, Wei; Nonami, Kenzo

335

High-Resolution, Semi-Automatic Fault Mapping Using Umanned Aerial Vehicles and Computer Vision: Mapping from an Armchair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our ability to characterise fractures depends upon the accuracy and precision of field techniques, as well as the quantity of data that can be collected. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs; otherwise known as "drones") and photogrammetry, provide exciting new opportunities for the accurate mapping of fracture networks, over large surface areas. We use a highly stable, 8 rotor, UAV platform (Oktokopter) with a digital SLR camera and the Structure-from-Motion computer vision technique, to generate point clouds, wireframes, digital elevation models and orthorectified photo mosaics. Furthermore, new image analysis methods such as phase congruency are applied to the data to semiautomatically map fault networks. A case study is provided of intersecting fault networks and associated damage, from Piccaninny Point in Tasmania, Australia. Outcrops >1 km in length can be surveyed in a single 5-10 minute flight, with pixel resolution ~1 cm. Centimetre scale precision can be achieved when selected ground control points are measured using a total station. These techniques have the potential to provide rapid, ultra-high resolution mapping of fracture networks, from many different lithologies; enabling us to more accurately assess the "fit" of observed data relative to model predictions, over a wide range of boundary conditions.igh resolution DEM of faulted outcrop (Piccaninny Point, Tasmania) generated using the Oktokopter UAV (inset) and photogrammetric techniques.

Micklethwaite, S.; Vasuki, Y.; Turner, D.; Kovesi, P.; Holden, E.; Lucieer, A.

2012-12-01

336

Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 2: Motor Vehicle Registration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 2 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) describes the purposes and specific objectives of motor vehicle registration. Federal authority for vehicle registration and general policies regarding vehicle registration systems are outlined.…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

337

A Research and Development Program to Develop an Improved Model for Aerial Gunnery Effectiveness. Volume II. Simulation of Tactical Aerial Gunnery (STAG) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pursuit logic analysis is performed and implemented in a computer model which analytically simulates tactical aerial gunnery combat between two opposing fixed armament aircraft. The object of the logic study was to improve the performance of the model b...

G. D. Whitehouse L. Theriot A. J. McPhate

1972-01-01

338

Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

Warren, J.F.

1992-05-01

339

The China New Energy Vehicles Program - Challenges and Opportunities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this report funded by the World Bank and carried out by the firm PRTM, Chinaâs New Energy Program and 10 Cities 1000 Vehicles program are evaluated. China is on the forefront of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) development leading the world in funding of new energy vehicles (100 billion RMB investments by 2021). Leading the development of new energy technologies is faced with challenges such as policy, grid solutions, standards, new business models, new technologies, and customer acceptance. This report reviews Chinaâs current energy programs and predicts future government and commercial changes to come due to new energy technologies.

Prtm

340

Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerial photography and information system technology were used to generate information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the city of Lansing; the inventory identified 35% more surface water areas than indicated on existing field maps. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County, were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps focusing on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

1977-01-01

341

Application of aerial photography to water-related programs in Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper describes the use of aerial photography and information system technology in the provision of information required for the effective operation of three water-related programs in Michigan. Potential mosquito breeding sites were identified from specially acquired low altitude 70 mm color photography for the City of Lansing Vector Control Area. A comprehensive inventory of surface water sources and potential access sites was prepared to assist fire departments in Antrim County with fire truck water-recharge operations. Remotely-sensed land cover/use data for Windsor Township, Eaton County were integrated with other resource data into a computer-based information system for regional water quality studies. Eleven thematic maps specifically focussed on landscape features affecting non-point water pollution and waste disposal were generated from analyses of a four-hectare grid-based data file containing land cover/use, soils, topographic and geologic (well-log) data.

Enslin, W. R.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Tilmann, S. E.

1977-01-01

342

Aerial Explorers and Robotic Ecosystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "ecosystem." Members of this robotic ecosystem include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg

2004-01-01

343

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images  

PubMed Central

The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

Pena, Jose Manuel; Torres-Sanchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; Lopez-Granados, Francisca

2013-01-01

344

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. Members of this genus are important pathogens and mycotoxin producers. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. Spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2,200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. Some of the species of Fusarium identified from our collections have not been previously reported in the state of Virginia. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season. This work extends previous studies showing an association between atmospheric transport barriers (Lagrangian coherent structures or LCSs) and the movement of Fusarium in the lower atmosphere. An increased understanding of the aerobiology of Fusarium may contribute to new and improved control strategies for diseases causes by fusaria in the future.

Schmale, David; Ross, Shane; Lin, Binbin

2014-05-01

345

Weed mapping in early-season maize fields using object-based analysis of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images.  

PubMed

The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

2013-01-01

346

A Data System for a Rapid Evaluation Class of Subscale Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low cost, rapid evaluation, test aircraft is used to develop and test airframe damage diagnosis algorithms at Langley Research Center as part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program. The remotely operated subscale aircraft is instrumented with sensors to monitor structural response during flight. Data is collected for good and compromised airframe configurations to develop data driven models for diagnosing airframe state. This paper describes the data acquisition system (DAS) of the rapid evaluation test aircraft. A PC/104 form factor DAS was developed to allow use of Matlab, Simulink simulation code in Langley's existing subscale aircraft flight test infrastructure. The small scale of the test aircraft permitted laboratory testing of the actual flight article under controlled conditions. The low cost and modularity of the DAS permitted adaptation to various flight experiment requirements.

Hogge, Edward F.; Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Hill, Boyd L.

2011-01-01

347

VEEP: A Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the VEEP simulation program was to: (1) predict vehicle fuel economy and relative emissions over any specified driving cycle; (2) calculate various measures of vehicle performance (acceleration, passing manuevers, gradeability, top speed), and (3) give information on the various categories of energy dissipation (rolling friction, aerodynamics, accessories, inertial effects, component inefficiences, etc.). The vehicle is described based on detailed subsystem information and numerical parameters characterizing the components of a wide variety of self-propelled vehicles. Conventionally arranged heat engine powered automobiles were emphasized, but with consideration in the design toward the requirement of other types of vehicles.

Klose, G. J.

1978-01-01

348

Controlling impaired driving through vehicle programs: an overview.  

PubMed

The growing recognition of the problem presented by illicit vehicle operation by those whose license has been suspended for driving while intoxicated (DWI) has led to the increasing use of vehicle sanctions. These sanctions include vehicle impoundment and forfeiture, vehicle registration cancellation, and vehicle interlocks as penalties for DWI and driving while suspended (DWS). This article reviews the current information available on the use and effectiveness of vehicle sanctions for reducing offender recidivism. In the United States, 14 states have impoundment laws that are widely used as sanctions for both DWI and DWS, with the length of the impoundment increasing with the number of previous offenses. These laws have been shown to reduce recidivism while the vehicle is in custody and, to a lesser extent, even after the vehicle has been released. Vehicle impoundment is also widely used in Canada and New Zealand. Although a larger number of U.S. states have laws providing for vehicle forfeiture for DWI or DWS, this sanction tends to be limited to multiple offenders and therefore impacts fewer drivers. Cancellation of the vehicle registration and the confiscation of the vehicle plates are increasing in popularity because the vehicle tags are the property of the state, rather than the vehicle owner. Vehicle alcohol interlocks have proven to be an effective method for reducing DWI offender recidivism while they are on the car, but appear to produce only limited post-treatment behavior change. Interlocks are widely used in the United States and Canada and are beginning to be implemented in Europe and Australia. The issues that arise in implementing vehicle sanction programs are discussed and the actions taken by states to deal with them are described. PMID:15276930

Voas, Robert B; Fell, James C; McKnight, A Scott; Sweedler, Barry M

2004-09-01

349

Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the contract was to train emergency-service personnel in the operation of Emergency Vehicles (EVs). The course requires five days to administer and includes both classroom and in-vehicle training. Classes can accommodate students from any o...

S. P. Schumacher J. B. Schumacher

1978-01-01

350

Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by Geoscience Australia. The pattern obtained in the tail wind was consistent with the map, although the pattern obtained form the tail wind was not similar for weak anomaly in the map. Consequently we conclude that the magnetic survey by small drone with MR-magnetometer is possible in the calm wind or in the tail wind. The magnetic noise might be increased by the heading change due to the turbulent flows because of angular deviation of the x-, y- and z-components of MR magnetometer.

Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

2006-12-01

351

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

352

Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 3: Program requirements documents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The requirements for geosynchronous orbit capability using the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) are defined. The program requirements, the mission requirements, and the system and subsystem requirements for the MOTV are discussed. The mission requirements include a geosynchronous Earth orbit vehicle for the construction, servicing, repair and operation of communications, solar power, and Earth observation satellites.

Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

1979-01-01

353

Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle Pilot Program. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) final report for the Inherently Low Emissions Airport Vehicle Pilot Program (ILEAV). The report describes the current level of ILEAV project activity based on information provided by participating airport ...

2006-01-01

354

Navy Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome conditions of reduced traction, ship motion, decks heeled at high angles, obstacles, and confined spaces. Under the Navy program, ODV technology was investigated and a series of experimental vehicles were built and successfully tested under extremely demanding conditions. The ODV drive system has been found to be applicable to autonomous, remotely, or manually operated vehicles. Potential commercial applications include multi-directional forklift trucks, automatic guided vehicles employed in manufacturing environments, and remotely controlled platforms used in nuclear facilities or for hazardous waste clean up tasks.

Mcgowen, Hillery

1994-01-01

355

United States orbital transfer vehicle programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States will rely on five orbital transfer vehicles to carry spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Development of these vehicles have evolved through contrasting cultures of government and commercial management. The spectrum of their capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval and return to a space base; either the Shuttle or the Space Station Freedom. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are now nearing maturity. Their characteristics, flight record, costs, and projected future uses are defined. The TOS and OMV are currently in development with first uses scheduled in 1992 and 1993, respectively. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

Gunn, Charles R.

356

A survey of electric and hybrid vehicle simulation programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are summarized. Altogether, 111 programs were identified as being in a usable state. The complexity of the existing programs spans a range from a page of simple desktop calculator instructions to 300,000 lines of a high-level programming language. The capability to simulate electric vehicles was most common, heat-engines second, and hybrid vehicles least common. Batch-operated programs are slightly more common than interactive ones, and one-third can be operated in either mode. The most commonly used language was FORTRAN, the language typically used by engineers. The higher-level simulation languages (e.g. SIMSCRIPT, GPSS, SIMULA) used by "model builders" were conspicuously lacking.

Bevan, J.; Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1978-01-01

357

Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature measured at the surface underestimates the energy emitted by the subsurface coal fire. In addition, surface temperature is strongly influenced by solar radiation and the prevailing ambient conditions (wind, temperature, humidity). As a consequence there is no simple correlation between surface and subsurface soil temperature. Efforts have been made to set up a coupled energy transport and energy balance model for the near surface considering thermal conduction, solar irradiation, thermal radiative energy and ambient temperature so far. The model can help to validate space-born and UAV-born thermal imagery and link surface to subsurface temperature but depends on in-situ measurements for input parameter determination and calibration. Results obtained so far strongly necessitate the integration of different data sources (in-situ / remote; point / area; local / medium scale) to obtain a reliable energy release estimation which is then used for coal fire characterization.

Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

2010-05-01

358

Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of South Florida (USF) in collaboration with Florida utilities and other organizations have executed a research and development program for the test and evaluation of Electric Vehicles. Its activity as one of 13 US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric Vehicle Test Site Operators was funded by DOE and the Florida Energy Office (FEO). The purpose of this program was to determine the efficiency of electric vehicles under commuter and fleet conditions in Florida. An additional feature of this program was the development of a utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) system for charging electric vehicles with solar energy. USF developed an effective and economical automated on board Mobile Data Acquisition System (MDAS) that records vehicle operating data with minimum operator interface. Computer programs were written by the USF team to achieve processing and analysis of the vehicles` MDAS data, again minimizing human involvement, human effort and human error. A large number of passenger cars, vans and pickup trucks were studied. Procedures for monitoring them were developed to a point where the equipment is commercially available and its operation has become routine. The nations first PV solar powered electric vehicle charging station and test facility was designed, developed and put into operation under this program. The charging station is capable of direct DC-DC (PV to battery) or AC-DC (power grid to battery) charging and it routes unused PV power to the University`s power grid for other use. The DC-DC charging system is more efficient, more dependable and safer than DC-AC-DC and traditional methods of DC-DC charging. A fortuitous correlation was observed between battery charging demand and solar power availability in commuter application of electric vehicles.

NONE

1997-06-01

359

Reusable launch vehicle: Technology development and test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council (NRC) assess the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology development and test programs in the most critical component technologies. At a time when discretionary government spending is under close scrutiny, the RLV program is designed to reduce the cost of access to space through a combination of robust vehicles and a streamlined infrastructure. Routine access to space has obvious benefits for space science, national security, commercial technologies, and the further exploration of space. Because of technological challenges, knowledgeable people disagree about the feasibility of a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicle. The purpose of the RLV program proposed by NASA and industry contractors is to investigate the status of existing technology and to identify and advance key technology areas required for development and validation of an SSTO vehicle. This report does not address the feasibility of an SSTO vehicle, nor does it revisit the roles and responsibilities assigned to NASA by the National Transportation Policy. Instead, the report sets forth the NRC committee's findings and recommendations regarding the RLV technology development and test program in the critical areas of propulsion, a reusable cryogenic tank system (RCTS), primary vehicle structure, and a thermal protection system (TPS).

1995-01-01

360

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

2000-06-19

361

Greenhouse Observations of the Stratosphere and Troposphere (GHOST): a novel shortwave infrared spectrometer developed for the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tropospheric distribution of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is dependent on surface flux variations, atmospheric chemistry and transport processes over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Errors in assumed atmospheric transport can adversely affect surface flux estimates inferred from surface, aircraft or satellite observations of greenhouse gas concentrations using inverse models. We present a novel, compact shortwave infrared spectrometer (GHOST) for installation on the NASA Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle to provide tropospheric column observations of CO2, CO, CH4, H2O and HDO over the ocean to address the need for large-scale, simultaneous, finely resolved measurements of key GHGs. These species cover a range of lifetimes and source processes, and measurements of their tropospheric columns will reflect the vertically integrated signal of their vertical and horizontal transport within the troposphere. The primary science objectives of GHOST are to: 1) provide observations which can be used to test atmospheric transport models; 2) validate satellite observations of GHG column observations over oceans, thus filling a critical gap in current validation capabilities; and 3) complement in-situ tropopause transition layer tracer observations from other instrumentation on board the Global Hawk to provide a link between upper and lower troposphere concentration measurements. The GHOST spectrometer system comprises a target acquisition module (TAM), a fibre slicer and feed system, and a multiple order spectrograph. The TAM design utilises a gimbal behind an optical dome, which is programmed to direct solar radiation reflected by the ocean surface into a fibre optic bundle. The fibre slicer and feed system then splits the light into the four spectral bands using order sorting filters. The fibres corresponding to each band are arranged with a small sideways offset to correctly centre each spectrum on the detector array. The spectrograph design is unique in that a single grating and detector is used for all four spectral bands. The whole instrument is housed within a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat to ensure thermal stability. We summarise the GHOST project and its objectives, and will provide a detailed overview of the instrument concept, development, and proposed deployment on board the Global Hawk.

Humpage, Neil; Boesch, Hartmut; Palmer, Paul; Parr-Burman, Phil; Vick, Andy; Bezawada, Naidu; Black, Martin; Born, Andy; Pearson, David; Strachan, Jonathan; Wells, Martyn

2014-05-01

362

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on rural…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

363

Solving Vehicle Routing Problems using Constraint Programming and Metaheuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint Programming typically uses the technique of depth-first branch and bound as the method of solving optimisation problems. Although this method can give the optimal solution, for large problems, the time needed to find the optimal can be prohibitive. This paper introduces a method for using iterative improvement techniques within a Constraint Programming framework, and applies this technique to vehicle

364

AWG-Detector: A machine learning tool for the accurate detection of Anomalies due to Wind Gusts (AWG) in the adaptive Altitude control unit of an Aerosonde unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has gained significant importance in the recent years because of their ability to remotely monitor and perform various tasks in an autonomous manner. However, the control unit of such UAVs fails to adapt quickly when the UAVs are exposed to unpredictable and violent external disturbances such as violent wind gusts and extreme weather conditions.

M. Jamal Afridi; Ahsan Javed Awan; Javaid Iqbal

2010-01-01

365

Differential games and symbolic programming to calculate a guaranteed aircraft evasion in modern aerial duels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of guidance possibilities of medium range missiles with new missiles like the Mica\\/Amraam increases the number of phases in aerial duels and implies more complex shooting and escape strategies. Therefore we are interested in developing algorithmic methods to study these new duels, which are difficult to study merely with the classical techniques of game theory. This article develops

S. Le Menec

1994-01-01

366

Aerial Physics: Aerial Skiing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. Through several simulations and demonstrations, students in this particular lesson will explore a variety of concepts involved with aerial skiing including angular momentum, torque, and friction.

2010-01-01

367

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2010-01-01

368

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

... 2014-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2014-01-01

369

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2012-01-01

370

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2011-01-01

371

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

372

Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV)-2 program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STRV-2 program is the second in a series of three collaborative flight test programs between the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and the United Kingdom (UK) Minstry of Defence (MoD). The STRV-2 Experiment Module contains five major experiments to provide proof-of-concept data on system design, data on the mid-earth orbit (MEO) space environment, and data on durability of

James Shoemaker; Paul Brooks; Eric J. Korevaar; Graham S. Arnold; Alok Das; John Stubstad; R. G. Hay

2000-01-01

373

Training Program for Operation of Emergency Vehicles. Instructor Lesson Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unit lesson plans for the three parts of the Emergency Vehicle (EV) Operator training program are provided. The units in parts 1 and 2 are designed for use in a classroom setting and contain the following components: description of the unit; trainees' knowledge objectives; instructor preparation activities; instructional content/presentation…

INNOVATRIX, Inc., Ingomar, PA.

374

Tribal motor vehicle injury prevention programs for reducing disparities in motor vehicle-related injuries.  

PubMed

A previous analysis of National Vital Statistics System data for 2003-2007 that examined disparities in rates of motor vehicle-related death by race/ethnicity and sex found that death rates for American Indians/Alaska Natives were two to four times the rates of other races/ethnicities. To address the disparity in motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths among American Indians/Alaska Natives, CDC funded four American Indian tribes during 2004-2009 to tailor, implement, and evaluate evidence-based road safety interventions. During the implementation of these four motor vehicle-related injury prevention pilot programs, seat belt and child safety seat use increased and alcohol-impaired driving decreased. Four American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities-the Tohono O'odham Nation, the Ho-Chunk Nation, the White Mountain Apache Tribe, and the San Carlos Apache Tribe-implemented evidence-based road safety interventions to reduce motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths. Each community selected interventions from the Guide to Community Preventive Services and implemented them during 2004-2009. Furthermore, each community took a multifaceted approach by incorporating several strategies, such as school and community education programs, media campaigns, and collaborations with law enforcement officers into their programs. Police data and direct observational surveys were the main data sources used to assess results of the programs. Results included increased use of seat belts and child safety seats, increased enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws, and decreased motor vehicle crashes involving injuries or deaths. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion as an example of a program that might be effective for reducing motor vehicle-related injury disparities in the United States. The Guide to Community Preventive Services recognizes these selected interventions as effective; this report examines the feasibility and transferability for implementing the interventions in American Indian/Alaska Native tribal communities. The findings in this report underscore the effectiveness of community interventions to reduce motor vehicle crashes among selected American Indian/Alaska Native communities. PMID:24743664

West, Bethany A; Naumann, Rebecca B

2014-04-18

375

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

376

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

377

Assessment of US electric vehicle programs with ac powertrains  

SciTech Connect

AC powertrain technology is a promising approach to improving the performance of electric vehicles. Four major programs are now under way in the United States to develop ac powertrains: the Ford/General Electric single-shaft electric propulsion system (ETX-II), the Eaton dual-shaft electric propulsion system (DSEP), the Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) integrated ac motor drive and recharge system, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) variable reluctance motor (VRM) drive. The JPL program is sponsored by EPRI; the other three programs are funded by the US Department of Energy. This preliminary assessment of the four powertrain programs focuses on potential performance, costs, safety, and commercial feasibility. Interviews with program personnel were supplemented by computer simulations of electric vehicle performance using the four systems. Each of the four powertrains appears superior to standard dc powertrain technology in terms of performance and weight. The powertrain technologies studied in this assessment are at varying degrees of technological maturity. One or more of the systems may be ready for incorporation into an advanced electric vehicle during the early 1990s. Each individual report will have a separate abstract. 5 refs., 37 figs., 29 tabs.

Kevala, R.J. (Booz, Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Bethesda, MD (USA). Transportation Consulting Div.)

1990-02-01

378

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

2005-10-01

379

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Tool for Acquiring Spatial Data for Research and Commercial Purposes. New Course in the Geography and Cartography Curriculum in Higher Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the syllabus for the innovative course "Unmanned aerial observations of Terrain" introduced to the curriculum by the Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). It indicates the objectives of the new subject, its didactic purpose, methods used in the teaching process, specifications of teaching materials, and the knowledge and skills that students are expected to acquire. Finally, it presents the content of the course and description of lesson units. The subject will be obligatory for graduate students majoring in Geography, who are participants in the Geoinformatics and Cartography Master's program. Thirty-eight hours in a summer semester has been earmarked for the course. That includes 30 hours of instructor-guided laboratory and fieldtrip work, and 8 hours of individual work. The course aims to prepare future geographers to conduct a multi-step process that includes defining the purpose of using UAV in light of the chosen research problem, preparation of the mission, flight execution; geoprocessing of acquired aerial imagery; generation of cartomertic final products, and analysis of outcomes in order to answer the initially asked research question. This comprehensive approach will allow students, future experts in the field of geoinformatics and cartography, to gain the skills needed to acquire spatial data using an UAV, process them, and apply the results of their analysis in practice.

Jeziorska, J.

2014-04-01

380

77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and made changes to the Clean Vehicle Program to reflect post-1998...earning period within which vehicle manufacturers could comply...program's fleet average non-methane organic gases (NMOG) requirements...information on the Pennsylvania Clean Vehicle program, refer to...

2012-01-24

381

Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) system design requirements are given. The information is based on the IPAD User Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70013-D) and the Integrated Information Processing Requirements Document (D6-IPAD-70012-D). General information about IPAD and a list of the system design requirements that are to be satisfied by the IPAD system are given. The system design requirements definition is to be considered as a baseline definition of the IPAD system design requirements.

Anderson, O. L.; Calvery, A. L.; Davis, D. A.; Dickmann, L.; Folger, D. H.; Jochem, E. N.; Kitto, C. M.; Vonlimbach, G.

1977-01-01

382

77 FR 36250 - Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection Request; Request for Aerial Photography AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION...information collection associated with FSA Aerial Photography Program. The FSA Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO) uses the...

2012-06-18

383

Innovative Management in the DARPA High Altitude Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Program. Phase 2 Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Improving acquisition policy, processes, and management requires the accumulation of experience from ongoing or recently completed projects, especially those involving unusual situations or innovative acquisition policies. This research contributes to tha...

J. A. Drezner G. Sommer R. S. Leonard

1999-01-01

384

UAVs in climate research: The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

In the last year, a Department of Energy/Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project known as ``ARM-UAV`` has made important progress in developing and demonstrating the utility of unmanned aerospace vehicles as platforms for scientific measurements. Recent accomplishments include a series of flights using an atmospheric research payload carried by a General Atomics Gnat UAV at Edwards AFB, California, and over ground instruments located in north-central Oklahoma. The reminder of this discussion will provide background on the program and describe the recent flights.

Bolton, W.R.

1994-05-01

385

Automatic identification of agricultural terraces through object-oriented analysis of very high resolution DSMs and multispectral imagery obtained from an unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

Agricultural terraces are features that provide a number of ecosystem services. As a result, their maintenance is supported by measures established by the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In the framework of CAP implementation and monitoring, there is a current and future need for the development of robust, repeatable and cost-effective methodologies for the automatic identification and monitoring of these features at farm scale. This is a complex task, particularly when terraces are associated to complex vegetation cover patterns, as happens with permanent crops (e.g. olive trees). In this study we present a novel methodology for automatic and cost-efficient identification of terraces using only imagery from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) cameras on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Using state-of-the-art computer vision techniques, we generated orthoimagery and digital surface models (DSMs) at 11 cm spatial resolution with low user intervention. In a second stage, these data were used to identify terraces using a multi-scale object-oriented classification method. Results show the potential of this method even in highly complex agricultural areas, both regarding DSM reconstruction and image classification. The UAV-derived DSM had a root mean square error (RMSE) lower than 0.5 m when the height of the terraces was assessed against field GPS data. The subsequent automated terrace classification yielded an overall accuracy of 90% based exclusively on spectral and elevation data derived from the UAV imagery. PMID:24473345

Diaz-Varela, R A; Zarco-Tejada, P J; Angileri, V; Loudjani, P

2014-02-15

386

Using virtual instruments to develop an actuator-based hardware-in-the-loop simulation test-bed for autopilot of unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bring forth many innovative applications in scientific, civilian, and military fields, the development of UAVs is rapidly growing every year. The on-board autopilot that reliably performs attitude and guidance control is a vital part for out-of-sight flights. However, the control law in autopilot is designed according to a simplified plant model in which the dynamics of real hardware are usually not taken into consideration. It is a necessity to develop a test-bed including real servos to make real-time control experiments for prototype autopilots, so called hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation. In this paper on the basis of the graphical application software LabVIEW, the real-time HIL simulation system is realized efficiently by the virtual instrumentation approach. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller in autopilot for the pitch angle control loop is experimentally determined by the classical Ziegler-Nichols tuning rule and exhibits good transient and steady-state response in real-time HIL simulation. From the results the differences between numerical simulation and real-time HIL simulation are also clearly presented. The effectiveness of HIL simulation for UAV autopilot design is definitely confirmed

Sun, Yun-Ping; Ju, Jiun-Yan; Liang, Yen-Chu

2008-12-01

387

Inversion of the PROSAIL model to estimate leaf area index of maize, potato, and sunflower fields from unmanned aerial vehicle hyperspectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf area index (LAI) is a key variable for modeling energy and mass exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere. Inversion of physically based radiative transfer models is the most established technique for estimating LAI from remotely sensed data. This study aims to evaluate the suitability of the PROSAIL model for LAI estimation of three typical row crops (maize, potato, and sunflower) from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral data. LAI was estimated using a look-up table (LUT) based on the inversion of the PROSAIL model. The estimated LAI was evaluated against in situ LAI measurements. The results indicated that the LUT-based inversion of the PROSAIL model was suitable for LAI estimation of these three crops, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.62 m2 m-2, and a relative RMSE (RRMSE) of approximately 15.5%. Dual-angle observations were also used to estimate LAI and proved to be more accurate than single-angle observations, with an RMSE of approximately 0.55 m2 m-2 and an RRMSE of approximately 13.6%. The results demonstrate that additional directional information improves the performance of LAI estimation.

Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

2014-02-01

388

Recovery Act - Sustainable Transportation: Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Education Program  

SciTech Connect

The collective goals of this effort include: 1) reach all facets of this society with education regarding electric vehicles (EV) and plug–in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), 2) prepare a workforce to service these advanced vehicles, 3) create web–based learning at an unparalleled level, 4) educate secondary school students to prepare for their future and 5) train the next generation of professional engineers regarding electric vehicles. The Team provided an integrated approach combining secondary schools, community colleges, four–year colleges and community outreach to provide a consistent message (Figure 1). Colorado State University Ventures (CSUV), as the prime contractor, plays a key program management and co–ordination role. CSUV is an affiliate of Colorado State University (CSU) and is a separate 501(c)(3) company. The Team consists of CSUV acting as the prime contractor subcontracted to Arapahoe Community College (ACC), CSU, Motion Reality Inc. (MRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) and Ricardo. Collaborators are Douglas County Educational Foundation/School District and Gooru (www.goorulearning.org), a nonprofit web–based learning resource and Google spin–off.

Caille, Gary

2013-12-13

389

An Accuracy Assessment of Georeferenced Point Clouds Produced via Multi-View Stereo Techniques Applied to Imagery Acquired via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming viable environmental remote sensing tools. Sensor and battery technology is expanding the data capture opportunities. The UAV, as a close range remote sensing platform, can capture high resolution photography on-demand. This imagery can be used to produce dense point clouds using multi-view stereopsis techniques (MVS) combining computer vision and photogrammetry. This study examines point clouds produced using MVS techniques applied to UAV and terrestrial photography. A multi-rotor micro UAV acquired aerial imagery from a altitude of approximately 30-40 m. The point clouds produced are extremely dense (<1-3 cm point spacing) and provide a detailed record of the surface in the study area, a 70 m section of sheltered coastline in southeast Tasmania. Areas with little surface texture were not well captured, similarly, areas with complex geometry such as grass tussocks and woody scrub were not well mapped. The process fails to penetrate vegetation, but extracts very detailed terrain in unvegetated areas. Initially the point clouds are in an arbitrary coordinate system and need to be georeferenced. A Helmert transformation is applied based on matching ground control points (GCPs) identified in the point clouds to GCPs surveying with differential GPS. These point clouds can be used, alongside laser scanning and more traditional techniques, to provide very detailed and precise representations of a range of landscapes at key moments. There are many potential applications for the UAV-MVS technique, including coastal erosion and accretion monitoring, mine surveying and other environmental monitoring applications. For the generated point clouds to be used in spatial applications they need to be converted to surface models that reduce dataset size without loosing too much detail. Triangulated meshes are one option, another is Poisson Surface Reconstruction. This latter option makes use of point normal data and produces a surface representation at greater detail than previously obtainable. This study will visualise and compare the two surface representations by comparing clouds created from terrestrial MVS (T-MVS) and UAV-MVS.

Harwin, S.; Lucieer, A.

2012-08-01

390

Aerial Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into aerial imagery. Learners will use the internet to gather free aerial imagery of nearby points of interest (or use laminated images prepped by educator). Then, they will imagine they are traveling in a spaceship to visit Earth for the first time and explore how their view changes as they approach Earthâs surface. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

391

City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

None

2013-12-31

392

An Evaluation of the Michigan Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the effectiveness of an on-road, spot check method of conducting vehicle inspections. The study concentrated on an enhanced program which was operated in three Michigan counties. The proportion of the vehicle population inspected was s...

J. S. Creswell

1974-01-01

393

78 FR 52997 - Connected Vehicle Research Program Public Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...between vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications devices to improve safety, mobility, and environmental sustainability. To learn more about the Connected Vehicle program please visit www.its.dot.gov. Issued in...

2013-08-27

394

Aerial Shepherds: Coordination among UAVs and Swarms of Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of deploying groups of tens or hundreds of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in urban environments where a group of aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to coordinate the ground vehicles. We envision a hi- erarchy in which UAVs with aerial cameras can be used to monitor and command a swarm of UGVs, controlling the splitting and

Luiz Chaimowicz; Vijay Kumar

2004-01-01

395

Overview of Sandia`s Electric Vehicle Battery Program  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

Clark, R.P.

1993-12-31

396

Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): status and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is a recently developed instrument dedicated to trace gas measurements from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The payload is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built UAV is an electrically powered flying wing and can reach an altitude of 3 km at a mean airspeed of 100 km/h. The whole flight can be preprogrammed and controlled by an autopilot. The spectra are analyzed using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). One major objective is the mapping of NO2 columns at high spatial resolution allowing to subsample satellite measurements within the extent of a typical ground pixel. We present the preliminary results of two test flights of the SWING-UAV observation system in the vicinity of Galati, Romania (45.45°N, 28.05°E), performed on 11 May 2013 and 20 September 2013. Several atmospheric species are identified in the spectral range covered by the spectrometer (300-600 nm): NO2, water vapor, O4, and O3. From the measurements, the detection limit for NO2 is estimated to lie around 2 ppb. We investigate: (1) the georeferencing issues and the effective spatial resolution achievable with SWING-UAV from the instantaneous field of view and the plane dynamics (2) the main parameters influencing the air mass factors, and (3) the reproducibility of NO2 measurements over the same area during the second flight which included repeated transects. We also present the near-future (2014-2015) campaigns planned for the SWING-UAV observation system.

Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel-Eduard; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

2014-05-01

397

Analysis of material entrainment with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and simulation of the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach torrent - Austria, 2013.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2013, a disastrous debris-flow destroyed several houses and infrastructure facilities on the fan of the Sattelbach catchment located in the district of St. Johann im Pongau, Salzburg (Austria). Fortunately, no damage to persons could be registered. The debris flow was triggered by shallow landslides within the upper catchment, mobilizing in total approximately 4,000 m3 of debris. However, the volume of the debris-flow event at the fan was documented with 12,000 m3, whereas a maximum discharge of 380 m3/s was estimated near the fan apex. Witnesses reported only one big wave passing the fan area, which seems to be out of character for a typical Alpine debris-flow event showing such high discharge. For the later, one would suppose multiple smaller waves. Due to the fact of evolving material entrainment resulted in one big wave, the debris-flow event at the Sattelbach catchment was chosen as case study to analyze mass bulking. For this reason, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to establish a digital terrain model (DTM) of the whole reach after the event. This terrain model was then compared to a LiDAR DTM, showing the topographical situation before the event. Based on the analyzed mass bulking along the whole reach, numerical simulations were performed using the DAN3D (Dynamic Analysis of Landslides in Three Dimensions) code. The DAN3D model allows selection between different rheologies as well as the implementation of entrainment. The study will show the applicability of UAV's in small and steep catchments and will test DAN 3D a debris-flow simulation tool with an implemented mass-bulking model.

Scheidl, Christian; Schraml, Klaus; Moser, Markus; Hübl, Johannes

2014-05-01

398

Seasonal associations and atmospheric transport distances of fungi in the genus Fusarium collected with unmanned aerial vehicles and ground-based sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spores of fungi in the genus Fusarium may be transported through the atmosphere over long distances. New information is needed to characterize seasonal trends in atmospheric loads of Fusarium and to pinpoint the source(s) of inoculum at both local (farm) and regional (state or country) scales. We hypothesized that (1) atmospheric concentrations of Fusarium spores in an agricultural ecosystem vary with height and season and (2) transport distances from potential inoculum source(s) vary with season. To test these hypotheses, spores of Fusarium were collected from the atmosphere in an agricultural ecosystem in Blacksburg, VA, USA using a Burkard volumetric sampler (BVS) 1 m above ground level and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) 100 m above ground level. More than 2200 colony forming units (CFUs) of Fusarium were collected during 104 BVS sampling periods and 180 UAV sampling periods over four calendar years (2009-2012). Spore concentrations ranged from 0 to 13 and 0 to 23 spores m-3 for the BVS and the UAVs, respectively. Spore concentrations were generally higher in the fall, spring, and summer, and lower in the winter. Spore concentrations from the BVS were generally higher than those from the UAVs for both seasonal and hourly collections. A Gaussian plume transport model was used to estimate distances to the potential inoculum source(s) by season, and produced mean transport distances of 1.4 km for the spring, 1.7 km for the summer, 1.2 km for the fall, and 4.1 km for the winter. Environmental signatures that predict atmospheric loads of Fusarium could inform disease spread, air pollution, and climate change.

Lin, Binbin; Ross, Shane D.; Prussin, Aaron J.; Schmale, David G.

2014-09-01

399

77 FR 73458 - Vehicle Technologies Program; Request for Information  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...representative alternative fuel vehicle (not a specific model...to a similar conventional vehicle. This tool also has four...type of alternative fuel vehicle (biodiesel, compressed natural gas, E85, and electric drive). Finally,...

2012-12-10

400

DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-08-11

401

Use of the Aerosonde Unihabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fourth Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 4) was a scientific field experiment based in Florida in summer 2001 focused on the study of hurricanes off the east coast of the United States. Sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Office of Earth Science, and conducted in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's annual hurricane research program, CAMEX 4 utilized aircraft, ground-based and satellite instrumentation to obtain unprecedented, three dimensional characterizations of these important storms. The Aerosonde UAV was selected by NASA to participate in CAMEX 4 because it provided a unique capability to obtain measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer in and around the storms, unattainable by other platforms or measurement capabilities. This talk focuses on the NASA review process that was followed to coordinate the UAV activity with the conventional aircraft operations, as well as with the other participating agencies and the FAA. We will discuss how Aerosonde addressed the issues of safety, coordination and communication and summarize the lessons learned.

Hipskind, R. Stephen; Curry, Judy; Holland, Greg

2001-01-01

402

Development of integrated programs for Aerospace-vehicle Design (IPAD): Product program management systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Programs for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) is a computing system to support company-wide design information processing. This document presents a brief description of the management system used to direct and control a product-oriented program. This document, together with the reference design process (CR 2981) and the manufacture interactions with the design process (CR 2982), comprises the reference information that forms the basis for specifying IPAD system requirements.

Isenberg, J. M.; Southall, J. W.

1979-01-01

403

Lessons Learned from NASA UAV Science Demonstration Program Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the summer of 2002, two airborne missions were flown as part of a NASA Earth Science Enterprise program to demonstrate the use of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform earth science. One mission, the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACE...

S. S. Wegener S. M. Schoenung

2003-01-01

404

Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 3: Computer program listings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project.

1979-01-01

405

System for interactive management of aerial imaging campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a system to enable real time management of interchangeable imaging platforms aboard commodity unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to improve interactivity during aerial imaging campaigns. We argue that this improvement in interactivity enables powerful immediate-mode inspection by the ground operator, and implements a more intuitive, flexible, and ultimately useful control interface to aerial imaging systems.

Wypych, Tom; Kuester, Falko

406

Dispersion analysis techniques within the space vehicle dynamics simulation program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program was evaluated as a dispersion analysis tool. The Linear Error Analysis (LEA) post processor was examined in detail and simulation techniques relative to conducting a dispersion analysis using the SVDS were considered. The LEA processor is a tool for correlating trajectory dispersion data developed by simulating 3 sigma uncertainties as single error source cases. The processor combines trajectory and performance deviations by a root-sum-square (RSS process) and develops a covariance matrix for the deviations. Results are used in dispersion analyses for the baseline reference and orbiter flight test missions. As a part of this study, LEA results were verified as follows: (A) Hand calculating the RSS data and the elements of the covariance matrix for comparison with the LEA processor computed data. (B) Comparing results with previous error analyses. The LEA comparisons and verification are made at main engine cutoff (MECO).

Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

1975-01-01

407

Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

1999-12-13

408

Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

Deal, Walter F., III

2005-01-01

409

Design of an agile unmanned combat vehicle: a product of the DARPA UGCV program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unmanned ground compat vehicle (UGCV) design evolved by the SAIC team on the DARPA UGCV Program is summarized in this paper. This UGCV design provides exceptional performance against all of the program metrics and incorporates key attributes essential for high performance robotic combat vehicles. This performance includes protection against 7.62 mm threats, C130 and CH47 transportability, and the ability

Lindsey D. Thornhill; Alan Walls; Ronald C. Arkin; Joseph H. Beno; Chuck Bergh; Don Bresie; Anthony Giovannetti; Benny M. Gothard; Larry H. Matthies; Porfirio Nogueiro; Jim Scanlon; Ron Scott; Miguel Simon; Wilford Smith; Kenneth J. Waldron

2003-01-01

410

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

1980-11-01

411

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG&G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A&M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

412

Support to X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Primary activities of Lee & Associates for the referenced Purchase Order has been in direct support of the X-33/Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program. An independent review to evaluate the X-33 liquid hydrogen fuel tank failure, which recently occurred after-test of the starboard tank has been provided. The purpose of the Investigation team was to assess the tank design modifications, provide an assessment of the testing approach used by MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in determining the flight worthiness of the tank, assessing the structural integrity, and determining the cause of the failure of the tank. The approach taken to satisfy the objectives has been for Lee & Associates to provide the expertise of Mr. Frank Key and Mr. Wayne Burton who have relevant experience from past programs and a strong background of experience in the fields critical to the success of the program. Mr. Key and Mr. Burton participated in the NASA established Failure Investigation Review Team to review the development and process data and to identify any design, testing or manufacturing weaknesses and potential problem areas. This approach worked well in satisfying the objectives and providing the Review Team with valuable information including the development of a Fault Tree. The detailed inputs were made orally in real time in the Review Team daily meetings. The results of the investigation were presented to the MSFC Center Director by the team on February 15, 2000. Attached are four charts taken from that presentation which includes 1) An executive summary, 2) The most probable cause, 3) Technology assessment, and 4) Technology Recommendations for Cryogenic tanks.

2000-01-01

413

AERIAL RADIOLOGICAL SURVEYS  

SciTech Connect

Measuring terrestrial gamma radiation from airborne platforms has proved to be a useful method for characterizing radiation levels over large areas. Over 300 aerial radiological surveys have been carried out over the past 25 years including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, commercial nuclear power plants, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program/Uranium Mine Tailing Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP/UMTRAP) sites, nuclear weapons test sites, contaminated industrial areas, and nuclear accident sites. This paper describes the aerial measurement technology currently in use by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) for routine environmental surveys and emergency response activities. Equipment, data-collection and -analysis methods, and examples of survey results are described.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-09

414

The speed assignment problem for conflict resolution in aerial robotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient conflict resolution method for multiple aerial vehicles based on speed planning. The problem is assigning a speed profile to each aerial vehicle in real time such that the separation between them is greater than a minimum safety value and the total deviation from the initial planned trajectories is minimized. Also, the arrival time of each

D. Alejo; J. A. Cobano; M. A. Trujillo; A. Viguria; A. Rodriguez; A. Ollero

2012-01-01

415

Innovative Development. Global Hawk and Darkstar. Executive Summary: Their Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration Program Experience.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States has seen a three-decade-long history of poor outcomes in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) development efforts. UAV and tactical surveillance/reconnaissance programs have a history of failure involving inadequate integration of sensor, platf...

J. A. Drezner R. S. Leonard

2002-01-01

416

Heavy vehicle hybrid propulsion systems R and D program plan, FY 2000-2005  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the program plan and background information for the Heavy Vehicle Hybrid Propulsion R and D Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The program is a collaboration between industry and government established for the development of advanced hybrid-electric propulsion technology for urban cycle trucks and buses. It targets specific applications to enhance potential market success. Potential end-users are also involved.

None

2000-07-01

417

Hybrid propulsion for launch vehicle boosters: A program status update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results obtained in studying the origin and suppression of large-amplitude pressure oscillations in a 24 in. diameter hybrid motor using a liquid oxygen/hydroxylterminated polybutadiene/polycyclopentadiene propellant system are discussed. Tests conducted with liquid oxygen flow rates varying from 10 to 40 lbm/sec were designed to gauge the effectiveness of various vaporization chamber flow fields, injector designs, and levels of heat addition in suppressing high-frequency longitudinal mode oscillations. Longitudinal acoustic modes did not arise in any tests. However, initial testing revealed the presence of high-amplitude, sinusoidal, nonacoustic oscillations persisting throughout the burn durations. Analysis showed this to be analogous to chug mode instability in liquid rocket engines brought about by a coupling of motor combustion processes and the liquid oxygen feed system. Analytical models were developed and verified by test data to predict the amplitude and frequency of feed-system-coupled combustion pressure oscillations. Subsequent testing showed that increasing the feed system impedance eliminated the bulk mode instability. This paper documents the work completed to date in performance of the Hybrid Propulsion Technology for Launch Vehicle Boosters Program (NAS8-39942) sponsored by NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

Carpenter, R. L.; Boardman, T. A.; Claflin, S. E.; Harwell, R. J.

1995-01-01

418

Dynamic programming algorithm for the vehicle routing problem with time windows and EC social legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In practice, apart from the problem of vehicle routing, schedulers\\u000aalso face the problem of nding feasible driver schedules complying\\u000awith complex restrictions on drivers' driving and working hours. To\\u000aaddress this complex interdependent problem of vehicle routing and\\u000abreak scheduling, we propose a dynamic programming approach for\\u000athe vehicle routing problem with time windows including the EC so-\\u000acial

A. Leendert Kok; C. Manuel Meyer; Herbert Kopfer; J. Marco J. Schutten

2009-01-01

419

Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix C: Preliminary design data package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design methodology, the design decision rationale, the vehicle preliminary design summary, and the advanced technology developments are presented. The detailed vehicle design, the vehicle ride and handling and front structural crashworthiness analysis, the microcomputer control of the propulsion system, the design study of the battery switching circuit, the field chopper, and the battery charger, and the recent program refinements and computer results are presented.

1979-01-01

420

Mixed Integer Programming for Multi-Vehicle Path Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents a new approach to fuel-optimal path planningof multiple vehicles using a combination of linear and integerprogramming. The basic problem formulation is to havethe vehicles move from an initial dynamic state to a final statewithout colliding with each other, while at the same time avoidingother stationary and moving obstacles. It is shown that thisproblem can be rewritten

T. Schouwenaars; B. Demoor; E. Feron

2001-01-01

421

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

422

Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

1980-01-01

423

A class of random fuzzy programming model and its application to vehicle routing problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we concentrate on developing and analyzing a programming model for a version of uncertain vehicle routing problems (VRPs). The customers demands are random fuzzy variables and the travel times between customers follow given probability distributions. Vehicles set out from a single depot, serve a number of customers and upon completion of their service, return to the depot.

Yanan He; Jiuping Xu

2005-01-01

424

Public Transportation Vehicle Maintenance 1991 Cost Study. Planning and Managing Vehicle Maintenance Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study is an investigation of public transportation: maintenance management performance, and the manpower and costs requirements to support vehicle maintenance operations of motor bus and demand responsive services. The objectives of the study are: (1)...

D. L. Freese

1993-01-01

425

Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

1991-01-01

426

Development of Flight Simulation Program for the HYFLEX Vehicle and Flight Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a flight simulation program, used to analyze the navigation, guidance and control system and for flight analysis of the hypersonic flight experiment vehicle (HYFLEX). More precise flight analysis had to be carried out to predict the sp...

H. Suzuki Y. Matsumoto

1997-01-01

427

Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various...

R. Motta P. Norton K. J. Kelly K. Chandler

1995-01-01

428

Feasibility Study of an Integrated Program for Aerospace Vehicle Design (Ipad). Volume 1. Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and characteristics of an Integrated Program for Aerospace Vehicle Design (IPAD) System are discussed. The principal characteristic of the design philosophy is its consistency in treating the various aspects of the design with a uniform de...

C. A. Garrocq M. J. Hurley

1973-01-01

429

76 FR 34286 - ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...between vehicles, infrastructure, and personal communications devices to improve safety, mobility, and environmental sustainability. The program is the major research initiative of the ITS JPO, which is currently working with the...

2011-06-13

430

Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 6: Five Year Program Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The five year program plan for the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) is presented. The planning, schedules, cost estimates, and supporting data (objectives, constraints, assumptions, etc.) associated with the development of the MOTV are discussed. The ...

R. E. Boyland S. W. Sherman H. W. Morfin

1979-01-01