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1

Programming micro-aerial vehicle swarms with karma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) construction, control, and high-density power sources is enabling swarms of MAVs as a new class of mobile sensing systems. For efficient operation, such systems must adapt to dynamic environments, cope with uncertainty in sensing and control, and operate with limited resources. We propose a novel system architecture based on a hive-drone model that simplifies the

Karthik Dantu; Bryan Kate; Jason Waterman; Peter Bailis; Matt Welsh

2011-01-01

2

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

3

Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Rendezvous for Automated Aerial Refueling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) increase in capability, the ability to refuel them in the air is becoming more critical. Aerial refueling will extend the range, shorten the response times, and extend loiter time of UAVs. Executing aerial refueling auto...

B. S. Burns

2007-01-01

4

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Master Plan, 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1988 Congress directed the consolidation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) programs within the military Services into a joint program managed by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) and the submission of a UAV Master Plan. The first UAV Master P...

1991-01-01

5

Biomimetic flapping wing aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vertical take-off and hover capable flapping wing aerial vehicle using a biomimetic approach; replicating the hovering patterns of dragonflies and hummingbirds. The prototype uses a spatial mechanism driven by a rotary actuator which generates an angle of attack during each wing stroke. A 98 g, 380 mm span two wing prototype capable of vertical take-off and

M. A. A. Fenelon

2009-01-01

6

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles -- Benefits to the Warfighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From the first crude aerial vehicles to the current systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have sought to garner some advantage over the enemy. The benefits to the warfighter also have evolved over the years from basic delivery platforms to enhanced sur...

S. Yadali

2006-01-01

7

Obstacle and Terrain Avoidance for Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and strategy around the world.\\u000a Technology advancements have enabled the development of large UAVs (e.g., Global Hawk, Predator) and the creation of smaller,\\u000a increasingly capable UAVs. The focus of this Chapter is on smaller fixed-wing miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs), which range\\u000a in size from % to 2 m

S. Griffiths; J. Saunders; A. Curtis; B. Barber; T. McLain; R. Beard

8

Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

9

Awareness in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the name Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), humans are integral to UAV operations. Since the UAV's operator interface is the primary facilitator of human-vehicle communication and coordination, a carefully designed interface is critical for successful UAV operations. To design an effective interface, it is essential to first determine the information needs for both the human and UAV components of the

Jill L. Drury; Stacey D. Scott

10

Sonotube compatible unmanned aerial vehicle and system  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention is generally comprised of a sonotube-compatible unmanned aerial vehicle apparatus, hereinafter referred to as a UAV, and systems for launch and control of the UAV. The UAV is generally comprised of modular sections including a nose section, a payload section, a wing and fuel tank section, and a powerplant section. The modular sections are attached to adjacent sections by uniform lock sealing rings and related components. The present invention comprises an apparatus enabling very small, man portable, ballistically launched, autonomously or semi-autonomously controlled vehicle to be deployed with preprogrammed, communicated, or telemetry mission programming. A wide range of payload packages, including emergency supplies, sensors, and antenna assemblies, may be carried, used or deployed in flight. Man-portable operation is accomplished by the use of a launch canister apparatus. The launch canister comprises retractable launch stabilizing legs, turbine engine exhaust orifices, and various antennas. The launch canister apparatus alternatively comprises a modified type "A", "B", or "C" sonotube launch canister. The system of the invention also comprises a portable Command, Control, Communications, Computer, and Intelligence (C4I) control and sensing analysis console. The console is preferably ruggedized, waterproof, shockproof, and comprises necessary control and analysis computers, input/output devices, antennas, and related hardware and software for vehicle and mission control. A C4I console and/or launch canisters may be transported by means of a backpack adapted for man portability.

Woodland; Richard L. K. (Victoria, B.C., CA)

2000-05-02

11

Optimal scheduling for refueling multiple autonomous aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scheduling, for autonomous refueling, of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is posed as a combinatorial optimization problem. An efficient dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is introduced for finding the optimal initial refueling sequence. The optimal sequence needs to be recalculated when conditions change, such as when UAVs join or leave the queue unexpectedly. We develop a systematic shuffle scheme to

Zhipu Jin; Tal Shima; Corey J. Schumacher

2006-01-01

12

Unmanned aerial vehicle research: challenges and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to technological advances and increasing investment, interest in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as a practical, deployable technological component in many civil applications is rapidly increasing and becoming a reality, as are their capabilities and availability. UAV platforms also offer a unique experimental environment for developing, integrating and experimenting with many Artificial Intelligence technologies such as automated planners, knowledge representation

Patrick Doherty

2006-01-01

13

Energy Efficiency for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emphasizes the energy efficiency issue for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The power requirement for an UAV system was modeled with the aid of energy requiring from all possible sub-systems. In this model, a single UAV system was broken down by the six power consumption components. The scientific research areas and emerging technologies assisted UAV design stages involved in

Balemir Uragun

2011-01-01

14

Unmanned aerial vehicle system for pipeline inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the inspection of pipeline by means of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The different methods of pipeline inspection, its technical and economic efficiency have been examined. The theoretical and experimental base for air monitoring on base of On Board Infrared Equipment (OBIE) have been examined. The method of pipeline inspection by means of UAV has been proposed.

SERGIY SADOVNYCHIY

15

Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning

Nazli E. Kahveci

2007-01-01

16

Autonomous Landing of Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines a simple algorithm for automated landing of miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs). Utilizing estimates of height above ground from barometric pressure and optic ?ow measurements, repeated landings were performed with a 1.5 m wingspan MAV. With height above ground estimated from barometric pressure measurements alone, landing errors averaged 7.6 m. When optic ?ow and barometric pressure measurements were

D. Blake; Barber Stephen; R. Gri-ths; Timothy W. McLain; Randal W. Beard

17

Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An open project, dealing with autopilot design for autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is introduced in this paper. Networked hierarchical distributed control system is being proposed and its hardware and software structure is briefly described. Mathematical model of a small rotorcraft is presented and identification methodology and state estimation using Extended Kalman Filter are discussed. Control algorithms, based on PI, LQG

O. Spinka; S. Kroupa; Z. Hanzalek

2007-01-01

18

A survey of quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a topic of interest in many research organizations. UAVs are finding applications in various areas ranging from military applications to traffic surveillance. This paper is a survey for a certain kind of UAV called quadrotor or quadcopter. Researchers are frequently choosing quadrotors for their research because a quadrotor can accurately

Shweta Gupte; Paul Infant Teenu Mohandas; James M. Conrad

2012-01-01

19

Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Research into reactive collision avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles has been conducted on unmanned terrestrial and mini aerial vehicles utilising active Doppler radar obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed that a simple reactive collision avoidance al- gorithm enables aerial vehicles to autonomously avoid obstacles. This builds upon simulation work

Andrew Viquerat; Lachlan Blackhall; Alistair Reid; Salah Sukkarieh; Graham Brooker

2007-01-01

20

A perching mechanism for micro aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) with perching capabilities can be used to efficiently place sensors in aloft locations. A major\\u000a challenge for perching is to build a lightweight mechanism that can be easily mounted on a MAV, allowing it to perch (attach\\u000a and detach on command) to walls of different materials. To date, only very few systems have been proposed that

Mirko Kova?; Jürg Germann; Christoph Hürzeler; Roland Y. Siegwart; Dario Floreano

2009-01-01

21

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

22

Small thermal optics design for UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Now, Military demands focused attention on small and light-weight system development. Above all, UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is necessary to reduce weight of equipments. Therefore, we invest some expense in many years so that it might design more light optical system for UAV. Consequently, we can build new miniaturization and light-weight system. The most important thing is the system using just two motors for continuous zoom(x3 ~ x20), NUC(nonuniformity correction), Narcissus, Athermalization, and auto-focus functions. An MTF (modulation transfer function) and a detection range are also satisfied by the demands. We use CODE V and NVTherm program for design and analysis.

Lee, Sun Kyu; Na, Jun Hee; Yoon, Chang Jun; Oh, Seung Eun; Choi, Joongkyu; Pyo, Hyo Jin

2010-08-01

23

Spread spectrum applications in unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is part of an ongoing Naval Postgraduate School research project to develop unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) using current off the shelf (COTS) technology. This thesis specifically evaluated a spread spectrum UHF data link between a UAV and ground terminal. The command and control (C2) process and its role as the fundamental premise of the warfare commander were discussed. A review of the Pioneer remotely piloted vehicle (RPV), which gained such wide recognition during Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield, was provided to the reader for familiarization with the workings of a generic UAV. An investigation of two common spread spectrum techniques and their associated benefits was made. A link budget calculation was made. The choice of a spread spectrum radio transceiver was reviewed. The requirements and design of the UAV and ground terminal antenna were discussed. A link budget analysis was performed. An atmospheric path propagation prediction was performed. The details of an actual flight test and the data gathered were examined. Future changes to enhance the data link performance and increase its capabilities were introduced. The COTS spread spectrum data link will enhance the role of the UAV in its command and control mission for the warfare commander.

Bess, Philip K.

1994-06-01

24

Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as c...

P. F. Mead R. J. DeYoung

2005-01-01

25

Automated Launch, Recovery, and Refueling for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are hindered by their limited payload and duration. Consequently, UAVs spend little time in their area of operation, returning frequently to base for refueling. The effective payload and duration of small UAVs is incr...

A. Burmeister K. Mullens M. Wills N. Stroumtsos T. Denewiler

2006-01-01

26

Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance. 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to improve border security is a technique that has garnered congressional attention. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress. This re...

C. Bolkcom

2004-01-01

27

Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

2008-05-01

28

Extreme Agility Micro Aerial Vehicle - Control of Hovering Maneuvers for a Mini-Aerial Vehicle with an Onboard Autopilot System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mini Aerial Vehicles (MiniAV) are involved in various unmanned missions for both civil and military applications. These airplanes benefit from high maneuverability and can generally execute hovering and other acrobatic maneuvers. The small size of these v...

F. C. Wong P. Bilodeau

2011-01-01

29

Morphing of 'flying' shapes for autonomous underwater and aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous vehicles are energy poor and should be d esigned to minimise the power required to propel them throughout their mission. The University of S outhampton's School of Engineering Sciences is actively involved in the development of improved de signs for aerial and maritime autonomous vehicles. The ability to adapt or 'morph' their shape in-flig ht offers an opportunity to

S. R. Turnock; A. J. Keane; N. W. Bressloff; R. F. Nicholls-Lee; S. W. Boyd

30

DETECTION OF VEHICLES AND VEHICLE QUEUES FOR ROAD MONITORING USING HIGH RESOLUTION AERIAL IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach to automatic vehicle detection in monocular high resolution aerial images. The extraction relies upon both local and global features of vehicles and vehicle queues, respectively. To model a vehicle on local level, a 3D-wireframe representation is used that describes the prominent geometric and radiometric features of cars including their shadow region. The model is

Stefan Hinz

31

76 FR 61750 - Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension of the Office of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts); Extension...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts) (29 CFR 1910...Vehicle-Mounted Elevating and Rotating Work Platforms (Aerial Lifts) (29 CFR...

2011-10-05

32

Analysis of the Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) in Small Unit Urban Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Marine Corps has recently embarked on the development of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) to replace the aging Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. This thesis examines the critical elements this platform must po...

R. K. Cason

2004-01-01

33

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution m...

H. S. Wright J. S. Levine M. A. Croom W. C. Edwards G. D. Qualls J. F. Gasbarre

2004-01-01

34

Vision Assisted Autonomous Path Following for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a vision-based controller for an underactuated, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with a pan-tilt camera unit (PTCU) to achieve the objective of following a leader vehicle autonomously. The relative position and orientation information is obtained from the monocular camera utilizing homography-based techniques. The proposed controller, built upon Lyapunov design methods, achieves uniform ultimate bounded

Vilas K. Chitrakaran; Darren M. Dawson; Hariprasad Kannan; Matthew Feemster

2006-01-01

35

Collaboration Network for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operation, Research and Education.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The type and number of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is increasing rapidly. However, operational UAVs are a high-demand, low-density asset and access is extremely limited due to higher priority taskings of these systems. Researchers and developers of UA...

A. White

2005-01-01

36

Formation of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, control laws are designed to achieve desired flight formations for a group of unmanned (uninhabited) aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that the formation is led and managed by a leader UAV, which determines desired (for instance, safe and achievable) flight trajectories for a group of follower UAVs. Having the desired trajectories, control laws are designed to

T. John KOO; Shahram M. Shahruz

2001-01-01

37

Adaptive tracking control of an underactuated aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, adaptive tracking control of an underactuated quadrotor is addressed. Position and yaw trajectory tracking is designed using state feedback control system and an integrator backstepping approach is applied to this coupled and cascaded dynamic system. The control design is further complicated by considering the parametric uncertainty of the dynamic modeling of the quadrotor aerial- robot vehicle. Projection-based

DongBin Lee; C. Nataraj; Timothy C. Burg; Darren M. Dawson

2011-01-01

38

Experimental framework for a Ducted-Fan Miniature Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the design and validation of a control framework for a Ducted-Fan Miniature Aerial Vehicle (MAV) realized by the University of Bologna in order to pursuit simple high level operations like surveillance, video capture, etc. After a description of the aircraft prototype and the nonlinear control law, two different control scenarios are then addressed, the first one

L. Gentili; L. Marconi; R. Naldi; A. Sala

2009-01-01

39

Dead Slow: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Loitering in Battlespace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned (or Uninhabited) Aerial Vehicles are a key part of the American military's so-called revolution in military affairs (RMA) as practiced over Iraq. They are also part of the drive to shift agency away from humans and toward machines. This article considers the ways in which humans have, in calling on high technologies to distance them from what the military

Tim Blackmore

2005-01-01

40

The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system that has been developed at the Georgia Institute of Technology, called the GTMax. This description will include the processes put in place to enable the system to be used for UAV-technology research, including effective flight testing. Research UAVs are characterized by the need for

Eric N. Johnson; Daniel P. Schrage

2003-01-01

41

System Integration and Operation of a Research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of flight simulation tools to reduce the schedule, risk, and required amount of flight-testing for complex aerospace systems is a well-recognized benefit of these approaches. However, some special challenges arise when one attempts to obtain these benefits for the development and operation of a research Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system. Research UAV systems are characterized by the need

Eric N. Johnson; Daniel P. Schrage

2004-01-01

42

Decentralized overlapping control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized overlapping feedback laws are designed for a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The dynamic model of the formation with an overlapping information structure constraint is treated as an interconnected system with overlapping subsystems. Using the mathematical framework of the inclusion principle, the interconnected system is expanded into a higher dimensional space in which the subsystems appear to be disjoint.

DuSan M. StipanoviC; G. Inalhan; R. Teo; C. J. Tomlin

2002-01-01

43

Decentralized overlapping control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized overlapping feedback laws are designed for a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The dynamic model of the formation with an overlapping information structure constraint is treated as an interconnected system with overlapping subsystems. Using the mathematical framework of the inclusion principle, the interconnected system is expanded into a higher dimensional space in which the subsystems appear to be disjoint.

Dusan M. Stipanovic; Gökhan Inalhan; Rodney Teo; Claire J. Tomlin

2004-01-01

44

Conceptual designing — Unmanned aerial vehicle flight control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design procedure of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control system is discussed in this paper. Detailed discussion of important aspects of UAV relating to its role, mission, capabilities and their implications on the flight control system are discussed. This leads to the basic requirements for the flight control and then translates to the type of controller to be used

Tahir Hameed; Wang Wei; Ren Zhang

2009-01-01

45

Automated launch, recovery, and refueling for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are hindered by their limited payload and duration. Consequently, UAVs spend little time in their area of operation, returning frequently to base for refueling. The effective payload and duration of small UAVs is increased by moving the support base closer to the operating area; however this increases risk to personnel. Performing the refueling operations autonomously

Katherine Mullens; Aaron Burmeister; Mike Wills; Nicholas Stroumtsos; Thomas Denewiler; Kari Thomas; Stephen Stancliff

2004-01-01

46

Vehicle detection on aerial images: a structural approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here a vehicle detection method on aerial images. This method exploits a hierarchical modelling of our data. Among the different recognition methods that we have considered we choose a connectionist approach because of its generalization property. This paper justifies the choice of such an approach, and brings the proof of the efficiency of our structural model

R. Ruskone; Laurent Guigues; Sylvain Airault; Olivier Jamet

1996-01-01

47

Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance.

Ying Qi

2007-01-01

48

Low-Cost Multispectral Aerial Imaging using Autonomous Runway-Free Small Flying Wing Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial imaging has become very important to areas like remote sensing and surveying. However, it has remained ex- pensive and difficult to obtain with high temporal and spatial resolutions. This paper presents a method to retrieve georef- erenced aerial images by using a small UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). Obtaining aerial images this way is inexpensive, easy-to-use and allows for high

Austin M. Jensen; Marc Baumann; Yangquan Chen

2008-01-01

49

Vision based victim detection from unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding injured humans is one of the primary goals of any search and rescue operation. The aim of this paper is to address the task of automatically finding people lying on the ground in images taken from the on-board camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this paper we evaluate various state-of-the-art visual people detection methods in the context

Mykhaylo Andriluka; Paul Schnitzspan; Johannes Meyer; Stefan Kohlbrecher; Karen Petersen; Oskar von Stryk; Stefan Roth; Bernt Schiele

2010-01-01

50

Path planning for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) need to work in teams to share information and coordinate activities. The private sector and government agencies have implemented UAVs for home-land security, reconnaissance, surveillance, data collection, urban planning, and geometrics engineering. Significant research is in progress to support the decision-making process for a Multi-Agent System (MAS) consisting of multiple UAVs. This

Howard Li; Yi Fu; Khalid Elgazzar; Liam Paull

2009-01-01

51

Engineering Studies into Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating various rotary-wing aeromechanics and proof-of-concept issues underlying the development of vertical lift aerial vehicles for planetary science missions. These engineering studies include: hover performance measurements of an isolated rotor in simulated Mars surface atmospheric conditions; radio-controlled coaxial helicopter flight tests supporting the investigation of Mars rotorcraft technologies; small-scale unducted- and ducted-fan hover tests

Larry A. Young; Edwin W. Aiken; M. R. Derby; J. L. Johnson; J. Navarrete; J. Klem; J. Andrews; R. Torres

52

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Questionable Basis for Revisions to Shadow 200 Acquisition Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army plans to buy 44 Shadow 200 tactical unmanned aerial vehicle systems. Each system Includes three unmanned aircraft (equipped with a imagery sensors); a vehicle to carry the aircraft; two ground control stations mounted on vehicles; and launch, rec...

2000-01-01

53

Using unmanned aerial vehicles for rangelands: Current applications and future potentials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High resolution aerial photographs have important rangeland applications such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. Acquisition of high resolution images by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has...

54

Target Tracking with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: From Single to Swarm Vehicle Autonomy and Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent military and civil actions worldwide have highlighted the potential utility for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Both fixed wind and rotary aircraft have contributed significantly to the success of several military and surveillance operations. Future combat operations will continue to place unmanned aircraft in challenging conditions such as the urban warfare environment, where surveillance is particularly challenging. These challenges as

B. Ludington; J. Reimann; G. Vachtsevanos; I. Barlas

2006-01-01

55

Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2010-04-01

56

A MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV): SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND IMAGE ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-systems became relevant for applications in precision farming and in infrastructure maintenance, like road maintenance and dam surveillance. This paper gives an overview about UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) systems and their application for photogrammetric recording and documentation of cultural heritage. First the historical development of UAV systems and the definition of UAV-helicopte rs

Henri Eisenbeiss

2004-01-01

57

Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Site-Specific Crop Production Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed and applied to support the practice of precision agriculture. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can focus on much smaller crop fields with much lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management ...

58

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary

Henry S. Wright; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Croom; William C. Edwards; Garry D. Qualls; Joseph F. Gasbarre

59

Measurements from an aerial vehicle: a new tool for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary

Henry S. Wright; Joel S. Levine; Mark A. Croom; William C. Edwards; Garry D. Qualls; Joseph F. Gasbarre

2004-01-01

60

Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

61

Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.  

PubMed

With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

2005-01-01

62

Design and Development of Micro Aerial Vehicles and their Cooperative Systems for Target Search and Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and their cooperative systems including Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) and a Base Station (BS), which were primarily designed for the 1st US-Asian Demonstration and Assessment on Micro-Aerial and Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology (MAV08). The MAVs are of coaxial design, which imparts mechanical stability both outdoor and indoor while obeying a 30 cm size

Lin Chi Mak; Makoto Kumon; Mark Whitty; Jayantha Katupitiya; Tomonari Furukawa

2009-01-01

63

Automated launch, recovery, and refueling for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are hindered by their limited payload and duration. Consequently, UAVs spend little time in their area of operation, returning frequently to base for refueling. The effective payload and duration of small UAVs is increased by moving the support base closer to the operating area; however this increases risk to personnel. Performing the refueling operations autonomously allows the support base to be located closer to the operating area without increasing risk to personnel. Engineers at SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego (SSC San Diego) are working to develop technologies for automated launch, recovery, refueling, rearming, and re-launching of small UAVs. These technologies are intended to provide forward-refueling capabilities by teaming small UAVs with large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The UGVs have larger payload capacities so they can easily carry fuel for the UAVs in addition to their own fuel and mission payloads. This paper describes a prototype system that launched and recovered a remotely-piloted UAV from a UGV and performed automated refueling of a UAV mockup.

Mullens, Katherine; Burmeister, Aaron; Wills, Mike; Stroumtsos, Nicholas; Denewiler, Thomas; Thomas, Kari; Stancliff, Stephen

2004-12-01

64

Nonproliferation: Agencies Could Improve Information Sharing and End-Use Monitoring on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Exports.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 2005, the number of countries that acquired an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system nearly doubled from about 40 to more than 75. In addition, countries of proliferation concern developed and fielded increasingly more sophisticated systems. Recent t...

2012-01-01

65

Application of Cognitive Radio to Coordinated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This effort investigated the application of cognitive radio techniques to coordinated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) missions. The goal was to explore the potential for the Air Force (a) to replace a UAV's multiple radio platforms with one or more waveform...

A. R. Young C. W. Bostian

2011-01-01

66

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles - The Key to Effective Situational Awareness in Littoral Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the Vital Role Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) should play in providing much needed 'Eye in the Sky' situational awareness to Amphibious Ready Group (ARG) Marine Corps Expeditionary Unit (MEU) operations in highly challenging littoral ...

D. M. Jacobsen

2001-01-01

67

How Can Unmanned Aerial Vehicles be Best Integrated into Homeland Security.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are evolving into a preferred method of accomplishing overhead military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Capable of carrying a variety of sensors and electronic tools, they can provide real-time still and vid...

M. K. Myers

2005-01-01

68

Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required ...

G. Pisanich C. Ippolito L. Plice L. A. Young B. Lau

2003-01-01

69

Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution strategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required ...

B. Lau C. Ippolito G. Pisanich L. Plice L. A. Young

2004-01-01

70

Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV), Investigating Potential Dichotomies Between Doctrine and Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this MBA Project is to investigate potential dichotomies between doctrine and practice in the employment of the Raven Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV). The Army's current Small UAV requirements are based upon the Future Combat System's Ope...

G. E. Jenkins J. W. Snodgrass

2005-01-01

71

Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles: Three Planetary Bodies and Four Conceptual Design Cases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Ames Research Center has been studying the feasibility of vertical lift aerial vehicles to support planetary science and exploration missions. Besides Earth, it appears that there are three planetary bodies within our solar system where vertical flig...

E. W. Aiken L. A. Young

2001-01-01

72

Shadow Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) Model Supporting Future Combat Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes the creation of an IMPRINT (Improved Performance Research Integration Tool) model to describe crew workload levels in the Shadow unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Field data were collected for tasks performed by Shadow UAV crews. This mo...

B. P. Hunn O. H. Heuckeroth

2006-01-01

73

RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class II UAV. Consequently, these designs may favor combining simple RF sensor hardware with digital-signal processing (DSP) solutions over more sophisticated radar hardware. In this paper, we show the potential of simple, low cost RF sensors with hemispherical antenna coverage to overcome these limitations. The proposed RF sensor system used DSP and pre-defined UAV flight pattern to detect and track moving targets from range and Doppler information. Our objective is to conceive and model a suite of software options that, by combining UAV flight patterns and processing algorithms, will be able to detect and track moving targets. In order to accomplish this, we are building a simulation that uses sensor models, target models, and battlefield dynamics to predict the targeting capabilities of the RF sensor system. We will use this simulation (1) to determine the tradeoffs between sensor complexity (and cost) and the military significance of the information gathered, and (2) to describe sensor error budgets for endgame lethality models

Innocenti, Roberto

2005-05-01

74

Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts. PMID:21098957

Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Máté; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás

2010-11-24

75

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS(FAA Certificate of Authorization), and training(remote control piloting, UAV-specific instruction, FAA ground school and testing, FAA observer procedures, FAA medical Class 2 exam, and a private pilot's license). The relevance and need of all these to developing a UAV capability will be explained. While working through the necessary requirements above, we have also learned that we need to know how to handle extremely large and easily acquired data sets as well as to develop tools to orthorectify and mosaic individual UAV images for analysis.

Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

2008-12-01

76

Vehicle Detection in Aerial Images Using Generic Features, Grouping, and Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach on automatic vehicle detection in monocular large scale aerial images. The extraction\\u000a is based on a hierarchical model that describes the prominent vehicle features on different levels of detail. Besides the\\u000a object properties, the model comprises also contextual knowledge, i.e., relations between a vehicle and other objects as,\\u000a e.g., the pavement beside a vehicle

Stefan Hinz; Albert Baumgartner

2001-01-01

77

Approximate Dynamic Programming and Aerial Refueling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerial refueling is an integral part of the United States military's ability to strike targets around the world with an overwhelming and continuous projection of force. However, with an aging fleet of refueling tankers and an indefinite replacement schedu...

D. C. Panos

2007-01-01

78

Measurements from an aerial vehicle: a new tool for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air." Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

2004-12-01

79

Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

2011-01-01

80

Flight dynamic investigations of flying wing with winglet configured unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A swept wing tailless vehicle platform is well known in the radio control (RC) and sailing aircraft community for excellent spiral stability during soaring or thermaling, while exhibiting no Dutch roll behavior at high speed. When an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is subjected to fly a mission in a rugged mountainous terrain where air current or thermal up-drift is frequently

Kapseong Ro

2006-01-01

81

Development of Birdlike Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This

Jonathan Maglasang; Norihiro Goto; Koji Isogai

2008-01-01

82

A Combined Wiimote-Camera Tracking System for Small Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Wii remote (Wiimote) controller and a conventional video camera are used to perform real-time position tracking of an aerial vehicle. The combination of the Wiimote's infrared and video camera fields of view creates a virtual cube in which motion can be fully monitored. This controlled space allows a vehicle to navigate with no onboard sensors. The

H. Vargas; E. Preza; R. Velazquez

2009-01-01

83

Microwave power transmission using a flexible rectenna for microwave-powered aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In exploiting the unique capabilities of smart actuators for applications in vehicle systems, even in unmanned or micro aerial vehicles, the power issues for smart actuators and devices have not been well addressed. This is due to the fact that the driving power for smart materials has not reached the level of the power specifications for conventional devices and systems.

Jaehwan Kim; Sang-Yeol Yang; Kyo D. Song; Sean Jones; James R. Elliott; Sang H. Choi

2006-01-01

84

Adaptive mode transition control architecture with an application to unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, an architecture for the adaptive mode transition control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is presented. The proposed architecture consists of three levels: the highest level is occupied by mission planning routines where information about way points the vehicle must follow is processed. The middle level uses a trajectory generation component to coordinate the task execution and provides

Luis Benigno Gutierrez Zea

2004-01-01

85

Multi-volume occupancy grids: An efficient probabilistic 3D mapping model for micro aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancing research into autonomous micro aerial vehicle navigation requires data structures capable of representing indoor and outdoor 3D environments. The vehicle must be able to update the map structure in real time using readings from range-finding sensors when mapping unknown areas; it must also be able to look up occupancy information from the map for the purposes of localization and

Ivan Dryanovski; William Morris; Jizhong Xiao

2010-01-01

86

Decentralized linear time-varying model predictive control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hierarchical MPC approach to stabilization and autonomous navigation of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), under constraints on motor thrusts, angles and positions, and under collision avoidance constraints. Each vehicle is of quadcopter type and is stabilized by a local linear time-invariant (LTI) MPC controller at the lower level of the control hierarchy around commanded

Alberto Bemporad; Claudio Rocchi

2011-01-01

87

Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a dynamic model of a new quadrotor aerial vehicle that is equipped with a tilt-wing mechanism is presented. The vehicle has the capabilities of vertical take-off\\/landing (VTOL) like a helicopter and flying horizontal like an airplane. Dynamic model of the vehicle is derived both for vertical and horizontal flight modes using Newton-Euler formulation. An LQR controller for

Kaan T. Oner; Ertugrul Cetinsoy; Mustafa Unel; Mahmut F. Aksit; Ilyas Kandemir; Kayhan Gulez

2008-01-01

88

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J.; Colozza, A.J.

1995-03-01

89

THE NATIONAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY PROGRAM: AN AERIAL SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE UNITED STATES SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aerial Photography Program (NAPP) is a jointly funded Federal and State program to acquire 1:40,000-scale aerial photographic coverage of the conterminous United States and Hawaii on a 5-year cycle. The flying is contracted to the private sector. The aircraft, as a group, constitute the NAPP as an aerial system. NAPP flies north and south flight lines at 20,000

Donald L. Light

90

US DOE aerial radiation monitoring programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

EGandG Energy Measurements, Inc. operates the Remote Sensing Laboratory for the United States Department of Energy (USDOE). The Laboratory maintains eleven twin-engine aircraft, helicopters and fixed-wing, as aerial measurement platforms. It has a $23 million annual budget and 214 personnel operating at major facilities in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Washington, D.C. Remote sensing technologies include: large area radiological mapping, high

Jobst

1988-01-01

91

Terrain Classification from Aerial Data to Support Ground Vehicle Navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory perception for unmanned ground vehicle navigation has received great attention from the robotics com- munity. However, sensors mounted on the vehicle are regularly viewpoint impaired. A vehicle navigating at high speeds in off- road environments may be unable to react to negative obstacles such as large holes and cliffs. One approach to address this problem is to complement the

Boris Sofman; J. Andrew Bagnell; Anthony Stentz; Nicolas Vandapel

92

Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the activities on the Hybrid Vehicle Program. The program objectives and the vehicle specifications are reviewed. The Hybrid Vehicle has been designed so that maximum use can be made of existing production components with a minimum compromise to program goals. The program status as of the February 9-10 Hardware Test Review is presented, and discussions of the vehicle subsystem, the hybrid propulsion subsystem, the battery subsystem, and the test mule programs are included. Other program aspects included are quality assurance and support equipment. 16 references, 132 figures, 47 tables.

None

1984-06-01

93

Using iFMI spectral registration for video stabilization and motion detection by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), especially in the form of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) are useful tools for reconnaissance, surveillance, and general situation assessment in safety, security, and rescue missions. Many UAV have meanwhile good autonomous flight capabilities, especially by tracking pre-planned routes via GPS or for station-keeping. Here it is shown how the video stream from an UAV can be

Soren Schwertfeger; Andreas Birk; Heiko Bulow

2011-01-01

94

NHTSA's Vehicle Compatibility Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) is conducting a research program to investigate the crash compatibility of passenger cars, light trucks and vans (LTVs) in vehicle-to-vehicle collisions. NHTSA has conducted a series of eight full...

S. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

95

Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antarctic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Ant-Plane project for summertime scientific research and logistics in the coastal region of Antarctica, we developed six types of small autonomous UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to drones; we term these vehicles ‘Ant-Planes’) based on four types of airframe. In test flights, Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 20m accuracy along a straight course during calm weather at

Minoru Funaki; Naohiko Hirasawa

2008-01-01

96

Optimal offline path planning of a fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using an evolutionary algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path planning is the process of generating a path between an initial location and a target location that has optimal performance against specific criteria. This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning as applied to autonomous miniature fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (mini-UAVs). The path representation takes into account aircraft dynamics by incorporating the turn rates and velocities of

Glenn Sanders; Tapabrata Ray

2007-01-01

97

Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this paper, we examine the potential of using a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for rangeland inventory, assessment and monitoring. Imagery with 8-cm resolution was acquired over 290 ha in southwestern Idaho. We developed a semi-automated orthorectification procedure suitable for handling lar...

98

Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

99

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some

Yan Jin; Yan Liao; Ali A. Minai; Marios M. Polycarpou

2006-01-01

100

Empirical aerodynamic modeling for robust control design of an oceanographic Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates a systematic procedure of system identification, flight control design and robustness analysis for an Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is used to estimate the aerodynamic parameters with uncertainty bounds and to update the nonlinear model. A linearized model with parametric uncertainties is extracted from the nonlinear uncertain dynamics of the UAV by a new

Li Meng; Liu Li; S. M. Veres

2010-01-01

101

Parameter online identification of a small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle applying unscented kalman filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the dynamic aerodynamic derivatives which are difficult to obtain through the wind tunnel experiments?» and to solve the issues of the strong nonlinear characteristics of small-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV), it is proposed that the parameter estimation method based on unscented kalman filter (UKF) utilizing the flight data. The augmented nonlinear state equations are established in terms of

Cunxiao Miao; Jiancheng Fang

2011-01-01

102

Demonstration of a multimode longwave infrared imaging system on an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RISTA II sensor was integrated into the Altus Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and flown over Camp Roberts and Ft. Hunter Ligget, CA in July 1998. The RISTA II demonstration system consisted of a long-wave IR imager, a digital data link, and a ground processing facility (GPF) containing an aided target recognizer, data storage devices, and operator workstations. Imagery was

Terry L. Jones; John G. Romanski; John J. Buckley; Anthony J. Girata

1999-01-01

103

Structural Health Monitoring using Index Based Reasoning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may develop cracks, erosion, delamination or other damages due to aging, fatigue or extreme loads. Identifying these damages is critical for the safe and reliable operation of the systems. ^ Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is capable of determining the conditions of systems automatically and continually through processing and interpreting the data collected from a network of

Ming Li

2010-01-01

104

Design and simulation of a quad rotor tail-sitter unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design and concept of a quad rotor tail-sitter UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle). The designed UAV is composed of quad rotors and a fixed wing. It can hover like a helicopter, and can cruise like a fixed wing airplane. In order to verify this concept, a simulator of a quad rotor tail-sitter UAV is developed.

Atsushi Oosedo; Atsushi Konno; Takaaki Matumoto; Kenta Go; Kouji Masuko; Satoko Abiko; Masaru Uchiyama

2010-01-01

105

Practical strategies of wind energy utilization for uninhabited aerial vehicles in loiter flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is becoming increasingly attractive in missions where human presence is undesirable or impossible. Agile maneuvers and long endurance are among the most desired advantages of UAVs over aircraft that have human pilots onboard. Past studies suggest that the performance of UAVs may be considerably improved by utilizing natural resources, especially wind energy, during flights. The key

Hong Yang Singhania

2008-01-01

106

Biologically Inspired Flight Techniques for Small and Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence by small- and micro- uninhabited aerial vehicles. A controller which superimposes a gust-dependent control input on a state-feedback derived control input is proposed, and a genetic algo- rithm is used to obtain control gains as well as the optimal nominal trim state is described. Control laws are designed for both vertical sinusoidal

Jack W. Langelaan

107

Improving unmanned aerial vehicle pilot training and operation for flying in cluttered environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future applications will bring unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to new environments such as urban areas, causing a change in the way that UAVs are currently operated. However, UAV accidents still occur at a much higher rate than the accident rate for commercial airliners. Therefore, there is a need to better train UAV pilots and augment their performance to minimize accidents.

James T. Hing; Keith W. Sevcik; Paul Y. Oh

2009-01-01

108

Evaluation of an OPNET model for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) was first used as early as the American Civil War, when the North and the South launched balloons with explosive devices. Since the American Civil War, the UAV concept has been used in some form in subsequent military operations. Over the last few years, there has been an explosion in the use of

Clifton M. Durham; Todd R. Andel; Kenneth M. Hopkinson; Stuart H. Kurkowski

2009-01-01

109

Design and aerodynamic analysis of a flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and aerodynamic performance of a planar membrane wing as shape airfoil for the micro aerial vehicle. This simulation calculates the average lift force, L¯ as the criteria weight of the flapping wing (weight must be lower than 8.78 g), to make one ultra-light, small size flapping wing MAV. In here two phases are discussed. First,

Bor-Jang Tsai; Yu-Chun Fu

2009-01-01

110

A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems.

M. Funaki

2004-01-01

111

Performance modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles with on-board energy harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of energy harvesting in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has received much attention in recent years. Solar powered flight of small aircraft dates back to the 1970s when the first fully solar flight of an unmanned aircraft took place. Currently, research has begun to investigate harvesting ambient vibration energy during the flight of UAVs. The authors have recently developed

Steven R. Anton; Daniel J. Inman

2011-01-01

112

FIRE DETECTION USING AUTONOMOUS AERIAL VEHICLES WITH INFRARED AND VISUAL CAMERAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a system for automatic fire detection based on the use of autonomous aerial vehicles. Particularly, the application of a helicopter with infrared and visual cameras is described. The paper presents the techniques used for fire segmentation in visual and infrared cameras, and the procedures to fuse the data obtained from both of them. Furthermore the paper presents

J. Ramiro Martínez-de Dios; Luis Merino; Aníbal Ollero

113

Extending the Endurance of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Advanced Flexible Solar Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most currently fielded small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAV) have flight times limited to 90 minutes due to battery life and are often forced to work in teams of multiple craft to provide tactical level units with continuous observation of the battlefield...

C. R. Gromadski

2012-01-01

114

Multi-mission Path Re-planning for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Unexpected Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural disasters such as forest fires, earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, hurricanes, and cyclones happen unexpectedly and bring out the worst influence on people. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used under these disasters for surveillance, search and rescue. In order to have good performances in mission areas, effective algorithms are required in mission re-tasking and path re-planning to handle unanticipated events

Bo-bo Meng; Xiaoguang Gao; Yunhui Wang

2009-01-01

115

Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

116

Development of a PWM precision spraying controller for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a new pulse width modulation (PWM) controller for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) precision sprayer for agriculture using a TL494 fix-frequency pulse width modulator together with a data acquisition board and developed software. The PWM controller was implemented through the guidan...

117

Lighter-Than-Air and Pressurized Structures Technology for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several areas of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) performance need to be improved for the next generation of UAVs to be used successfully in expanded future combat roles. This report describes the initial research to improve the performance of UAVs through l...

A. Brown B. Roget H. Edge J. Collins M. Coatney

2010-01-01

118

Utilizing Geographic Information System Data for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Position Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many sensing applications Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide a lightweight and highly portable solution. Inevitably they may encounter malfunctions, the most serious of which may require the UAV to land as soon as possible. From a safety prospective it is insufficient to assume the UAV can safely reach a previously determined safe landing site. It is therefore desirable

Timothy Patterson; Sally McClean; Philip Morrow; Gerard Parr

2011-01-01

119

Neural Adaptive Flight Control Testing on an Unmanned Experimental Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have demonstrated potential as being effective platforms for supporting scientific and exploratory missions. They are capable of performing long endurance flights, and reaching remote areas that may be too dangerous for humans. As their role and types of missions expand, challenges are presented which require onboard systems to have increasingly higher levels of intelligence and adaptability. Missions

Corey Ippolito; Yoo-Hsiu Yeh

120

An autonomous aerial vehicle for unmanned security and surveillance operations: design and test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with wingspan of 2.5 m. A flight control system is constructed using small and light-weight components. The logical interconnection and schematic layout of the AFC (Automatic Flight Control) are presented. The UAV prototype has been successfully tested carrying a high resolution camera, and was able to acquire

G. Belloni; M. Feroli; A. Ficola; S. Pagnottelli; P. Valigi

2007-01-01

121

Design of robust backstepping controller for unmanned aerial vehicle using analytical redundancy and extended state observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In current flight control system (FCS) practice for unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs), flight safety becomes more and more important in extreme weather or in the face of sensor and control effector failures. Flight safety is guaranteed traditionally by specifying functionally redundant control hardware. Compared with extra burden increased by hardware redundancy on UAV, design of analytical redundancy becomes attractive in recent

Liwei Qiu; Jianqiang Yi; Guoliang Fan; Wensheng Yu; Ruyi Yuan

2010-01-01

122

A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in

M. Funaki; S. Tanabe; A. Project

2007-01-01

123

Runway detection of an unmanned landing aerial vehicle based on vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an monocular vision-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on vision is flown to the final approach fix to intercept the glide slope without the navigation of Global Positioning System (GPS), the position and orientation of the airport runway in image must be detected accurately so as to a host of suitable procedures have to be followed. The optimum length

Hongqun Wang; Jiaxiong Peng; Lingling Li

2005-01-01

124

Vision-Based Landing of a Simulated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Fast Reinforcement Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landing is one of the difficult challenges for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this paper, we propose a vision-based landing approach for an autonomous UAV using reinforcement learning (RL). The autonomous UAV learns the landing skill from scratch by interacting with the environment. The reinforcement learning algorithm explored and extended in this study is Least-Squares Policy Iteration (LSPI) to

Marwan Shaker; Mark N. R. Smith; Shigang Yue; Tom Duckett

2010-01-01

125

Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles: Transformation of the USAF.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States military should explore multiple types of Unmanned combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs) to deal with the realities of casualty aversion and increasing battlefield lethality, but should procure simple and expendable platforms now while developing ...

M. J. Matsushima

2001-01-01

126

Unmanned Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Aerial Ladar Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the use of overhead high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) data for enhancing the performances of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) in vege- tated terrains. Data were collected using an airborne laser and provided prior to the robot mission. Through extensive and exhaustive field testing, we demonstrate the significance of such data in two areas: robot localization and

Nicolas Vandapel; Raghavendra Rao Donamukkala; Martial Hebert

2006-01-01

127

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/Remotely Piloted Aircraft Design Selection Based on Service-Stated Meteorological/Oceanographic Requirements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A decision tool for choosing most efficient unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's)/remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) for Meteorological/ Oceanographic (METOC) data collection is presented. A Microsoft Access database query (written in Structured Query Language) l...

R. J. Stanton

1999-01-01

128

Cost Benefit Analysis of Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) Operator Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cultural debate exists to determine if the MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff and Landing Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (VTUAV) should be operated by rated pilots, commissioned officers, or enlisted personnel. Each military service has historically tr...

K. L. Heiss

2012-01-01

129

Children of Aphrodite: The Proliferation and Threat of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the Twenty-First Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide crucial intelligence collection, and lethal targeting capabilities for United States, and other armed forces around the world. In Iraq and Afghanistan, they continue to demonstrate their value to commanders of all s...

D. L. Gaub

2011-01-01

130

System identification and stability evaluation of an unmanned aerial vehicle from automated flight tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a consequence of the systematic approach to identify the aerodynamic parameters of an unmanned aerial\\u000a vehicle (UAV) equipped with the automatic flight control system. A 3-2-1-1 excitation is applied for the longitudinal mode\\u000a while a multi-step input is applied for lateral\\/directional excitation. Optimal time step for excitation is sought to provide\\u000a the broad input bandwidth. A fully

Jinyoung Suk; Younsaeng Lee; Seungjoo Kim; Hueonjoon Koo; Jongseong Kim

2003-01-01

131

Studies on Novel Anti-jamming Technique of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Link  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the M-ary spread spectrum (M-ary-SS), direct sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS), and orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM), a novel anti-jamming scheme, named orthogonal code time division multi-subchannels spread spectrum modulation (OC-TDMSCSSM), is proposed to enhance the anti-jamming ability of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) data link. The anti-jamming system with its mathematical model is presented first, and then the

Huang Wenzhun; Wang Yongsheng; Ye Xiangyang

2008-01-01

132

Structural Health Monitoring Using Index Based Reasoning For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may develop cracks, erosion, delamination or other damages due to aging, fatigue or extreme loads. Identifying these damages is critical for the safe and reliable operation of the systems.\\u000aStructural Health Monitoring (SHM) is capable of determining the conditions of systems automatically and continually through processing and interpreting the data collected from a network of sensors

Ming Li

2010-01-01

133

Towards low-power, low-profile avionics architecture and Control for Micro Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conventional Mini and Large scale UAV systems span anywhere from approximately 12 inches to 12 feet; endowing them with larger propulsion systems, batteries\\/fuel-tanks, which in turn provide ample footprint and power reserves for on-board avionics and wireless telemetry. The limitations thus imposed become apparent when shifting to Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and trying to equip them with equal or

Jayant Ratti; Jung-Ho Moon; George Vachtsevanos

2011-01-01

134

Real-Time Simulation and Data Fusion of Navigation Sensors for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated navigation tool developed in the framework of an advanced study on navigation of Unmanned\\u000a Aerial Vehicles. The study aimed at testing innovative navigation sensor configurations to support fully autonomous flight\\u000a even during landings and other critical mission phases. The tool is composed of sensor simulation and data fusion software.\\u000a The most important navigation sensors that

Francesco Esposito; Domenico Accardo; Antonio Moccia; U. Ciniglio; F. Corraro; L. Garbarino

135

Load tracking and structural health monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicles using optical fiber sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An airborne, high resolution, load tracking and structural health monitoring system for unmanned aerial vehicles is presented. The system is based on embedded optical fiber Bragg sensors interrogated in real time during flight at 2.5 kHz. By analyzing the recorded vibration signature it is now possible to identify and trace the dynamic response of an airborne structure and track its loads.

Handelman, A.; Botsev, Y.; Balter, J.; Gud'S, P.; Kressel, I.; Tur, M.; Gali, S.; Pillai, A. C. R.; Hari Prasad, M.; Yadav, A. Kumar; Gupta, Nitesh; Sathya, Sakthi; Sundaram, Ramesh

2010-12-01

136

Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about 180 seconds.

Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem

137

Piezoelectric composite morphing control surfaces for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors have explored the use of morphing control surfaces to replace traditional servo-actuated control surfaces in UAV applications. The morphing actuation is accomplished using Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric actuators in a bimorph configuration to deflect the aft section of a control surface cross section. The resulting camber change produces forces and moments for vehicle control. The flexible piezoelectric actuators are damage tolerant and provide excellent bandwidth. The large amplitude morphing deflections attained in bench-top experiments demonstrate the potential for excellent control authority. Aerodynamic performance calculations using experimentally measured morphed geometries indicate changes in sectional lift coefficients that are superior to a servo-actuated hinged flap airfoil. This morphing flight control actuation technology could eliminate the need for servos and mechanical linkages in small UAVs and thereby increase reliability and reduce drag.

Ohanian, Osgar J., III; Karni, Etan D.; Olien, Chris C.; Gustafson, Eric A.; Kochersberger, Kevin B.; Gelhausen, Paul A.; Brown, Bridget L.

2011-03-01

138

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

139

Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected

Patrick Joseph Ford

2003-01-01

140

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

141

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

1992-05-01

142

Motion planning and control for mothership-cable-drogue systems in aerial recovery of micro air vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial recovery of micro air vehicles (MAVs) presents a challenging problem in multi-vehicle dynamics and control. This paper presents a method for recovering MAVs in flight using a mothership and towed drogue, in which the mothership executes an orbit that places the drogue in a stable, slower orbit that can be tracked by a MAV. The differential flatness property of

Liang Sun; Randal W. Beard; Mark B. Colton

2010-01-01

143

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-09-01

144

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2005-09-01

145

Microwave power transmission using a flexible rectenna for microwave-powered aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In exploiting the unique capabilities of smart actuators for applications in vehicle systems, even in unmanned or micro aerial vehicles, the power issues for smart actuators and devices have not been well addressed. This is due to the fact that the driving power for smart materials has not reached the level of the power specifications for conventional devices and systems. To answer the power issue, we have developed a wireless power transmission technology using a flexible rectenna system and implemented it for a microwave-powered aerial vehicle (MPAV) system. For this application, two flexible dipole rectennas were designed, manufactured and characterized over a frequency range of 9-12 GHz. These flexible dipole rectennas were attached and tested on the complex structure of small MPAVs. The maximum converted power output of a flexible dipole rectenna array was about 300 mA at 80 VDC. The power output from this rectenna was sufficient to run the propellers of the MPAV. Each electrically driven propeller requires approximately 2 W for operation.

Kim, Jaehwan; Yang, Sang-Yeol; Song, Kyo D.; Jones, Sean; Elliott, James R.; Choi, Sang H.

2006-10-01

146

On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

Rochala, Zdzis?aw

2012-02-01

147

Transition Flight Simulation of Flapping-Wing Micro-Aerial Vehicle Using Aerodynamic Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes how to simulate the flight of a flapping-wing micro-aerial vehicle (MAV). It uses an aerodynamic database generated using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The database is composed of the time mean aerodynamic forces and moments generated at various flapping wing motions in various flight modes. Flight is simulated utilizing the database by interpolation. The procedure is applied to transition flight of a dragonfly-type MAV with two-pairs of resonance-type flapping wings. The present MAV attains the mission of hovering, transition and cruising flights successfully with stable attitude.

Isogai, Koji; Kawabe, Hiroyasu

148

Catalytic pressurization of liquid hydrogen fuel tanks for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the use and applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) expand, the need for a lighter weight fuel allowing for longer duration flights has become the primary limiting factor in the advancement of these vehicles. To extend the operational envelope of UAV, onboard condensed hydrogen storage for missions exceeding one week is necessary. Currently, large spherical liquid hydrogen tanks that are pressurized with external helium tanks or electronic heating elements are utilized for this purpose. However, the mass, size, and power consumption of the fuel storage tank and fuel pressurization system significantly limit the flight envelope of UAV. In an effort to alleviate these issues, this paper investigates the technological feasibility of orthohydrogen-parahydrogen catalysis as a method of fuel pressurization. Typical pressurization requirements for takeoff, cruise, and landing are reviewed. Calculations of the catalyst system mass and response time are presented.

Leachman, Jacob; Street, Melissa Jean; Graham, Teira

2012-06-01

149

Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

2013-06-01

150

Tethered Operation of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles to Provide Extended Field of View for Autonomous Ground Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis was part of the ongoing research conducted at the Naval Postgraduate School to achieve greater collaboration between heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The research addresses optimal control issues in the collaboration between an Unmanned Aeri...

N. S. Phang

2006-01-01

151

An Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Concept for Low-Altitude Geophysical Exploration in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concept for a small, agile UAV platform for conducting geophysical mapping in the IPY and beyond has been explored. We have developed a framework concept for community input and feedback based on a low-cost, autonomous vehicle with onboard high-precision inertial navigation that performs vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). The vehicle we have focused on is the GoldenEye-100, developed by Aurora Flight Sciences Corp. (www.aurora.aero), which can carry a lightweight payload and achieve a range of 300-500 km (roundtrip). The VTOL capability would potentially allow flights to be launched from the helicopter deck of an icebreaker, and would remove the logistical burden of ensuring a hazard-free runway on the ice. Vehicle operations are controlled using a portable ground station. A payload concept has also been developed, indicating that the vehicle could easily carry a lightweight, compact magnetometer, camera and laser altimeter. Instruments developed for space missions exist that would enable a high performance system to be carried within the ~10 kg payload envelope. A gravity measurement system and radar sounder are also considered. A capable UAV platform for geophysical mapping would complement the existing aerial research platforms in Antarctica and has the potential to accelerate the exploration and monitoring of critical but remote areas in a cost-effective manner.

Raymond, C. A.; Behar, A. E.

2004-05-01

152

Scheduling and Sequence Reshuffle for Autonomous Aerial Refueling of Multiple UAVs (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we formulate the autonomous aerial refueling of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a scheduling problem. In order to find the optimal refueling sequence of UAVs, an efficient dynamic programming algorithm is introduced. When UAVs l...

Z. Jin T. Shima C. J. Schumacher

2006-01-01

153

Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through this research, a robust aircraft design methodology is developed for analysis and optimization of the Air Vehicle (AV) segment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems. The analysis functionality of the AV design is integrated with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to form an integrated Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology for optimal AV design synthesis. This research fills the gap in integrated subsonic fixed-wing UAV AV MDO methods. No known single methodology captures all of the phenomena of interest over the wide range of UAV families considered here. Key advancements include: (1) parametric Low Reynolds Number (LRN) airfoil aerodynamics formulation, (2) UAV systems mass properties definition, (3) wing structural weight methods, (4) self-optimizing flight performance model, (5) automated geometry algorithms, and (6) optimizer integration. Multiple methods are provided for many disciplines to enable flexibility in functionality, level of detail, computational expediency, and accuracy. The AV design methods are calibrated against the High-Altitude Long-Endurance (HALE) Global Hawk, Medium-Altitude Endurance (MAE) Predator, and Tactical Shadow 200 classes, which exhibit significant variations in mission performance requirements and scale from one another. All three UAV families show significant design gross weight reductions as technology improves. The overall technology synergy experienced 10--11 years after the initial technology year is 6.68% for Global Hawk, 7.09% for Predator, and 4.22% for the Shadow 200, which means that the technology trends interact favorably in all cases. The Global Hawk and Shadow 200 families exhibited niche behavior, where some vehicles attained higher aerodynamic performance while others attained lower structural mass fractions. The high aerodynamic performance Global Hawk vehicles had high aspect ratio wings with sweep, while the low structural mass fraction vehicles had straight, relatively low aspect ratios and smaller wing spans. The high aerodynamic performance Shadow 200 vehicles had relatively low wing loadings and large wing spans, while the lower structural mass fraction counterparts sought to minimize physical size. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Gundlach, John Frederick, IV

154

Hierarchical flight control system synthesis for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) research aims to design, implement, and analyze a group of autonomous intelligent UAVs and UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles). The goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive procedural methodology to design, implement, and test rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles (RUAVs). We choose the rotorcraft as the base platform for our aerial agents because it offers ideal maneuverability for our target scenarios such as the pursuit-evasion game. Aided by many enabling technologies such as lightweight and powerful computers, high-accuracy navigation sensors and communication devices, it is now possible to construct RUAVs capable of precise navigation and intelligent behavior by the decentralized onboard control system. Building a fully functioning RUAV requires a deep understanding of aeronautics, control theory and computer science as well as a tremendous effort for implementation. These two aspects are often inseparable and therefore equally highlighted throughout this research. The problem of multiple vehicle coordination is approached through the notion of a hierarchical system. The idea behind the proposed architecture is to build a hierarchical multiple-layer system that gradually decomposes the abstract mission objectives into the physical quantities of control input. Each RUAV incorporated into this system performs the given tasks and reports the results through the hierarchical communication channel back to the higher-level coordinator. In our research, we provide a theoretical and practical approach to build a number of RUAVs based on commercially available navigation sensors, computer systems, and radio-controlled helicopters. For the controller design, the dynamic model of the helicopter is first built. The helicopter exhibits a very complicated multi-input multi-output, nonlinear, time-varying and coupled dynamics, which is exposed to severe exogenous disturbances. This poses considerable difficulties for the identification, control and general operation. A high-fidelity helicopter model is established with the lumped-parameter approach. With the lift and torque aerodynamic model of the main and tail rotors, a nonlinear simulation model is first constructed. The control models of the RUAVs used in our research are derived by the application of a time-domain parametric identification method to the flight data of target RUAVs. Two distinct control theories, namely classical control theory and modern linear robust control theory, are applied to the identified model. The proposed controllers are validated in a nonlinear simulation environment and tested in a series of test flights. With the successful implementation of the low-level vehicle controller, the guidance layer is designed. The waypoint navigator, which decides the adequate flight mode and the associated reference trajectory, serves as an intermediary between the low-level vehicle control layer and the high-level mission-planning layer. In order to interpret the abstract mission planning to commands that are compatible with the low-level structure, a novel framework called Vehicle Control Language (VCL) is developed. The key idea of VCL is to provide a mission-independent methodology to describe given flight patterns. The VCL processor and vehicle control layer are integrated into the hierarchical control structure, which is the backbone of our intelligent UAV system. The proposed idea is validated in the simulation environment and then fully tested in a series of flight tests.

Shim, Hyunchul

155

Aerosol, cloud, and radiometric measurements with small autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The AUAV (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle) project is a part of the Atmospheric Brown Clouds project. It has been designed to allow for routine vertical profile measurements of aerosols and clouds using AUAVs above ground-based observatories in the Indo-Pacific Ocean region. The current scientific payloads consist of optical particle counters, condensation particle counters, cloud droplet probes, aethelometers, upward and downward facing pyranometers, and temperature-relative humidity sensors. Aerosol, cloud and radiometric instruments have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. Demonstration flights at the Yuma Proving Grounds, AZ show the potential for small AUAVs in atmospheric studies. The flights were performed on two aircraft, which flew autonomously up to 3000 m above sea level (asl) along programmed flight tracks. The aircraft flew in stacked formation for part of the flights. Once the aircraft were stacked (550 and 2100 m asl), the projected distances were less than 50 m - which translates to less than a 1.5 sec latency between the aircraft. Vertical profiles show a constant 8 K km-1 lapse rate and increasing relative humidity with altitude. At 2000 m asl (1600 m above ground level), an aerosol layer is evident in the total aerosol concentration profile (NCN = 2000 cm-3); relative humidity also increased by 10% in this layer. No such increase in 0.3 ?m aerosol (NOPC) is visible at 2000 m asl, suggesting transport from an urban center. Back trajectories indicate air masses originated from south and west across central Baja California, Mexico. Aerosol concentrations are fairly constant at 1000 cm-3 throughout the profile indicating a well-mixed boundary layer. Spikes in aerosol concentrations are a result of sampling the aircrafts' exhaust. The vertical profiles show that spikes occurred at levels where the aircraft maintained level, repeating holding patterns. The cloud droplet probe was flown; however, due to the flight ceiling, the aircraft was not allowed to ascend into the cloud base. The pyranometers performed well during straight and level portions of the flight as the autopilot maintained a level platform (pitch and roll) to within a degree. Circular tracks (at 2 miles diameter) cause oscillations in the aircraft's pitch and constantly bank the aircraft 3 to 4 degrees. Hence, a larger radius or long straight and level legs need to be used for radiometric measurements. We will also include data from three stacked aircraft flights to be conducted in November, to sample the boundary layer, clouds and cloud top layers simultaneously.

Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

2005-12-01

156

AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. A Titan airplane mission concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments—2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector—AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel `gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within a New Frontiers budget.

Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Ádámkovics, Máté; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

2012-03-01

157

40 CFR 1048.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? 1048.610 Section...to vehicles certified under the motor vehicle program? (a) General provisions. If you are a motor-vehicle manufacturer, this...

2013-07-01

158

A global positioning system (GPS) interference electronics support measure (ESM) payload system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern battlefields depend on GPS for precision navigation and timing. Unfortunately, GPS signals are very-low level and GPS interference, both intentional and unintentional, can severely degrade GPS performance. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), which have proven their value on the battlefield, rely heavily on GPS for navigation and flight integrity. Key to continued mission success for UAVs is enhanced anti-jamming capabilities.

Timothy J. Wurth; Jeffrey S. Wells

2004-01-01

159

Aerodynamic parameter estimation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle based on extended kalman filter and its higher order approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerodynamic parameter estimation provides an effective way for aerospace system modelling using measured data from flight test, especially for the purpose of developing elaborate simulation environments and control systems design of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with short design cycles and reduced cost. However, parameter identification of airplane dynamics is complicated because of its nonlinear identification models and the combination of

Li Meng; Liu Li; S. M. Veres

2010-01-01

160

Effects of Input Device and Latency on Performance While Training to Pilot a Simulated Micro-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of input device and latency in training to manually pilot a simulated micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) were investigated. Our prior research suggested that performance was superior when using a game controller as opposed to a mouse during missions i...

D. R. Billings P. J. Durlach

2008-01-01

161

Using unmanned aerial vehicle-borne magnetic sensors to detect and locate improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic sensors configured as a tensor magnetic gradiometer not only detect magnetic targets, but also determine their location and their magnetic moment. Magnetic moment information can be used to characterize and classify objects. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and thus many types of improvised explosive device (IED) contain steel, and thus can be detected magnetically. Suitable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, both

Hoke S. Trammell III; Alexander R. Perry; Sankaran Kumar; Peter V. Czipott; Brian R. Whitecotton; Tobin J. McManus; David O. Walsh

2005-01-01

162

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

163

Power beaming to a micro aerial vehicle using an active phased array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A power beaming system to a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) using 5.8GHz microwaves has been developed. The system consists of three sub-systems; a pointing system, a tracking system, and a receiving system. The MAV is tracked using the phase information of pilot signal. Software retro-directive function has been realized through a PC control and a microwave beam is pointed to the MAV using an active phased array. The beam divergence was about 9deg and the beam steering angle was from -9deg to +9deg. Light-weight flexible rectenna array made of cupper tapes and a thin polyimide film was mounted on a wing of the MAV model, and the electric motor was driven by the received power. The weight per unit reception area was 26mg/cm2.

Sawahara, Hironori; Oda, Akinori; Alseny, Diallo; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

2010-03-01

164

Small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) real-time intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) using onboard pre-processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in-theater to provide low-cost, low-profile aerial reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities. However, inherent platform limitations on size, weight, and power restrict the ability to provide sensors and communications which can present high-resolution imagery to the end-user. This paper discusses methods to alleviate this restriction by performing on-board pre-processing of high resolution images and downlinking the post-processed imagery. This has the added benefit of reducing the workload for a warfighter who is already heavily taxed by other duties.

Stevens, Rick C.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Braegelmann, Jacob R.; Cordes, Aaron M.; Nelson, Ryan L.

2008-05-01

165

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams.  

PubMed

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some (or all) targets are unknown a priori, requiring them to be located using cooperative search. In addition, the tasks to be performed at each target location by the team of cooperative UAVs need to be coordinated. The tasks must, therefore, be allocated to UAVs in real time as they arise, while ensuring that appropriate vehicles are assigned to each task. Each class of UAVs has its own sensing and attack capabilities, so the need for appropriate assignment is paramount. In this paper, an extensive dynamic model that captures the stochastic nature of the cooperative search and task assignment problems is developed, and algorithms for achieving a high level of performance are designed. The paper focuses on investigating the value of predictive task assignment as a function of the number of unknown targets and number of UAVs. In particular, it is shown that there is a tradeoff between search and task response in the context of prediction. Based on the results, a hybrid algorithm for switching the use of prediction is proposed, which balances the search and task response. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:16761811

Jin, Yan; Liao, Yan; Minai, Ali A; Polycarpou, Marios M

2006-06-01

166

Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

Yilmaz, Bahad?r.

2013-06-01

167

Modeling and control for heave dynamics of a flexible wing micro aerial vehicle distributed parameter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much research has been motivated by the idea of biologically-inspired flight. It is a conjecture of the United States Air Force that incorporating characteristics of biological flight into air vehicles will significantly improve the maneuverability and performance of modern aircraft. Although there are studies which involve the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, modeling, and control of flexible wing micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), issues of control and vehicular modeling as a whole are largely unexplored. Modeling with such dynamics lends itself to systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) with nonlinearities, and limited control theory is available for such systems. In this work, a multiple component structure consisting of two Euler-Bernoulli beams connected to a rigid mass is used to model the heave dynamics of an aeroelastic wing MAV, which is acted upon by a nonlinear aerodynamic lift force. We seek to employ tools from distributed parameter modeling and linear control theory in an effort to achieve agile flight potential of flexible, morphable wing MAV airframes. Theoretical analysis of the model is conducted, which includes generating solutions to the eigenvalue problem for the system and determining well-posedness and the attainment of a C 0-semigroup for the linearly approximated model. In order to test the model's ability to track to a desired state and to gain insight into optimal morphing trajectories, two control objectives are employed on the model: target state tracking and morphing trajectory over time.

Kuhn, Lisa M.

168

Fault tolerant attitude sensing and force feedback control for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two aspects of an unmanned aerial vehicle are studied in this work. One is fault tolerant attitude determination and the other is to provide force feedback to the joy-stick of the UAV so as to prevent faulty inputs from the pilot. Determination of attitude plays an important role in control of aerial vehicles. One way of defining the attitude is through Euler angles. These angles can be determined based on the measurements of the projections of the gravity and earth magnetic fields on the three body axes of the vehicle. Attitude determination in unmanned aerial vehicles poses additional challenges due to limitations of space, payload, power and cost. Therefore it provides for almost no room for any bulky sensors or extra sensor hardware for backup and as such leaves no room for sensor fault issues either. In the face of these limitations, this study proposes a fault tolerant computing of Euler angles by utilizing multiple different computation methods, with each method utilizing a different subset of the available sensor measurement data. Twenty-five such methods have been presented in this document. The capability of computing the Euler angles in multiple ways provides a diversified redundancy required for fault tolerance. The proposed approach can identify certain sets of sensor failures and even separate the reference fields from the disturbances. A bank-to-turn maneuver of the NASA GTM UAV is used to demonstrate the fault tolerance provided by the proposed method as well as to demonstrate the method of determining the correct Euler angles despite interferences by inertial acceleration disturbances. Attitude computation is essential for stability. But as of today most UAVs are commanded remotely by human pilots. While basic stability control is entrusted to machine or the on-board automatic controller, overall guidance is usually with humans. It is therefore the pilot who sets the command/references through a joy-stick. While this is a good compromise between complete automation and complete human control, it still poses some unique challenges. Pilots of manned aircraft are present inside the cockpit of the aircraft they fly and thus have a better feel of the flying environment and also the limitations of the flight. The same might not be true for UAV pilots stationed on the ground. A major handicap is that visual feedback is the only one available for the UAV pilot. An additional parameter like force feedback on the remote control joy-stick can help the UAV pilot to physically feel the limitation of the safe flight envelope. This can make the flying itself easier and safer. A method proposed here is to design a joy-stick assembly with an additional actuator. This actuator is controlled so as to generate a force feedback on the joy-stick. The control developed for this system is such that the actuator allows free movement for the pilot as long as the UAV is within the safe flight envelope. On the other hand, if it is outside this safe range, the actuator opposes the pilot's applied torque and prevents him/her from giving erroneous commands to the UAV.

Jagadish, Chirag

169

Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

Ford Motor Company

2005-03-01

170

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Test Approval Process and Its Implications: A Methodological Approach to Capture and Evaluate Hidden Costs and Value in the Overall Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The advancement in small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) technology has brought a new revolution in the military domain. Their uses have become more synonymous with intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. Concerns over their flight test sa...

T. U. Tran

2012-01-01

171

Design and Attitude Control of a Quad-Rotor Tail-Sitter Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development of a quad-rotor tail-sitter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is composed of quad rotors and a fixed wing. The developed UAV can hover like a quad-rotor helicopter and can fly long distance like a fixed-wing airplane. The main wing of the developed UAV is taken from a commercially available radio-controlled airplane and other

Atsushi Oosedo; Atsushi Konno; Takaaki Matsumoto; Kenta Go; Koji Masuko; Masaru Uchiyama

2012-01-01

172

Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian.

M. Funaki; P. Milligan

2006-01-01

173

Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imagery for Quantitative Monitoring of Wheat Crop in Small Plots  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines how light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be used in remote sensing for precision farming. It focuses on the combination of simple digital photographic cameras with spectral filters, designed to provide multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared domains. In 2005, these instruments were fitted to powered glider and parachute, and flown at six dates staggered over the crop season. We monitored ten varieties of wheat, grown in trial micro-plots in the South-West of France. For each date, we acquired multiple views in four spectral bands corresponding to blue, green, red, and near-infrared. We then performed accurate corrections of image vignetting, geometric distortions, and radiometric bidirectional effects. Afterwards, we derived for each experimental micro-plot several vegetation indexes relevant for vegetation analyses. Finally, we sought relationships between these indexes and field-measured biophysical parameters, both generic and date-specific. Therefore, we established a robust and stable generic relationship between, in one hand, leaf area index and NDVI and, in the other hand, nitrogen uptake and GNDVI. Due to a high amount of noise in the data, it was not possible to obtain a more accurate model for each date independently. A validation protocol showed that we could expect a precision level of 15% in the biophysical parameters estimation while using these relationships.

Lelong, Camille C. D.; Burger, Philippe; Jubelin, Guillaume; Roux, Bruno; Labbe, Sylvain; Baret, Frederic

2008-01-01

174

Telesurgery via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a field deployable surgical robot.  

PubMed

Robotically assisted surgery stands to further revolutionize the medical field and provide patients with more effective healthcare. Most robotically assisted surgeries are teleoperated from the surgeon console to the patient where both ends of the system are located in the operating room. The challenge of surgical teleoperation across a long distance was already demonstrated through a wired communication network in 2001. New development has shifted towards deploying a surgical robot system in mobile settings and/or extreme environments such as the battlefield or natural disaster areas with surgeons operating wirelessly. As a collaborator in the HAPs/MRT (High Altitude Platform/Mobile Robotic Telesurgery) project, The University of Washington surgical robot was deployed in the desert of Simi Valley, CA for telesurgery experiments on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were performed telerobotically with a maximum time delay between the surgeon's console (master) and the surgical robot (slave) of 20 ms for the robotic control signals and 200 ms for the video stream. This was our first experiment in the area of Mobile Robotic Telesurgery (MRT). The creation and initial testing of a deployable surgical robot system will facilitate growth in this area eventually leading to future systems saving human lives in disaster areas, on the battlefield or in other remote environments. PMID:17377292

Lum, Mitchell J H; Rosen, Jacob; King, Hawkeye; Friedman, Diana C W; Donlin, Gina; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Harnett, Brett; Huffman, Lynn; Doarn, Charles; Broderick, Timothy; Hannaford, Blake

2007-01-01

175

Experimental measurement of the aerodynamic charateristics of two-dimensional airfoils for an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of the development of an airfoil for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with internal propulsion system; the investigation involves the analysis of the aerodynamic performance for the gliding condition of two-dimensional airfoil models which have been tested. This development is based on the modification of a selected airfoil from the NACA four digits family. The modification of this base airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface since the UAV will have an internal propulsion system. This analysis involved obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients experimentally for the situation where there is not flow through the blowing outlet, called the no blowing condition by means of wind tunnel tests. The methodology to obtain the forces experimentally was through an aerodynamic wire balance. Obtained results were compared with numerical results by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) from references and found in very good agreement. Finally, a selection of the airfoil with the best aerodynamic performance is done and proposed for further analysis including the blowing condition.

Velazquez, Luis; Noži?ka, Ji?í; Vav?ín, Jan

2012-04-01

176

Vibration control of a camera mount system for an unmanned aerial vehicle using piezostack actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work proposes an active mount for the camera systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in order to control unwanted vibrations. An active actuator of the proposed mount is devised as an inertial type, in which a piezostack actuator is directly connected to the inertial mass. After evaluating the actuating force of the actuator, it is combined with the rubber element of the mount, whose natural frequency is determined based on the measured vibration characteristics of UAV. Based on the governing equations of motion of the active camera mount, a robust sliding mode controller (SMC) is then formulated with consideration of parameter uncertainties and hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Subsequently, vibration control performances of the proposed active mount are experimentally evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In addition, a full camera mount system of UAVs that is supported by four active mounts is considered and its vibration control performance is evaluated in the frequency domain using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method.

Oh, Jong-Seok; Han, Young-Min; Choi, Seung-Bok

2011-08-01

177

Online optimal obstacle avoidance for rotary-wing autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents an integrated framework for online obstacle avoidance of rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which can provide UAVs an obstacle field navigation capability in a partially or completely unknown obstacle-rich environment. The framework is composed of a LIDAR interface, a local obstacle grid generation, a receding horizon (RH) trajectory optimizer, a global shortest path search algorithm, and a climb rate limit detection logic. The key feature of the framework is the use of an optimization-based trajectory generation in which the obstacle avoidance problem is formulated as a nonlinear trajectory optimization problem with state and input constraints over the finite range of the sensor. This local trajectory optimization is combined with a global path search algorithm which provides a useful initial guess to the nonlinear optimization solver. Optimization is the natural process of finding the best trajectory that is dynamically feasible, safe within the vehicle's flight envelope, and collision-free at the same time. The optimal trajectory is continuously updated in real time by the numerical optimization solver, Nonlinear Trajectory Generation (NTG), which is a direct solver based on the spline approximation of trajectory for dynamically flat systems. In fact, the overall approach of this thesis to finding the optimal trajectory is similar to the model predictive control (MPC) or the receding horizon control (RHC), except that this thesis followed a two-layer design; thus, the optimal solution works as a guidance command to be followed by the controller of the vehicle. The framework is implemented in a real-time simulation environment, the Georgia Tech UAV Simulation Tool (GUST), and integrated in the onboard software of the rotary-wing UAV test-bed at Georgia Tech. Initially, the 2D vertical avoidance capability of real obstacles was tested in flight. The flight test evaluations were extended to the benchmark tests for 3D avoidance capability over the virtual obstacles, and finally it was demonstrated on real obstacles located at the McKenna MOUT site in Fort Benning, Georgia. Simulations and flight test evaluations demonstrate the feasibility of the developed framework for UAV applications involving low-altitude flight in an urban area.

Kang, Keeryun

178

First Experiences Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Volcano Observation in the Visible Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of the most active volcanoes in the world are located in Middle and South America. While permanently installed sensors for seismicity give reliable supervision of volcanic activities, they lack the possibility to determine occurrence and extent of surface activities. Both from the point of science and civil protection, visible documentation of activities is of great interest. While satellites and manned aircraft already offer many possibilities, they also have disadvantages like delayed or poor image data availability or high costs. The Institute of Aerospace Systems of the Technical University of Braunschweig, in collaboration with the spin-off company Mavionics, developed a family of extremely small and lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), with the smallest aircraft weighting only 550~g (19~ounces) at a wing span of 50 cm (20~inch). These aircraft are operating completely automatically, controlled by a highly miniaturized autopilot system. Flight mission is defined by a list of GPS waypoints using a conventional notebook. While in radio range, current position and status of the aircraft is displayed on the notebook and waypoints can easily be changed by the user. However, when radio connection is not available, the aircraft operates on its on, completing the flight mission automatically. This greatly increases the operating range of the system. Especially for the purpose of volcano observation in South America, the aircraft Carolo~P330 was developed, weighting 5~kg (11~pounds) at a wing span of 3.3~m ( 11~ft). The whole system can be easily carried by car and the electric propulsion system avoids handling of flammable liquids. The batteries can be recharged in the field. Carolo~P330 has an endurance of up to 90~minutes at a flight speed of 25~m/s, giving it a maximum range of 67 km (41~miles). It was especially designed to operate under harsh conditions. The payload is a digital still camera, which delivers aerial images with a resolution of up to 8~megapixel. On a field campaign in 2005, the performance of the system was evaluated at the two active Ecuadorian volcanoes Cotopaxi and El~Reventador. After hand-launch at Mt. Cotopaxi, the autopilot brought the aircraft up to 7,000~m above sea level (starting from a plateau on 4,500~m a.s.l.), with temperatures around the freezing point. At El~Reventador active lava flows were documented in the tropical montane rain forest. Since the position and attitude of the aircraft is recorded within the autopilot system, the single aerial images can be referenced automatically after the flight to form a mosaic of images. The whole processing chain from mission planning to image mosaic takes less than half a day. Besides the technical details of this cost-effective remote sensing system, the results of the measurement campaign in 2005 will be presented. An outlook will discuss the installation of other payload for thermal imaging or air sampling.

Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Bange, J.

2007-05-01

179

H-infinity output-feedback control: Application to unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents new necessary and sufficient conditions for static output-feedback control of linear time-invariant systems using the H-Infinity approach. Simplified conditions are derived which only require the solution of two coupled matrix design equations. It is shown that the static output-feedback H-Infinity solution does not generally yield a well-defined saddle point for the zero sum differential game; conditions are given under which it does. This work presents a simplified parameterization of all H-Infinity static state-feedback controllers in terms of a single algebraic Riccati equation and a free parameter matrix. As a special case, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an H-Infinity static output feedback gain are given. This work also proposes three numerically efficient solution algorithms for the coupled design equations to determine the static output-feedback gain. In two of the algorithms an initial stabilizing gain is not needed. Correctness of these algorithms is proved. These algorithms also give flexibility to relatively weight control input and system performance. Application to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle exemplifies the power of the theory developed. This work give a procedure for designing compensators of specified structure for shaping the closed loop response that uses H-infinity output-feedback design techniques. The method developed takes advantage of the wealth of experience in aerospace control design. This work also presents the implementation of L2 Gain Bounded Static Output-Feedback control on Electromechanical Systems. Finally some future applications are explored including wireless networks.

Gadewadikar, Jyotirmay

180

Runway detection of an unmanned landing aerial vehicle based on vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an monocular vision-based unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on vision is flown to the final approach fix to intercept the glide slope without the navigation of Global Positioning System (GPS), the position and orientation of the airport runway in image must be detected accurately so as to a host of suitable procedures have to be followed. The optimum length of the final approach is about five miles from the runway threshold. The front view of the runway, which is achieved at the moment, is very illegible. The approaching marking (cross bar) of the runway are showed as some white spots of high intensity and the complicated backgrounds of the airport are included in the images. In this case, spots with high intensity should be extracted and classified, some of these spots are just the images of the background noises and the pseudo-targets, which can't be separated with the spots of the runway as in the view there is no significant characteristic difference among them ostensibly. Fortunately, in the terrestrial coordinate space, most of the runway marks are located at the apexes of a rectangle, having some geometric relationships. The relationship among the projection coordinates of the runway spots in the images can be determined according to the perspective principle, the constraint condition of the rectangle as well as the front shot constraint condition of the target, by using this relationship, the runway approaching marks can be separated, the position and the direction of the runway in the images can be identified. In this paper, the clustering management is adopted so as to greatly reduce the computing time. The consequence of the experiments shows that by this algorithm, even from a place far away from the runway whose marks are unclear, we also can effectively detect the runway.

Wang, Hongqun; Peng, Jiaxiong; Li, Lingling

2005-11-01

181

Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In Situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance - is a small (120 kg), nuclear-powered Titan airplane in the Discovery/New Frontiers class based on the concept of Lemke (2008 IPPW). The scientific goals of the mission are designed around the unique flexibility offered by an airborne platform: to explore Titan's diversity of surface landforms, processes, and compositions, as well as to study and measure the atmospheric circulation, aerosols, and humidity. AVIATR would address and surpass many of the science goals of hot-air balloons in Titan flagship studies. The strawman instrument payload is narrowly focused on the stated scientific objectives. The optical remote sensing suite comprises three instruments - an off-nadir high-resolution 2-micron camera, a horizon-looking 5-micron imager, and a 1-6 micron pushbroom near-infrared spectrometer. The in situ instruments include atmospheric structure, a methane humidity sensor, and a raindrop detector. An airplane has operational advantages over a balloon. Its piloted nature allows a go-to capability to image locations of interest in real time, thereby allowing for directed exploration of many features of primary geologic interest: Titan's sand dunes, mountains, craters, channels, and lakes. Subsequent imaging can capture changes in these features during the primary mission. AVIATR can fly predesigned routes, building up large context mosaics of areas of interest before swooping down to low altitude to acquire high-resolution images at 30-cm spatial sampling, similar to that of HiRISE at Mars. The elevation flexibility of the airplane allows us to acquire atmospheric profiles as a function of altitude at any desired location. Although limited by the direct-to-Earth downlink bandwidth, the total scientific data return from AVIATR will be >40 times that returned from Huygens. To maximize the science per bit, novel data storage and downlink techniques will be employed, including lossy compression, downloading thumbnails, and on-board image evaluation.

Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Barnes, J. W.; McKay, C. P.; Lemke, L.; Beyer, R. A.; Radebaugh, J.; Adamkovics, M.; Atkinson, D. H.; Burr, D. M.; Colaprete, T.; Foch, R.; Le Mouélic, S.; Merrison, J.; Mitchell, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Schaller, E.

2010-10-01

182

Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program Retrospective and Outlook  

SciTech Connect

OHVT Mission is to conduct, in collaboration with our heavy vehicle industry partners and their suppliers, a customer-focused national program to research and develop technologies that will enable trucks and other heavy vehicles to be more energy efficient and able to use alternative fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions.

James J. Eberhardt

1999-04-10

183

Using unmanned aerial vehicle-borne magnetic sensors to detect and locate improvised explosive devices and unexploded ordnance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic sensors configured as a tensor magnetic gradiometer not only detect magnetic targets, but also determine their location and their magnetic moment. Magnetic moment information can be used to characterize and classify objects. Unexploded ordnance (UXO) and thus many types of improvised explosive device (IED) contain steel, and thus can be detected magnetically. Suitable unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms, both gliders and powered craft, can enable coverage of a search area much more rapidly than surveys using, for instance, total-field magnetometers. We present data from gradiometer passes over different shells using a gradiometer mounted on a moving cart. We also provide detection range and speed estimates for aerial detection by a UAV.

Trammell, Hoke S., III; Perry, Alexander R.; Kumar, Sankaran; Czipott, Peter V.; Whitecotton, Brian R.; McManus, Tobin J.; Walsh, David O.

2005-05-01

184

Challenges of testing manned and unmanned aerial vehicles with reconnaissance payloads  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe some challenges of testing aircraft and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) with reconnaissance payloads, and discuss how the challenges are met. The Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) has participated in testing the Electro-Optical-Long Range Oblique Photography System upgrade for the RF-4C aircraft, the Medium Range UAV (MR UAV), the ARGUS remotely piloted reconnaissance UAV, and other recent programs. Lessons learned from the UTTR's wide variety of recent test experience with developmental reconnaissance aircraft and UAVs can be used to guide future development and flight testing of next-generation systems.

Bergevin, Dean H.

1993-12-01

185

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2006-04-01

186

Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the

Ernst Hoegenauer; Dietrich E. Koelle

1989-01-01

187

Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

188

Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

189

Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents ...

C. Ippolito L. Plice G. Pisanich

2003-01-01

190

Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems' SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft(®)'s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

2012-01-04

191

Vision-based state estimation for uninhabited aerial vehicles using the coplanarity constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and evaluated a vision-based state estimation algorithm for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the implicit extended Kalman filter (IEKF) and the coplanarity constraint (also known as the epipolar or essential constraint). The coplanarity constraint, a well-known property in the structure from motion (SFM) field, has advantages for this application in that the feature point locations in three dimensional space do not have to be known and tracked and that feature points can be discarded and acquired as necessary. This reduces the computational load which is important for real time applications such as aircraft control. Advantages of the IEKF are that, in principle, the current estimate uses all previous information, not just the current observations, and that the estimate will propagate forward in an orderly fashion in the case of interrupted or reduced measurements. The dynamics of the aircraft are included in the process model which improves the observability of the states and resolves the SFM scale factor ambiguity. The algorithm was implemented in a numerical simulation and exhibited divergence problems in the presence of measurement noise. These effects were particularly evident in the velocity estimates. The problems were eliminated by zeroing out the small velocity dependent terms in the measurement matrix. The algorithm was exercised in a Monte Carlo fashion and found to be robust to errors in the process model and to measurement noise. Sensitivities to filter and focal plane implementation parameters including camera depression angle, field of view, measurement interval, and feature point location and number were also assessed. The modified estimator was then employed in a closed loop UAV simulation to provide feedback to a simple autopilot. The simulation demonstrated that the state estimates provided were sufficiently accurate to allow control of the UAV through successful waypoint navigation. This simulation used feature points generated at random locations in the field of view. A second closed loop simulation was successfully run using synthetic imagery from the University of Florida's vision laboratory and a Lucas-Kanade feature point tracking algorithm.

Webb, Thomas Philip

192

Sensor Fusion Based Fault-Tolerant Attitude Estimation Solutions for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Navigation-grade inertial sensors are often too expensive and too heavy for use in most Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) systems. Low-cost Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors provide an attractive alternative, but currently do not provide an adequate navigation solution alone due to the presence of sensor bias. Toward addressing this problem, this research focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of sensor fusion algorithms to combine partially redundant information from low-cost sensor to achieve accurate SUAV attitude estimation. To conduct this research, several sets of SUAVs flight data that include measurements from a low-cost MEMS based Inertial Measurement Unit, a Global Positioning System receiver, and a set of low-grade tri-axial magnetometers are used to evaluate a variety of algorithms. In order to provide a baseline for performance evaluation, attitude measurements obtained directly with a high-quality mechanical vertical gyroscope are used as an independent attitude 'truth'. In addition, as a part of this project, a custom SUAV avionics system was developed to provide a platform for fault-tolerant flight control research. The overall goal of this research is to provide high-accuracy attitude estimation during nominal sensor performance conditions and in the event of sensors failures, while using only low-cost components. To achieve this goal, this study is carried out in three phases. The specific aim of the first phase is to obtain high-accuracy under nominal sensor conditions. During this phase, two different nonlinear Kalman filtering methods are applied to various sensor fusion formulations and evaluated with respect to estimation accuracy over diverse sets of flight data. Next, during the second phase, sensor fusion based calibration techniques are explored to further enhance estimation accuracy. Finally, the third phase of the study considers the design of a sensor fusion attitude estimation architecture that rejects sensor failures and supports a graceful loss of performance in the event of sensor failures. This algorithm is based on a nonlinear information filter and features a novel Failure Detection, Identification, and Accommodation (FDIA) approach. During this phase, it is shown that the sensor fusion algorithm handles both abruptly occurring large magnitude sensor failures, as well as gradually growing small magnitude sensor failures.

Gross, Jason Nicholas

193

Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU) shows that the integrated system can reach position, velocity and attitude accuracies compatible with CAT-II precision approach requirements. Simulation of the second system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU/ADM) shows promising results since the achieved attitude accuracy is higher using the ADM/VBS/IMU than using VBS/IMU only. However, due to rapid divergence of the ADM virtual sensor, there is a need for a frequent re-initialisation of the ADM data module, which is strongly dependent on the UAV flight dynamics and the specific manoeuvring transitions performed. Finally, the output provided by the VBN and integrated navigation sensor systems is used to design a flight control system using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for the Aerosonde UAV.

Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

2012-05-01

194

Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be feasible and can collect imagery for very large areas in a short period of time. It was accurate for bare ground and grasses. Both UAV systems have limitations, but these will be reduced as the technology advances. In both cases, the UAV systems collected data at a much faster rate than possible on the ground. The study concluded that improvements in automating the image processing efforts would greatly improve use of the technology. In the near future, UAV technology may revolutionize rangeland monitoring in the same way Global Positioning Systems have affected navigation while conducting field activities.

Robert Paul Breckenridge

2007-05-01

195

The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.  

PubMed

A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission. PMID:16112553

Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

196

A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are problematic for design space exploration. To begin addressing the current gaps in fuel cell aircraft development, a methodology has been developed to explore and characterize the near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs. The first step of the methodology is the development of a valid MDA. This is accomplished by using propagated uncertainty estimates to guide the decomposition of a MDA into key contributing analyses (CAs) that can be individually refined and validated to increase the overall accuracy of the MDA. To assist in MDA development, a flexible framework for simultaneously solving the CAs is specified. This enables the MDA to be easily adapted to changes in technology and the changes in data that occur throughout a design process. Various CAs that model a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) UAV are developed, validated, and shown to be in agreement with hardware-in-the-loop simulations of a fully developed fuel cell propulsion system. After creating a valid MDA, the final step of the methodology is the synthesis of the MDA with an uncertainty propagation analysis, an optimization routine, and a chance constrained problem formulation. This synthesis allows an efficient calculation of the probabilistic constraint boundaries and Pareto frontiers that will govern the design space and influence design decisions relating to optimization and uncertainty mitigation. A key element of the methodology is uncertainty propagation. The methodology uses Systems Sensitivity Analysis (SSA) to estimate the uncertainty of key performance metrics due to uncertainties in design variables and uncertainties in the accuracy of the CAs. A summary of SSA is provided and key rules for properly decomposing a MDA for use with SSA are provided. Verification of SSA uncertainty estimates via Monte Carlo simulations is provided for both an example problem as well as a detailed MDA of a fuel cell UAV. Implementation of the methodology was performed on a small fuel cell UAV designed to carry a 2.2 kg payload with 24 hours of endurance. Uncertainty distributions for both design

Moffitt, Blake Almy

197

BATMAV - A Bio-Inspired Micro-Aerial Vehicle for Flapping Flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of the BATMAV project is the development of a biologically-inspired Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. While flapping flight in MAV has been previously studied and a number of models were realized they usually had unfoldable wings actuated with DC motors and mechanical transmission to achieve flapping motion. This approach limits the system to a rather small number of degrees of freedom with little flexibility and introduces an additional disadvantage of a heavy flight platform. The BATMAV project aims at the development of a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings with smart materials-based flexible joints and artificial muscles, which has the potential to closely mimic the kinematics of the real mammalian flyer. The bat-like flight platform was selected after an extensive analysis of morphological and aerodynamic flight parameters of small birds, bats and large insects characterized by a superior maneuverability and wind gust rejection. Morphological and aerodynamic parameters were collected from existing literature and compared concluding that bat wing present a suitable platform that can be actuated efficiently using artificial muscles. Due to their wing camber variation, the bat species can operate effectively at a large range of speeds and exhibit a remarkably maneuverable and agile flight. Although numerous studies were recently investigated the flapping flight, flexible and foldable wings that reproduce the natural intricate and efficient flapping motion were not designed yet. A comprehensive analysis of flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg (Norberg, 1976) and the engineering theory of robotic manipulators resulted in a 2 and 3-DOF models which managed to mimic the wingbeat cycle of the natural flyer. The flexible joints of the 2 and 2-DOF models were replicated using smart materials like superelastic Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The results of these kinematic models can be used to optimize the lengths and the attachment locations of the actuator muscle-wires such that enough lift, thrust and wing stroke are obtained. Bat skeleton measurements were taken from real bats and modeled in SolidWorks to accurately reproduce bones and body via rapid prototyping methods. Much attention was paid specifically to achieving the comparable strength, elasticity, and range of motion of a naturally occurring bat. The wing joints of the BATMAV platform were fabricated using superelastic Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), a key technology for the development of an engineering skeleton structure. This has enabled a simple and straightforward connection between different bones while at the same time has preserved the full range of functionality of the natural role model. Therefore, several desktop models were designed, fabricated and assembled in order to study various materials used in design phase. As a whole, the BATMAV project consists of four major stages of development: the current phase -- design and fabrication of the skeletal structure of the flight platform, selection and testing different materials for the design of a compliant bat-like membrane, analysis of the kinematics and kinetics of bat flight in order to design a biomechanical muscle system for actuation, and design of the electrical control architecture to coordinate the platform flight.

Bunget, Gheorghe

198

Performance modeling of unmanned aerial vehicles with on-board energy harvesting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of energy harvesting in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has received much attention in recent years. Solar powered flight of small aircraft dates back to the 1970s when the first fully solar flight of an unmanned aircraft took place. Currently, research has begun to investigate harvesting ambient vibration energy during the flight of UAVs. The authors have recently developed multifunctional piezoelectric self-charging structures in which piezoelectric devices are combined with thin-film lithium batteries and a substrate layer in order to simultaneously harvest energy, store energy, and carry structural load. When integrated into mass and volume critical applications, such as unmanned aircraft, multifunctional devices can provide great benefit over conventional harvesting systems. A critical aspect of integrating any energy harvesting system into a UAV, however, is the potential effect that the additional system has on the performance of the aircraft. Added mass and increased drag can significantly degrade the flight performance of an aircraft, therefore, it is important to ensure that the addition of an energy harvesting system does not adversely affect the efficiency of a host aircraft. In this work, a system level approach is taken to examine the effects of adding both solar and piezoelectric vibration harvesting to a UAV test platform. A formulation recently presented in the literature is applied to describe the changes to the flight endurance of a UAV based on the power available from added harvesters and the mass of the harvesters. Details of the derivation of the flight endurance model are reviewed and the formulation is applied to an EasyGlider remote control foam hobbyist airplane, which is selected as the test platform for this study. A theoretical study is performed in which the normalized change in flight endurance is calculated based on the addition of flexible thin-film solar panels to the upper surface of the wings, as well as the addition of flexible piezoelectric patches to the root of the wing spar. Experimental testing is also performed in which the wing spar of the EasyGlider aircraft is modified to include both Macro Fiber Composite and Piezoelectric Fiber Composite piezoelectric patches near the root of the wing and two thin-film solar panels are installed onto the upper wing surface to harvest vibration and solar energy during flight. Testing is performed in which the power output of the various harvesters is measured during flight. Results of the flight testing are used to update the model with accurate measures of the power available from the energy harvesting systems. Finally, the model is used to predict the potential benefits of adding multifunctional self-charging structures to the wing spar of the aircraft in order to harvest vibration energy during flight and provide a local power source for low-power sensors.

Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

2011-03-01

199

Saenger - The German aerospace vehicle program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status of the West German Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle, encompassing the European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle (EHTV) first stage, the Hypersonic Orbital Reusable Upper Stage, and the Cargus unmanned alternative upper stage, is evaluated with a view to overall program organization and near-term planning initiatives. The first major milestone in the Saenger technology-development program was achieved with the hydrogen-fueled ramjet combustor tests conducted by the propulsion system prime contractor in 1988. Mach 5.6 demonstration flights of the EHTV are scheduled for 1999-2000.

Hoegenauer, Ernst; Koelle, Dietrich E.

1989-07-01

200

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

1994-08-01

201

Developing a Control Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Search and Localize RF Time-Varying Mobile Targets: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control architecture that allows multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively detect mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. The architecture is developed under the premise that UAVs are controlled as a distributed system. The distributed system-based technique maximizes the search and detection capabilities of multiple UAVs. We use a hybrid approach that combines

Daniel J. Pack; George W. P. York

2005-01-01

202

A Study for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle carrying a radiation spectrometer networked to the new Athens Center active in Space Weather Events forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A proposal is presented for flying a light Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) carrying a Linear-Energy-Transfer (LET) radiation spectrometer and networked to the Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center (ANMODAP), active in Space Weather Events (SWE) forecasting. The ANMODAP receives data from a large number of remote neutron monitor (NM) stations, provided in real time over the Internet, together with satellite

E. G. Stassinopoulos; H. Mavromichalaki; C. Sarlanis; G. Souvatzoglou; S. Tsitomeneas

2005-01-01

203

Considerations for the Maneuver Commander: Could the Emergence of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Spell the Demise of the Army's RAH-66 Comanche in the Armed Reconnaissance Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army finds itself at a crossroad in the development and fielding of both unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter to fulfill the armed reconnaissance role for its future Objective Force (OF). Ever-increasing UAV capabili...

D. W. Barnes

2003-01-01

204

A Study of the Effects of Large Scale Gust Generation in a Small Scale Atmospheric Wind Tunnel: Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer could benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an ``atmospheric wind tunnel'' is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including that of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other unmanned aircraft, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicles, and the study of bird and insect fight. The construction of an active ``gust generator'' for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to days ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using oil flow visualization.

Roadman, Jason; Mohseni, Kamran

2009-11-01

205

Stability and Control Properties of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paperpresents results from a wind tunnel investigation that sought to quantifystability and control properties for a family of vehicles using the aeroelasticdesign. The results indicate that the membrane wing does exhibit potentialbenefits that could be exploited to enhance the design of future flight vehicles

M. Waszak; L. Jenkins; P. Ifju

2001-01-01

206

Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

2009-09-24

207

Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map.  

PubMed

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV. PMID:16566471

Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A

2006-03-01

208

Piezo-stack vortex generators for boundary layer control of a delta wing micro-aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an idea for the control of flow separation over solid surfaces by piezo-stack vortex generators. The vortex generators are small vibrating plates attached to the delta wing surface. A model of the micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) controlled by vortex piezo-generators is presented. The vortex generators are applied to produce the appropriate aerodynamical forces and moments controlling the flight of the aircraft. The efficiency of the vortex generators is proved by the wind tunnel test results. The oscillatory added lift and drag coefficients versus angle of attack are presented. The optimal vortex generator amplitude and frequency are investigated. Boundary layer control (BLC) for delta wing micro-aircraft increases the manoeuvrability and performance of the MAV.

Mystkowski, Arkadiusz

2013-11-01

209

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, FY-1985 Program Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program plan serves as the primary management document for the INEL Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) Program. Programmatic objectives are set forth, the scope of the work is defined, and the management methodologies used to perform and control the w...

G. L. Hunt

1985-01-01

210

Design and Rapid Prototyping of Flight Control and Navigation System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The work in this thesis is in support of a larger research effort to implement a cluster of autonomous airborne vehicles with the capability to conduct coordinated flight maneuver planning and to perform distributed sensor fusion. Specifically, it seeks t...

B. A. Lim

2002-01-01

211

An Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Concept for Low-Altitude Geophysical Exploration in Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept for a small, agile UAV platform for conducting geophysical mapping in the IPY and beyond has been explored. We have developed a framework concept for community input and feedback based on a low-cost, autonomous vehicle with onboard high-precision inertial navigation that performs vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). The vehicle we have focused on is the GoldenEye-100, developed by

C. A. Raymond; A. E. Behar

2004-01-01

212

Aerial robotic data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-31

213

Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected specific time difference measurements between PTZ optical payload searches without radar cuing and searches with radar cuing. In every test run conducted, searches with radar cuing reduced PTZ optical payload detection time. The study showed that a low-cost COTS radar mounted on a small UAV can meet some of the radar requirements lost with cancellation of the VTUAV program. The study results could have a direct impact on myriad of U.S. Navy and other U.S. government surveillance requirements, especially the monitoring of U.S. coastal waters in support of homeland security goals and objectives.

Ford, Patrick Joseph

214

Vision based control of unmanned aerial vehicles with applications to an autonomous four-rotor helicopter, quadrotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our work proposes a vision-based stabilization and output tracking control method for a model helicopter. This is a part of our effort to produce a rotorcraft based autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Due to the desired maneuvering ability, a four-rotor helicopter has been chosen as the testbed. On previous research on flying vehicles, vision is usually used as a secondary sensor. Unlike previous research, our goal is to use visual feedback as the main sensor, which is not only responsible for detecting where the ground objects are but also for helicopter localization. A novel two-camera method has been introduced for estimating the full six degrees of freedom (DOF) pose of the helicopter. This two-camera system consists of a pan-tilt ground camera and an onboard camera. The pose estimation algorithm is compared through simulation to other methods, such as four-point, and stereo method and is shown to be less sensitive to feature detection errors. Helicopters are highly unstable flying vehicles; although this is good for agility, it makes the control harder. To build an autonomous helicopter, two methods of control are studied---one using a series of mode-based, feedback linearizing controllers and the other using a back-stepping control law. Various simulations with 2D and 3D models demonstrate the implementation of these controllers. We also show global convergence of the 3D quadrotor controller even with large calibration errors or presence of large errors on the image plane. Finally, we present initial flight experiments where the proposed pose estimation algorithm and non-linear control techniques have been implemented on a remote-controlled helicopter. The helicopter was restricted with a tether to vertical, yaw motions and limited x and y translations.

Altug, Erdinc

215

Mixed reality for unmanned aerial vehicle operations in near Earth environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the lack of motion feedback to a UAV pilot, a system was developed that integrates a motion simulator into UAV operations. The system is designed such that during flight, the angular rate of a UAV is captured by an onboard inertial measurement unit (IMU) and is relayed to a pilot controlling the vehicle from inside the motion simulator.

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

2010-01-01

216

Quality assessment of traversability maps from aerial LIDAR data for an unmanned ground vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of assessing quantitatively the quality of traversability maps computed from data collected by an airborne laser range finder. Such data is used to plan paths for an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) prior to the execution of long range traverses. Little attention has been devoted to the problem we address in this paper. We

Nicolas Vandapel; Raghavendra R. Donamukkala; Martial Hebert

2003-01-01

217

Design Methodology of a Hybrid Propulsion Driven Electric Powered Miniature Tailsitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contrary to the manned tailsitter aircraft concepts, which have been shelved and forgotten after mid 1960’s, the unmanned\\u000a versions of these concepts have become popular. Since, tailsitter type UAVs combine both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)\\u000a operation and relatively high speed cruise flight capabilities which provide manifest advantages over the other VTOL aircraft\\u000a concepts, including helicopters and organic air vehicles

Mirac Aksugur; Gokhan Inalhan

218

Design Methodology of a Hybrid Propulsion Driven Electric Powered Miniature Tailsitter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to the manned tailsitter aircraft concepts, which have been shelved and forgotten after mid 1960’s, the unmanned\\u000a versions of these concepts have become popular. Since, tailsitter type UAVs combine both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)\\u000a operation and relatively high speed cruise flight capabilities which provide manifest advantages over the other VTOL aircraft\\u000a concepts, including helicopters and organic air vehicles

Mirac Aksugur; Gökhan Inalhan

2010-01-01

219

Experimental aerodynamic and static elastic deformation characterization of low aspect ratio flexible fixed wings applied to micro aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) is for a small, inexpensive and sometimes expendable platform, flying by remote pilot, in the field or autonomously. Because of the requirement to be flown either by almost inexperienced pilots or by autonomous control, they need to have very reliable and benevolent flying characteristics drive the design guidelines. A class of vehicles designed by the University of Florida adopts a flexible-wing concept, featuring a carbon fiber skeleton and a thin extensible latex membrane skin. Another typical feature of MAVs is a wingspan to propeller diameter ratio of two or less, generating a substantial influence on the vehicle aerodynamics. The main objectives of this research are to elucidate and document the static elastic flow-structure interactions in terms of measurements of the aerodynamic coefficients and wings' deformation as well as to substantiate the proposed inferences regarding the influence of the wings' structural flexibility on their performance; furthermore the research will provide experimental data to support the validation of CFD and FEA numerical models. A unique facility was developed at the University of Florida to implement a combination of a low speed wind tunnel and a visual image correlation system. The models tested in the wind tunnel were fabricated at the University MAV lab and consisted of a series of ten models with an identical geometry but differing in levels of structural flexibility and deformation characteristics. Results in terms of full-field displacements and aerodynamic coefficients from wind tunnel tests for various wind velocities and angles of attack are presented to demonstrate the deformation of the wing under steady aerodynamic load. The steady state effects of the propeller slipstream on the flexible wing's shape and its performance are also investigated. Analytical models of the aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics are proposed based on a multi dimensional linear regression analysis of non-linear functions. Conclusions are presented regarding the effects of the wing flexibility on some of the aerodynamic characteristics, including the effects of the propeller on the vehicle characteristics. Recommendations for future work will conclude this work.

Albertani, Roberto

220

Wind Tunnel experiments of UiTM's blended wing body (BWB) Baseline-II unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at low subsonic speed  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation is conducted to obtain aerodynamic characteristics and performance of a blended wing-body aircraft (BWB) under study by UiTM. The BWB design for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) known as “Baseline-II” is actually a completely-revised, redesigned version of “Baseline-I” BWB. The Baseline-II features have introduced a canard, a simpler planform, and slimmer body compared to its predecessor while maintaining

Firdaus Mohamad; Wirachman Wisnoe; Wahyu Kuntjoro; Rizal E. M. Nasir; Zurriati Mohd. Ali; Nor Fazira Reduan

2010-01-01

221

Aerial vehicle with paint for detection of radiological and chemical warfare agents  

DOEpatents

A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

Farmer, Joseph C.; Brunk, James L.; Day, S. Daniel

2013-04-02

222

Scheduling and sequence reshuffle for autonomous aerial refueling of multiple UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we formulate the autonomous aerial refueling of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a scheduling problem. In order to find the optimal refueling sequence of UAVs, an efficient dynamic programming algorithm is introduced. When UAVs leave or join the queue, the optimal sequence needs to be recalculated. A systematic reshuffling method is developed such that the UAV

Zhipu Jin; Tal Shima; Corey J. Schumacher

2006-01-01

223

Land surface reflectance retrieval from hyperspectral data collected by an unmanned aerial vehicle over the Baotou test site.  

PubMed

To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor was estimated to be between approximately 5 and 120 over the homogeneous targets, and the linear response of the apparent reflectance ranged from approximately 0.05 to 0.45. The uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance was retrieved and validated using in situ measurements, with root mean square error (RMSE) of approximately 0.01-0.07 and relative RMSE of approximately 5%-12%. There were small discrepancies between the retrieved uniform and non-uniform Lambertian land surface reflectance over the homogeneous targets and under low aerosol optical depth (AOD) conditions (AOD?=?0.18). However, these discrepancies must be taken into account when adjacent pixels had large land surface reflectance contrast and under high AOD conditions (e.g. AOD?=?1.0). PMID:23785513

Duan, Si-Bo; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Wu, Hua; Ma, Lingling; Zhao, Enyu; Li, Chuanrong

2013-06-12

224

Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

Linear and nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) data are compared and evaluated. IMS provides low detection limits and rapid response for many compounds. Nonlinear wavelet compression of ion mobility spectra reduced the data to 4-5% of its original size, while eliminating artifacts in the reconstructed spectra that occur with linear compression, and the root-mean-square reconstruction error was 0.17-0.20% of the maximum intensity of the uncompressed spectra. Furthermore, nonlinear wavelet compression precisely preserves the peak location (i.e., drift time). Small variations in peak location may occur in the reconstructed spectra that were linearly compressed. A method was developed and evaluated for optimizing the compression. The compression method was evaluated with in-flight data recorded from ion mobility spectrometers mounted in an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Plumes of dimethyl methylphosphonate were disseminated for interrogation by the UAV-mounted IMS system. The daublet 8 wavelet filter exhibited the best performance for these evaluations. PMID:14961740

Cao, Libo; Harrington, Peter de B; Harden, Charles S; McHugh, Vincent M; Thomas, Martin A

2004-02-15

225

A guided-wave system for monitoring the wing skin-to-spar bond in unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly used in military as well as civil applications. A critical part of the structure is the adhesive bond between the wing skin and the supporting spar. If not detected early, bond defects originating during manufacturing or in service flight can lead to inefficient flight performance and eventual global failure. This paper will present results from a bond inspection system based on attached piezoelectric disks probing the skin-to-spar bondline with ultrasonic guided waves in the hundreds of kilohertz range. The test components were CFRP composite panels of two different fiber layups bonded to a CFRP composite tube using epoxy adhesive. Three types of bond conditions were simulated, namely regions of poor cohesive strength, regions with localized disbonds and well bonded regions. The root mean square and variance of the received time-domain signals and their discrete wavelet decompositions were computed for the dominant modes propagating through the various bond regions in two different inspection configurations. Semi-analytical finite element analysis of the bonded multilayer joint was also carried out to identify and predict the sensitivity of the predominant carrier modes to the different bond defects. Emphasis of this research is based upon designing a built-in system for monitoring the structural integrity of bonded joints in UAVs and other aerospace structures.

Matt, Howard; Bartoli, Ivan; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Marzani, Alessandro; Coccia, Stefano; Oliver, Joseph; Kosmatka, John; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Restivo, Gaetano

2005-05-01

226

Autonomous Hovering and Landing of a Quad-rotor Micro Aerial Vehicle by Means of on Ground Stereo Vision System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On ground stereo vision system is used for autonomous hovering and landing of a quadrotor Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). This kind of system has an advantage to support embedded vision system for autonomous hovering and landing, since an embedded vision system occasionally gives inaccurate distance calculation due to either vibration problem or unknown geometry of the landing target. Color based object tracking by using Continuously Adaptive Mean Shift (CAMSHIFT) algorithm was examined. Nonlinear model of quad-rotor MAV and a PID controller were used for autonomous hovering and landing. The result shows that the Camshift based object tracking algorithm has good performance. Additionally, the comparison between the stereo vision system based and GPS based autonomous hovering of a quad-rotor MAV shows that stereo vision system has better performance. The accuracy of the stereo vision system is about 1 meter in the longitudinal and lateral direction when the quad-rotor flies in 6 meters of altitude. In the same experimental condition, the GPS based system accuracy is about 3 meters. Additionally, experiment on autonomous landing gives a reliable result.

Pebrianti, Dwi; Kendoul, Farid; Azrad, Syaril; Wang, Wei; Nonami, Kenzo

227

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

228

Iraq: Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Capable Missiles and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses Iraq's post-Gulf-War missile and UAV programs, system capabilities, and operational employment considerations. The UN has recently ordered Iraq to destroy its Al Samoud 2 missiles and associated engines which the UN claims are in vio...

A. Feickert

2003-01-01

229

Historical Perspective on Programs, Vehicles and Technology Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is organised such, that after the classification of vehicles air-vehicle engineering issues are discussed with an overview over the requirements on the technical disciplines and a consideration of some special issues of CAV-type vehicles. Major programs and flight vehicles are then discussed, first of RV-type, then of CAV-type. Finally selected design and development issues from the HERMES and

E. H. Hirschel

230

40 CFR 88.304-94 - Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program. 88.304-94 ...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.304-94 Clean-fuel Fleet Vehicle Credit Program. (a)...

2013-07-01

231

A global positioning system (GPS) interference electronics support measure (ESM) payload system for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern battlefields depend on GPS for precision navigation and timing. Unfortunately, GPS signals are very-low level and GPS interference, both intentional and unintentional, can severely degrade GPS performance. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), which have proven their value on the battlefield, rely heavily on GPS for navigation and flight integrity. Key to continued mission success for UAVs is enhanced anti-jamming capabilities. A revealing test of anti-jamming performance for a UAV is to maintain GPS synchronization, while accurately locating a GPS jammer. A small, modular ESM payload is needed to supply anti-jamming performance for the UAV and secondarily, to use DF techniques to locate the GPS jammer. This paper investigates a small, low-power, low-cost, modular solution to reducing the vulnerability to jamming of UAVs by leveraging commercial off-the-shelf technology. A miniaturized GPS antenna configuration that both lowers susceptibility to GPS jamming, and also allows accurate determination of the GPS jammer"s location, is presented. This GPS antenna arrangement consists of two GPS antenna arrays, one positioned on the top of the UAV (facing skyward) and one positioned on the underside of the UAV (facing the ground). The top antenna array acquires and tracks a minimum of 4 GPS satellites for accurate positioning and timing. The bottom antenna array is used to detect and locate GPS interference, and in coordination with the top array, limits susceptibility to GPS interference. The first action upon detecting GPS interference is to alter the reception pattern of the top GPS antenna array to reduce the amount of interference processed by the GPS receiver. Simultaneously, sampled data from both antenna arrays are used to monitor the effect of the interference and calculate the position of the jammer.

Wurth, Timothy J.; Wells, Jeffrey S.

2004-09-01

232

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images.  

PubMed

The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r(2)=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance. PMID:24146963

Peña, José Manuel; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; López-Granados, Francisca

2013-10-11

233

Space-time computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a detailed computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The computational techniques used include the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation, which serves as the core computational technique. The DSD/SST formulation is a moving-mesh technique, and in the computations reported here we use the space-time version of the residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) method, which is called "DSD/ SST-VMST." The motion and deformation of the wings are based on data extracted from the high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of a locust in a wind tunnel. A set of special space-time techniques are also used in the computations in conjunction with the DSD/SST method. The special techniques are based on using, in the space-time flow computations, NURBS basis functions for the temporal representation of the motion and deformation of the wings and for the mesh moving and remeshing. The computational analysis starts with the computation of the base case, and includes computations with increased temporal and spatial resolutions compared to the base case. In increasing the temporal resolution, we separately test increasing the temporal order, the number of temporal subdivisions, and the frequency of remeshing. In terms of the spatial resolution, we separately test increasing the wing-mesh refinement in the normal and tangential directions and changing the way node connectivities are handled at the wingtips. The computational analysis also includes using different combinations of wing configurations for the MAV and investigating the beneficial and disruptive interactions between the wings and the role of wing camber and twist.

Takizawa, Kenji; Kostov, Nikolay; Puntel, Anthony; Henicke, Bradley; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

2012-12-01

234

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images  

PubMed Central

The use of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed site-specific weed control treatments in early post-emergence, which have not possible previously with conventional airborne or satellite images. A robust and entirely automatic object-based image analysis (OBIA) procedure was developed on a series of UAV images using a six-band multispectral camera (visible and near-infrared range) with the ultimate objective of generating a weed map in an experimental maize field in Spain. The OBIA procedure combines several contextual, hierarchical and object-based features and consists of three consecutive phases: 1) classification of crop rows by application of a dynamic and auto-adaptive classification approach, 2) discrimination of crops and weeds on the basis of their relative positions with reference to the crop rows, and 3) generation of a weed infestation map in a grid structure. The estimation of weed coverage from the image analysis yielded satisfactory results. The relationship of estimated versus observed weed densities had a coefficient of determination of r2=0.89 and a root mean square error of 0.02. A map of three categories of weed coverage was produced with 86% of overall accuracy. In the experimental field, the area free of weeds was 23%, and the area with low weed coverage (<5% weeds) was 47%, which indicated a high potential for reducing herbicide application or other weed operations. The OBIA procedure computes multiple data and statistics derived from the classification outputs, which permits calculation of herbicide requirements and estimation of the overall cost of weed management operations in advance.

Pena, Jose Manuel; Torres-Sanchez, Jorge; de Castro, Ana Isabel; Kelly, Maggi; Lopez-Granados, Francisca

2013-01-01

235

Current and Near-Term RLV\\/Hypersonic Vehicle Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This lecture provides a comprehensive review of current and near-term national and international programs aimed at developing hypersonic flight demonstration vehicles. The paper first explores the motivation for hypersonic vehicle development and potential military and civilian applications for such systems. This provides a proper framework for the discussion of various demonstration programs, which are organized according to national affiliation.

Peter J. Erbland

236

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an Aerial Spray Program for Gypsy Moth Eradication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Articles We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred out- side the spray

Kay Teschke; Yat Chow; Karen Bartlett; Andrew Ross; Chris van Netten

237

40 CFR 1051.610 - What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles already certified under the motor vehicle program? 1051.610 Section 1051.610...OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.610...

2013-07-01

238

40 CFR 86.448-2006 - What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What provisions apply to vehicles certified under the Recreational-vehicle program? 86.448-2006 Section 86...OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

2013-07-01

239

78 FR 52997 - Connected Vehicle Research Program Public Meeting; Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OF TRANSPORTATION Connected Vehicle Research Program Public Meeting...of Transportation (USDOT) Intelligent Transportation System Joint...overview of the ITS JPO Connected Vehicle research program. The meeting...details about the Connected Vehicle research program in...

2013-08-27

240

Roughness Estimation from Point Clouds - A Comparison of Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Image Matching by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Acquisitions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and matching of images acquired by unmanned arial vehicles (UAV) are operationally used for 3D geodata acquisition in Geoscience applications. However, the two systems cover different application domains in terms of acquisition conditions and data properties i.e. accuracy and line of sight. In this study we investigate the major differences between the two platforms for terrain roughness estimation. Terrain roughness is an important input for various applications such as morphometry studies, geomorphologic mapping, and natural process modeling (e.g. rockfall, avalanche, and hydraulic modeling). Data has been collected simultaneously by TLS using an Optech ILRIS3D and a rotary UAV using an octocopter from twins.nrn for a 900 m² test site located in a riverbed in Tyrol, Austria (Judenbach, Mieming). The TLS point cloud has been acquired from three scan positions. These have been registered using iterative closest point algorithm and a target-based referencing approach. For registration geometric targets (spheres) with a diameter of 20 cm were used. These targets were measured with dGPS for absolute georeferencing. The TLS point cloud has an average point density of 19,000 pts/m², which represents a point spacing of about 5 mm. 15 images where acquired by UAV in a height of 20 m using a calibrated camera with focal length of 18.3 mm. A 3D point cloud containing RGB attributes was derived using APERO/MICMAC software, by a direct georeferencing approach based on the aircraft IMU data. The point cloud is finally co-registered with the TLS data to guarantee an optimal preparation in order to perform the analysis. The UAV point cloud has an average point density of 17,500 pts/m², which represents a point spacing of 7.5 mm. After registration and georeferencing the level of detail of roughness representation in both point clouds have been compared considering elevation differences, roughness and representation of different grain sizes. UAV closes the gap between aerial and terrestrial surveys in terms of resolution and acquisition flexibility. This is also true for the data accuracy. Considering these data collection and data quality properties of both systems they have their merit on its own in terms of scale, data quality, data collection speed and application.

Rutzinger, Martin; Bremer, Magnus; Ragg, Hansjörg

2013-04-01

241

Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program  

SciTech Connect

K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State's Site Operator Program continues to get the word-out'' about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State's G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states's program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State's program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-01-01

242

United States orbital transfer vehicle programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five U.S. orbital transfer vehicles carrying spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various expandable launch vehicles are studied. These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the U.S. Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval, and return to a space base. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are mature vehicles currently available for mission support. Characteristics, flight records, and costs are defined. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

Gunn, Charles R.

1989-10-01

243

Hydrogen-Enhanced Natural Gas Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of HCNG fuel (30 to 50% hydrogen by volume and the remainder natural gas) to reduce emissions from light-duty on-road vehicles with no loss in performance or efficiency. The City of Las Vegas has an interest in alternative fuels and already has an existing hydrogen refueling station. Collier Technologies Inc (CT) supplied the latest design retrofit kits capable of converting nine compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled, light-duty vehicles powered by the Ford 5.4L Triton engine. CT installed the kits on the first two vehicles in Las Vegas, trained personnel at the City of Las Vegas (the City) to perform the additional seven retrofits, and developed materials for allowing other entities to perform these retrofits as well. These vehicles were used in normal service by the City while driver impressions, reliability, fuel efficiency and emissions were documented for a minimum of one year after conversion. This project has shown the efficacy of operating vehicles originally designed to operate on compressed natural gas with HCNG fuel incorporating large quantities of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). There were no safety issues experienced with these vehicles. The only maintenance issue in the project was some rough idling due to problems with the EGR valve and piping parts. Once the rough idling was corrected no further maintenance issues with these vehicles were experienced. Fuel economy data showed no significant changes after conversion even with the added power provided by the superchargers that were part of the conversions. Driver feedback for the conversions was very favorable. The additional power provided by the HCNG vehicles was greatly appreciated, especially in traffic. The drivability of the HCNG vehicles was considered to be superior by the drivers. Most of the converted vehicles showed zero oxides of nitrogen throughout the life of the project using the State of Nevada emissions station.

Hyde, Dan; Collier, Kirk

2009-01-22

244

Aerial imagery terrain classification for long-range autonomous navigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the problem of terrain classification from aerial imagery with the intention to increase unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) road and off-road performance by providing means to analyze data from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).

Robert Hudjakov; Mart Tamre

2009-01-01

245

Inherently Low Emission Airport Vehicle Pilot Program. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) final report for the Inherently Low Emissions Airport Vehicle Pilot Program (ILEAV). The report describes the current level of ILEAV project activity based on information provided by participating airport ...

2006-01-01

246

Arizona Intelligent Vehicle Research Program Phase One: 1997 -2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Phase One report documents a three-year research program by the Arizona Transportation Research Center to study possible practical applications of vehicle and infrastructure-based technologies. The project has reviewed, evaluated and demonstrated Int...

S. R. Owen

2001-01-01

247

Arizona Intelligent Vehicle Research Program: Phase Three: 2002-2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes Phase Three of a long-term Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) research program by the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) to study cooperative vehicle and infrastructure-based guidance technologies. ADOT's Arizona Tran...

S. R. Owen

2004-01-01

248

Navy Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Omni-Directional Vehicle (ODV) development program sponsored by the Office of Naval Research at the Coastal Systems Station has investigated the application of ODV technology for use in the Navy shipboard environment. ODV technology as originally received by the Navy in the form of the Cadillac-Gage Side Mover Vehicle was applicable to the shipboard environment with the potential to overcome conditions of reduced traction, ship motion, decks heeled at high angles, obstacles, and confined spaces. Under the Navy program, ODV technology was investigated and a series of experimental vehicles were built and successfully tested under extremely demanding conditions. The ODV drive system has been found to be applicable to autonomous, remotely, or manually operated vehicles. Potential commercial applications include multi-directional forklift trucks, automatic guided vehicles employed in manufacturing environments, and remotely controlled platforms used in nuclear facilities or for hazardous waste clean up tasks.

McGowen, Hillery

1994-02-01

249

41 CFR 101-26.501-9 - Centralized motor vehicle leasing program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2007-07-01 true Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. 101-26...101-26.501-9 Centralized motor vehicle leasing program. GSA has...provide an additional source of motor vehicle support to all...

2011-07-01

250

Laboratory Survivorship of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails ('Physella integra') from Illinois. Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many aquatic snails occupy ephemeral habitats that are occasionally subjected to severe environmental conditions. To investigate the physiological capacity of these animals to resist environmental changes, the authors aerially exposed aquatic pond snails ...

J. K. Tucker F. J. Janzen G. L. Paukstis

1997-01-01

251

Electric vehicle/photovoltaic test and evaluation program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The University of South Florida (USF) in collaboration with Florida utilities and other organizations have executed a research and development program for the test and evaluation of Electric Vehicles. Its activity as one of 13 US Department of Energy (DOE) Electric Vehicle Test Site Operators was funded by DOE and the Florida Energy Office (FEO). The purpose of this program was to determine the efficiency of electric vehicles under commuter and fleet conditions in Florida. An additional feature of this program was the development of a utility interconnected photovoltaic (PV) system for charging electric vehicles with solar energy. USF developed an effective and economical automated on board Mobile Data Acquisition System (MDAS) that records vehicle operating data with minimum operator interface. Computer programs were written by the USF team to achieve processing and analysis of the vehicles` MDAS data, again minimizing human involvement, human effort and human error. A large number of passenger cars, vans and pickup trucks were studied. Procedures for monitoring them were developed to a point where the equipment is commercially available and its operation has become routine. The nations first PV solar powered electric vehicle charging station and test facility was designed, developed and put into operation under this program. The charging station is capable of direct DC-DC (PV to battery) or AC-DC (power grid to battery) charging and it routes unused PV power to the University`s power grid for other use. The DC-DC charging system is more efficient, more dependable and safer than DC-AC-DC and traditional methods of DC-DC charging. A fortuitous correlation was observed between battery charging demand and solar power availability in commuter application of electric vehicles.

NONE

1997-06-01

252

Freedom car and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2007 benefits analysis, methodology and results -- final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs,

M. SIngh

2008-01-01

253

Environmental compliance for new launch vehicle and payload programs  

SciTech Connect

Environmental compliance for launch vehicle and payload programs begins with an analysis of potential environmental impacts in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The process involves consultation with Federal, State, and County agencies. An Environmental Assessment, Environmental Impact Statement, public hearings, and various environmental permits may be needed to support the program. Lack of proper environmental considerations could result in an injunction, temporary restraining order, or criminal penalties. The environmental impact analysis process is discussed for launch vehicle and payload programs managed by the Air Force Space Systems Division. 29 refs.

Lillie, T.H. (USAF, Space Systems Div., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1992-03-01

254

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program: Progress and Highlights  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program was begun in 1997 to support the enabling materials needs of the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT). The technical agenda for the program grew out of the technology roadmap for the OHVT and includes efforts in materials for: fuel systems, exhaust aftertreatment, valve train, air handling, structural components, electrochemical propulsion, natural gas storage, and thermal management. A five-year program plan was written in early 2000, following a stakeholders workshop. The technical issues and planned and ongoing projects are discussed. Brief summaries of several technical highlights are given.

D. Ray Johnson; Sidney Diamond

2000-06-19

255

Graduated Drivers License Programs and Rural Teenage Motor Vehicle Fatalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Context: Graduated drivers license (GDL) programs have been shown to reduce motor vehicle fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds. However, the 20 most rural states have been the least likely to enact more stringent GDL policies. Purpose: Estimate the relationship of GDL programs and the number of traffic fatalities among 15- to 17-year-olds on…

Morrisey, Michael A.; Grabowski, David C.

2006-01-01

256

Solving Vehicle Routing Problems using Constraint Programming and Metaheuristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraint Programming typically uses the technique of depth-first branch and bound as the method of solving optimisation problems. Although this method can give the optimal solution, for large problems, the time needed to find the optimal can be prohibitive. This paper introduces a method for using iterative improvement techniques within a Constraint Programming framework, and applies this technique to vehicle

257

Vehicle Dynamics Programs for Roadway and Roadside Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of this project was to select among existing vehicle dynamics simulation programs and link them through a common database to commercial roadway CAD programs. The existing TruckSim and AutoSim technologies were selected and extended for ...

M. W. Sayers

1999-01-01

258

Development of a biologically inspired multi-modal wing model for aerial-aquatic robotic vehicles through empirical and numerical modelling of the common guillemot, Uria aalge.  

PubMed

The common guillemot, Uria aalge, a member of the auk family of seabirds, exhibits locomotive capabilities in both aerial and aquatic substrates. Simplistic forms of this ability have yet to be achieved by robotic vehicle designs and offer significant potential as inspiration for future concept designs. In this investigation, we initially investigate the power requirements of the guillemot associated with different modes of locomotion, empirically determining the saving associated with the retraction of the wing during aquatic operations. A numerical model of a morphing wing is then created to allow power requirements to be determined for different wing orientations, taking into account the complex kinematic and inertial dynamics associated with the motion. Validation of the numerical model is achieved by comparisons with the actual behaviour of the guillemot, which is done by considering specific mission tasks, where by the optimal solutions are found utilizing an evolutionary algorithm, which are found to be in close agreement with the biological case. PMID:21057174

Lock, Richard J; Vaidyanathan, Ravi; Burgess, Stuart C; Loveless, John

2010-11-08

259

Aerial Physics: Aerial Skiing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. Through several simulations and demonstrations, students in this particular lesson will explore a variety of concepts involved with aerial skiing including angular momentum, torque, and friction.

2010-01-01

260

Heavy vehicle hybrid propulsion systems R and D program plan, FY 2000-2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the program plan and background information for the Heavy Vehicle Hybrid Propulsion R and D Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The program is a collaboration between industry and gove...

2000-01-01

261

Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-08-01

262

Implementation of Autonomous Navigation and Mapping using a Laser Line Scanner on a Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this thesis is to investigate greater levels of autonomy in unmanned vehicles. This is accomplished by reviewing past literature about the developing of components of software architecture that are necessary for unmanned systems to achiev...

M. B. Ardhaoui

2011-01-01

263

Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program, Phase 1. Appendix D: Sensitivity Analysis Resport.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametric analyses, using a hybrid vehicle synthesis and economics program (HYVELD) are described investigating the sensitivity of hybrid vehicle cost, fuel usage, utility, and marketability to changes in travel statistics, energy costs, vehicle lifetime...

1979-01-01

264

10 CFR 611.202 - Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility Award... ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...Funding Awards § 611.202 Advanced Technology Vehicle Manufacturing Facility...

2013-01-01

265

Kansas State University Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

During the past fifteen years Kansas State's faculty has been involved in research of alternative fuel vehicles. From formulation of fuels and automotive fuel storage to development of electronic controls, K-State's faculty research has been ongoing. With the increased awareness of what is occurring to the world's environment, the catalyst -- to ensure applied results from faculty research will occur -- has been activated. The Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program is the platform being used to demonstrate international efforts to bring a more acceptable daily mode of transportation to our highways. The first new electrical vehicle procured at K-State in the last ten years, a G-Van, is a technological dinosaur. It does not incorporate leading edge control or drive systems nor does it provide the type of vehicle frame and body to meet a majority of the daily commuter needs required by the American market. Yet, this vehicle represents initial efforts to bring a federally crash certified vehicle to the commercial automotive market. As such, it is an evolutionary step in the mass production of electric vehicle products.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-01-01

266

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operation Program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program has evolved substantially since its inception in response to the Electric Vehicle Research and Demonstration Act of 1976. In its original form, a commercialization effort was intended but this was not feasible for lack of vehicle suppliers and infrastructure. Nonetheless, with DOE sponsorship and technical participation, a few results (primarily operating experience and data) were forthcoming. The current Program comprises eleven sites and over 200 vehicles, of which about 50 are latest generation vehicles. DOE partially funds the Program participant expenditures and the INEL receives operating and maintenance data for the DOE-owned, and participant-owned or monitored vehicles, as well as Program reports. As noted elsewhere in this report, participants represent several widely differing categories: electric utilities, academic institutions, and federal agencies. While both the utilities and the academic institutions tend to establish beneficial relationships with the industrial community.

Francfort, J.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S. [and others

1995-12-01

267

Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP). Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

The Modular Electric Vehicle Program (MEVP) was an EV propulsion system development program in which the technical effort was contracted by DOE to Ford Motor Company. The General Electric Company was a major subcontractor to Ford for the development of the electric subsystem. Sundstrand Power Systems was also a subcontractor to Ford, providing a modified gas turbine engine APU for emissions and performance testing as well as a preliminary design and producibility study for a Gas Turbine-APU for potential use in hybrid/electric vehicles. The four-year research and development effort was cost-shared between Ford, General Electric, Sundstrand Power Systems and DOE. The contract was awarded in response to Ford`s unsolicited proposal. The program objective was to bring electric vehicle propulsion system technology closer to commercialization by developing subsystem components which can be produced from a common design and accommodate a wide range of vehicles; i.e., modularize the components. This concept would enable industry to introduce electric vehicles into the marketplace sooner than would be accomplished via traditional designs in that the economies of mass production could be realized across a spectrum of product offerings. This would eliminate the need to dedicate the design and capital investment to a limited volume product offering which would increase consumer cost and/or lengthen the time required to realize a return on the investment.

NONE

1994-03-01

268

Optimal control of an Aerial Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design procedure of a proposed optimal controller for an aerial robot or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is studied to perform a specific manoeuvre. The manoeuvre is defined as speeding on the runway, taking off, cruising, turning back to the airport, landing and braking on the runway. Then, a realistic dynamic model for this vehicle is presented

Payam Zarafshan; S. Bamdad Moosavian; S. A. A. Moosavian; M. Bahrami

2008-01-01

269

Vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program : FY 2008 benefits analysis, methodology and results --- final report.  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the approach to estimating the benefits and analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Vehicle Technologies (VT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identifying technology goals associated with the DOE EERE programs, (3) Estimating the market potential of technologies that improve fuel efficiency and/or use alternative fuels, and (4) Determining the petroleum and greenhouse gas emissions reductions associated with the advanced technologies. In FY 08 the Heavy Vehicles program continued its involvement with various sources of energy loss as compared to focusing more narrowly on engine efficiency and alternative fuels. These changes are the result of a planning effort that first occurred during FY 04 and was updated in the past year. (Ref. 1) This narrative describes characteristics of the heavy truck market as they relate to the analysis, a description of the analysis methodology (including a discussion of the models used to estimate market potential and benefits), and a presentation of the benefits estimated as a result of the adoption of the advanced technologies. The market penetrations are used as part of the EERE-wide integrated analysis to provide final benefit estimates reported in the FY08 Budget Request. The energy savings models are utilized by the VT program for internal project management purposes.

Singh, M.; Energy Systems; TA Engineering

2008-02-29

270

FreedomCAR and vehicle technologies heavy vehicle program FY 2006. Benefits analysis : methodology and results - final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the approach to estimating benefits and the analysis results for the Heavy Vehicle Technologies activities of the Freedom Car and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) Program of EERE. The scope of the effort includes: (1) Characterizing baseline and advanced technology vehicles for Class 3-6 and Class 7 and 8 trucks, (2) Identification of technology goals associated with the DOE

M. Singh

2006-01-01

271

Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV)-2 program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The STRV-2 program is the second in a series of three collaborative flight test programs between the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and the United Kingdom (UK) Minstry of Defence (MoD). The STRV-2 Experiment Module contains five major experiments to provide proof-of-concept data on system design, data on the mid-earth orbit (MEO) space environment, and data on durability of

James Shoemaker; Paul Brooks; Eric J. Korevaar; Graham S. Arnold; Alok Das; John Stubstad; R. G. Hay

2000-01-01

272

Electric vehicles: Likely consequences of US and other nations` programs and policies  

SciTech Connect

This report examines international electric vehicle development and commercialization programs. The study encompassed a review of current barriers to widespread electric vehicle implementation, field visits in seven nations and the United States to examine electric vehicle programs and policies, and analyses of electric vehicle effects on economics, energy, and the environment.

Chan, Kwai-Cheung

1994-12-30

273

Operational Planning and Programming of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future military autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) will perform multiple missions, handle many contingencies, and require broad domain knowledge. The intelligence of these multi-miasion AUVs will require complex mission-contingent software. As a result, programming an AUV for a mission promises to be an increasingly formidable task, even as it increasingly needs to be performed in the field by operational personnel, not

Andrew Kramer; David Toms; Robert Schrag; D. Johnson

1989-01-01

274

Control of a Remotely Operated Quadrotor Aerial Vehicle and Camera Unit Using a Fly-The-Camera Perspective.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a mission-centric approach to controlling the optical axis of a video camera mounted on a camera manipulator and fixed to a quadrotor remotely operated vehicle. The approach considers that for video collection tasks a single operator s...

D. Lee V. Chitrakaran T. Burg D. Dawson B. Xian

2007-01-01

275

Towed-body trajectory tracking in aerial recovery of micro air vehicle in the presence of wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for recovering Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) in flight using a mothership and towed drogue, in which the mothership executes an orbit that places the drogue in a stable, slower orbit that can be tracked by a MAV. This paper is particularly challenging in the presence of wind. The equations of motion of the cable using

Liang Sun; Randal W. Beard

2011-01-01

276

Measurement of Air Traffic Control Situational Awareness Enhancement Through Radar Support Toward Operating Envelope Expansion of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current airspace restrictions in Kabul limit the potential capability of the tactical unmanned air vehicle (TUAV) within the area of operations of the Kabul multinational brigade. An experiment was conducted using the OneSAF Testbed Baseline and a range of virtual simulations to examine the impact of five different radar options and three different information displays on the level of airspace

James S. Denford; John A. Steele; Roger L. Roy; Eugenia Kalantzis

2004-01-01

277

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dynamic-Tracking Directional Wireless Antennas for Low Powered Applications that Require Reliable Extended Range Operations in Time Critical Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

The proven value of DOD Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will ultimately transition to National and Homeland Security missions that require real-time aerial surveillance, situation awareness, force protection, and sensor placement. Public services first responders who routinely risk personal safety to assess and report a situation for emergency actions will likely be the first to benefit from these new unmanned technologies. ‘Packable’ or ‘Portable’ small class UAVs will be particularly useful to the first responder. They require the least amount of training, no fixed infrastructure, and are capable of being launched and recovered from the point of emergency. All UAVs require wireless communication technologies for real- time applications. Typically on a small UAV, a low bandwidth telemetry link is required for command and control (C2), and systems health monitoring. If the UAV is equipped with a real-time Electro-Optical or Infrared (EO/Ir) video camera payload, a dedicated high bandwidth analog/digital link is usually required for reliable high-resolution imagery. In most cases, both the wireless telemetry and real-time video links will be integrated into the UAV with unity gain omni-directional antennas. With limited on-board power and payload capacity, a small UAV will be limited with the amount of radio-frequency (RF) energy it transmits to the users. Therefore, ‘packable’ and ‘portable’ UAVs will have limited useful operational ranges for first responders. This paper will discuss the limitations of small UAV wireless communications. The discussion will present an approach of utilizing a dynamic ground based real-time tracking high gain directional antenna to provide extend range stand-off operation, potential RF channel reuse, and assured telemetry and data communications from low-powered UAV deployed wireless assets.

Scott G. Bauer; Matthew O. Anderson; James R. Hanneman

2005-10-01

278

Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV)-2 program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The STRV-2 program is the second in a series of three collaborative flight test programs between the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and the United Kingdom (UK) Minstry of Defence (MoD). The STRV-2 Experiment Module contains five major experiments to provide proof-of-concept data on system design, data on the mid-earth orbit (MEO) space environment, and data on durability of materials and components operating in the MEO environment. The UK Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (DERA) has provided a mid- wavelength infrared (MWIF) imager to evaluate passive detection of aircraft from space. BMDO, in conjunction with the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), have provided experiments to evaluate use of adaptive structures for vibration suppression, to investigate the use of high bandwidth laser communications to transmit data from space to ground or airborne receivers, to study the durability of materials and components in the MEO space environment, and to measure radiation and micrometeoroid/debris fluence. These experiments are mounted on all- composite structure. This structure provides a significant reduction in weight and cost over comparable aluminum designs while maintaining the high stiffness required by optical payloads. In 1994, STRV-2 was manifested for launch by the DOD Space Test Program. STRV-2, the primary payload on the Tri-Service eXperiment (TSX)-5 spacecraft, was successfully launched on 7 June 2000 on a Pegasus XL from Vandenbery AFB, CA. The STRV-2 program, like the companion STRV-1 program, validates the viability of multi-national, multi-agency collaborations to provide cost effective acquisition of space test data. The experimental data to be obtained will reduce future satellite risk and provide guidelines for further system development.

Shoemaker, James; Brooks, Paul; Korevaar, Eric J.; Arnold, Graham S.; Das, Alok; Stubstad, John; Hay, R. G.

2000-11-01

279

Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

2001-07-01

280

Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

2001-07-02

281

Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program site operator program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), a municipal utility serving the citizens of Los Angeles, marked its tenth year of involvement in testing and promoting electric vehicles as part of Los Angeles' overall air quality improvement program...

1998-01-01

282

Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Piloting System with Integrated Motion Cueing for Training and Pilot Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

UAV accidents have been steadily rising as demand and use of these vehicles increases. A critical examination of UAV accidents\\u000a reveals that human error is a major cause. Advanced autonomous systems capable of eliminating the need for human piloting\\u000a are still many years from implementation. There are also many potential applications of UAVs in near Earth environments that\\u000a would require

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

283

Development of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Piloting System with Integrated Motion Cueing for Training and Pilot Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

UAV accidents have been steadily rising as demand and use of these vehicles increases. A critical examination of UAV accidents\\u000a reveals that human error is a major cause. Advanced autonomous systems capable of eliminating the need for human piloting\\u000a are still many years from implementation. There are also many potential applications of UAVs in near Earth environments that\\u000a would require

James T. Hing; Paul Y. Oh

2009-01-01

284

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles City Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

285

Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program, Phase 1. Appendix B: Design Trade-off Studies Report. Volume 3: Computer Program Listings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description and listing is presented of two computer programs: Hybrid Vehicle Design Program (HYVELD) and Hybrid Vehicle Simulation Program (HYVEC). Both of the programs are modifications and extensions of similar programs developed as part of the Elect...

1979-01-01

286

UAVs in climate research: The ARM Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

In the last year, a Department of Energy/Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project known as ``ARM-UAV`` has made important progress in developing and demonstrating the utility of unmanned aerospace vehicles as platforms for scientific measurements. Recent accomplishments include a series of flights using an atmospheric research payload carried by a General Atomics Gnat UAV at Edwards AFB, California, and over ground instruments located in north-central Oklahoma. The reminder of this discussion will provide background on the program and describe the recent flights.

Bolton, W.R.

1994-05-01

287

Aerial Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into aerial imagery. Learners will use the internet to gather free aerial imagery of nearby points of interest (or use laminated images prepped by educator). Then, they will imagine they are traveling in a spaceship to visit Earth for the first time and explore how their view changes as they approach Earthâs surface. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

288

Aerial Shepherds: Coordination among UAVs and Swarms of Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of deploying groups of tens or hundreds of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) in urban environments where a group of aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to coordinate the ground vehicles. We envision a hi- erarchy in which UAVs with aerial cameras can be used to monitor and command a swarm of UGVs, controlling the splitting and

Luiz Chaimowicz; Vijay Kumar

2004-01-01

289

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition...EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Compliance Provisions § 1051.605...engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...

2013-07-01

290

Hanford emergency aerial monitoring capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Department of Energy's Emergency Readiness Program at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State includes emergency aerial monitoring capabilities. These capabilities were developed to enable environmental monitoring technicians to rapidly asses the initial size and location of a radioactive plume if a significant amount of radioactive material is released. This article descries the elements of the aerial monitoring

W. Herrington; J. B. Martin; G. F. Martin

1990-01-01

291

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? 1051.605 Section...vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? (a) General provisions...the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR...

2009-07-01

292

40 CFR 1051.605 - What provisions apply to engines already certified under the motor vehicle program or the Large...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...motor vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? 1051.605 Section...vehicle program or the Large Spark-ignition program? (a) General provisions...the requirements that apply to spark-ignition engines under 40 CFR...

2010-07-01

293

Keeping America's RVs on the Road: How the Recreation Vehicle Industry Created a National Training Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The National Recreational Vehicle Technical Institute offers a 35-credit-hour service technician training program at 12 national sites. Recreational vehicle manufacturers, suppliers, and dealers donate equipment and advise schools on course development. (SK)|

Reiber, William B.

1992-01-01

294

Vision based controller for autonomous aerial refueling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous aerial refueling is an important capability for unmanned aerial vehicles. This paper develops a candidate autonomous probe-and-drogue aerial refueling controller for an existing vision based relative position sensor and navigation system. The feasibility of the combined sensor-navigator-controller is demonstrated by a simulated UAV docking maneuver to a moving drogue in light turbulence. Results indicate that the controller can provide

Jennifer Kimmett; John Valasek; John L. Junkins

2002-01-01

295

Object tracking and classification in aerial videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the intelligence community, aerial video has become one of the fastest growing data sources and it has been extensively used in intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, tactical and security applications. This paper presents a tracking approach to detect moving vehicles and person in such videos taken from aerial platform. In our approach, we combine the layer segmentation approach with background stabilization

Jiangjian Xiao; Hui Cheng; Han Feng; Changjiang Yang

2008-01-01

296

Overview of Sandia`s Electric Vehicle Battery Program  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is actively involved several projects which are part of an overall Electric Vehicle Battery Program. Part of this effort is funded by the United States Department of Energy/Office of Transportation Technologies (DOE/OTT) and the remainder is funded through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC). DOE/OTT supported activities include research and development of zinc/air and sodium/sulfur battery technologies as well as double layer capacitor (DLC) R&D. Projects in the USABC funded work include lithium/polymer electrolyte (LPE) R&D, sodium/sulfur activities and battery test and evaluation.

Clark, R.P.

1993-12-31

297

DOE/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

SciTech Connect

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV), and transit buses that have a fuel usage greater than 10,000 gallons per year and driving range of more than 300 miles. The key in making LNG market-competitive with all types of diesel fuels is in improving energy efficiency and reducing costs of LNG technologies through systems integration. This paper integrates together the three LNG technologies of: (1) production from landfills and remote well sites; (2) cryogenic fuel delivery systems; and (3) state-of-the-art storage tank and refueling facilities, with market end-use strategies. The program's goal is to develop these technologies and strategies under a ''green'' and ''clean'' strategy. This ''green'' approach reduces the net contribution of global warming gases by reducing levels of methane and carbon dioxide released by heavy vehicles usage to below recoverable amounts of natural gas from landfills and other natural resources. Clean technology refers to efficient use of energy with low environmental emissions. The objective of the program is to promote fuel competition by having LNG priced between $0.40 - $0.50 per gallon with a combined production, fuel delivery and engine systems efficiency approaching 45%. This can make LNG a viable alternative to diesel.

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-08-11

298

40 CFR 86.1817-05 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program...EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General...Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and...

2013-07-01

299

40 CFR 80.500 - What are the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control program...REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive...the implementation dates for the motor vehicle diesel fuel sulfur control...

2013-07-01

300

Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

Deal, Walter F., III

2005-01-01

301

Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

Deal, Walter F., III

2005-01-01

302

Object tracking and classification in aerial videos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the intelligence community, aerial video has become one of the fastest growing data sources and it has been extensively used in intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, tactical and security applications. This paper presents a tracking approach to detect moving vehicles and person in such videos taken from aerial platform. In our approach, we combine the layer segmentation approach with background stabilization and post-tracking refinement to reliably detect small moving objects at the relatively low processing speed. For each individual moving object, a corresponding layer is created to maintain an independent appearance and motion model during the tracking process. After the online tracking process, we apply a post-tracking refinement process to link the track fragments into a long consistent track ID to further reduce false alarm and increase detection rate. Furthermore, a vehicle and person classifier is also integrated into the approach to identify the moving object categories. The classifier is based on image histogram of gradient (HOG), which is more reliable to illumination variation or camera automatic gain change. Finally, we report the results of our algorithms on a large scale of EO and IR data set collected from VIVID program, and the results show that our approach achieved a good and stable tracking performance on the data set that is more than eight hours.

Xiao, Jiangjian; Cheng, Hui; Feng, Han; Yang, Changjiang

2008-05-01

303

NCS EMP (National Communications System Electromagnetic Pulse) mitigation program: Aerial TI System test plan. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This program mitigates the damaging effects of nuclear weapons on regional and national telecommunications capabilities. To meet this objective, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to create a network level model to assess the effects of High-Altitude EMP (HEMP). In addition, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to collect the level HEMP effects to data required to support the network-level model. The products of this model will assist the NCS in identifying potential vulnerabilities of national telecommunications capabilities to HEMP and to support National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) initiatives.

Not Available

1986-08-01

304

Multiyear Program Plan: Reducing Friction and Wear in Heavy Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

As described in its multiyear program plan for 1998-2000, the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) envisions the development of a fuel-flexible, energy-efficient, near-zero-emissions, heavy-duty U.S. diesel engine technology devolving into all truck classes as a real and viable strategy for reducing energy requirements for commercial transport services and the rapidly growing multipurpose vehicle market (pickups, vans, and sport utility vehicles). Implementation of the OHVT program plan will have significant national benefits in energy savings, cleaner air, more jobs, and increased gross domestic product (GDP). Successful implementation will reduce the petroleum consumption of Class 1-8 trucks by 1.4 million barrels of oil per day by 2020 and over 1.8 million by 2030, amounting to a reduction in highway petroleum consumption of 13.2% and 18.6%, respectively. All types of regulated emissions will be reduced, that is, 20% drop in PM10 emissions (41,000 metric tons per year) by 203 0, 17% reduction in CO2 greenhouse gases (205 million metric tons per year), 7% reduction in NOx, 20% reduction in NMHC, and 30% reduction in CO. An increase of 15,000 jobs by 2020 is expected, as is an increase of $24 billion in GDP. The strategy of OHVT is to focus primarily on the diesel engine since it has numerous advantages. It has the highest efficiency of any engine today, 45% versus 30% for production gasoline engines; and it can be made more efficient at least to 55% and possibly up to 63%. It is the engine of choice for heavy vehicles (trucks), because it offers power, efficiency, durability, and reliability and is used extensively in rail, marine, and off-road applications. Its emission can be ultra-low to near zero, and the production infrastructure is already in place. The primary goals of OHVT are as follows: (1) Develop by 2002 the diesel-engine enabling technologies to support large-scale industry dieselization of light trucks, achieving a 35% fuel efficiency improvement over equivalent gasoline-fueled trucks. (2) Develop by 2004 the enabling technology for a Class 7-8 truck with a fuel efficiency of 10 mpg (at 65 mph) that will meet prevailing emission standards, using either diesel or a liquid alternative fuel. (3) Develop by 2006 diesel engines with fuel flexibility and a thermal efficiency of 55% with liquid alternative fuels, and a thermal efficiency of 55% with dedicated gaseous fuels. (4) Develop a methodology for analyzing and evaluating the operation of a heavy vehicle as an integrated system, considering such factors as engine efficiency; emissions; rolling resistance; aerodynamic drag; friction, wear, and lubrication effects; auxiliary power units; material substitutions for reducing weight; and other sources of parasitic energy losses. Overarching these considerations is the need to preserve system functionality, cost, competitiveness, reliability, durability, and safety.

R.R. Fessler; G.R. Fenske

1999-12-13

305

Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ''Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program''. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the stat...

1993-01-01

306

Spatial and temporal distribution of airborne Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki during an aerial spray program for gypsy moth eradication.  

PubMed

We measured airborne exposures to the biological insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) during an aerial spray program to eradicate gypsy moths on the west coast of Canada. We aimed to determine whether staying indoors during spraying reduced exposures, to determine the rate of temporal decay of airborne concentrations, and to determine whether drift occurred outside the spray zone. During spraying, the average culturable airborne Btk concentration measured outdoors within the spray zone was 739 colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 of air. Outdoor air concentrations decreased over time, quickly in an initial phase with a half time of 3.3 hr, and then more slowly over the following 9 days, with an overall half-time of about 2.4 days. Inside residences during spraying, average concentrations were initially 2-5 times lower than outdoors, but at 5-6 hr after spraying began, indoor concentrations exceeded those outdoors, with an average of 244 CFU/m3 vs. 77 CFU/m3 outdoors, suggesting that the initial benefits of remaining indoors during spraying may not persist as outside air moves indoors with normal daily activities. There was drift of culturable Btk throughout a 125- to 1,000-meter band outside the spray zone where measurements were made, a consequence of the fine aerosol sizes that remained airborne (count median diameters of 4.3 to 7.2 microm). Btk concentrations outside the spray zone were related to wind speed and direction, but not to distance from the spray zone. PMID:11171524

Teschke, K; Chow, Y; Bartlett, K; Ross, A; van Netten, C

2001-01-01

307

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG&G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A&M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

Warren, J.F.

1992-01-01

308

Heavy vehicle hybrid propulsion systems R and D program plan, FY 2000-2005  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the program plan and background information for the Heavy Vehicle Hybrid Propulsion R and D Program sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies. The program is a collaboration between industry and government established for the development of advanced hybrid-electric propulsion technology for urban cycle trucks and buses. It targets specific applications to enhance potential market success. Potential end-users are also involved.

None

2000-07-01

309

Sodium sulfur electric vehicle battery engineering program final report, September 2, 1986--June 15, 1993  

SciTech Connect

In September 1986 a contract was signed between Chloride Silent Power Limited (CSPL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) entitled ``Sodium Sulfur Electric Vehicle Battery Engineering Program``. The aim of the cost shared program was to advance the state of the art of sodium sulfur batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Initially, the work statement was non-specific in regard to the vehicle to be used as the design and test platform. Under a separate contract with the DOE, Ford Motor Company was designing an advanced electric vehicle drive system. This program, called the ETX II, used a modified Aerostar van for its platform. In 1987, the ETX II vehicle was adopted for the purposes of this contract. This report details the development and testing of a series of battery designs and concepts which led to the testing, in the US, of three substantial battery deliverables.

NONE

1993-06-01

310

Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

2001-12-01

311

Reachability calculations for automated aerial refueling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) reachability calculations for a hybrid systems formalism governing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) interacting with another vehicle in a safety-critical situation. We use this problem to lay the foundations toward the goal of refining or designing protocols for multi-UAV and\\/or manned vehicle interaction. We describe here what mathematical foundations are necessary to formulate verification problems on

Jerry Ding; Jonathan Sprinkle; Shankar S. Sastry; Claire J. Tomlin

2008-01-01

312

DOE\\/BNL Liquid Natural Gas Heavy Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions, increasing economic growth, and reducing the dependency on imported oil, the Department of Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (DOE\\/ BNL) is promoting the substitution of liquefied natural gas (LNG) in heavy-vehicles that are currently being fueled by diesel. Heavy vehicles are defined as Class 7 and 8 trucks (> 118,000 pounds GVVV),

James E. Wegrzyn; Wai-Lin Litzke; Michael Gurevich

1998-01-01

313

Electric vehicle test program: INEL transition qualification test plan  

SciTech Connect

This test plan sets forth the requirements necessary to qualify the test facility and equipment installation at the INEL in order to continue DOE programmatic testing of electric vehicles. Briefly, dynamometer tests will be performed on the Electric Test Vehicle 1-2 (ETV1-2) at constant speeds of 35, 45, and 55 mph and for the schedule D driving cycle.

Heiselmann, H.W.; Knauts, H.E.

1984-11-01

314

Certification and audit of the Intelligent Access Program for the monitoring of heavy vehicles in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intelligent access program (IAP) utilises GPS technology to remotely monitor heavy vehicles against access conditions, providing them with improved access to road network. This paper elaborates three methods in the process of certification and audit for IAP service provider. The quality monitoring station (QMS) is used for testing in-vehicle units (IVUs) in a static environment to determine the positional

Jian Christina Ma; Charles A. Karl; Andriy Dyukov

2009-01-01

315

Evaluation of the Air Force's Alternative Fuel Vehicle Program in Complying with Executive Order 13149.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force must comply with Executive Order (E.O.) 13149, which includes cutting its vehicle fleet's petroleum fuel usage 20 percent by 2005. This thesis examines the Air Force's current alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) program, which is centered around ...

J. D. Ketchum

2001-01-01

316

COOPERATIVE PATH-PLANNING FOR AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES USING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown how to model a cooperative path planning system for multiple autonomous air vehicles within the framework of a stochastic (dynamic programming) decision process. The proposed approach allows the vehicles to cooperate and find near-optimal search paths over a given environment in the presence of uncertainty and constraints on movement and computational power.

Matthew Flint; Marios Polycarpou; Emmanuel Fernandez-Gaucherand

2002-01-01

317

Automated Aerial Refueling Presentation to 2007 ARSAG Conference (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This presentation was prepared for the 2007 Aerial Refueling Systems Advisory Group (ARSAG) conference to update the status of the Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR) program at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The AAR technology suite has application to b...

D. Schreiter J. Hinchman

2007-01-01

318

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a compendium of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Trial Substitute Motor Vehicle Inspection Program conducted in cooperation with twelve states. These states are: California, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, ...

L. E. Eder N. Bleich M. Damiata

1978-01-01

319

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities performed in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) program which studied the technical, economic, and fuel conservation aspects of replacing new 1985 full sized passenger cars in the US with automobiles having combination heat engines and electri...

P. Montalenti R. Piccolo

1979-01-01

320

User's Guide to DIANE: A Microcomputer Program for Modeling Battery Performance in Electric Vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A microcomputer program (DIANE) has been developed to model changing electric-vehicle (EV) performance capability as a function of operating history. The principal objective of this software package is to enable the accurate prediction of EV performance o...

W. W. Marr W. J. Walsh P. C. Symons

1987-01-01

321

Testing of Foreign Prototype Experimental Safety Vehicles-Program. Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document provides an summary of the Foreign Experimental Safety Vehicle Test and Evaluation Program. The report summarizes the testing conducted, presents summaries of the test results and includes references to NTIS documents in which the detailed te...

P. Boulay S. Davis N. Johnson

1975-01-01

322

A Survey of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Simulation Programs. Volume 2: Questionnaire Responses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data received in a survey conducted within the United States to determine the extent of development and capabilities of automotive performance simulation programs suitable for electric and hybrid vehicle studies are presented. The survey was conducted...

J. Bevan D. A. Heimburger M. A. Metcalfe

1978-01-01

323

NHTSA's Research Program for Vehicle Aggressivity and Fleet Compatibility. Paper No. 249.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an overview of NHTSA's vehicle aggressivity and fleet compatibility research activities. This research program is being conducted in close cooperation with the International Harmonized Research Agenda (IHRA) compatibility research grou...

S. M. Summers A. Prasad W. T. Hollowell

2002-01-01

324

Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L.

M. K. Singh; M. J. Bernard; R. F Walsh

1980-01-01

325

Research safety vehicle program (Phase II) specification review. Volume II. Final technical report, Jul 1975--Nov 1976  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Phase I of the Research Safety Vehicle Program (RSV), preliminary design and performance specifications were developed for a mid-1980's vehicle that integrates crashworthiness and occupant safety features with material resource conservation, economy, and producibility. Phase II of the program focused on development of the total vehicle design via systems engineering and integration analyses. As part of this effort, it

1977-01-01

326

Design and Development of South Dakota School of Mines and Technology's Aerial Robotic Reconnaissance System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Team will participate in the 2008 International Aerial Robotics Competition (IARC) with a two vehicle system consisting of an Airstar International Mongoose helicopter and a custom quad-rotor helicopter. The vehicles have been modified to work together and complete stages 1-3 in the 15 minute time limit of stage 4.

Raunaq Bhushan; John Heiberger; Adam Helmers; Brian Jensen; Jacob Oursland; Mason Pluimer; Justin Williamson; Jamie Vickery

327

Bluefin autonomous underwater vehicles: Programs, systems, and acoustic issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bluefin Robotics Corporation has been manufacturing autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) since spinning out of the MIT Sea Grant Laboratory in 1997. Bluefin currently makes three different diameter models of AUVs; the 9, 12, and 21, all based on the same free-flooded architecture and vectored-thrust propulsion design. Auxiliary acoustic systems include acoustic abort, ranging beacons, and acoustic modems. Vehicle navigation is aided by a downward-looking acoustic Doppler velocity logger (DVL). Sonar payloads can include: bottom profiler, side-scan sonar, SAS, forward-looking imagers (DIDSON), as well as horizontal and vertical discrete hydrophone arrays. Acoustic issues that arise include: (1) transmission of sound through the ABS plastic vehicle shell; (2) the impact of vehicle self-noise on data; (3) interoperability of sonars with other acoustic emitters present on and off the vehicle; and (4) the impact of navigation on some acoustic operations like SAS. This talk will illustrate these issues with real data collected on various Bluefin vehicles.

Bondaryk, Joseph E.

2001-05-01

328

Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

Not Available

1980-10-01

329

Costs, benefits and methods of including tire inflation in state vehicle inspection programs. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report presents information to help states include a tire inflation check in their existing and planned emissions, safety and combined safety and emissions inspection programs. It has been estimated that as much as 515 million gallons of gasoline are wasted in the United States each year due to improper tire inflation. Tire inflation if added to a state motor vehicle inspection program would help motorists increase vehicle fuel economy and reduce tire wear as well as improve safety. States adding tire inflation to inspection programs would be able to reduce the effective cost of their programs.

Not Available

1981-09-01

330

Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mechanics (Program CIP: 47.0699--Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Mech.). Secondary Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics I and II. Presented first are a…

Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

331

Current and future US Tier 2 vehicles program and catalytic emission control technologies to meet the future Tier 2 standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tier 2 vehicles program, defining a variety of emission standards, concepts and provisions, of the EPA in the United States\\u000a has been phased in for all light-duty vehicles (LDVs), light-duty trucks (LDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs)\\u000a from model year 2004, and this program will be continued until 2009, depending on the vehicle categories. Ultimately, not\\u000a only should manufacturers

Moon Hyeon Kim

2007-01-01

332

Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-07-01

333

Remote, aerial, opto-acoustic communications and sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A remote, aerial, laser-based sonar and communications concept has been demonstrated to direct laser beams from the air onto the water surface to remotely generate and detect underwater sound. This forms the basis for a portable, aerial sonar and communications system for both detecting underwater objects such as vehicles and mines as well as for bi-directional acoustic communication between an

F. Blackmon; L. Antonelli

2005-01-01

334

Fading countermeasures with cognitive topology management for aerial mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on recent developments in the area of lithium polymer batteries and carbon fiber-reinforced plastic materials Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs) significantly gain in importance. One of the challenges in using third party cellular networks for MUAV utilization lies in the directivity of the widely used antennas, which are usually illuminating the ground area but not the aerial user space.

K. Daniel; S. Rohde; N. Goddemeier; C. Wietfeld

2010-01-01

335

Simulation Environment for Machine Vision Based Aerial Refueling for UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of a simulation environment is described for a machine vision (MV)-based approach for the problem of aerial refueling (AR) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the USAF refueling method. MV-based algorithms are implemented within the proposed scheme to detect the relative position and orientation between the UAV and the tanker. Within this effort, techniques and algorithms for the

GIAMPIERO CAMPA; MARCELLO R. NAPOLITANO; MARIO L. FRAVOLINI

2009-01-01

336

Reconstruction of pedestrian–vehicle accident using sequential linear programming optimizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present an optimization-based method for reconstructing pedestrian–vehicle accident and testing its performance. Using this method, the optimizer should automatically vary boundary conditions of multi-body dynamic simulation to generate the best match between simulation and real accident data. Considering the characteristic of pedestrian–vehicle collision, a corresponding optimization model is designed and sequential linear programming

J Shen; X-L Jin

2007-01-01

337

40 CFR 52.2348 - National Highway Systems Designation Act Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. 52.2348 Section 52.2348...Motor Vehicle Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) Programs. (a) On March 15, 1996 the Governor of Utah submitted a revised I/M program for Utah County which...

2013-07-01

338

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 5. Appendices I-M.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains Appendices I, J, K, L and M to the technical report (Volume I). Each appendix includes all of the test data collected for a particular vehicle that was evaluated in the test program along with photographs, vehicle information sheets, a...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

339

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Heavy Duty Vehicle Brake Research Program Report No. 4 - Stopping Capability of Hydraulically Braked Vehicles. Volume 2. Appendices A-C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The volume contains Appendices A, B and C to the technical report (Volume I). Each appendix includes all of the test data collected for a particular vehicle that was evaluated in the test program along with photographs, vehicle information sheets, and sum...

R. L. Kirkbride R. W. Radlinski

1985-01-01

340

Experimental investigation of optical, remote, aerial sonar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting underwater objects such as debris fields, submarines or mines for littoral area clearance, while in the air, would increase the autonomy and flexibility of subsurface, surface and air vehicles engaged in undersea warfare and could have a variety of commercial and oceanographic applications. Experimental research into a laser-based active sonar concept is being conducted for remote, aerial detection of

Lynn Antonelli; F. Blackmon

2002-01-01

341

Electric and hybrid vehicle program, site operator program quarterly progress report for April through June 1996 (third quarter of fiscal year 1996)  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The goals of the Site Operator Program include the field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments; the advancement of electric vehicle technologies; the development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The Site Operator Program currently consists of eleven participants under contract and two other organizations that have data-sharing agreements with the Program (Table ES-1). Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of electric vehicles, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for electric vehicles; and (2) DOE, the Department of Transportation, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of electric vehicles. The current focus of the Program is the collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real-world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus.

Francfort, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-01-01

342

[Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program]: Thinking of the future  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid vans and two (2) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

Not Available

1993-01-01

343

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

Not Available

1980-10-01

344

Electric and hybrid vehicle site operators program: Thinking of the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation in this program, Kansas State is displaying, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and two electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1993 Ford EVcort station wagons. The G-Van has been signed in order for the public to be aware that this is an electric drive vehicle. Financial participants' names have been stenciled on the back door of the van. This vehicle is available for short term loan to interested utilities and companies. When other vehicles are obtained, the G-Van will be maintained on K-State's campus.

345

Design of an agile unmanned combat vehicle: a product of the DARPA UGCV program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unmanned ground compat vehicle (UGCV) design evolved by the SAIC team on the DARPA UGCV Program is summarized in this paper. This UGCV design provides exceptional performance against all of the program metrics and incorporates key attributes essential for high performance robotic combat vehicles. This performance includes protection against 7.62 mm threats, C130 and CH47 transportability, and the ability to accept several relevant weapons payloads, as well as advanced sensors and perception algorithms evolving from the PerceptOR program. The UGCV design incorporates a combination of technologies and design features, carefully selected through detailed trade studies, which provide optimum performance against mobility, payload, and endurance goals without sacrificing transportability, survivability, or life cycle cost. The design was optimized to maximize performance against all Category I metrics. In each case, the performance of this design was validated with detailed simulations, indicating that the vehicle exceeded the Category I metrics. Mobility metrics were analyzed using high fidelity VisualNastran vehicle models, which incorporate the suspension control algorithms and controller cycle times. DADS/Easy 5 3-D models and ADAMS simulations were also used to validate vehicle dynamics and control algorithms during obstacle negotiation.

Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Walls, Alan; Arkin, Ronald C.; Beno, Joseph H.; Bergh, Chuck; Bresie, Don; Giovannetti, Anthony; Gothard, Benny M.; Matthies, Larry H.; Nogueiro, Porfirio; Scanlon, Jim; Scott, Ron; Simon, Miguel; Smith, Wilford; Waldron, Kenneth J.

2003-09-01

346

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

NONE

1997-03-01

347

An interdisciplinary program for education and outreach in hybrid & Electric Drive Vehicle Engineering at Michigan Technological University  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automotive industry is in a transformation towards powertrain electrification, requiring automotive engineers to develop and integrate technologies from multiple disciplines. Michigan Technological University is rolling out a new program in interdisciplinary master of engineering degree and graduate and undergraduate certificates in Advanced Electric Drive Vehicle Engineering. Distinctively we are focusing our education program at the vehicle level and the

Wayne Weaver; Carl Anderson; Jeffrey Naber; Jason Keith; Jeremy Worm; John Beard; Bo Chen; Steven Hackney

2011-01-01

348

A Vocational Program for Recreational Vehicle Maintenance/Repair. A Report, 1977-78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains a secondary school curriculum guide designed to be used by vocational teachers in a one- or two-year recreational vehicle maintenance/repair program. In the preliminary pages, a description is given of the project that developed the curriculum, outlining its objectives and procedures in formulating the model interdisciplinary…

1978

349

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities performed in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) program which studied the technical, economic, and fuel conservation aspects of replacing new 1985 full sized passenger cars in the US with automobiles having combination heat engines and electric motor power are summarized. These studies included NTHV design for the body power units, transmission system, and controls; evaluation of alternative strategies;

P. Montalenti; R. Piccolo

1979-01-01

350

Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel

R. Motta; P. Norton; K. J. Kelly; K. Chandler

1995-01-01

351

Using Constraint Programming and Local Search Methods to Solve Vehicle Routing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a local search method we term Large Neighbourhood Search (LNS) for solving vehicle routing problems. LNS meshes well with constraint programming technology and is analogous to the shuffling technique of job-shop scheduling. The technique explores a large neighbourhood of the current solution by selecting a number of customer visits to remove from the routing plan, and re-inserting these

Paul Shaw

1998-01-01

352

Model-based Reactive Programming of Cooperative Vehicles for Mars Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future webs of unmanned vehicles will act to- gether to robustly achieve elaborate missions within uncertain environments. This web may be a dis- tributed satellite system forming an interferometer, or may be a heterogenous set of rovers and blimps ex- ploring Mars. We coordinate these systems by intro- ducing a reactive model-based programming language (RMPL) that combines within

Brian C. Williams; Phil Kim; Michael Hofbaur; Jon Kennell; Jason Loy; Robert Ragno; John Stedl; Aisha Walcott

2001-01-01

353

A Vocational Program for Recreational Vehicle Maintenance/Repair. A Report, 1977-78.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains a secondary school curriculum guide designed to be used by vocational teachers in a one- or two-year recreational vehicle maintenance/repair program. In the preliminary pages, a description is given of the project that developed the curriculum, outlining its objectives and procedures in formulating the model interdisciplinary…

1978

354

Effectiveness of health promotion programs to increase motor vehicle occupant restraint use among young children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the effectiveness of nonlegislative community and clinical programs to increase the rate of child motor vehicle occupant restraint use among children under the age of 5 years.Method: This was a systematic review of the world’s published literature. The Cochrane Collaboration protocol was used to conduct the literature search. The following databases were searched for literature on this

David C. Grossman; Cezanne C. Garcia

1999-01-01

355

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)  

SciTech Connect

This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-03-01

356

Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program. Final report, volume 2: Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFVs) in typical applications in New York State. This report, Volume 2, includes 13 appendices to Volume 1 that expand upon issues raised therein. Volume 1 provides: (1) Information about the purpose and scope of the AFV-FDP; (2) A summary of AFV-FDP findings organized on the basis of vehicle type and fuel type; (3) A short review of the status of AFV technology development, including examples of companies in the State that are active in developing AFVs and AFV components; and (4) A brief overview of the status of AFV deployment in the State. Volume 3 provides expanded reporting of AFV-FDP technical details, including the complete texts of the brochure Garage Guidelines for Alternative Fuels and the technical report Fleet Experience Survey Report, plus an extensive glossary of AFV terminology. The appendices cover a wide range of issues including: emissions regulations in New York State; production and health effects of ozone; vehicle emissions and control systems; emissions from heavy-duty engines; reformulated gasoline; greenhouse gases; production and characteristics of alternative fuels; the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the Clean Fuel Fleet Program; garage design guidelines for alternative fuels; surveys of fleet managers using alternative fuels; taxes on conventional and alternative fuels; and zero-emission vehicle technology.

NONE

1997-06-01

357

Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

Not Available

1980-10-01

358

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December, 1993 (first quarter of fiscal year 1994)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support

D. M. Kiser; J. F. Warren

1994-01-01

359

Advances in ground operations for the next generation space launch vehicle programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future launch vehicle programs, such as the National Launch System (NLS) and the Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO), will need to satisfy extremely stringent requirements. Low lift cycle costs, high launch rates, demanding surge capacities, short turnaround times, and continuous program evolution and growth considerations will shape the next generation space launch vehicle programs. Efficient ground operations are to play an increasingly important role in meeting the requirements of these new programs. The design of future ground operations for these programs has developed into analysis of two major subject areas: simplification of current practices and the use of modular designs. To make the NLS processing more efficient, special tooling and ground support equipment concepts that minimize the amount of handling required have been developed. To maximize launch pad throughput, the NLS and SSTO processing schemes provide upper-stage and payload integration away from the pad at a separate facility. By incorporating modular concepts into a facility design, a launch vehicle program can expand over a long period of time with minimal interference to operational systems in use.

Moeller, Mark; Ewing, Shelly

360

Motor Vehicle Emissions Inspection/Maintenance Program for Tennessee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analysis of costs and benefits associated with Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) programs that could be implemented in Tennessee. Study efforts were limited to geographic areas with populations over 200,000 where National Ambient Air Qu...

J. Gunderson E. J. Vodnick G. Pan D. D. Clark J. Gatacre

1979-01-01

361

Inherently low-emission vehicle program, estimated emission benefits and impact on high-occupancy vehicle lanes. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

According to the detailed analysis in the report, ILEVs would provide substantial emission reductions compared to LEVs and other conventional vehicles. The evaporative and refueling emissions (vapor emissions) from ILEVs are estimated to be near zero. With the near-elimination of vapor emissions, ILEVs are expected to emit about one-half the volatile organic compound emissions as other LEVs. The report also concludes that ILEVs are expected to result in little or no detrimental effect on traffic flow in HOV lanes. This conclusion was derived from studying the HOV lanes in Los Angeles, Houston, the District of Columbia, and Seattle. Overall, the report concludes that widespread and rapid introduction of ILEVs would generally offer significant air quality benefits to society wherever they are used, and that the prudent use of TCM exemptions and incentives could encourage these purchases without significant impact on the effectiveness of the other programs.

Wyborny, L.

1992-10-01

362

Decentralized Cooperative Aerial Surveillance Using Fixed-Wing Miniature UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous applications require aerial surveillance. Civilian applications include monitoring forest fires, oil fields, and pipelines and tracking wildlife. Applications to homeland security include border patrol and monitoring the perimeter of nuclear power plants. Military applications are numerous. The current approach to these applications is to use a single manned vehicle for surveillance. However, manned vehicles are typically large and expensive.

Randal W. Beard; Timothy W. McLain; Derek B. Nelson; Derek Kingston; David Johanson

2006-01-01

363

VisNAV 100: a robust, compact imaging sensor for enabling autonomous air-to-air refueling of aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable autonomous air-to-refueling of manned and unmanned vehicles a robust high speed relative navigation sensor capable of proving high accuracy 3DOF information in diverse operating conditions is required. To help address this problem, StarVision Technologies Inc. has been developing a compact, high update rate (100Hz), wide field-of-view (90deg) direction and range estimation imaging sensor called VisNAV 100. The sensor is fully autonomous requiring no communication from the tanker aircraft and contains high reliability embedded avionics to provide range, azimuth, elevation (3 degrees of freedom solution 3DOF) and closing speed relative to the tanker aircraft. The sensor is capable of providing 3DOF with an error of 1% in range and 0.1deg in azimuth/elevation up to a range of 30m and 1 deg error in direction for ranges up to 200m at 100Hz update rates. In this paper we will discuss the algorithms that were developed in-house to enable robust beacon pattern detection, outlier rejection and 3DOF estimation in adverse conditions and present the results of several outdoor tests. Results from the long range single beacon detection tests will also be discussed.

Katake, Anup; Choi, Heeyoul

2010-02-01

364

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program: Semiannual progress report, April 1996--September 1996  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OTT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1, 2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the database for contributions to this report.

Johnson, D.R.

1997-04-01

365

National program plan for electric vehicle battery research and development  

SciTech Connect

EVs offer the prospect of reducing US petroleum fuel usage and air pollution in major metropolitan areas. In 1987, DOE-EHP commissioned a two-phase study at INEL to produce a national plan for R D on battery technology -- the limiting component in EVs. The battery assessment phase identified the most-promising'' technologies from a comprehensive list of viable EV batteries. This multi-year R D program plan identifies development schedules, milestones, and tasks directed at resolving the critical technical and economic issues for the most-promising developmental batteries: bipolar lead/acid, flow-through lead/acid, iron/air, lithium/iron sulfide, nickel/iron, sodium/metal chloride, sodium/sulfur, zinc/air, and zinc/bromine. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Henriksen, G.L.; Douglas, D.L.; Warde, C.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA); Douglas (David L.), Inc., Bloomington, MN (USA); Warde Associates, Inc., Greensboro, NC (USA))

1989-08-01

366

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1998 thru September 1998  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

Johnson, D.R.

1999-01-01

367

U.S. Department of Energy: FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program, under direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works "to strengthen America's energy security, environmental quality, and economic vitality." The Program is a collaborative effort with industry leaders to develop transportation technologies that reduce the nation's dependence on imported oil and improve air quality. This website describes their current partnerships, including the FreedomCAR, which "represents a new approach to powering the vehicles of the future" and 21st Century Truck, which works to address "the challenges facing today's heavy-duty transportation sector." The scope of their research program includes vehicle system technologies, advanced materials, fuels, and engine and emission controls. In their outlines of their research programs, they provide some basic information about these areas and offer some links with more in-depth discussions about research in these areas. The Deployment section of the website describes their "initiatives to bring energy-saving innovation and education to consumers."

368

Unsteady force measurement of SD7003 foil under pitch-up, hold and pitch-down motion at Re = 1x10^4 for Micro Aerial Vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unsteady force applied on the SD7003 foil under pitch-up, hold and pitch-down motion was studied. This canonical pitch-up, hold and pitch down motion pattern resembles the transient lift creation during perching of the micro aerial vehicle in flapping flight. The 2D SD7003 foil with pivot point at .5ex1 -.1em/ -.15em.25ex4 chord was tested in water tunnel at Reynolds of 1 x 10^4. Three pitch-up rates corresponds to pitch rate, ?+ = 0.2, 1.4 and 2.8 (reduced frequency, k = 0.62, 4.33, and 8.65) were tested. This is to investigate the effect of rapid pitch and magnitude of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the non-linear lift. The faster pitch-up rate results in the stronger lead-edge vortex and deeper subsequent dynamic stall. The non-circular lift due to acceleration effects are captured and shown in ?+ = 1.4 case. The effect of the hold time after pitch-up motion was also examined. For the thold/t+ = 1.00 (t+ ? c/U?), the LEV created during ramp-up motion remains over the foil to provide vortex lift at longer period, resulting in larger average lift over the cycle in comparison to the thold/t+ = 0.05. In addition, the spike in CL during high-Frequency low-Re ramp and return are captured when k = 0.62. The dominant frequency is found to be O(10) Hz observed from power spectral density.

Srigrarom, Sutthiphong; Sern Chai, Wee

2010-11-01

369

Kansas State University electric vehicle site operator program. Year 1, second quarter report, October 1, 1991--December 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

K-State is presently working with Grumman Allied and Unique Mobility to establish a working agreement for the research and development of a pure electric postal vehicle. K-State has worked on the design of this vehicle for the past year and is working to establish the appropriate consortium to bring this vehicle to commercial realization. K-State is working to establish infrastructure support for electric vehicles. Presently, a Kansas company is working with K-State to bring its patented low-cost vehicle metering product to market. An anticipated second year DOE project would provide 100 electric metering stations to Southern California for a large scale electric vehicle infrastructure demonstration project. This project would allow a parking lot(s) to be made EV ready. K-State`s Site Operator Program continues to get the ``word-out`` about electric vehicles. From a personal visit by Senator Bob Dole, to Corporate Board of Director Meetings, to school classrooms, to shopping mall demonstrations; K-State Employees are increasing public access and awareness about the electric vehicle industry. As has been shown in this report, K-State`s G-Van has logged an average eighteen miles per day while maintaining a full schedule of public relations tours within the state of Kansas and Missouri. K-State has now been contacted by companies in Nebraska and Iowa requesting information and involvement in this program. Kansas and Kansas State will continue its work to contribute to the Site Operator Program effort. With the purchase of two additional electric vehicles and the pending request to purchase two more electric vehicles during the next contractual year, K-states`s program will grow. When vehicle development plans and infrastructure requirements are solidified, K-State`s program will be ready to participate and be a major contributor to the development and introduction of this technology.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-12-31

370

Federal Alternative Fuel Program Light Duty Vehicle Operations. Second annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This annual report to Congress details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations as required by Section 400AA(b)(1)(B) of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended by the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988, Public Law 100-494. In 1992, the Federal alternative fuel vehicle fleet expanded significantly, from the 65 M85 (85 percent methanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) vehicles acquired in 1991 to an anticipated total of 3,267 light duty vehicles. Operating data are being collected from slightly over 20 percent, or 666, of these vehicles. The 601 additional vehicles that were added to the data collection program in 1992 include 75 compressed natural gas Dodge full-size (8-passenger) vans, 25 E85 (85 percent denatured ethanol and 15 percent unleaded gasoline) Chevrolet Lumina sedans, 250 M85 Dodge Spirit sedans (planned to begin operation in fiscal year 1993), and 251 compressed natural gas Chevrolet C-20 pickup trucks. Figure ES-1 illustrates the locations where the Federal light duty alternative fuel vehicles that are participating in the data collection program are operating. The primary criteria for placement of vehicles will continue to include air quality attainment status and the availability of an alternative fuel infrastructure to support the vehicles. This report details the second year of the Federal light duty vehicle operations, from October 1991 through September 1992.

Not Available

1993-07-01

371

Modeling and control issues for autonomous aerial refueling for UAVs using a probe–drogue refueling system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical limitation for the current use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is represented by the lack of aerial refueling capabilities. This paper describes the results of an effort on the modeling of the UAV aerial refueling problem and on the design of the docking control scheme. The control of the docking maneuver is based on a fuzzy sensor fusion

Mario Luca Fravolini; Antonio Ficola; Giampiero Campa; Marcello Rosario Napolitano; Brad Seanor

2004-01-01

372

SIMPLEV: A simple electric vehicle simulation program, Version 1.0  

SciTech Connect

An electric vehicle simulation code which can be used with any IBM compatible personal computer was written. This general purpose simulation program is useful for performing parametric studies of electric vehicle performance on user input driving cycles. The program is run interactively and guides the user through all of the necessary inputs. Driveline components and the traction battery are described and defined by ASCII files which may be customized by the user. Scaling of these components is also possible. Detailed simulation results are plotted on the PC monitor and may also be printed on a printer attached to the PC. This report serves as a users` manual and documents the mathematical relationships used in the simulation.

Cole, G.H.

1991-06-01

373

Vehicle Catalog, FY 1985 (Developed for the FY 1985 UMTA (Urban Mass Transportation Administration) Section 16(b)(2) Program).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains information which can be used by applicants for an UMTA Section 16(b)(2) Capital Assistance Grant to help in the selection of the vehicle/s and ancillary equipment needed for the agency's transportation program. The catalog includ...

D. G. Meacham W. D. Wood H. S. James A. G. Carmichael

1985-01-01

374

Vehicle Catalog: Developed for the Fiscal Year 1983 UMTA (Urban Mass Transportation Administration) Section 16(b)(2) Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication contains information which can be used by applicants for an UMTA Section 16(b)(2) Capital Assistance Grant to help in the selection of the vehicle/s and ancillary equipment needed for the agency's transportation program. The catalog inclu...

D. G. Meacham W. D. Wood H. S. James

1983-01-01

375

Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

Nigle N. Clark

2006-12-31

376

Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle site operator program at Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Gas & Electric Company continues to expand an EV program that addresses the following: vehicle development and demonstration; vehicle technology assessment; infrastructure evaluation; participation in EV organizations; and meetings and events. This report highlights PG & E`s activities in each of these areas.

NONE

1997-10-01

377

User's guide to DIANE: A microcomputer program for modeling battery performance in electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcomputer program (DIANE) has been developed to model changing electric-vehicle (EV) performance capability as a function of operating history. The principal objective of this software package is to enable the accurate prediction of EV performance on the basis of laboratory bench data for batteries. The model provides a second-by-second simulation of battery voltage and current for any specified power\\/time

W. W. Marr; W. J. Walsh; P. C. Symons

1987-01-01

378

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semiannual progress report for April 1999 through September 1999  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks.

Johnson, D.R.

2000-01-01

379

Human Power Vehicle Program. Final report, June 15, 1993--June 14, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The Human Power Vehicle Program was an intensive, five day a week, four week program designed to give middle school students the opportunity to ``be engineers``. During the month of July, Delta College, the Macro Michigan Multicultural Pre-Technical Education Partnership (M3PEP), and the United States Department of Energy sponsored a four-week learning experience in human-powered vehicles. This unique experience introduced students to the physiology of exercise, the mechanics of the bicycle, and the physics and mathematics of the bicycle. Students also participated in a three day bike tour. The Program used the Bike Lab facility at Delta College`s International Centre in Saginaw, Michigan. Students had the opportunity to explore the development and refinement of the bicycle design and to investigate it`s power machine-the human body. Interactive instruction was conducted in groups to assure that all students experienced the satisfaction of understanding the bicycle. The purpose of the Program was to increase minority students` awareness and appreciation of mathematics and science. The premise behind the Program was that engineers and scientists are made, not born. The Program was open to all minority youth, grades 8 and 9, and was limited to 25 students. Students were selected to participate based upon their interest, desire, maturity, and attitude.

Crowell, J.; Graves, P.

1995-11-01

380

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program Semiannual Progress Report for October 1998 Through March 1999  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1-3 trucks to realize a 35% fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7-8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OIT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55% efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NOX and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulate. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55% efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies. OIT OHVT also recognizes a significant opportunity for reduction in petroleum consumption by dieselization of pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Application of the diesel engine to class 1,2, and 3 trucks is expected to yield a 35% increase in fuel economy per vehicle. The foremost barrier to diesel use in this market is emission control. Once an engine is made certifiable, subsequent challenges will be in cost; noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH); and performance. The design of advanced components for high-efficiency diesel engines has, in some cases, pushed the performance envelope for materials of construction past the point of reliable operation. Higher mechanical and tribological stresses and higher temperatures of advanced designs limit the engine designer; advanced materials allow the design of components that may operate reliably at higher stresses and temperatures, thus enabling more efficient engine designs. Advanced materials also offer the opportunity to improve the emissions, NVH, and performance of diesel engines for pickup trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. The principal areas of research are: (1) Cost Effective High Performance Materials and Processing; (2) Advanced Manufacturing Technology; (3)Testing and Characterization; and (4) Materials and Testing Standards.

Johnson, R.D.

1999-06-01

381

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report for July through September 1994 (Fourth quarter of fiscal year 1994)  

SciTech Connect

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the US. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: advancement of electric vehicle technologies; development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator`s business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. This fourth quarter report (FY-94) includes a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now found in Appendix A.

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-03-01

382

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993  

SciTech Connect

This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

Not Available

1994-08-01

383

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

Not Available

1993-08-01

384

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994  

SciTech Connect

The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

NONE

1995-04-01

385

Project Integration Office for the electric and hybrid vehicle R and D program. Eighth progress report, March 1982  

SciTech Connect

The Project Integration Office (PIO) was established to assist the US DOE with the direction and coordination of its multiple electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle research programs in order to get the maximum payoff from these research efforts. In addition, the PIO performs objective independent technical and economic studies, analyses and modeling, and maintains a technical information liaison service to facilitate information exchange between the program participants and industry. Progress in each of these activities is reported. (LCL)

Not Available

1982-04-19

386

Experimental Examination of Selected Maneuvers That May Induce On-Road, Untripped Light Vehicle Rollover Phase 1-A of NHTSA's 1997-1998 Vehicle Rollover Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of Phase 1-A testing for NHTSA's 1997-1998 Light Vehicle Rollover Research program. This phase was an initial, exploratory study of using test track maneuvers to quantify on-road, untripped rollover propensity. This study...

G. Forkenbrock G. J. Heydinger J. Lloyd J. G. Howe W. R. Garrott

2001-01-01

387

Testing and development of electric vehicle batteries for EPRI Electric Transportation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The battery is a key element in the acceptance of electric vehicles, and R and D efforts are being undertaken to improve battery performance and lifetime. In this electric-vehicle battery program, controlled laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of selected factors on the performance and life of the EV-2300 lead-acid battery manufactured by Johnson Controls, Inc. These factors included simulated driving profiles with different levels of peak power demands for vehicle acceleration, long rest times after charge or discharge, and different methods of recharging. The performance and cycle life of a 12-module full-scale battery pack and its support system were also evaluated. This report summarizes the work carried out on this program from January 1985 through April 1986. This work involved tests of the battery pack and support system, statistical analysis of capacity and power data from earlier tests of six-cell modules, and post-test analysis of selected modules and cells.

Lee, J.

1988-01-01

388

BEAM: A finite element program for the collapse analysis of vehicle structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BEAM (Beam Element Analysis with Mechanisms) is a finite element program for the analysis of the collapse of vehicle structures. BEAM can quickly estimate the collapse load and plastic hinge locations in three-dimensional thin-walled frames that would collapse in bending. Such information can be combined with separate rigid-plastic modelling to enable the large-deflection design of vehicle frameworks so that their collapse in roll-over accidents, for instance, can be prevented. One advantage of BEAM is that it allows a user to define his own experimentally or analytically determined loads and moments as failure criteria. The theory and operation of BEAM are presented and its application to the modelling of a collapsing two-dimensional frame is described.

Cimpoeru, S. J.

1994-06-01

389

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report details activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program for the months of April, May, and June 1995. The 12 program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are provided.

Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

1995-09-01

390

Hydrology with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hydrologic remote sensing currently depends on expensive and infrequent aircraft observations for validation of operational satellite products, typically conducted during field campaigns that also include ground-based measurements. With the advent of new, hydrologically-relevant satellite missions, ...

391

Alternative fuel transit buses: Interim results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Vehicle Evaluation Program  

SciTech Connect

The transit bus program is designed to provide a comprehensive study of the alternative fuels currently used by the transit bus industry. The study focuses on the reliability, fuel economy, operating costs, and emissions of vehicles running on the various fuels and alternative fuel engines. The alternative fuels being tested are methanol, ethanol, biodiesel and natural gas. The alternative fuel buses in this program use the most common alternative fuel engines from the heavy-duty engine manufacturers. Data are collected in four categories: Bus and route descriptions; Bus operating data; Emissions data; and, Capital costs. The goal is to collect 18 months of data on each test bus. This report summarizes the interim results from the project to date. The report addresses performance and reliability, fuel economy, costs, and emissions of the busses in the program.

Motta, R.; Norton, P.; Kelly, K.J.; Chandler, K.

1995-05-01

392

Consumer Behavior Towards Fuel Efficient Vehicles. Volume IV: Operating Instructions and Program Documentation for the CS Vehicle Choice Simulation Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report assesses consumer behavior towards fuel-efficient vehicles designed to meet recently mandated federal fuel economy standards. The study involves a comprehensive evaluation of existing nationwide survey data as well as the development of a major...

J. R. Ginn J. A. Berkovec

1980-01-01

393

U.S. Department of Energy FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Federal Fleet Use of Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Per Executive Order 13031, “Federal Alternative Fueled Vehicle Leadership,” the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity provided $998,300 in incremental funding to support the deployment of 220 electric vehicles in 36 Federal fleets. The 145 electric Ford Ranger pickups and 75 electric Chrysler EPIC (Electric Powered Interurban Commuter) minivans were operated in 14 states and the District of Columbia. The 220 vehicles were driven an estimated average of 700,000 miles annually. The annual estimated use of the 220 electric vehicles contributed to 39,000 fewer gallons of petroleum being used by Federal fleets and the reduction in emissions of 1,450 pounds of smog-forming pollution. Numerous attempts were made to obtain information from all 36 fleets. Information responses were received from 25 fleets (69% response rate), as some Federal fleet personnel that were originally involved with the Incremental Funding Project were transferred, retired, or simply could not be found. In addition, many of the Department of Defense fleets indicated that they were supporting operations in Iraq and unable to provide information for the foreseeable future. It should be noted that the opinions of the 25 fleets is based on operating 179 of the 220 electric vehicles (81% response rate). The data from the 25 fleets is summarized in this report. Twenty-two of the 25 fleets reported numerous problems with the vehicles, including mechanical, traction battery, and charging problems. Some of these problems, however, may have resulted from attempting to operate the vehicles beyond their capabilities. The majority of fleets reported that most of the vehicles were driven by numerous drivers each week, with most vehicles used for numerous trips per day. The vehicles were driven on average from 4 to 50 miles per day on a single charge. However, the majority of the fleets reported needing gasoline vehicles for missions beyond the capabilities of the electric vehicles, usually because of range limitations. Twelve fleets reported experiencing at least one charge depletion while driving, whereas nine fleets reported not having this problem. Twenty-four of the 25 fleets responded that the electric vehicles were easy to use and 22 fleets indicated that the payload was adequate. Thirteen fleets reported charging problems; eleven fleets reported no charging problems. Nine fleets reported the vehicles broke down while driving; 14 fleets reported no onroad breakdowns. Some of the breakdowns while driving, however, appear to include normal flat tires and idiot lights coming on. In spite of operation and charging problems, 59% of the fleets responded that they were satisfied, very satisfied, or extremely satisfied with the performance of the electric vehicles. As of September 2003, 74 of the electric vehicles were still being used and 107 had been returned to the manufacturers because the leases had concluded.

Mindy Kirpatrick; J. E. Francfort

2003-11-01

394

Thermographic testing used on the X-33 space launch vehicle program by BFGoodrich Aerospace  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-33 program is a team effort sponsored by NASA under Cooperative Agreement NCC8-115, and led by the Lockheed Martin Corporation. Team member BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group (formerly Rohr) is responsible for design, manufacture, and integration of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the X-33 launch vehicle. The X-33 is a half-scale, experimental prototype of a vehicle called RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicle) or VentureStarTM, an SSTO (single stage to orbit) vehicle, which is a proposed successor to the aging Space Shuttle. Thermographic testing has been employed by BFGoodrich Aerospace Aerostructures Group for a wide variety of uses in the testing of components of the X-33. Thermographic NDT (TNDT) has been used for inspecting large graphite- epoxy/aluminum honeycomb sandwich panels used on the Leeward Aeroshell structure of the X-33. And TNDT is being evaluated for use in inspecting carbon-carbon composite parts such as the nosecap and wing leading edge components. Pulsed Infrared Testing (PIRT), a special form of TNDT, is used for the routine inspection of sandwich panels made of brazed inconel honeycomb and facesheets. In the developmental and qualification testing of sub-elements of the X-33, thermography has been used to monitor (1) Arc Jet tests at NASA Ames Research Center in Mountain view, CA and NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, (2) High Temperature (wind) Tunnel Tests (HTT) at Nasa Langley Research Center in Langley, VA, and (3) Hot Gas Tests at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL.

Burleigh, Douglas D.

1999-03-01

395

User's Guide and Program Description for a Tripped Roll Over Vehicle Simulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tripped rollover results when a vehicle slides sideways into a curb or other small obstruction which converts the vehicle's translational kinetic energy into rotation. Given the vehicle's center of gravity height and wheel track width, it can roll over gi...

T. J. Rosenthal H. T. Szostak R. W. Allen

1987-01-01

396

Assessment of Remotely Operated Vehicles to Support the AEAS Program in the Arctic.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report the term 'remotely operated vehicle' (ROV) is used primarily for tethered free-swimming vehicles and autonomous operated vehicles (AUV). This study included the development of a world inventory or ROVS approx. 270 different designs) that in...

A. B. Rechmitzer E. C. Estes W. W. Denner

1986-01-01

397

SPINFIN: A computer program for trajectory simulation of flight vehicles with semi-passive roll control systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the trajectory computer program, SPINFIN. The program has been in use at Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, for flight simulation of those reentry vehicles which utilize a class of semi-passive fin roll-control systems. As such, it has s...

J. K. Kryvoruka

1972-01-01

398

HAWK: An unmanned mini helicopter-based aerial wireless kit for localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fully functional and highly portable mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system, HAWK, for conducting aerial localization. HAWK is a programmable mini helicopter - Draganflyer X6 - armed with a wireless sniffer - Nokia N900. We developed custom PI-Control laws to implement a robust waypoint algorithm for the mini helicopter to fly a planned route. A Moore

Zhongli Liu; Yinjie Chen; Benyuan Liu; Chengyu Cao; Xinwen Fu

2012-01-01

399

Machine Vision Algorithms for Autonomous Aerial Refueling for UAVs Using the USAF Refueling Boom Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this chapter is to provide an extensive review of a research effort by a team of researchers from West Virginia University and the University of Perugia focused on the design of a Machine Vision (MV)-based system for the Autonomous Aerial Refueling of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) using the US Air Force refueling boom set-up (as opposed to

Mario L. Fravolini; Marco Mammarella; Giampiero Campa; Marcello R. Napolitano

2010-01-01

400

Low bit rate ROI based video coding for HDTV aerial surveillance video sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

For aerial surveillance systems two key features are important. First they have to provide as much resolution as possible, while they secondly should make the video available at a ground station as soon as possible. Recently so called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) got in the focus for surveillance operations with operation targets such as environmental and disaster area monitoring as

Holger Meuel; Marco Munderloh; Jorn Ostermann

2011-01-01

401

Machine Vision\\/GPS Integration Using EKF for the UAV Aerial Refueling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to propose the application of an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for the sensors fusion task within the problem of aerial refueling for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Specifically, the EKF is used to combine the position data from a global positioning system (GPS) and a machine vision (MV)-based system for providing a reliable estimation of

Marco Mammarella; Giampiero Campa; Marcello R. Napolitano; Mario Luca Fravolini; Yu. Gu; Mario G. Perhinschi

2008-01-01

402

Field Operations Program - US Postal Service Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valey Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on "park and loop" mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

Francfort, James Edward

2002-01-01

403

Field Operations Program - U.S. Postal Service - Fountain Valley Electric Carrier Route Vehicle Testing  

SciTech Connect

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has ordered 500 light-duty electric carrier route vehicles (ECRV) mostly for their delivery carriers to use in several California locations. The 500 ECRVs have been defined as a demonstration fleet to support a decision of potentially ordering 5,500 additional ECRVs. Several different test methods are being used by the USPS to evaluate the 500-vehicle deployment. One of these test methods is the ECRV Customer Acceptance Test Program at Fountain Valley, California. Two newly manufactured ECRVs were delivered to the Fountain Valley Post Office and eighteen mail carriers primarily drove the ECRVs on ''park and loop'' mail delivery routes for a period of 2 days each. This ECRV testing consisted of 36 route tests, 18 tests per vehicle. The 18 mail carriers testing the ECRVs were surveyed for the opinions on the performance of the ECRVs. The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Field Operations Program, is supporting the USPS's ECRV testing activities both financially and with technical expertise. As part of this support, Field Operations Program personnel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have compiled this report based on the data generated by the USPS and its testing contractor (Ryerson, Master and Associates, Inc.) During the 36 route tests, the two test vehicles were driven a total of 474 miles, averaging 13 mile per test. The distance of the 36 route tests ranged from 4 to 34 miles. Both miles driven and State-of-Charge (SOC) data was collected for only 28 of the route tests. During these 28 tests, the ECRVs were driven a total of 447 miles. The SOC used during the 28 tests averaged a 41% decrease and the average distance driven was 16 miles. This suggests that a 16-mile route uses almost half of the ECRV's battery energy. The 18 carriers also rated 12 ECRV traits that included the physical design of the ECRVs as well as their performance. Based on a scale of 1 being the lowest and 5 being highest, or best, the overall average score for the ECRV was 4.3. The report also included individual comments from the ECRV drivers.

Francfort, J.E.

2002-01-21

404

Vehicle Routing for Food Rescue Programs: A Comparison of Different Approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1-Commodity Pickup and Delivery Vehicle Routing Problem (1-PDVRP) asks to deliver a single commodity from a set of supply nodes to a set of demand nodes, which are unpaired. That is, a demand node can be served by any supply node. In this paper, we further assume that the supply and demand is unsplittable, which implies that we can visit each node only once. The 1-PDVRP arises in several practical contexts, ranging from bike-sharing programs in which bikes at each station need to be redistributed at various points in time, to food rescue programs in which excess food is collected from, e.g., restaurants and schools, and redistributed through agencies to people in need. The latter application is the main motivation of our study.

Gunes, Canan; van Hoeve, Willem-Jan; Tayur, Sridhar

405

Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. Final Report. Phase I, Appendix B: Design Trade-off Studies Report. Volume III. Computer Program Listings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Volume reports on work done on Task 2 and is part of the final summary report of a series which documents the results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program. This phase of the program was a study leading to the preliminary design of a fiv...

1979-01-01

406

A sensor platform capable of aerial and terrestrial locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensor platform has been developed that is capable of both aerial and terrestrial locomotion, as well as transitioning between the two. The morphing micro air-land vehicle (MMALV) implements biological inspiration in both flying and walking. MMALV integrates the University of Florida's micro air vehicle (MAV) technology with the terrain mobility of Mini-Whegs™. Fabricated of lightweight carbon fiber, the UF-MAV

Frank J. Boria; Richard J. Bachmann; Peter G. Ifju; Roger D. Quinn; Ravi Vaidyanathan; Chris Perry; Jeffrey Wagener

2005-01-01

407

Drogue tracking using 3D flash lidar for autonomous aerial refueling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous aerial refueling (AAR) is an important capability for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to increase its flying range and endurance without increasing its size. This paper presents a novel tracking method that utilizes both 2D intensity and 3D point-cloud data acquired with a 3D Flash LIDAR sensor to establish relative position and orientation between the receiver vehicle and drogue

Chao-I. Chen; Roger Stettner

2011-01-01

408

A Survey of Commercial & Open Source Unmanned Vehicle Simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a survey of computer based simulators for unmanned vehicles. The simulators examined cover a wide spectrum of vehicles including unmanned aerial vehicles, both full scale and micro size; unmanned surface and subsurface vehicles; and unmanned ground vehicles. The majority of simulators use simple numerical simulation and simplistic visualization using custom OpenGL code. An emerging trend is to

Jeff Craighead; Robin Murphy; Jenny Burke; Brian Goldiez

2007-01-01

409

How government purchase programs can get electric vehicles on the road  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban air pollution has become a significant health problem. A large amount of urban air pollution can be traced directly to vehicle emissions. An overview of previous governmental strategies for controlling vehicle emissions is presented that highlights the failures of catalytic converters. Electric vehicles offer a more attractive means of cutting vehicle emissions than any other current proposal, including alternative

M. Cohen; B. Commoner

1994-01-01

410

Daytime multispectral scanner aerial surveys of the Oak Ridge Reservation, 1992--1994: Overview of data processing and analysis by the Environmental Restoration Remote Sensing Program, Fiscal year 1995  

SciTech Connect

Environmental Restoration (ER) Remote Sensing and Special Surveys Program was in 1992 to apply the benefits of remote sensing technologies to Environmental Restoration Management (ERWM) programs at all of the five United States Department of Energy facilities operated and managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (now Lockheed Martin Energy Systems)-the three Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) facilities, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS)-and adjacent off-site areas. The Remote Sensing Program includes the management of routine and special surveys at these sites, application of state-of-the-art remote sensing and geophysical technologies, and data transformation, integration, and analyses required to make the information valuable to ER. Remotely-sensed data collected of the ORR include natural color and color infrared (IR) aerial photography, 12-band multispectral scanner imagery, predawn thermal IR sensor imagery, magnetic and electromagnetic geophysical surveys, and gamma radiological data.

Smyre, J.L.; Hodgson, M.E.; Moll, B.W.; King, A.L.; Cheng, Yang

1995-11-01

411

Telemetry of Aerial Radiological Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telemetry has been added to National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA's) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) Incident Response aircraft to accelerate availability of aerial radiological mapping data. Rapid aerial radiological mapping is promptly performed by AMS Incident Response aircraft in the event of a major radiological dispersal. The AMS airplane flies the entire potentially affected area, plus a generous margin, to provide

H. W. Clark

2002-01-01

412

Air Force Aerial Refueling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilit...

C. Bolkcom

2007-01-01

413

Aerial Photography - USDA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Minnesota Land Management Information Center provides a collection of aerial photographs from agencies within the U.S. Department of Agriculture. These photographs date from the mid-1930s to the present. Information and links related to these agencies are provided.

Center, Land M.; Minnesota, State O.

414

Aerial of Newport Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An aerial view of Newport Harbor and waterfront in Newport, Rhode Island. Long Wharf, to the right, and Goat Island, the slender island just offshore, are located on the western side of island. The shipping industry has a long history in Newport, beginning as early as the 18th century. The development along the waterfront at the center of the photograph

Chet Smolski

1985-01-01

415

Optimized Aerial Delivery Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2009 and 2010, the Aerial Delivery function at Little Rock Air Force Base experienced periodic surges in training load demand that could not be met under the current supply chain. Critical to the training of aircrew on base spanning three Major Command...

K. Kostrubala

2011-01-01

416

Aerial Perspective Artistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a lesson centering on aerial perspective artistry of students and offers suggestions on how art teachers should carry this project out. This project serves to develop students' visual perception by studying reproductions by famous artists. This lesson allows one to imagine being lured into a landscape capable of captivating…

Wolfe, Linda

2010-01-01

417

Unmanned aerial systems integration to National Airspace System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven their values and capabilities via various applications around the globe. Initiated by the military, today, UAVs are on high demand since they provide endurances and flight environments that are beyond the limits of manned systems. Civil government, scientific research institutes and commercial markets have already seized the low-cost, flexible, simple

Adrian V. Gheorghe; Ersin Ancel

2008-01-01

418

High endurance, micro aerial surveillance and reconnaisance robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) have gained a sig- nificant amount of research lately, with a number of universities and industry sponsors paving the way with micro flying robots to perform Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Missions. However, much of the work done in flapping wing MAVs till date has not shown performance improvements over their VTOL, rotary-wing counterparts. Research and

Jayant Ratti; George Vachtsevanos

2011-01-01

419

Biologically inspired behavioral strategies for autonomous aerial explorers on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural world is a rich source of problem-solving approaches. This paper discusses the feasibility and technical challenges underlying mimicking, or analogously adapting, biological behavioral strategies to mission\\/flight planning for aerial vehicles engaged in planetary exploration. Two candidate concepts based on natural resource utilization and searching behaviors are adapted to technological applications. Prototypes and test missions addressing the difficulties of

Laura Plice; Benton Lau; Greg Pisanich; Larry A. Young

2003-01-01

420

U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review  

SciTech Connect

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

2008-11-01

421

Kansas State University Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Year 1: First quarter report, July 2, 1991--September 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

During the past fifteen years Kansas State`s faculty has been involved in research of alternative fuel vehicles. From formulation of fuels and automotive fuel storage to development of electronic controls, K-State`s faculty research has been ongoing. With the increased awareness of what is occurring to the world`s environment, the catalyst -- to ensure applied results from faculty research will occur -- has been activated. The Department of Energy`s Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program is the platform being used to demonstrate international efforts to bring a more acceptable daily mode of transportation to our highways. The first new electrical vehicle procured at K-State in the last ten years, a G-Van, is a technological dinosaur. It does not incorporate leading edge control or drive systems nor does it provide the type of vehicle frame and body to meet a majority of the daily commuter needs required by the American market. Yet, this vehicle represents initial efforts to bring a federally crash certified vehicle to the commercial automotive market. As such, it is an evolutionary step in the mass production of electric vehicle products.

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1991-12-31

422

Small unmanned aerial system high performance payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique, hyperspectral imaging plane "on-a-chip" developed for deployment as a High Performance Payload (HPP) on a micro or small unmanned aerial vehicle is described. HPP employs nanophotonics technologies to create a focal plane array with very high fill factor fabricated using standard integrated circuit techniques. The spectral response of each pixel can be independently tuned and controlled over the entire spectral range of the camera. While the current HPP is designed to operate in the visible, the underlying physical principles of the device are applicable and potentially implementable from the UV through the long-wave infrared.

Morgan, Ricky J.; Abtahi, Ali A.; Griffin, Peter B.; Raghuram, Usha; Strömqvist Vetelino, Frida E.; Tejada, Francisco

2011-05-01

423

DOE KSU EV Site Operator Program. [United States Department of Energy (DOE) Kansas State University (KSU) Electric Vehicle (EV)  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the DOE Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric of hybrid vehicle technology. This will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four(4) electric cars during the first two years of this five-year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort station wagons. This quarter's report describes ongoing public relations activities and meetings as well as presenting performance data for the electric vehicles. (GHH)

Hague, J.R.; Steinert, R.A.; Nissen-Pfrang, T.

1992-01-01

424

Evaluation of the National Archives program to convert nitrate aerial photographs of the United States to a stable-base safety film.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discusses the programme on reproducing the 1930's and early 1940's nitrate aerial photographs of large areas of the US onto stable-base safety film, and the proceedings of a February 1981 meeting at the National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, which discussed the programme and inspected the results of the new full-size (1:1), roll-to-roll conversions. The latter process was found to be acceptable to all current and envisaged future users of this photography.-R.House

Williams, Jr, R. S.; Lyons, T. R.; Ferrigno, J. G.; Quinn, M. C.

1984-01-01

425

Aerial Drift of Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the summer of 1932 the distribution of insects by aerial currents has been studied in this Department. The present communication concerns the experiments made with kites over the land; investigations over the sea were briefly reported last year1. The methods employed have been borrowed from oceanography and inverted. Tow-nets, with a three-foot diameter mouth, have been carried into the

A. C. Hardy; P. S. Milne

1938-01-01

426

Rules of the Road for Transporting Children--Guidelines for Developing a Motor Vehicle Safety Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses safety issues for child care centers that provide transportation for children. Notes the importance of vehicle usage and control, driver qualifications, vehicle maintenance, child securement, accident procedures, and driver education and training. (JPB)|

Hooker, Bruce; Gearhart, Kentin

1999-01-01

427

A comprehensive program to improve safety for pregnant women and fetuses in motor vehicle crashes: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A program was developed to study the mechanisms of abruptio placentae and pregnancy loss caused by motor vehicle crashes. The results were intended to be used to develop strategies to improve protection of the fetus in this setting. Study Design: Four integrated projects were conducted: (1) seated anthropometric measurements and belt fit determination during pregnancy, (2) development of new

Mark D Pearlman; Kathleen DeSantis Klinich; Lawrence W Schneider; Jonathan Rupp; Steve Moss; James Ashton-Miller

2000-01-01

428

Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

2005-01-01

429

Recommendations for an Arctic Research Program in Support of the Design of a Surface-Effect Vehicle System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report is given on a workshop conducted to assist the Advanced Research Projects Agency in formulating an arctic program to support the development of a large suface-effect vehicle system. The objectives were to determine what data are needed for the desi...

1970-01-01

430

Optimization of power management in an hybrid electric vehicle using dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid electric vehicles are those powered from two different sources. Typically, they are equipped with an internal combustion engine, and also with an electrical storage system, such as a bank of batteries or ultra-capacitors. While braking, these vehicles may convert kinetic energy to electrical energy and send it back to the electrical storage system (regenerative braking). The whole vehicle system

Laura V. Pérez; Guillermo R. Bossio; Diego Moitre; Guillermo O. García

2006-01-01

431

40 CFR 86.1817-08 - Complete heavy-duty vehicle averaging, trading, and banking program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1817-08...

2013-07-01

432

U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

Emmert, R.A.

1996-12-31

433

An analysis of the energy efficiency, range, and attributable emissions of electric vehicles, and an assessment of the United States Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program from 1976-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, much attention has focused on the efforts of the federal government and private industry working together through public-private partnerships to develop electric and hybrid vehicle technologies. These efforts have taken place principally through the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Generally not appreciated is the extent of federal government investment in electric and hybrid vehicle research and development (R&D) that predates the USABC and PNGV ventures. The U.S. Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program (EHV Program) was established through an act of Congress in 1976 and has operated continuously since that time. The EHV Program has made significant contributions to the development of advanced battery technology. The program has funded research in fourteen distinct battery chemistries, has helped to establish a technology infrastructure in the field of battery development. This thesis has two guiding questions. First, what is it that makes developing adequate batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles so challenging? Second, what can and should the federal government do to hasten development of battery technologies for these advanced vehicles? In response to the first question, an analysis of the energy requirements of electric vehicles is presented, estimating vehicle range, efficiency, and emissions benefits based on available technology. Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) are considered, and compared to conventional heat engine vehicles to estimate the potential reductions in transportation sector emissions. To address the second question, a review of technology policy since the Ford administration is presented. This discussion provides a background necessary to interpret the waxing and waning fortunes of the EHV Program over more than a quarter century. Reviews of government documents and interviews with battery development experts and government officials are used to provide insight into the goals and funding priorities of the EHV Program, and to evaluate the program's effectiveness.

Clay, Kathryn G.

434

Autonomous Real-time Vehicle Detection from a Medium-Level UAV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic and robust approach for the detection of road vehicles from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an important goal within the framework of fully autonomous UAV deployment for aerial reconnaissance and surveillance. Here we present a novel approach to the automatic detection of vehicles based on using multiple trained cascaded Haar classifiers (a disjunctive set of cascades). Our

Toby P. Breckon; Stuart E. Barnes; Marcin L. Eichner; Ken Wahren

435

Mixed integer programming model for optimizing the layout of an ICU vehicle  

PubMed Central

Background This paper presents a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) model for designing the layout of the Intensive Care Units' (ICUs) patient care space. In particular, this MIP model was developed for optimizing the layout for materials to be used in interventions. This work was developed within the framework of a joint project between the Madrid Technical Unverstity and the Medical Emergency Services of the Madrid Regional Government (SUMMA 112). Methods The first task was to identify the relevant information to define the characteristics of the new vehicles and, in particular, to obtain a satisfactory interior layout to locate all the necessary materials. This information was gathered from health workers related to ICUs. With that information an optimization model was developed in order to obtain a solution. From the MIP model, a first solution was obtained, consisting of a grid to locate the different materials needed for the ICUs. The outcome from the MIP model was discussed with health workers to tune the solution, and after slightly altering that solution to meet some requirements that had not been included in the mathematical model, the eventual solution was approved by the persons responsible for specifying the characteristics of the new vehicles. According to the opinion stated by the SUMMA 112's medical group responsible for improving the ambulances (the so-called "coaching group"), the outcome was highly satisfactory. Indeed, the final design served as a basis to draw up the requirements of a public tender. Results As a result from solving the Optimization model, a grid was obtained to locate the different necessary materials for the ICUs. This grid had to be slightly altered to meet some requirements that had not been included in the mathematical model. The results were discussed with the persons responsible for specifying the characteristics of the new vehicles. Conclusion The outcome was highly satisfactory. Indeed, the final design served as a basis to draw up the requirements of a public tender. The authors advocate this approach to address similar problems within the field of Health Services to improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the processes involved. Problems such as those in operation rooms or emergency rooms, where the availability of a large amount of material is critical are eligible to be dealt with in a simmilar manner.

2009-01-01

436

Aerial Very Heavy Lift Concepts for the 1990 Army. Volume III. Academic and Industrial Presentations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document covers the technical feasibility of developing a very heavy aerial lift vehicle to be operational by 1990. The mission spectrum for such a vehicle was assumed similar to the proposed QMR for the heavy-lift helicopter except that the payload r...

1969-01-01

437

Utility of a sensor platform capable of aerial and terrestrial locomotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeland security and national defense include many missions that would be served by a multi-sensor platform capable of flying, landing, perching, and walking. Soldiers in an urban environment could obtain near- and medium-field intelligence by deploying the vehicle and landing it on the top of a building. Maritime domain protection would be significantly enhanced by a small aerial vehicle that

Richard J. Bachmann; Frank J. Boria; Peter G. Ifju; Roger D. Quinn; Jeffrey E. Kline; Ravi Vaidyanathan

2005-01-01

438

Coastal battlefield reconnaissance and analysis program for minefield detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) program is a US Marine Corps Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD). The objective is to design, develop, and demonstrate an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based passive multispectral video sensor subsystem, to detect and locate obstacles and minefields before and during an amphibious assault, and land combat operations in littoral areas. The COBRA ATD system consisting of an airborne sensor subsystem and a ground station subsystem is described along with the testing program.

Witherspoon, Ned H.; Holloway, John H.; Davis, Kenn S.; Miller, Richard W.; Dubey, Abinash C.

1995-06-01

439

Studies on an aerial propellant transfer space plane (APTSP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a study of a fully reusable earth-to-orbit launch vehicle concept with horizontal take-off and landing, employing a turbojet engine for low speed, and a rocket for high-speed acceleration and space operations. This concept uses existing technology to the maximum possible extent, thereby reducing development time, cost and effort. It uses the experience in aerial filling of military aircrafts for propellant filling at an altitude of 13 km at a flight speed of M=0.85. Aerial filling of propellant reduces the take-off weight significantly thereby minimizing the structural weight of the vehicle. The vehicle takes off horizontally and uses turbojet engines till the end of the propellant filling operation. The rocket engines provide thrust for the next phase till the injection of a satellite at LEO. A sensitivity analysis of the mission with respect to rocket engine specific impulse and overall vehicle structural factor is also presented in this paper. A conceptual design of space plane with a payload capability of 10 ton to LEO is carried out. The study shows that the realization of an aerial propellant transfer space plane is possible with limited development of new technology thus reducing the demands on the finances required for achieving the objectives.

Jayan, N.; Biju Kumar, K. S.; Gupta, Anish Kumar; Kashyap, Akhilesh Kumar; Venkatraman, Kartik; Mathew, Joseph; Mukunda, H. S.

2004-04-01

440

Heavy vehicle propulsion system materials program semi-annual progress report for October 1997 through March 1998  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System materials Program is the development of materials: ceramics, intermetallics, metal alloys, and metal and ceramic coatings, to support the dieselization of class 1--3 trucks to realize a 35{percent} fuel-economy improvement over current gasoline-fueled trucks and to support commercialization of fuel-flexible LE-55 low-emissions, high-efficiency diesel engines for class 7--8 trucks. The Office of Transportation Technologies, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OTT OHVT) has an active program to develop the technology for advanced LE-55 diesel engines with 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions levels of 2.0 g/bhp-h NO{sub x} and 0.05 g/bhp-h particulates. The goal is also for the LE-55 engine to run on natural gas with efficiency approaching that of diesel fuel. The LE-55 program is being completed in FY 1997 and, after approximately 10 years of effort, has largely met the program goals of 55{percent} efficiency and low emissions. However, the commercialization of the LE-55 technology requires more durable materials than those that have been used to demonstrate the goals. Heavy Vehicle Propulsion System Materials will, in concert with the heavy-duty diesel engine companies, develop the durable materials required to commercialize the LE-55 technologies.

Johnson, D.R.

1998-06-01

441

The ANL electric vehicle battery R/D program for DOE-EHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid PropuLsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce air pollution and petroleum consumption. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of 1 Oct. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Sodium/Metal Chloride R&D 3.0 Microreference Electrodes for Lithium/Polymer Batteries; and 4.0 USABC Support. The Project Management and Coordination Task Area encompasses planning, organization, coordination, integration, and overall management of battery R&D projects for DOE-EHP, as well as work performed in behalf of DOE-directed inter-laboratory tasks. Section 3 of this report recounts the work performed during this reporting period on each task within these task areas.

1993-03-01

442

The ANL electric vehicle battery R/D program for DOE-EHP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby, significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 eV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

1992-11-01

443

The ANL Electrochemical Program for DOE on electric vehicle R/D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R&D contracts on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of July 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: Project Management and Coordination; Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; and EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

1992-11-01

444

The ANL Electrichemical Program for DOE on electric vehicle R D  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of July 1, 1992 through September 30, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. The work is organized into the following task areas: Project Management and Coordination; Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; and EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

Not Available

1992-01-01

445

The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EHP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising electric-vehicle (EV) propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby. significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EHP. This report summarizes the battery-related activities undertaken during the period of October 1, 1991 through March 31, 1992. In this report, the objective, background, technical progress, and status are described for each task. These tasks are structured into the following task areas: 1.0 Project Management and Coordination; 2.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 3.0 Advanced Sodium/Beta Batteries; 4.0 Advanced Ambient-Temperature Batteries; 5.0 EV Battery Performance and Life Evaluation.

Not Available

1992-01-01

446

The ANL electric vehicle battery R D program for DOE-EHP  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) provides technical and programmatic support to DOE's Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division (DOE-EBP). The goal of DOE-EHP is to advance promising EV propulsion technologies to levels where industry will continue their commercial development and thereby significantly reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector of the US economy. In support of this goal, ANL provides research, development, testing/evaluation, post-test analysis, modeling, database management, and technical management of industrial R D contracts on advanced battery and fuel cell technologies for DOE-EBP. This report summarizes the objectives, background, technical progress, and status of ANL electric vehicle battery R D tasks for DOE-EHP during the period of October 1, 1990 through December 31, 1990. The work is organized into the following six task areas: 1.0 Project Management; 3.0 Battery Systems Technology; 4.0 Lithium/Sulfide Batteries; 5.0 Advanced Sodium/Metal Chloride Battery; 6.0 Aqueous Batteries; 7.0 EV Battery Performance/Life Evaluation.

Not Available

1990-01-01

447

AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY AND LEGAL APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Aerial photographic interpretation is the process of examining objects on aerial photographs and determining their significance. t is often defined as both art and science because the process, and the quality of the derived information, is often a qualitative nature and much depe...

448

Polarization effects in aerial fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different aerial fiber polarization effects are investigated and discussed. The state of polarization time drift is explored in different fibers. Polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependent loss time variations are reported. Fiber galloping and aerial fiber system impact issues are discussed.

Waddy, David S.; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

2005-01-01

449

OVERVIEW OF THE NASHVILLE ON-ROAD VEHICLE ASSESSMENT (NOVA) PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of a July 1994 mobile emissions study, in Nashville, Tennessee, using an optical remote sensing unit and an instrumented vehicle. mission; data were collected from approximately 41,000 vehicles over a 2-week period at 11 predesignated sites throughout the ...

450

Preliminary study on speed evaluation and impact configuration reconstruction of vehicles with human- machine interactive programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at developing analysis approaches of vehicle-accident reconstruction in an attempt to recreate the initial impact configuration and clarify accident responsibility. One purpose is to conclude a straightforward and confident recon- struction module as a base of dealing with vehicle impact accidents. Both forward and backward deriving methods have been applied as the means of accident reconstruction. The

Y.-S. Chiang; M.-H. Huang

451

Comparing neuro-dynamic programming algorithms for the vehicle routing problem with stochastic demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers a version of the vehicle routing problem where customers' demands are uncertain. The focus is on dynamically routing a single vehicle to serve the demands of a known set of geographically dispersed customers during real-time operations. The goal consists of minimizing the expected distance traveled in order to serve all customers' demands. Since actual demand is revealed

Nicola Secomandi

2000-01-01

452

Transition to hydrogen-based transportation in China: Lessons learned from alternative fuel vehicle programs in the United States and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the experience of existing alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) programs in the US and China to provide insights into appropriate strategies for developing hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure in China. Although an increasing number of AFVs have been deployed in recent years, various factors have limited this progress, such as large sunk investments in conventional technologies, limited networks of

Jimin Zhao; Marc W. Melaina

2006-01-01

453

Balanced Insanity: An Argument for the Inclusion of Tasking, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination in Future Security Assistance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The changes in the threat posed by global terrorism may be drastic, especially when weapons of mass destruction (WMD) are involved. The coalition nature of the current war on terrorism may also change rapidly as coalition partners enter, leave, or rejoin ...

S. P. Hamilton

2005-01-01

454

A Program for Computing Steady Inviscid Three-Dimensional Supersonic Flow on Reentry Vehicles. Volume I. Analysis and Programming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive computational procedure is presented for predicting the supersonic region of the flow field on advanced reentry vehicle shapes in steady flight at pitch and yaw. The procedure utilizes explicit second order accurate finite difference metho...

J. M. Solomon M. Ciment R. E. Ferguson J. B. Bell A. B. Wardlaw

1977-01-01

455

Aerial Photographs of Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine flying high above the Rocky Mountains in late 1939, looking downwards towards the peaks below. Now picture yourself staring down at the city of Denver around the same time, peering onto the tops of residential buildings, factories, and feedlots. Until time travel is feasible, this probably isn’t possible for most of us. Of course, for those with a penchant for the past, aerial photographs of Colorado for the period from 1938 to 1947 are available at this website, created and maintained by the University of Colorado Libraries Map Library. Originally created by the U.S. Forest Service, these maps cover eight counties in the state, including Boulder, Clear Creek, Eagle, and Larimer. Visitors can search or browse these photographs by using a geographic keyword search, and also read the metadata associated with each item.

456

Aerial Photographs of Colorado  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From 1938 to 1947, the United States Forest Service took thousands of aerial photographs of the state of Colorado. The hope was that these images would be used by agronomists, land use planners, farmers, and other groups with a vested interest in these lands. Today, 1,700 of these images are part of the University of Colorado's Digital Collections. Visitors can search for available images by using a clickable map here, read a set of interpretation tips, and also download the maps for research and other personal uses. Visitors who choose to use the LunaInsight image viewer (also made available here) will have the ability to search images by all data fields, along with being able to zoom in to high resolution images of each photograph. Overall, this is a tremendous resource, and one that will delight and inform geographers, historians, planners, and others with an interest in Colorado.

2012-03-23

457

Performance and Economics of Catalytic Glow Plugs and Shields in Direct Injection Natural Gas Engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Subcontractor report details work done by TIAX and Westport to test and perform cost analysis for catalytic glow plugs and shields for direct-injection natural gas engines for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

Mello, J. P.; Bezaire, D.; Sriramulu, S.; Weber, R.

2003-08-01

458

Establishment of Interim Standards for Bridge Rails Required to Contain Heavy Vehicles. Volume 4. Development of Simplified Input and Flexible Criteria Capabilities for the BARRIER VII Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The BARRIER VII program, which simulates the impact of vehicles with flexible barriers, was modified in order to simplify the input requirements. The simplified format eliminates the complex modeling required of the user and allows selection of prestored ...

J. A. Bloom

1975-01-01

459

Addressing corner detection issues for machine vision based UAV aerial refueling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of the analysis of specific ‘corner detection’ algorithms within a Machine Vision approach\\u000a for the problem of aerial refueling for unmanned aerial vehicles. Specifically, the performances of the SUSAN and the Harris\\u000a corner detection algorithms have been compared. A critical goal of this study was to evaluate the interface of these feature\\u000a extraction schemes with

Soujanya Vendra; Giampiero Campa; Marcello R. Napolitano; Marco Mammarella; Mario L. Fravolini; Mario G. Perhinschi

2007-01-01

460

Aerial Measuring System in Japan  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Agency’s Aerial Measuring System deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Air Force in Japan to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Generation Station. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 hours; including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple U.S. Air Force Japan aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with talented pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These all combined to make for a dynamic and non-textbook situation. In addition, the data challenges of the multiple and on-going releases, and integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions, was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight in addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System’s mission beyond the borders of the US.

Lyons, C., Colton, D. P.

2012-05-01

461

Aerial measuring system in Japan.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA) Aerial Measuring System (AMS) deployed personnel and equipment to partner with the U.S. Forces in Japan (USFJ) to conduct multiple aerial radiological surveys. These were the first and most comprehensive sources of actionable information for U.S. interests in Japan and provided early confirmation to the Government of Japan as to the extent of the release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. Many challenges were overcome quickly during the first 48 h, including installation and operation of Aerial Measuring System equipment on multiple USFJ aircraft, flying over difficult terrain, and flying with USFJ pilots who were unfamiliar with the Aerial Measuring System flight patterns. These factors combined to make for a programmatically unanticipated situation. In addition to the challenges of multiple and ongoing releases, integration with the Japanese government to provide valid aerial radiological survey products that both military and civilian customers could use to make informed decisions was extremely complicated. The Aerial Measuring System Fukushima response provided insight into addressing these challenges and gave way to an opportunity for the expansion of the Aerial Measuring System's mission beyond the borders of the U.S. PMID:22469929

Lyons, Craig; Colton, David

2012-05-01

462

76 FR 34286 - ITS Joint Program Office; Webinar on Connected Vehicle Infrastructure Deployment Analysis Report...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...is also connected vehicle-related research in the areas of standards, data collection, certification, policy, road weather, and public transportation. Persons planning to attend the webinar should send their full name, organization,...

2011-06-13

463

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehi...

S. M. Schexnayder S. Das R. Dhingra J. G. Overly B. E. Tonn

2001-01-01

464

Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

2011-03-01

465

Illinois Historic Aerial Photo Imagebase  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project makes available scanned aerial photographs of Illinois taken between 1935 and 1955. Due to the immense number of aerial photos in the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign collection, the digitization process was limited to only a small portion of several counties. Specific features were targeted, including the Illinois River, the Champaign-Urbana region, Joliet, and southern Cook county. Users can view JPG image surrogates resized from archival TIFFs that were produced by scanning the photographs at approximately 720 dpi.

Urbana-Champaign, University O.

466

Environmental Evaluation of New Generation Vehicles and Vehicle Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents assessments that address waste issues and life cycle impacts associated with the vehicle materials and vehicle technologies being developed under the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) program. We refer to these vehicles as 3XVs, referring to the PNGV goal that their fuel mileage be three times better than the baseline vehicle. To meet the

Schexnayder

2002-01-01

467

Concept for an optionally piloted vehicle system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept for an optionally piloted vehicle (OPV) is currently in development using a platform that is a derivative of an all-composite, long endurance manned aircraft. This paper describes the challenges and basic advantages of an OPV when compared to the exclusively unmanned operation of conventional Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The paper focuses on system reliability and Federal Aviation Agency

Kenneth W. Loucks

1993-01-01

468

Micro air vehicle navigation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description of the design, operation, and test results of a Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEMS)-based navigation system for the Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) is presented. The MAV is a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) built by Honeywell. It is one of the first applications to use Honeywell's new HG1930 MEMS inertial measurement unit (IMU). The raw IMU measurements are transmitted via a

B. B. Mohr; D. L. Fitzpatrick

2008-01-01

469

Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.  

PubMed

Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially encountered chemicals, or aircraft cabin air contaminants and point out the need for future research to better address toxicological evaluation of aircraft-engine oil additives. PMID:21913123

Chaturvedi, Arvind K

2011-01-01

470