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1

Robustness Analysis of Genetic Programming Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Robustness Analysis of Genetic Programming Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Gregory J to operate the vehicle safely. We have evolved navigation controllers for unmanned aerial vehicles programming, robustness, trans- ference, unmanned aerial vehicles Gregory J. Barlow is also affiliated

Fernandez, Thomas

2

Autonomous controller design for unmanned aerial vehicles using multi-objective genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous navigation controllers were developed for fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications using multiobjective genetic programming (GP). We designed four fitness functions derived from flight simulations and used multiobjective GP to evolve controllers able to locate a radar source, navigate the UAV to the source efficiently using on-board sensor measurements, and circle closely around the emitter. Controllers were evolved

Choong K. Oh; Gregory J. Barlow

2004-01-01

3

Incremental evolution of autonomous controllers for unmanned aerial vehicles using multi-objective genetic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous navigation controllers were developed for fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications using incremental evolution with multi-objective genetic programming (GP). We designed four fitness functions derived from flight simulations and used multi-objective GP to evolve controllers able to locate a radar source, navigate the UAV to the source efficiently using on-board sensor measurements, and circle closely around the emitter.

Gregory J. Barlow; Choong K. Oh; Edward Grant

2004-01-01

4

Vehicle detection from aerial imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle detection from aerial images is becoming an increasingly important research topic in surveillance, traffic monitoring and military applications. The system described in this paper focuses on vehicle detection in rural environments and its applications to oil and gas pipeline threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current pipeline patrol services that rely on pilot

Joshua Gleason; Ara V. Nefian; Xavier Bouyssounousse; Terry Fong; George Bebis

2011-01-01

5

Differential flatness-based trajectory planning for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles using mixed-integer linear programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a method for planning fuel-optimal trajectories for multiple unmanned aerial vehicles to reconfigure and traverse between goal points in a dynamic environment in real-time. Recent developments in robot motion planning have shown that trajectory optimization of linear vehicle systems including collision avoidance can be written as a linear program subject to mixed integer constraints, known as a

Yongxing Hao; A. Davari; A. Manesh

2005-01-01

6

Autonomous Controller Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using  

E-print Network

Autonomous Controller Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Multi-objective Genetic Programming controllers were developed for fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications using multi well to real UAVs. 2 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Simulation The focus of this research was the development

Fernandez, Thomas

7

Barlow, Gregory John. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Multi-objective Genetic Programming. (under the direction of Edward Grant.)  

E-print Network

Vehicles Using Multi-objective Genetic Programming. (under the direction of Edward Grant.) Unmanned aerial them to fly real UAVs. #12;DESIGN OF AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION CONTROLLERS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLESAbstract Barlow, Gregory John. Design of Autonomous Navigation Controllers for Unmanned Aerial

Fernandez, Thomas

8

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the subject of considerable attention in the governmental, scientific, and research communities. They are operated by onboard flight automation systems or remotely by a human pilot. Recently employed in Afghanistan and Iraq, UAVs can be used for reconnaissance, surveillance, and even combat. They also have many non-military applications. These sites illustrate the diversity of UAVs and discuss new technologies being used in their design.An article from West Virginia University (1) gives an overview of UAV research being conducted at the institution. In addition to describing the software development for UAV control, the article effectively conveys what UAVs are and how they are used. Another resource that demonstrates the multitude of UAV applications comes from a company that specializes in their design (2). The UAVs described on the site range from high-flying solar powered aircraft to tiny MicroAir Vehicles. Many of the aircraft featured on the site were developed in conjunction with NASA, and a technical paper describing the development of one of the UAVs is provided. A Congressional Research Service report (3) focuses on military acquisition and utilization of UAVs. It briefly discusses early trials dating back to World War I and later efforts by the Israeli Air Force, but the majority of the report deals with current models and the gradual phasing out of certain manned flight missions. The High-Altitude, Long-Endurance UAV Certification & Regulatory Roadmap (4) is a massive online document intended to facilitate the creation of a National Airspace System that includes UAV flight. The downloadable version is nearly 500 pages in length and addresses the integration of UAVs in civil, commercial, and military applications. The University of Sydney has a group of students and faculty that are very active in UAV research and development. The group's homepage (5) showcases four UAVs created at the university, as well as providing several research papers that explore related design issues. A report from the University of Florida (6) proposes a computer vision-based system for creating a fully autonomous Micro Air Vehicle (MAV). The authors note that while considerable progress has been made in remotely piloted MAVs, efforts to develop a MAV that can pilot itself have met with limited success. To curb this trend, the researchers created a system that uses an onboard camera for horizon detection, and the details are presented in the paper. A news article from October 2003 (7) documents a groundbreaking achievement in aviation: the first laser-powered aircraft. Developed by researchers from NASA and the University of Alabama, the UAV is the target of a ground-based laser that charges the photovoltaic cells on board the aircraft. Another news story offers some surprising comments, including the suggestion that manned fighter jets will soon be a thing of the past. Published by Wired News in November 2003, the article cites several experts in unmanned aerial vehicle development. [CL

9

Digital autoland system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

Autoland controllers are prevalent for both large and small/micro unmanned aerial vehicles, but very few are available for medium sized unmanned aerial vehicles. These vehicles tend to have limited sensors and instrumentation, yet must possess good...

Wagner, Thomas William, Jr.

2007-09-17

10

Biomimetic flapping wing aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a vertical take-off and hover capable flapping wing aerial vehicle using a biomimetic approach; replicating the hovering patterns of dragonflies and hummingbirds. The prototype uses a spatial mechanism driven by a rotary actuator which generates an angle of attack during each wing stroke. A 98 g, 380 mm span two wing prototype capable of vertical take-off and

M. A. A. Fenelon

2009-01-01

11

Wireless Relay Communications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

1 Wireless Relay Communications with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Performance and Optimization in which Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used as relays between ground-based terminals and a network node and relay assignments as the topology of the network evolves. Index Terms: unmanned aerial

Swindlehurst, A. Lee

12

UAVNet: A Mobile Wireless Mesh Network Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

UAVNet: A Mobile Wireless Mesh Network Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Simon Morgenthaler, Torsten quadrocopter-based Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The flying wireless mesh nodes are automatically that UAVNet can significantly improve network performance. Index Terms-- Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Wireless

Braun, Torsten

13

Trajectory Optimization for Target Localization Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Trajectory Optimization for Target Localization Using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Sameera S. Ponda , Richard M. Kolacinski and Emilio Frazzoli Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped in technology are encouraging the use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for intelli- gence

How, Jonathan P.

14

Obstacle and Terrain Avoidance for Miniature Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and strategy around the world.\\u000a Technology advancements have enabled the development of large UAVs (e.g., Global Hawk, Predator) and the creation of smaller,\\u000a increasingly capable UAVs. The focus of this Chapter is on smaller fixed-wing miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs), which range\\u000a in size from % to 2 m

S. Griffiths; J. Saunders; A. Curtis; B. Barber; T. McLain; R. Beard

15

Delivery of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To support much of NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program science, NASA has acquired two Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Two major missions are currently planned using the Global Hawk: the Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac) and the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) missions. This paper briefly describes GloPac and GRIP, the concept of operations and the resulting requirements and communication architectures. Also discussed are requirements for future missions that may use satellite systems and networks owned and operated by third parties.

Ivancic, William D.; Sullivan, Donald V.

2011-01-01

16

Sensor design for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the prevailing overall considerations in designing sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It describes in detail how these considerations and constraints have influenced the design of the sensor suite for the Global Hawk UAV

D. M. Stuart

1997-01-01

17

Rangeland monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management applications, such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. UAVs have several advantages: they can be deployed quickly...

18

Draper Laboratory small autonomous aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. and students from Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Boston University have cooperated to develop an autonomous aerial vehicle that won the 1996 International Aerial Robotics Competition. This paper describes the approach, system architecture and subsystem designs for the entry. This entry represents a combination of many technology areas: navigation, guidance, control, vision processing, human factors, packaging, power, real-time software, and others. The aerial vehicle, an autonomous helicopter, performs navigation and control functions using multiple sensors: differential GPS, inertial measurement unit, sonar altimeter, and a flux compass. The aerial transmits video imagery to the ground. A ground based vision processor converts the image data into target position and classification estimates. The system was designed, built, and flown in less than one year and has provided many lessons about autonomous vehicle systems, several of which are discussed. In an appendix, our current research in augmenting the navigation system with vision- based estimates is presented.

DeBitetto, Paul A.; Johnson, Eric N.; Bosse, Michael C.; Trott, Christian A.

1997-06-01

19

Autonomous mission management for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an on-board architecture designed to enable an unmanned aerial vehicle to carry out an observation mission autonomously. The management performed by the architecture relates to the objectives of the mission. The response time to an external event does not need to be strictly defined; the architecture behaves like a soft real-time system. The mission of the vehicle

Magali Barbier; Elodie Chanthery

2004-01-01

20

Ultralight photovoltaic modules for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

New lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Modified low-cost terrestrial solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize vehicle cost. New processes were developed for assembling thin solar cells, encapsulant films, and cover films. An innovative by-pass diode mounting approach that uses a solar cell as a heat spreader was devised and tested. Materials and processes will be evaluated through accelerated environmental testing.

Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Darkazalli, G. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States); Lamp, T. [Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Wright Lab.

1997-12-31

21

Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation

Kitt C. Reinhardt; Thomas R. Lamp; Jack W. Geis; A. J. Colozza

1996-01-01

22

The WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project. The WITAS UAV project is an ambitious, long-term basic research project with the goal of developing technologies and functionalities necessary for the suc- cessful deployment of a fully autonomous UAV operating over di- verse geographical terrain containing road and traffic networks. The

Patrik Dohrty; Gösta H. Granlund; Krzysztof Kuchcinski; Erik Sandewall; Klas Nordberg; Erik Skarman; Johan Wiklund

2000-01-01

23

Autonomous target following by unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an algorithm for the autonomous navigation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) following a moving target. The UAV in consideration is a fixed wing aircraft that has physical constraints on airspeed and maneuverability. The target however is not considered to be constrained and can move in any general pattern. We show a single circular pattern

S Khan; K Shafiq; M Shah

2006-01-01

24

Situation Identification by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach to a multi-facet task of situation identifica- tion by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is presented. The concept of multi-layered identification system based on soft computing approach to reasoning with incomplete, imprecise or vague information is discussed.

Hung Son Nguyen; Andrzej Skowron; Marcin S. Szczuka

2000-01-01

25

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and GPS Receivers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that a small fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) be used over a period of years to monitor the rise of pressure surfaces caused by the hypothesized rise in average temperature of the troposphere due to global warming. Global Positioning Satellite System (GPS) receivers would be used for the precise tracking required.

Gary, B.

1995-01-01

26

Visual search automation for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, development, and testing of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with automated capabilities is described: searching a prescribed area, identifying a specific building within that area based on a small sign located on one wall, and then identifying an opening into that building. This includes a description of the automated search system along with simulation and flight test results.

ERIC N. JOHNSON; ALISON A. PROCTOR; Jincheol Ha; ALLEN R. TANNENBAUM

2005-01-01

27

Hovering control of vectored thrust aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a vectored thrust aerial vehicle( VTAV) that has three ducted fans is considered. Since ducted fans are powerful and effective in providing lift, they are suitable for thrusters of UAVs, but modeling their aerodynamic effects such as ram drag is very difficult. The VTAV has one ducted fan fixed to its body and two ducted fans that

Makoto Kumon; Jayantha Katupitiya

2010-01-01

28

Landmine detection utilizing an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landmines pose a great danger to people in many areas. It is imperative to correctly identify the location of landmines for proper removal. Hence, there is a need to efficiently and accurately identify locations of landmines. The objective of this project is to conduct preliminary system analysis of three unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) utilizing ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar (GPSAR)

Aaron Goad; Daniel Schorer; Jezeree Sullenberger; Farooq Yousuf; Amy Yu; G. Donohue; Kenneth Hintz

2008-01-01

29

A survey of quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have become a topic of interest in many research organizations. UAVs are finding applications in various areas ranging from military applications to traffic surveillance. This paper is a survey for a certain kind of UAV called quadrotor or quadcopter. Researchers are frequently choosing quadrotors for their research because a quadrotor can accurately

Shweta Gupte; Paul Infant Teenu Mohandas; James M. Conrad

2012-01-01

30

Model simplification of an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the authors describe the process of model simplification that can be done to an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in straight steady flight condition. The aim of the process is to find a simple model that can approximate as good as possible the physical model of the AR.Drone quadcopter designed by Parrot. The non-linear dynamic model of this

Ioan-Radu Morar; Ioan Nascu

2012-01-01

31

A Distributed Architecture for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Experimentation  

E-print Network

A Distributed Architecture for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Experimentation P. Doherty, P unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great of distributed AI technologies. #12;The WITAS1 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project2 [4] is a basic research project

Doherty, Patrick

32

Aerospace Industry Opportunities in Australia UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVs)  

E-print Network

Aerospace Industry Opportunities in Australia UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVs) - Are They Ready Technology Forum Report titled "Study of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Market in Australia", by Dr KC in Australia UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAVs) - Are They Ready This Time? Are We? Dr K.C. Wong1 Department

Wong, K. C.

33

Linkping University Post Print Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Linköping University Post Print Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation Using Geo. Original Publication: Gianpaolo Conte and Patrick Doherty, Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation.1155/2009/387308 Research Article Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Navigation Using Geo-Referenced Information Gianpaolo

Doherty, Patrick

34

Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable  

E-print Network

Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable Surgical Robot Mitchell J on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were environment and to control it through an unconventional data link such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

35

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Patrick Doherty  

E-print Network

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Patrick Doherty Department of Computer Abstract The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid for the development and integration of distributed AI technologies. The WITAS1 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project

Doherty, Patrick

36

Formation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs)  

E-print Network

,munel}@sabanciuniv.edu Abstract--Coordinated motion of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has been a growing research interestFormation Control of a Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) Mehmet Ali Guney and Mustafa Unel trajectories for each aerial vehicle in the group. Thus, we extend some of our earlier work ( [13], [15], [16

Yanikoglu, Berrin

37

Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Doppler Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Research into reactive collision avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles has been conducted on unmanned terrestrial and mini aerial vehicles utilising active Doppler radar obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed that a simple reactive collision avoidance al- gorithm enables aerial vehicles to autonomously avoid obstacles. This builds upon simulation work

Andrew Viquerat; Lachlan Blackhall; Alistair Reid; Salah Sukkarieh; Graham Brooker

2007-01-01

38

Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Bernard Michini B;Modeling and Adaptive Control of Indoor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Bernard Michini Submitted for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract The operation of unmanned aerial

How, Jonathan P.

39

Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments  

E-print Network

Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee #12;2 #12;Visibility Maximization with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environments by Kenneth Lee of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract Unmanned aerial

How, Jonathan P.

40

Robust Trajectory Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Uncertain Environments  

E-print Network

Robust Trajectory Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Uncertain Environments by Brandon Luders;Robust Trajectory Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Uncertain Environments by Brandon Luders of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Aeronautics and Astronautics Abstract As unmanned aerial

How, Jonathan P.

41

Advanced Research with Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research challenges for artifi-cial intelligence and knowledge representation. Much pre-vious research has focused on low-level control capability with the goal of developing controllers which support the autonomous flight of a UAV from one way-point to another. The

Patrick Doherty

2004-01-01

42

Robust trajectory planning for unmanned aerial vehicles in uncertain environments  

E-print Network

As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) take on more prominent roles in aerial missions, it becomes necessary to increase the level of autonomy available to them within the mission planner. In order to complete realistic mission ...

Luders, Brandon (Brandon Douglas)

2008-01-01

43

Combined Visual and Inertial Navigation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Combined Visual and Inertial Navigation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Jonathan Kelly, Srikanth aerial vehicles (UAVs) typically depend on GPS to provide ab- solute positioning information the motion estimates from both sensors in an extended Kalman filter to determine vehicle posi- tion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Morphing Inflatable Wing Development for Compact Package Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

any military and commercial applications for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been identified and numerous vehicles are under development. Many of these vehicles have a need to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun launch or packaging into aircraft mounted aerial drop assemblies. One technology that has shown promise in achieving this goal is

David Cadogan; Tim Smith; Matt MacKusick

45

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System  

E-print Network

This research will proposed a new kind of relatively low cost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make just in time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaics of aerial photo should be able to be produced with relatively low cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint. The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payload management system specifically developed for rapid aerial mapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the key factor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectified aerial mapping). This system will also be equipped with special software to post process the aerial photos to produce the mosaic aerial photo map

Adiprawita, Widyawardana; Semibiring, Jaka

2008-01-01

46

Trajectory optimization for target localization using small unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

Small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), equipped with navigation systems and video capability, are currently being deployed for intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance missions. One particular mission of interest ...

Ponda, Sameera S

2008-01-01

47

Modeling and adaptive control of indoor unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

The operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in constrained indoor environments presents many unique challenges in control and planning. This thesis investigates modeling, adaptive control and trajectory optimization ...

Michini, Bernard (Bernard J.)

2009-01-01

48

Photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology has attracted attention for aerial photogrammetric mapping. The low cost and the feasibility to automatic flight along commanded waypoints can be considered as the main advantages of this technology in photogrammetric applications. Using GNSS/INS technologies the images are taken at the planned position of the exposure station and the exterior orientation parameters (position Xo, Yo, Zo and attitude ?, ?, ?) of images can be direct determined. However, common UAVs (off-the-shelf) do not replace the traditional aircraft platform. Overall, the main shortcomings are related to: difficulties to obtain the authorization to perform the flight in urban and rural areas, platform stability, safety flight, stability of the image block configuration, high number of the images and inaccuracies of the direct determination of the exterior orientation parameters of the images. In this paper are shown the obtained results from the project photogrammetric mapping using aerial images from the SIMEPAR UAV system. The PIPER J3 UAV Hydro aircraft was used. It has a micro pilot MP2128g. The system is fully integrated with 3-axis gyros/accelerometers, GPS, pressure altimeter, pressure airspeed sensors. A Sony Cyber-shot DSC-W300 was calibrated and used to get the image block. The flight height was close to 400 m, resulting GSD near to 0.10 m. The state of the art of the used technology, methodologies and the obtained results are shown and discussed. Finally advantages/shortcomings found in the study and main conclusions are presented

Graça, N.; Mitishita, E.; Gonçalves, J.

2014-11-01

49

Motion Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Resource Constraints  

E-print Network

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are currently used in several surveillance applications to monitor a set of targets and collect relevant data. One of the main constraints that characterize a small UAV is the maximum amount of fuel the vehicle...

Sundar, Kaarthik

2012-10-19

50

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

51

Exploration of Titan using Vertical Lift Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autonomous vertical lift aerial vehicles (such as rotorcraft or powered-lift vehicles) hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. Vertical lift aerial vehicles would have the following advantages/attributes for planetary exploration: low-speed and low-altitude detailed aerial surveys; remote-site sample return to lander platforms; precision placement of scientific probes; soft landing capability for vehicle reuse (multiple flights) and remote-site monitoring; greater range, speed, and access to hazardous terrain than a surface rover; greater resolution of surface details than an orbiter or balloons. Exploration of Titan presents an excellent opportunity for the development and usage of such vehicles.

Young, L. A.

2001-01-01

52

Autonomous Target Following by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Fahd Rafi, Saad Khan, Khurram Shafiq and Mubarak Shah  

E-print Network

Autonomous Target Following by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Fahd Rafi, Saad Khan, Khurram Shafiq: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Target Following, Autonomous Navigation 1. INTRODUCTION Autonomous operation aerial vehicle (UAV) following a moving target. The UAV in consideration is a fixed wing aircraft

Central Florida, University of

53

Decision Support Visualizations for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Decision Support Visualizations for Schedule Management of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Amy S, 02139 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are quickly becoming indispensable in military operations aerial vehicles (UAVs) for reconnaissance, surveillance, and attack missions, and there is also

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

54

A Distributed Architecture for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research challenges for distributed autonomous robotics systems. In this article, a prototype distributed architecture for autonomous un- manned aerial vehicle experimentation is presented which supports the development of intelligent capabilities and their integration in a robust,

P. Doherty; P. Haslum; F. Heintz; T. Merz; P. Nyblom; T. Persson; B. Wingman

55

INFLATABLE AND RIGIDIZABLE WINGS FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent shifts in tactical defense operations have led to a need for improved capabilities in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Several vehicle types such as the Predator are currently operational, and numerous smaller specialized vehicles are under development. Many of the vehicles under development require the ability to stow their wings and control surfaces into very small volumes to permit gun

David Cadogan; William Graham; Tim Smith

56

Decentralized overlapping control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized overlapping feedback laws are designed for a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The dynamic model of the formation with an information structure constraint in which each vehicle, except the leader, only detects the vehicle directly in front of it, is treated as an interconnected system with overlapping subsystems. Using the mathematical framework of the inclusion principle, the interconnected system

Claire J. Tomlina

57

Efficient C-Space and Cost Function Updates in 3D for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Efficient C-Space and Cost Function Updates in 3D for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Sebastian Scherer aerial vehicle with on-board sensing and computing. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have: [basti, dif, ssingh]@cmu.edu Fig. 1. The autonomous quad-rotor aerial vehicle used for testing. Here

Scherer, Sebastian

58

Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing  

E-print Network

Dynamic Model and Control of a New Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Tilt-Wing Mechanism Kaan, LQR, Quadrotor, Tilt-wing, VTOL. I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) designed for various of a new tilt-wing aerial vehicle (SUAVi: Sabanci University Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) that is capable

Ã?nel, Mustafa

59

Experimental cooperative control of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen rapidly growing interest in the development of networks of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), as aerial sensor networks for the purpose of coordinated monitoring, surveillance, and rapid emergency response. This has triggered a great deal of research in higher levels of planning and control, including collaborative sensing and exploration, synchronized motion planning, and formation or cooperative

Selcuk Bayraktar; Georgios E. Fainekos; George J. Pappas

2004-01-01

60

A Distributed Architecture for Intelligent Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial ve- hicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research chal- lenges for artificial intelligence. In this article, a pro- totype distributed architecture for intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle experimentation is presented which sup- ports the development of intelligent capabilities and their integration in a robust,

P. Doherty; P. Haslum; T. Merz; E. Skarman; G. Conte; S. Duranti; F. Heintz; T. Persson; B. Wingman

2004-01-01

61

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial phot...

62

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs

A. Rango; A. Laliberte; C. Winters; C. Maxwell; C. Steele

2008-01-01

63

Low altitude threat evasive trajectory generation for autonomous aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

In recent years, high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles have been used to great success in combat operations, providing both reconnaissance as well as weapon launch platforms for time critical targets. Interest is now ...

Pettit, Ryan L. (Ryan Louis), 1978-

2004-01-01

64

Visibility maximization with unmanned aerial vehicles in complex environments  

E-print Network

Unmanned aerial vehicles are used extensively in persistent surveillance, search and track, border patrol, and environment monitoring applications. Each of these applications requires the obtainment of information using a ...

Lee, Kenneth (Kenneth King Ho)

2010-01-01

65

Natural language processing for unmanned aerial vehicle guidance interfaces  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the opportunities and challenges involved in applying natural language processing techniques to the control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are addressed. The problem of controlling an unmanned aircraft ...

Craparo, Emily M. (Emily Marie), 1980-

2004-01-01

66

A distributed embedded software architecture for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

In order to deploy intelligent, next-generation applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), we must first develop a software architecture that supports onboard computation and flexible communication. This thesis ...

Matczynski, Michael J

2006-01-01

67

Autonomous quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle for culvert inspection  

E-print Network

This document presents work done to lay the foundation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for inspecting culverts. By expanding upon prior progress creating an autonomous indoor quadrotor, many basic hardware and ...

Serrano, Nathan E

2011-01-01

68

Solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was performed to determine the impact of various power system components and mission requirements on the size of solar-powered high altitude long endurance (HALE)-type aircraft. The HALE unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has good potential for use in many military and civil applications. The primary power system components considered in this study were photovoltaic (PV) modules for power generation and regenerative fuel cells for energy storage. The impact of relevant component performance on UAV size and capability were considered; including PV module efficiency and mass, power electronics efficiency, and fuel cell specific energy. Mission parameters such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power were also varied to determine impact on UAV size. The aircraft analysis method used determines the required aircraft wing aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass based on maximum endurance or minimum required power calculations. The results indicate that the capacity of the energy storage system employed, fuel cells in this analysis, greatly impacts aircraft size, whereas the impact of PV module efficiency and mass is much less important. It was concluded that an energy storage specific energy (total system) of 250--500 Whr/kg is required to enable most useful missions, and that PV cells with efficiencies greater than {approximately} 12% are suitable for use.

Reinhardt, K.C.; Lamp, T.R.; Geis, J.W. [Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Aero Propulsion and Power Directorate; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Corp., Brookpark, OH (United States). Aerospace Technology Development

1996-12-31

69

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Cadastral Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the investigation of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) for use in cadastral surveying. Within the scope of a pilot study UAVs were tested for capturing geodata and compared with conventional data acquisition methods for cadastral surveying. Two study sites were therefore surveyed with a tachymeter-GNSS combination as well as a UAV system. The workflows of both methods were investigated and the resulting data were compared with the requirements of Swiss cadastral surveying. Concerning data acquisition and evaluation, the two systems are found to be comparable in terms of time expenditure, accuracy, and completeness. In conclusion, the UAV image orientation proved to be the limiting factor for the obtained accuracy due to the low- cost camera including camera calibration, image quality, and definition of the ground control points (natural or artificial). However, the required level of accuracy for cadastral surveying was reached. The advantage of UAV systems lies in their high flexibility and efficiency in capturing the surface of an area from a low flight altitude. In addition, further information such as orthoimages, elevation models and 3D objects can easily be gained from UAV images. Altogether, this project endorses the benefit of using UAVs in cadastral applications and the new opportunities they provide for cadastral surveying.

Manyoky, M.; Theiler, P.; Steudler, D.; Eisenbeiss, H.

2011-09-01

70

Robust adaptive control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of meeting higher endurance requirements remains a challenging task for any type and size of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). According to recent research studies significant energy savings can be realized through utilization of thermal currents. The navigation strategies followed across thermal regions, however, are based on rather intuitive assessments of remote pilots and lack any systematic path planning approaches. Various methods to enhance the autonomy of UAVs in soaring applications are investigated while seeking guarantees for flight performance improvements. The dynamics of the aircraft, small UAVs in particular, are affected by the environmental conditions, whereas unmodeled dynamics possibly become significant during aggressive flight maneuvers. Besides, the demanded control inputs might have a magnitude range beyond the limits dictated by the control surface actuators. The consequences of ignoring these issues can be catastrophic. Supporting this claim NASA Dryden Flight Research Center reports considerable performance degradation and even loss of stability in autonomous soaring flight tests with the subsequent risk of an aircraft crash. The existing control schemes are concluded to suffer from limited performance. Considering the aircraft dynamics and the thermal characteristics we define a vehicle-specific trajectory optimization problem to achieve increased cross-country speed and extended range of flight. In an environment with geographically dispersed set of thermals of possibly limited lifespan, we identify the similarities to the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) and provide both exact and approximate guidance algorithms for the navigation of automated UAVs. An additional stochastic approach is used to quantify the performance losses due to incorrect thermal data while dealing with random gust disturbances and onboard sensor measurement inaccuracies. One of the main contributions of this research is a novel adaptive control design with anti-windup compensation. Our analysis on the indirect adaptive scheme reveals that the perturbation terms due to parameter errors do not cause any unbounded signals in the closed-loop. The stability of the adaptive system is established, and the properties of the proposed control scheme are demonstrated through simulations on a UAV model with input magnitude saturation constraints. The robust adaptive control design is further developed to extend our results to rate-saturated systems.

Kahveci, Nazli E.

71

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

DeBusk, Wesley M.

2009-01-01

72

Vehicle detection in aerial surveillance using dynamic Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

We present an automatic vehicle detection system for aerial surveillance in this paper. In this system, we escape from the stereotype and existing frameworks of vehicle detection in aerial surveillance, which are either region based or sliding window based. We design a pixelwise classification method for vehicle detection. The novelty lies in the fact that, in spite of performing pixelwise classification, relations among neighboring pixels in a region are preserved in the feature extraction process. We consider features including vehicle colors and local features. For vehicle color extraction, we utilize a color transform to separate vehicle colors and nonvehicle colors effectively. For edge detection, we apply moment preserving to adjust the thresholds of the Canny edge detector automatically, which increases the adaptability and the accuracy for detection in various aerial images. Afterward, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is constructed for the classification purpose. We convert regional local features into quantitative observations that can be referenced when applying pixelwise classification via DBN. Experiments were conducted on a wide variety of aerial videos. The results demonstrate flexibility and good generalization abilities of the proposed method on a challenging data set with aerial surveillance images taken at different heights and under different camera angles. PMID:22020682

Cheng, Hsu-Yung; Weng, Chih-Chia; Chen, Yi-Ying

2012-04-01

73

Convoy protection using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: organization and coordination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of how to use a given set of possibly heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to provide protection to a moving convoy of ground vehicles. By protection, we mean providing video or sensor coverage of a moving region around the convoy. A hierarchical system design is described that addresses how convoy protection missions may be organized

Stephen C. Spry; Anouck R. Girard; J. Karl Hedrick

2005-01-01

74

A Practical Visual Servo Control for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image-based visual servo control is presented for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of stationary or quasi-stationary flight with the camera mounted onboard the vehicle. The target considered consists of a finite set of stationary and disjoint points lying in a plane. Control of the position and orientation dynamics is decoupled using a visual error based on spherical centroid

Nicolas Guenard; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony

2008-01-01

75

Application of Adaptive Autopilot Designs for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper summarizes the application of two adaptive approaches to autopilot design, and presents an evaluation and comparison of the two approaches in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. One approach employs two-stage dynamic inversion and the other employs feedback dynamic inversions based on a command augmentation system. Both are augmented with neural network based adaptive elements. The approaches permit adaptation to both parametric uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics, and incorporate a method that permits adaptation during periods of control saturation. Simulation results for an FQM-117B radio controlled miniature aerial vehicle are presented to illustrate the performance of the neural network based adaptation.

Shin, Yoonghyun; Calise, Anthony J.; Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

76

Vehicle detection of parking lot with different resolution aerial images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicle detection is a very important task for intelligent transportation system. In this paper, a method with mathematical morphology and template matching is presented to detect the crowded vehicles of parking lot with high resolution aerial image. Our experimental results with high resolution aerial image showed that the graded image, with the spatial resolution of 1×1ft, could greatly reduce the calculation time, but with the same accuracy as the original image with the spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5ft .

Zheng, Zezhong; Lu, Yufeng; Zhou, Guoqing; Liu, Yalan; Li, Xiaowen; Chen, Jinxi; Li, Jiang

2014-11-01

77

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management  

E-print Network

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management perspectives across broader spatial extents is unrivaled. Keywords: Small unmanned aerial vehicles, aerial is in very remote areas that are expensive and often impossible to access on the ground. Unmanned Aerial

78

FlyAR: augmented reality supported micro aerial vehicle navigation.  

PubMed

Micro aerial vehicles equipped with high-resolution cameras can be used to create aerial reconstructions of an area of interest. In that context automatic flight path planning and autonomous flying is often applied but so far cannot fully replace the human in the loop, supervising the flight on-site to assure that there are no collisions with obstacles. Unfortunately, this workflow yields several issues, such as the need to mentally transfer the aerial vehicle?s position between 2D map positions and the physical environment, and the complicated depth perception of objects flying in the distance. Augmented Reality can address these issues by bringing the flight planning process on-site and visualizing the spatial relationship between the planned or current positions of the vehicle and the physical environment. In this paper, we present Augmented Reality supported navigation and flight planning of micro aerial vehicles by augmenting the user?s view with relevant information for flight planning and live feedback for flight supervision. Furthermore, we introduce additional depth hints supporting the user in understanding the spatial relationship of virtual waypoints in the physical world and investigate the effect of these visualization techniques on the spatial understanding. PMID:24650983

Zollmann, Stefanie; Hoppe, Christof; Langlotz, Tobias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

2014-04-01

79

Developing safety critical software for an unmanned aerial vehicle situational awareness tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe our application of the SPARK programming language to the development of flight control software for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The SPARK language was used during a senior-level software engineering course at the US Air Force Academy. This paper uses the year-long project from this course as an example application of SPARK. The process we

Ricky E. Sward; Mark Gerken

2006-01-01

80

AN EXPLORATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DIRECT MANIPULATION THROUGH 3D SPATIAL INTERACTION  

E-print Network

AN EXPLORATION OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE DIRECT MANIPULATION THROUGH 3D SPATIAL INTERACTION of directly manipulating an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Particularly, a study of touch- and device- free

Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

81

Development and evaluation of a collision avoidance system for supervisory control of a micro aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

Recent technological advances have enabled Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) to become increasingly prevalent in a variety of domains. From military surveillance to disaster relief to ...

Jackson, Kimberly F

2012-01-01

82

Avionics and control system development for mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

A flight control system was developed to achieve mid-air rendezvous of two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a part of the Parent Child Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (PCUAV) project at MIT and the Draper Laboratory. A lateral ...

Park, Sanghyuk, 1973-

2004-01-01

83

Target Tracking and Adversarial Reasoning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their ability to reach unique vantage points without endangering a human operator, camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are effective tools for military and civilian surveillance missions, such as target tracking. However, visually tracking targets can be challenging because of the inherent clutter and occlusions. To add to this challenge, adversarial targets will attempt to escape. To counter these

Ben Ludington; Johan Reimann; George Vachtsevanos

2007-01-01

84

Formation of a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, control laws are designed to achieve desired flight formations for a group of unmanned (uninhabited) aerial vehicles (UAVs). It is proposed that the formation is led and managed by a leader UAV, which determines desired (for instance, safe and achievable) flight trajectories for a group of follower UAVs. Having the desired trajectories, control laws are designed to

T. John KOO; Shahram M. Shahruz

2001-01-01

85

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Speed Estimation via Nonlinear Adaptive Observers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the problem of the speed estimation of an unmanned aerial vehicle is addressed, when acceleration, the angles and the angular speeds are available for measurement. We focus our analysis on a prototype drone - a 4 rotors helicopter robot- which is not equipped with GPS related devices and relies on the inertial measurement unit (IMU) only. A

Khadidja Benzemrane; Giovanni L. Santosuosso; Gilney Damm

2007-01-01

86

Vision chip for navigating and controlling Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single chip which visually measures the Yaw, Pitch and Roll {(YPR)} and images the direction of travel of a Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle {(MUAV)} is described. The {YPR} measurement modules, constructed using an elaborated Reichardt model of the fly's motion detection system, are used to measure the drift rate of features in the field of view. A variable acuity

Mark Alan Massie; Christopher Robert Baxter; J. P. Curzan; Paul Mccarley; Ralph Etienne-cummings

2003-01-01

87

Roll Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Fuzzy Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective methodology for the simplified representation of the kinematics and the horizontal flight control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A real UAV has been used as a model in this project. The flight behavior of the UAV has been modeled in terms of simple analytic relationships, which proved very helpful in representing UAV's actual horizontal motion.

I. K NIKOLOS; L. DOITSIDIS; V. N. CHRISTOPOULOS; N. TSOURVELOUDIS

88

Autonomous Exploration in Unknown Urban Environments for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an autonomous exploration method for unmanned aerial vehicles in unknown urban environment. We address two major aspects of exploration- gathering information about the surroundings and avoiding obstacles in the flight path- by building local obstacle maps and solving for confli ct-free trajectory using model predictive control (MPC) framework. For obstacle sensing, an onboard laser scanner

David Hyunchul Shim; Hoam Chung; H. Jin Kim; Shankar Sastry

2005-01-01

89

Vision Assisted Autonomous Landing of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a strategy for an autonomous landing maneuver for an underactuated, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using position information obtained from a single monocular on-board camera is presented. Although the UAV is underactuated in translational control inputs (i.e., a lift force can only be produced), the proposed controller is shown to achieve globally uniform ultimate boundedness (GUUB) in position

Vilas K. Chitrakaran; Darren M. Dawson; Jian Chen; Mathew Feemster

2005-01-01

90

Mission Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Workload Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems

Stephen R. Dixon; Christopher D. Wickens; Dervon Chang

2005-01-01

91

Decentralized overlapping control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized overlapping feedback laws are designed for a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The dynamic model of the formation with an overlapping information structure constraint is treated as an interconnected system with overlapping subsystems. Using the mathematical framework of the inclusion principle, the interconnected system is expanded into a higher dimensional space in which the subsystems appear to be disjoint.

Dusan M. Stipanovic; Gökhan Inalhan; Rodney Teo; Claire J. Tomlin

2004-01-01

92

Localizing RF Targets with Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an important and expanding role in both civilian and military missions, such as search and rescue, intelligence collection, surveillance, or reconnaissance. Currently, UAVs require human operators to control and direct their flights and sensors. To expand their effectiveness and exploit their inherent capabilities, we seek to develop robust techniques for multiple UAVs to cooperatively operate

Gregory J. Toussaint; Pedro De Lima; Daniel J. Pack

2007-01-01

93

Positioning Unmanned Aerial Vehicles as Communication Relays for Surveillance Tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

When unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are used to survey distant targets, it is important to transmit sensor informa- tion back to a base station. As this communication often requires high uninterrupted bandwidth, the surveying UAV often needs a free line-of-sight to the base station, which can be problematic in urban or mountainous areas. Communication ranges may also be limited, especially

Oleg Burdakova; Patrick Doherty

94

NONLINEAR CONTROL OF A HELICOPTER BASED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, output tracking control of a helicopter based unmanned aerial vehicle model is investigated. First, based on Newton-Euler equations, a dynamical model is derived by considering the helicopter as a rigid body upon which a set of forces and moments act. Second, we show that the model cannot be converted into a controllable linear system via exact state

T. JOHN KOO; YI MA; S. SHANKAR SASTRY

95

Decentralized overlapping control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decentralized overlapping feedback laws are designed for a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles. The dynamic model of the formation with an overlapping information structure constraint is treated as an interconnected system with overlapping subsystems. Using the mathematical framework of the inclusion principle, the interconnected system is expanded into a higher dimensional space in which the subsystems appear to be disjoint.

DuSan M. StipanoviC; G. Inalhan; R. Teo; C. J. Tomlin

2002-01-01

96

Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Visual Servoing for Cooperative Indoor Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the field of micro unmanned aerial vehicles (MAVs) make flying robots of small dimensions suitable platforms for performing advanced indoor missions. In order to achieve autonomous indoor flight a pose estimation technique is necessary. This paper presents a complete system which incorporates a vision-based pose estimation method to allow a MAV to navigate in indoor environments in

Piotr Rudol; Mariusz Wzorek; Gianpaolo Conte; Patrick Doherty

2008-01-01

97

Dead Slow: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Loitering in Battlespace  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unmanned (or Uninhabited) Aerial Vehicles are a key part of the American military's so-called revolution in military affairs (RMA) as practiced over Iraq. They are also part of the drive to shift agency away from humans and toward machines. This article considers the ways in which humans have, in calling on high technologies to distance them from…

Blackmore, Tim

2005-01-01

98

Vision Based Navigation for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a system for autonomous nav- igation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on computer vision. A UAV is equipped with an on- board cameras and each UAV is provided with noisy estimates of its own state, coming from GPS\\/INS. The mission of the UAV is low altitude navigation from an initial position to a nal position in

Bruno Sinopoli; Mario Micheli; Gianluca Donato; Tak-john Koo

2001-01-01

99

Pressurized structures-based hybrid unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the initial results of an investigation into building unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with pressurized structures-based (PSB) technologies. Basically, the UAV will be constructed in such a way that a considerable percentage of its weight will be supported by or composed of inflatable structures containing air or helium. PSB technologies can be employed in any number of UAV

Harris L. Edge; Ainsmar Brown; Jason Collins

2010-01-01

100

Automatic Collision Avoidance for Teleoperated Underactuated Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

based techniques are developed to detect obstacles, modify the UAV's trajectory by defining new with the obstacle avoidance problem for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) operating in teleoperated mode. First, a feedback controller that we proposed recently for the stabilization of the UAV's linear velocity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

TOWARDS MULTIMODAL OMNIDIRECTIONAL OBSTACLE DETECTION FOR AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

TOWARDS MULTIMODAL OMNIDIRECTIONAL OBSTACLE DETECTION FOR AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES Dirk, droeschel, schreiber, behnke}@ais.uni-bonn.de KEY WORDS: Autonomous UAVs, Multimodal Sensor Setup, 3D Laser propose a hardware setup and processing pipeline that allows a fully autonomous UAV to perceive obstacles

Behnke, Sven

102

Terrain mapping and control of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, methods for terrain mapping and control of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are proposed. First, robust obstacle detection and tracking algorithm are introduced to eliminate the clutter noise uncorrelated with the real obstacle. This is an important problem since most types of sensor measurements are vulnerable to noise. In order to eliminate such noise, a Kalman filter-based interacting

Yeonsik Kang

2006-01-01

103

Optimizing Trajectories for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Patrolling the Border  

E-print Network

back-and- forth. In the ideal case, this would means that the UAV is capable of detecting allOptimizing Trajectories for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Patrolling the Border Chris Kiekintveld in terms of words from natural language. In this paper, on an example of an UAV patrolling the border, we

Kreinovich, Vladik

104

RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class

Roberto Innocenti

2005-01-01

105

High throughput phenotyping using an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field trials are expensive and labor-intensive to carry out. Strategies to maximize data collection from these trials will improve research efficiencies. We have purchased a small unmanned aerial vehicle (AEV) to collect digital images from field plots. The AEV is remote-controlled and can be guided...

106

Design of a Small Solar-Powered Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis reports on a conceptual design of a solar-powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a mass no more than 10 kg. This UAV will have the necessary equipment to study wildfires in California, including a Global Positioning System (GPS) and infrared cameras. Using similar aircraft in the same weight class, the geometry of the aircraft was calculated. A weight

Christopher Hartney

2011-01-01

107

Collaborative Sensing by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles W. T. Luke Teacy, Jing Nie,  

E-print Network

Collaborative Sensing by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles W. T. Luke Teacy, Jing Nie, Sally Mc.trigoni,stephen.cameron}@comlab.ox.ac.uk ABSTRACT In many military and civilian applications, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provide, advances in airframe design and con- trol technology mean that using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

Martin, Ralph R.

108

Effect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Performance  

E-print Network

Effect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Operator Performance of Defense, or the U.S. Government. #12;Effect of Auditory Peripheral Displays On Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Engineering Systems Abstract With advanced autonomy, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

109

An Optimization-based Approach to Time Critical Cooperative Surveillance and Coverage with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Aerial Vehicles Ali Ahmadzadeh, James Keller, George J. Pappas, Ali Jadbabaie and Vijay Kumar I, elec- trically powered fixed-wing aerial vehicle that feature body fixed cameras to provide a low OF SMALL, ELECTRICALLY POWERED FIXED-WING AERIAL VEHICLE THAT FEATURE BODY FIXED CAMERAS Speed (airspeed

Pappas, George J.

110

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased considerably in recent  

E-print Network

Abstract The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased. Introduction Civilian applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have increased considerably in recent Acquisition, Or thorectification, and Object-based Classification of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UA V) Imager y

111

Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control  

E-print Network

Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control by Yoshiaki Students #12;2 #12;Real-time Trajectory Design for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Receding Horizon Control This thesis investigates the coordination and control of fleets of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Future

112

The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax Eric N. Johnson* and Daniel P. Schrage  

E-print Network

The Georgia Tech Unmanned Aerial Research Vehicle: GTMax Eric N. Johnson* and Daniel P. Schrage This paper describes the design, development, and operation of a research Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV be utilized. INTRODUCTION This paper presents the development of an open system Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV

Johnson, Eric N.

113

Words at the Right Time: Real-Time Dialogues with the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

Words at the Right Time: Real-Time Dialogues with the WITAS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Extended UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), in our case a helicopter. Its dialogue-system subprojects address Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Project 14,15] is an ambitious, long- term basic research project whose main

Doherty, Patrick

114

Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Current Status and Future Directions  

E-print Network

Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles ­ Current Status and Future Directions George have highlighted the potential utility for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Both fixed wing and rotary Reimann, Panos Antsaklis, Kimon Valavanis, "Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles­ Current

Antsaklis, Panos

115

Automatic Collision Avoidance for Manually Tele-operated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

Automatic Collision Avoidance for Manually Tele-operated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Jason Israelsen an approach that aids the human operator of unmanned aerial vehicles by automatically performing collision. I. INTRODUCTION The use of tele-operated unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in applications

van den Berg, Jur

116

A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES.wieland)@igg.uni-bonn.de, heiner.kuhlmann@uni-bonn.de KEY WORDS: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Direct Georeferencing, RTK-GPS, IMU, Extended Kalman Filtering, Real Time Operating System ABSTRACT: In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV

Behnke, Sven

117

Dynamic Visual Servoing with Image Moments for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using a Virtual Spring Approach  

E-print Network

Dynamic Visual Servoing with Image Moments for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using a Virtual Spring the position and orientation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using a fixed downward camera observing-based control, image-based visual servoing, unmnanned aerial vehicles, under- actuated systems, -7 0/1 -9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

118

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR RANGELAND MAPPING AND MONITORING: A COMPARISON OF TWO SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES FOR RANGELAND MAPPING AND MONITORING: A COMPARISON OF TWO SYSTEMS Andrea S unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed, with decimeter or sub- decimeter pixel resolution, can be acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). This type

119

ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology  

E-print Network

ReseaRch at the University of Maryland Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology Innovations in unmanned varieties of autonomous aerial vehicles, and new ways of utilizing them, offer the potential for making aerial vehicles autonomous and capable of penetrating tunnels, caves, and buildings, so that surveillance

Hill, Wendell T.

120

Cross Layer Design for Mobile Ad-Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks  

E-print Network

Cross Layer Design for Mobile Ad-Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks Abdel Ilah of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Ad-Hoc net- work, the layered architecture is not flexible enough to achieve for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (IMAC UAV). As for the routing protocol, We developed the Optimized Link State

Dong, Liang

121

A Vision-Based Boundary Following Framework for Aerial Vehicles Anqi Xu and Gregory Dudek  

E-print Network

of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). While various control frameworks exist for UAVs, they typically depend. The Procerus R Unicorn is a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle with an on-board autopilot microprocessorA Vision-Based Boundary Following Framework for Aerial Vehicles Anqi Xu and Gregory Dudek Abstract

122

A 3D Interface for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle B. Cervin 1  

E-print Network

A 3D Interface for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle B. Cervin 1 , C. Mills1 , and B. C. Wünsche2 1 Dept Defence Force is developing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for deployment in New Zealand and abroad controls for aerial vehicles and popular flight simulators, such as FlightGear and Microsoft Flight

Goodman, James R.

123

Aggressive landing maneuvers for unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

VTOL (Vertical Take Off and Landing) vehicle landing is considered to be a critically difficult task for both land, marine, and urban operations. This thesis describes one possible control approach to enable landing of ...

Bayraktar, Selcuk

2006-01-01

124

Low Cost Surveying Using AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional manned airborne surveys are usually expensive and the resolution of the acquired images is often limited. The main advantage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system acting as a photogrammetric sensor platform over more traditional manned airborne system is the high flexibility that allows image acquisition from unconventional viewpoints, the low cost in comparison with classical aerial photogrammetry and the high resolution images obtained. Nowadays there is a necessity for surveying small areas and in these cases, it is not economical the use of normal large format aerial or metric cameras to acquire aerial photos, therefore, the use of UAV platforms can be very suitable. Also the large availability of digital cameras has strongly enhanced the capabilities of UAVs. The use of digital non metric cameras together with the UAV could be used for multiple applications such as aerial surveys, GIS, wildfire mapping, stability of landslides, crop monitoring, etc. The aim of this work was to develop a low cost and accurate methodology in the production of orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEM). The study was conducted in the province of Almeria, south of Spain. The photogrammetric flight had an altitude of 50 m over ground, covering an area of 5.000 m2 approximately. The UAV used in this work was the md4-200, which is an electronic battery powered quadrocopter UAV developed by Microdrones GmbH, Germany. It had on-board a Pextax Optio A40 digital non metric camera with 12 Megapixels. It features a 3x optical zoom lens with a focal range covering angles of view equivalent to those of 37-111 mm lens in 35 mm format. The quadrocopter can be programmed to follow a route defined by several waypoints and actions and it has the ability for vertical take off and landing. Proper flight geometry during image acquisition is essential in order to minimize the number of photographs, avoid areas without a good coverage and make the overlaps homogeneous. The flight planning was done using the MdCockpit software, with the module waypoint editor. Flight route file was downloaded into the quadrocopter autonomous chip via cable. A total of twelve vertical images with a longitudinal and transversal overlapping of 60% and 50% respectively were taken. The digital camera was previously geometrically calibrated. Field control points covering the whole studied area were defined over the area of interest and their coordinates were measured by a GPS. Natural targets were used as field control points. The close range photogrammetric software Photomodeler Scanner v.7 was used in this work to calibrate the camera and to carry out the photogrammetric process. The software Golden Surfer was used to produce the DEM. The planimetric and the altimetric root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated in order to check the accuracy of the products. The RMSEx was 6 cm, the RMSEy was 4 cm and the RMSEy was 7 cm. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of orthophotos and DEMs obtained from images captured from a quadrocopter using low cost photogrammetric software. A future work can be the comparison of the products obtained following the route used in this study where the images are taken vertically with the products obtained with an orbital route where the number of images will be diminished and the photos will be taken oblique.

Pérez, M.; Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.

2013-08-01

125

Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in Artificial Intelligence (AI) at Nova southeastern University and as an adjunct to a project at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an AI method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed. A low cost approach was taken using freeware, gnu, software, and demo programs. The focus of this research has been to outline some of the AI techniques used for UAV flight control and discuss some of the tools used to apply AI techniques. The intent is to succeed with the implementation of applying AI techniques to actually control different aspects of the flight of an UAV.

Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2003-01-01

126

Optimal Complete Terrain Coverage using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Anqi Xu, Chatavut Viriyasuthee, and Ioannis Rekleitis  

E-print Network

Optimal Complete Terrain Coverage using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Anqi Xu, Chatavut Viriyasuthee an aerial vehicle. Ex- tensive experimental results in simulation validate the presented system, along. INTRODUCTION This paper presents a realization of an optimal terrain coverage algorithm for an Unmanned Aerial

Rekleitis, Ioannis

127

Autopilots for small unmanned aerial vehicles: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of the autopilot systems for small or micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The objective is\\u000a to provide a summary of the current commercial, open source and research autopilot systems for convenience of potential small\\u000a UAV users. The UAV flight control basics are introduced first. The radio control system and autopilot control system are then\\u000a explained

HaiYang Chao; YongCan Cao; YangQuan Chen

2010-01-01

128

A practical Visual Servo Control for a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

An image-based visual servo control is presented for an Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) capable of stationary or quasi-stationary flight. The proposed control design addresses visual servo of 'eye-in-hand' type systems. The control of the position and orientation dynamics are decoupled using a visual error based on a spherical centroid data, along with estimation of the gravitational inertial direction. The error

Nicolas Guenard; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony

2007-01-01

129

A multi-agent operator interface for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper described a scalable, expandable and platform-independent operator interface system for controlling future long range, high endurance unmanned aerial vehicles. MIIIRO (multi-modal immersive and intelligent interface for remote operation), developed based on open Internet technologies including the Java 2 platform, Java 3D, VRML, RMI, and CORBA, enables collaborative planning and coordinated control of UAVs over a network for achieving

Kam S. Tso; Gregory K. Tharp; Wayne Zhang; A. T. Tai

1999-01-01

130

Vision based victim detection from unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding injured humans is one of the primary goals of any search and rescue operation. The aim of this paper is to address the task of automatically finding people lying on the ground in images taken from the on-board camera of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In this paper we evaluate various state-of-the-art visual people detection methods in the context

Mykhaylo Andriluka; Paul Schnitzspan; Johannes Meyer; Stefan Kohlbrecher; Karen Petersen; Oskar von Stryk; Stefan Roth; Bernt Schiele

2010-01-01

131

Conflict Detection and Resolution Method for Cooperating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a Conflict Detection and Resolution (CDR) method for cooperating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) sharing\\u000a airspace. The proposed method detects conflicts using an algorithm based on axis-aligned minimum bounding box and solves the\\u000a detected conflicts cooperatively using a genetic algorithm that modifies the trajectories of the UAVs with an overall minimum\\u000a cost. The method changes the initial flight

Roberto Conde; David Alejo; Jose Antonio Cobano; Antidio Viguria; Aníbal Ollero

132

Using unmanned aerial vehicles for rangelands: Current applications and future potentials  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High resolution aerial photographs have important rangeland applications such as monitoring vegetation change, developing grazing strategies, determining rangeland health, and assessing remediation treatment effectiveness. Acquisition of high resolution images by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has...

133

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

SciTech Connect

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States` Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV`s whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, the authors have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible they modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, J.; Arnold, J.H. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

134

Photovoltaic electric power applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Photovoltaic electric-powered flight is receiving a great deal of attention in the context of the United States' Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) program. This paper addresses some of the enabling technical areas and their potential solutions. Of particular interest are the long-duration, high-altitude class of UAV's whose mission it is to achieve altitudes between 60,000 and 100,000 feet, and to remain at those altitudes for prolonged periods performing various mapping and surveillance activities. Addressed herein are studies which reveal the need for extremely light-weight and efficient solar cells, high-efficiency electric motor-driven propeller modules, and power management and distribution control elements. Since the potential payloads vary dramatically in their power consumption and duty cycles, a typical load profile has been selected to provide commonality for the propulsion power comparisons. Since missions vary widely with respect to ground coverage requirements, from repeated orbiting over a localized target to long-distance routes over irregular terrain, we have also averaged the power requirements for on-board guidance and control power, as well as ground control and communication link utilization. In the context of the national technology reinvestment program, wherever possible we modeled components and materials which have been qualified for space and defense applications, yet are compatible with civilian UAV activities. These include, but are not limited to, solar cell developments, electric storage technology for diurnal operation, local and ground communications, power management and distribution, and control servo design. And finally, the results of tests conducted by Wright Laboratory on ultralight, highly efficient MOCVD GaAs solar cells purchased from EPI Materials Ltd. (EML) of the UK are presented. These cells were also used for modeling the flight characteristics of UAV aircraft.

Geis, Jack; Arnold, Jack H.

1994-01-01

135

Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the "ideal" remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

Tomczyk, Andrzej

2014-12-01

136

Ad hoc Network QoS Architecture For Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

E-print Network

Ad hoc Network QoS Architecture For Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Ouns Bouachir-domains: manned aircraft, automotive, maritime and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). In such dynamic systems that human has always been the operator. He has been in charge of the vehicle control and the traffic control

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

137

Structural design and fabrication techniques of composite unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Popularity of unmanned aerial vehicles has grown substantially in recent years both in the private sector, as well as for government functions. This growth can be attributed largely to the increased performance of the technology that controls these vehicles, as well as decreasing cost and size of this technology. What is sometimes forgotten though, is that the research and advancement of the airframes themselves are equally as important as what is done with them. With current computer-aided design programs, the limits of design optimization can be pushed further than ever before, resulting in lighter and faster airframes that can achieve longer endurances, higher altitudes, and more complex missions. However, realization of a paper design is still limited by the physical restrictions of the real world and the structural constraints associated with it. The purpose of this paper is to not only step through current design and manufacturing processes of composite UAVs at Oklahoma State University, but to also focus on composite spars, utilizing and relating both calculated and empirical data. Most of the experience gained for this thesis was from the Cessna Longitude project. The Longitude is a 1/8 scale, flying demonstrator Oklahoma State University constructed for Cessna. For the project, Cessna required dynamic flight data for their design process in order to make their 2017 release date. Oklahoma State University was privileged enough to assist Cessna with the mission of supporting the validation of design of their largest business jet to date. This paper will detail the steps of the fabrication process used in construction of the Longitude, as well as several other projects, beginning with structural design, machining, molding, skin layup, and ending with final assembly. Also, attention will be paid specifically towards spar design and testing in effort to ease the design phase. This document is intended to act not only as a further development of current practices, but also as a step-by-step manual for those who aspire to make composite airframes, predominantly the Oklahoma State University MAE students who either are, or will be using these techniques on a daily basis.

Hunt, Daniel Stephen

138

Fuel Cells: A Real Option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Propulsion  

PubMed Central

The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

2014-01-01

139

Fuel cells: a real option for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles propulsion.  

PubMed

The possibility of implementing fuel cell technology in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion systems is considered. Potential advantages of the Proton Exchange Membrane or Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEMFC) and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC), their fuels (hydrogen and methanol), and their storage systems are revised from technical and environmental standpoints. Some operating commercial applications are described. Main constraints for these kinds of fuel cells are analyzed in order to elucidate the viability of future developments. Since the low power density is the main problem of fuel cells, hybridization with electric batteries, necessary in most cases, is also explored. PMID:24600326

González-Espasandín, Óscar; Leo, Teresa J; Navarro-Arévalo, Emilio

2014-01-01

140

Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA Southeastearn University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2004-01-01

141

Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Uninhabitated Aerial Vehicle Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the development of an application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control. The project was done as part of the requirements for a class in AI at NOVA southeastern University and a beginning project at NASA Wallops Flight Facility for a resilient, robust, and intelligent UAV flight control system. A method is outlined which allows a base level application for applying an Artificial Intelligence method, Fuzzy Logic, to aspects of Control Logic for UAV flight. One element of UAV flight, automated altitude hold, has been implemented and preliminary results displayed.

Dufrene, Warren R., Jr.

2003-01-01

142

Toward autonomous avian-inspired grasping for micro aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Micro aerial vehicles, particularly quadrotors, have been used in a wide range of applications. However, the literature on aerial manipulation and grasping is limited and the work is based on quasi-static models. In this paper, we draw inspiration from agile, fast-moving birds such as raptors, that are able to capture moving prey on the ground or in water, and develop similar capabilities for quadrotors. We address dynamic grasping, an approach to prehensile grasping in which the dynamics of the robot and its gripper are significant and must be explicitly modeled and controlled for successful execution. Dynamic grasping is relevant for fast pick-and-place operations, transportation and delivery of objects, and placing or retrieving sensors. We show how this capability can be realized (a) using a motion capture system and (b) without external sensors relying only on onboard sensors. In both cases we describe the dynamic model, and trajectory planning and control algorithms. In particular, we present a methodology for flying and grasping a cylindrical object using feedback from a monocular camera and an inertial measurement unit onboard the aerial robot. This is accomplished by mapping the dynamics of the quadrotor to a level virtual image plane, which in turn enables dynamically-feasible trajectory planning for image features in the image space, and a vision-based controller with guaranteed convergence properties. We also present experimental results obtained with a quadrotor equipped with an articulated gripper to illustrate both approaches. PMID:24852023

Thomas, Justin; Loianno, Giuseppe; Polin, Joseph; Sreenath, Koushil; Kumar, Vijay

2014-06-01

143

Unmanned aerial vehicles for rangeland mapping and monitoring: a comparison of two systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aerial photography from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) bridges the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. UAVs can be deployed quickly and repeatedly, are less costly and safer than piloted aircraft, and can obtain very high-resolution...

144

Use of unmanned aerial vehicles for medical product transport.  

PubMed

Advances in technology and decreasing costs have led to an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) by the military and civilian sectors. The use of UAVs in commerce is restricted by US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) regulations, but the FAA is drafting new regulations that are expected to expand commercial applications. Currently, the transportation of medical goods in times of critical need is limited to wheeled motor vehicles and manned aircraft, options that can be costly and slow. This article explores the demand for, feasibility of, and risks associated with the use of UAVs to deliver medical products, including blood derivatives and pharmaceuticals, to hospitals, mass casualty scenes, and offshore vessels in times of critical demand. PMID:25733117

Thiels, Cornelius A; Aho, Johnathon M; Zietlow, Scott P; Jenkins, Donald H

2015-01-01

145

Robust vehicle detection in low-resolution aerial imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a feature-based approach for vehicle detection in aerial imagery with 11.2 cm/pixel resolution. The approach is free of all constraints related to the vehicles appearance. The scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is used to extract keypoints in the image. The local structure in the neighbouring of the SIFT keypoints is described by 128 gradient orientation based features. A Support Vector Machine is used to create a model which is able to predict if the SIFT keypoints belong to or not to car structures in the image. The collection of SIFT keypoints with car label are clustered in the geometric space into subsets and each subset is associated to one car. This clustering is based on the Affinity Propagation algorithm modified to take into account specific spatial constraint related to geometry of cars at the given resolution.

Sahli, Samir; Ouyang, Yueh; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2010-04-01

146

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes  

E-print Network

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes Wesam H. Al-Sabban, Luis F. Gonzalez and Ryan N. Smith Abstract-- Exploiting wind-energy is one possible way to extend the flight duration of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Wind-energy can also be used

Smith, Ryan N.

147

A MINI UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV): SYSTEM OVERVIEW AND IMAGE ACQUISITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last years UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-systems became relevant for applications in precision farming and in infrastructure maintenance, like road maintenance and dam surveillance. This paper gives an overview about UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) systems and their application for photogrammetric recording and documentation of cultural heritage. First the historical development of UAV systems and the definition of UAV-helicopte rs

Henri Eisenbeiss

2004-01-01

148

Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

149

Acquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery for rangeland monitoring  

E-print Network

include lower image acquisition costs and the ability to swiftly detect change. UAVs are well suitedAcquisition, orthorectification, and object-based classification of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for natural resource applications has increased considerably

150

Development of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Site-Specific Crop Production Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have been developed and applied to support the practice of precision agriculture. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle can focus on much smaller crop fields with much lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management ...

151

Development of an unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing system for site-specific management in precision agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems. In agriculture, UAVs have been used for pest control and remote sensing. The objective of this research was to develop a UAV system to en...

152

Modeling and Control of Bisymmetric Aerial Vehicles Subjected to Drag and Lift  

E-print Network

of studies on the subject. The complexity of aerodynamic effects and the diversity of flying vehicles partly aerial vehicles belong either to the class of fixed-wing vehicles, or to that of rotary-wing vehicles. The first class is mainly composed of airplanes. In this case, weight is compensated for by lift forces

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

E-print Network

Weed Mapping in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle of remote imagery captured by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has tremendous potential for designing detailed in Early-Season Maize Fields Using Object-Based Analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Images. PLoS ONE

Kelly, Maggi

154

VERIFICATION OF A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE WING TORQUE BOX VIA EXPERIMENTAL MODAL TESTING  

E-print Network

VERIFICATION OF A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE WING TORQUE BOX VIA Aeronautical Association, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics, TURKEY KEYWORDS Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Wing (FEM) of an unmanned aerial vehicle wing torque box was verified by the experimental modal testing

Yaman, Yavuz

155

GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an  

E-print Network

GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle GSM Technology as a Communication Media for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mariusz Wzorek, David Land´en, Patrick Doherty,davla,patdo}@ida.liu.se ABSTRACT Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming more reliable, autonomous and easier to use

Doherty, Patrick

156

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles REV2008 -www.rev-conference.org 1  

E-print Network

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles REV2008) and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The paper focuses on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and Aerial Vehicles Sebastian Blumenthal1 , Dirk Holz1 , Thorsten Linder1 , Peter Molitor2 , Hartmut Surmann2

Behnke, Sven

157

Aerial networking communication solutions using Micro Air Vehicle (MAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of a Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) for wireless networking is slowly gaining significance in the field of network robotics. Aerial transport of data requires efficient network protocols along with accurate positional adjustment of the MAV to minimize transaction times. In our proof of concept, we develop an Aerial networking protocol for data transfer using the technology of Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN), a store-and-forward approach for environments that deals with disrupted connectivity. Our results show that close interaction between networking and flight behavior helps in efficient data exchange. Potential applications are in areas where network infrastructure is minimal or unavailable and distances may be large. For example, forwarding video recordings during search and rescue, agriculture, swarm communication, among several others. A practical implementation and validation, as described in this paper, presents the complex dynamics of wireless environments and poses new challenges that are not addressed in earlier work on this topic. Several tests are evaluated in a practical setup to display the networking MAV behavior during such an operation.

Balasubramanian, Shyam; de Graaf, Maurits; Hoekstra, Gerard; Corporaal, Henk; Wijtvliet, Mark; Cuadros Linde, Javier

2014-10-01

158

Development of the unmanned aerial vehicle flight recorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a telemetric flight recorder which can be used in unmanned aerial vehicles. The device can store GPS position and altitude, measured with the use of pressure sensor HP03M, a flying platform. The most important subassembly of the recorder is an M2M family device H24 modem developed by Telit company. The modem interface communicates with the use of UART interface and AT commands. The autonomic work is provided by a microcontroller which is master component of the recorder. The ATmega 664P-AU from AVR family microcontrollers developed by Atmel is used. The functionality of the measurement system was developed in such a way that a GSM module can send current position to the base station on demand. In the paper the general description of the device and achieved results of tests are presented.

Walendziuk, Wojciech; Kwasniewski, Daniel

2014-11-01

159

Mission control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: a workload analysis.  

PubMed

With unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 36 licensed pilots flew both single-UAV and dual-UAV simulated military missions. Pilots were required to navigate each UAV through a series of mission legs in one of the following three conditions: a baseline condition, an auditory autoalert condition, and an autopilot condition. Pilots were responsible for (a) mission completion, (b) target search, and (c) systems monitoring. Results revealed that both the autoalert and the autopilot automation improved overall performance by reducing task interference and alleviating workload. The autoalert system benefited performance both in the automated task and mission completion task, whereas the autopilot system benefited performance in the automated task, the mission completion task, and the target search task. Practical implications for the study include the suggestion that reliable automation can help alleviate task interference and reduce workload, thereby allowing pilots to better handle concurrent tasks during single- and multiple-UAV flight control. PMID:16435690

Dixon, Stephen R; Wickens, Christopher D; Chang, Dervon

2005-01-01

160

Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upwards with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally we propose a new GPS independent control strategy for exploiting...

Ákos, Zsuzsa; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás; 10.1088/1748-3182/5/4/045003

2010-01-01

161

Mapping infectious disease landscapes: unmanned aerial vehicles and epidemiology.  

PubMed

The potential applications of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have generated intense interest across many fields. UAVs offer the potential to collect detailed spatial information in real time at relatively low cost and are being used increasingly in conservation and ecological research. Within infectious disease epidemiology and public health research, UAVs can provide spatially and temporally accurate data critical to understanding the linkages between disease transmission and environmental factors. Using UAVs avoids many of the limitations associated with satellite data (e.g., long repeat times, cloud contamination, low spatial resolution). However, the practicalities of using UAVs for field research limit their use to specific applications and settings. UAVs fill a niche but do not replace existing remote-sensing methods. PMID:25443854

Fornace, Kimberly M; Drakeley, Chris J; William, Timothy; Espino, Fe; Cox, Jonathan

2014-11-01

162

Acoustic atmospheric tomography using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based on acoustic travel time measurements between two or more Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The technique offers mobility and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. Simulations, in which the parametric fields of the atmosphere are modelled as a weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions, demonstrate the technique's potential performance envelope. The approach also allows local meteorological measurements made at the UAVs to supplement any time delay observations. This increases the accuracy of the technique, which has potential for practical applications in boundary layer meteorology, the theory of atmospheric turbulence, and wave propagation through a turbulent atmosphere.

Finn, Anthony; Rogers, Kevin; Meade, Joshua; Franklin, Stephen

2014-10-01

163

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in atmospheric research and satellite validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The perspectives of the development of methods and facilities based on UAV for atmospheric investigations are considered. Some aspects of these methods applications are discussed. Developments of the experimental samples of UAV onboard equipment for measurements of atmospheric parameters carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Hardware system for the UAV is developed. The results of measurements of the spatial distributions of the thermodynamic parameters and the concentrations of some gas species onboard of remotely piloted and unmanned aerial vehicles obtained in field tests are presented. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes , etc.

Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Efremov, Denis; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Popovicheva, Olga

164

Optimal flights of unmanned aerial vehicles utilizing wind energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are attractive for a wide range of applications where human presence is dangerous or undesirable. Endurance is an important performance attribute in many UAV missions. While UAV flight endurance can be improved through advances in aerodynamics and engine design, it is equally important to examine operational strategies that can enhance UAV flight endurance and other performance. Wind energy may be used to greatly enhance the flight endurance and performances of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Glider pilots commonly use wind to improve range, endurance, or cross-country speed. Compared with a glider, UAVs have ad vantages in utilizing energy in atmosphere. By using proper strategies to extract wind energy in the long-duration flights, a UAV's fuel consumption can be reduced and the performance can be extended. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential benefits of utilizing wind energy and develop optimal wind energy efficient flight trajectories for UAVs. In this thesis, the potential benefits and features of the autonomous soaring flights are studied. UAVs are modelled with point-mass equations of motion. Practical constraints from UAV performance and operational constraints are considered. UAV flights through various wind patterns including wind gradients, thermals and downbursts are studied. Linear wind gradient models, two-dimensional thermal models and three-dimensional vortex ring downburst models are used for the calculation of optimal trajectories. UAV flights through wind fields are formulated as nonlinear optimal control problems that minimize the overall fuel consumption. These problems are converted into parameter optimizations and numerical solutions are obtained for a wide range of wind conditions and UAV performance parameters. Basic features and special flight patterns needed for wind energy flights are discovered. Results indicate that significant improvements in UAV endurance can be achieved by properly utilizing wind energy. Further research is proposed for the application of optimal flight in wind.

Qi, Ying

165

Hierarchical Motion Planning for Autonomous Aerial and Terrestrial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous mobile robots---both aerial and terrestrial vehicles---have gained immense importance due to the broad spectrum of their potential military and civilian applications. One of the indispensable requirements for the autonomy of a mobile vehicle is the vehicle's capability of planning and executing its motion, that is, finding appropriate control inputs for the vehicle such that the resulting vehicle motion satisfies the requirements of the vehicular task. The motion planning and control problem is inherently complex because it involves two disparate sub-problems: (1) satisfaction of the vehicular task requirements, which requires tools from combinatorics and/or formal methods, and (2) design of the vehicle control laws, which requires tools from dynamical systems and control theory. Accordingly, this problem is usually decomposed and solved over two levels of hierarchy. The higher level, called the geometric path planning level, finds a geometric path that satisfies the vehicular task requirements, e.g., obstacle avoidance. The lower level, called the trajectory planning level, involves sufficient smoothening of this geometric path followed by a suitable time parametrization to obtain a reference trajectory for the vehicle. Although simple and efficient, such hierarchical decomposition suffers a serious drawback: the geometric path planner has no information of the kinematical and dynamical constraints of the vehicle. Consequently, the geometric planner may produce paths that the trajectory planner cannot transform into a feasible reference trajectory. Two main ideas appear in the literature to remedy this problem: (a) randomized sampling-based planning, which eliminates the geometric planner altogether by planning in the vehicle state space, and (b) geometric planning supported by feedback control laws. The former class of methods suffer from a lack of optimality of the resultant trajectory, while the latter class of methods makes a restrictive assumption concerning the vehicle kinematical model. We propose a hierarchical motion planning framework based on a novel mode of interaction between these two levels of planning. This interaction rests on the solution of a special shortest-path problem on graphs, namely, one using costs defined on multiple edge transitions in the path instead of the usual single edge transition costs. These costs are provided by a local trajectory generation algorithm, which we implement using model predictive control and the concept of effective target sets for simplifying the non-convex constraints involved in the problem. The proposed motion planner ensures "consistency" between the two levels of planning, i.e., a guarantee that the higher level geometric path is always associated with a kinematically and dynamically feasible trajectory. The main contributions of this thesis are: 1. A motion planning framework based on history-dependent costs (H-costs) in cell decomposition graphs for incorporating vehicle dynamical constraints: this framework offers distinct advantages in comparison with the competing approaches of discretization of the state space, of randomized sampling-based motion planning, and of local feedback-based, decoupled hierarchical motion planning, 2. An efficient and flexible algorithm for finding optimal H-cost paths, 3. A precise and general formulation of a local trajectory problem (the tile motion planning problem) that allows independent development of the discrete planner and the trajectory planner, while maintaining "compatibility" between the two planners, 4. A local trajectory generation algorithm using mpc, and the application of the concept of effective target sets for a significant simplification of the local trajectory generation problem, 5. The geometric analysis of curvature-bounded traversal of rectangular channels, leading to less conservative results in comparison with a result reported in the literature, and also to the efficient construction of effective target sets for the solution of the tile motion planning problem, 6. A wavel

Cowlagi, Raghvendra V.

166

Mission Specification and Control for Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles for Indoor Target Discovery and Tracking  

E-print Network

Mission Specification and Control for Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles for Indoor Target of unmanned vehicles in mixed indoor/outdoor reconnaissance scenarios. We outline the tools and techniques microautonomous vehicles become available. In the scenarios that serve as the focus of this paper, an unmanned

167

Teleoperated Visual Inspection and Surveillance with Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces our robotic system named UGAV (Unmanned Ground-Air Vehicle) consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and an Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The paper focuses on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and UAV: (A) teleoperated control by means of cell or smart phones with a new concept of automatic configuration

Hartmut Surmann; Dirk Holz; Sebastian Blumental; Thorsten Linder; Peter Molitor; Viatcheslav Tretyakov

2008-01-01

168

LQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Efe Sirimoglu, Cevdet Hancer, Taylan Ayken, and Mustafa Unel  

E-print Network

LQR and SMC Stabilization of a New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Kaan T. Oner, Ertugrul Cetinsoy, Efe, SMC I. INTRODUCTION Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) designed for various missions such as surveillance and control of a new tilt-wing aerial vehicle (SUAVI: Sabanci University Unmanned Aerial VehIcle

Yanikoglu, Berrin

169

Vehicle Detection from Aerial Imagery Joshua Gleason, Ara V. Nefian, Xavier Bouyssounousse, Terry Fong and George Bebis  

E-print Network

threat detection. Automatic vehicle detection by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) will replace current) is an attempt to allow unmanned airborne vehicles (UAV) flying at higher altitude to automatically detect groundVehicle Detection from Aerial Imagery Joshua Gleason, Ara V. Nefian, Xavier Bouyssounousse, Terry

Bebis, George

170

An Onboard Monocular Vision System for Autonomous Takeoff, Hovering and Landing of a Micro Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

An Onboard Monocular Vision System for Autonomous Takeoff, Hovering and Landing of a Micro Aerial monocular vision system for autonomous takeoff, hovering and landing of a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV). Since years. Takeoff, hovering and landing are three basic phases for autonomous flight of rotorcrafts. Among

Zell, Andreas

171

The velocity assignment problem for conflict resolution with multiple aerial vehicles sharing  

E-print Network

, the paper presents three different collision detection and resolution methods based on speed planning technologies will play an important role in the different applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, the integration of UAVs in non- segregated aerial spaces is being also considered for the future ATM [1]. Systems

Díaz-Báñez, José Miguel

172

Auditory Decision Aiding in Supervisory Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

This paper investigates the effectiveness of sonification, continuous auditory alert mapped to the state of a monitored task, in supporting unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) supervisory control. Background: UAV supervisory ...

Donmez, B.

2009-01-01

173

Effect of auditory peripheral displays on unmanned aerial vehicle operator performance  

E-print Network

With advanced autonomy, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations will likely be conducted by single operators controlling multiple UAVs. As operator attention is divided across multiple supervisory tasks, there is a need ...

Graham, Hudson D

2008-01-01

174

Modelling Lost Person Behaviour and Intelligent Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in a Wilderness Search and Rescue Scenario   

E-print Network

’re lost should be reasonable input variables into a model attempting to predict the lost person’s most likely path. Taken a significant step further, if unmanned aerial vehicles enabled with terrain recognition and navigation capabilities derived from...

DeRiggi, John

2013-01-11

175

Implementation of mechanical, electrical, and feedback control systems in unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

The thesis objective was to design an unmanned aerial vehicle that was capable of stable, autonomous flight. A fixed wing aircraft was chosen to simplify some of the flight characteristics and avoid some of the challenges ...

Tan, Derrick (Derrick Chi-Ho)

2006-01-01

176

Autonomous navigation and tracking of dynamic surface targets on-board a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of an independent, on-board visual servoing system which allows a computationally impoverished aerial vehicle to autonomously identify and track a dynamic surface target. Image ...

Selby, William Clayton

2011-01-01

177

Human-RRT collaboration in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle mission path planning  

E-print Network

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are used for a variety of military and commercial purposes, including surveillance, combat, and search and rescue. Current research is looking into combining automation with human supervision ...

Griner, Alina

2012-01-01

178

Embedded avionics with Kalman state estimation for a novel micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

An inertial navigation system leveraging Kalman estimation techniques and quaternion dynamics is developed for deployment to a micro-scale unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The capabilities, limitations, and requirements of ...

Tzanetos, Theodore

2013-01-01

179

Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) teams are anticipated to provide much needed support for human intelligence, measurement and signature intelligence, signals intelligence, imagery intelligence, and open source intelligence through algorithms, software, and automation. Therefore, it is necessary to have autonomous algorithms that route multiple UAVs effectively and efficiently throughout missions and that these are realizable in the real-world given the associated uncertainties. Current routing strategies ignore communication constraints altogether. In reality, communication can be restricted by bandwidth, line-of-sight, maximum communication ranges, or a need for uninterrupted transmission. Generating autonomous algorithms that work effectively around these communication constraints is key for the future of UAV surveillance applications. In this work, both current and new routing strategies for UAVS are analyzed to determine how communications impact efficiency of information return. It is shown that under certain communication conditions, a new approach on routing can be more efficient than typically adopted strategies. This new approach defines and presents a new formulation based on a minimum delivery latency objective function. The problem is formulated such that information is not considered delivered until it is returned back to a high-bandwidth connection (depot) which is common when communication is restricted. The size of the region is shown to be dependent upon distance between requests, UAV bandwidth, UAV velocity, and data size, but it was shown that for large-sized data, long distances, and low bandwidth, it is generally better to route UAVs with this new minimum latency objective. With the added decision of when to deliver information to a high-bandwidth connection, an already computationally complex problem grows even faster. Because of scaling issues, a heuristic algorithm was developed that was constructed by analyzing the optimal solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

Sabo, Chelsea

180

Thermal soaring flight of birds and unmanned aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Thermal soaring saves much energy, but flying large distances in this form represents a great challenge for birds, people and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The solution is to make use of the so-called thermals, which are localized, warmer regions in the atmosphere moving upward with a speed exceeding the descent rate of birds and planes. Saving energy by exploiting the environment more efficiently is an important possibility for autonomous UAVs as well. Successful control strategies have been developed recently for UAVs in simulations and in real applications. This paper first presents an overview of our knowledge of the soaring flight and strategy of birds, followed by a discussion of control strategies that have been developed for soaring UAVs both in simulations and applications on real platforms. To improve the accuracy of the simulation of thermal exploitation strategies we propose a method to take into account the effect of turbulence. Finally, we propose a new GPS-independent control strategy for exploiting thermal updrafts. PMID:21098957

Akos, Zsuzsa; Nagy, Máté; Leven, Severin; Vicsek, Tamás

2010-12-01

181

Lightweight photovoltaic module development for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight photovoltaic modules are being developed for powering high altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Terrestrial crystalline silicon solar cell and module technologies are being applied to minimize module cost, with modifications to improve module specific power (W/kg) and power density (W/m{sup 2}). New module processes are being developed for assembling standard thickness (320 mm) and thin (125 mm) solar cells, thin (50 to 100 mm) encapsulant films, and thin (25 mm) cover films. In comparison, typical terrestrial modules use 300 to 400 mm thick solar cells, 460 mm thick encapsulants, and 3.2 mm thick glass covers. The use of thin, lightweight materials allows the fabrication of modules with specific powers ranging from 120 to 200 W/kg, depending on cell thickness and efficiency, compared to 15 W/kg or less for conventional terrestrial modules. High efficiency designs based on ultra-thin (5 mm) GaAs cells have also been developed, with the potential for achieving substantially higher specific powers. Initial design, development, and module assembly work is completed. Prototype modules were fabricated in sizes up to 45 cm x 99 cm. Module materials and processes are being evaluated through accelerated environmental testing, including thermal cycling, humidity-freeze cycling, mechanical cycling, and exposure to UV and visible light.

Nowlan, M.J.; Maglitta, J.C.; Lamp, T.R.

1998-07-01

182

Detecting Changes in Terrain Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent years, small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been used for more than the thrill they bring to model airplane enthusiasts. Their flexibility and low cost have made them a viable option for low-altitude reconnaissance. In a recent effort, we acquired video data from a small UAV during several passes over the same flight path. The objective of the exercise was to determine if objects had been added to the terrain along the flight path between flight passes. Several issues accrue to this simple-sounding problem: (1) lighting variations may cause false detection of objects because of changes in shadow orientation and strength between passes; (2) variations in the flight path due to wind-speed, and heading change may cause misalignment of gross features making the task of detecting changes between the frames very difficult; and (3) changes in the aircraft orientation and altitude lead to a change in size of the features from frame-to-frame making a comparison difficult. In this paper, we discuss our efforts to perform this change detection, and the lessons that we learned from this exercise.

Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn D.; Logan, Michael J.

2005-01-01

183

RF sensor solutions for small lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A need exists for greater situational awareness at the lower echelons of the Army. Radar Frequency (RF) sensors on small, lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) could provide lower echelon commanders with all-weather reconnaissance, early warning, and target acquisition; however, the designs of these RF sensors are limited by the projected size and weight restrictions on the payload for a class II UAV. Consequently, these designs may favor combining simple RF sensor hardware with digital-signal processing (DSP) solutions over more sophisticated radar hardware. In this paper, we show the potential of simple, low cost RF sensors with hemispherical antenna coverage to overcome these limitations. The proposed RF sensor system used DSP and pre-defined UAV flight pattern to detect and track moving targets from range and Doppler information. Our objective is to conceive and model a suite of software options that, by combining UAV flight patterns and processing algorithms, will be able to detect and track moving targets. In order to accomplish this, we are building a simulation that uses sensor models, target models, and battlefield dynamics to predict the targeting capabilities of the RF sensor system. We will use this simulation (1) to determine the tradeoffs between sensor complexity (and cost) and the military significance of the information gathered, and (2) to describe sensor error budgets for endgame lethality models

Innocenti, Roberto

2005-05-01

184

Chasing Black Carbon using Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying upon ground based aerosol measurements for calculating column radiation parameters introduces the possibility of large uncertainties. Such errors arise from making assumptions that the aerosol parameters within the column are either homogeneous or variations are quantifiable. Consequently, airborne measurements of aerosol parameters throughout the vertical column offer an improvement in spatial resolution. Recent advances in the field of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAV) have greatly expanded the possibilities for obtaining routine vertical measurements of atmospheric parameters. AUAVs provide the capability of low cost and routine sampling while minimizing the danger to onboard operators when flying long durations and operating in dangerous conditions. Our team at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography has spent several years miniaturizing instrumentation for deployment on small AUAVs. In March of 2006, these miniaturized instrument packages were deployed on AUAVs during a one month field study flying over the tropical Indian Ocean in the Maldives. Vertical profiles of total particle concentration, optical particle size distribution, and aerosol absorption revealed the presence of layers with significantly different aerosol parameters, including black carbon concentrations. These layers are correlated to solar absorption measurements to estimate the aerosol radiative forcing and then compared to results using only surface parameters.

Corrigan, C.; Ramanathan, V.; Ramana, M. V.; Kim, D.; Roberts, G.

2006-12-01

185

Uncooled infrared development for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is developing a micro-uncooled infrared (IR) capability for small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS). In 2007, AMRDEC procured several uncooled microbolometers for lab and field test evaluations, and static tower tests involving specific target sets confirmed initial modeling and simulation predictions. With these promising results, AMRDEC procured two captive flight test (CFT) vehicles and, in 2008, completed numerous captive flights to capture imagery with the micro-uncooled infrared sensors. Several test configurations were used to build a comprehensive data set. These configurations included variations in look-down angles, fields of view (FOV), environments, altitudes, and target scenarios. Data collected during these field tests is also being used to develop human tracking algorithms and image stabilization software by other AMRDEC personnel. Details of these ongoing efforts will be presented in this paper and will include: 1) onboard digital data recording capabilities; 2) analog data links for visual verification of imagery; 3) sensor packaging and design; which include both infrared and visible cameras; 4) field test and data collection results; 5) future plans; 6) potential applications. Finally, AMRDEC has recently acquired a 17 ?m pitch detector array. The paper will include plans to test both 17 ?m and 25 ?m microbolometer technologies simultaneously in a side-by-side captive flight comparison.

Pitt, Timothy S.; Wood, Sam B.; Waddle, Caleb E.; Edwards, William D.; Yeske, Ben S.

2010-04-01

186

The remote characterization of vegetation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can fly in place of piloted aircraft to gather remote sensing information on vegetation characteristics. The type of sensors flown depends on the instrument payload capacity available, so that, depending on the specific UAV, it is possible to obtain video, aerial photographic, multispectral and hyperspectral radiometric, LIDAR, and radar data. The characteristics of several small UAVs less than 55lbs (25kg)) along with some payload instruments will be reviewed. Common types of remote sensing coverage available from a small, limited-payload UAV are video and hyperspatial, digital photography. From evaluation of these simple types of remote sensing data, we conclude that UAVs can play an important role in measuring and monitoring vegetation health and structure of the vegetation/soil complex in rangelands. If we fly our MLB Bat-3 at an altitude of 700ft (213m), we can obtain a digital photographic resolution of 6cm. The digital images acquired cover an area of approximately 29,350sq m. Video imaging is usually only useful for monitoring the flight path of the UAV in real time. In our experiments with the 6cm resolution data, we have been able to measure vegetation patch size, crown width, gap sizes between vegetation, percent vegetation and bare soil cover, and type of vegetation. The UAV system is also being tested to acquire height of the vegetation canopy using shadow measurements and a digital elevation model obtained with stereo images. Evaluation of combining the UAV digital photography with LIDAR data of the Jornada Experimental Range in south central New Mexico is ongoing. The use of UAVs is increasing and is becoming a very promising tool for vegetation assessment and change, but there are several operational components to flying UAVs that users need to consider. These include cost, a whole set of, as yet, undefined regulations regarding flying in the National Air Space(NAS), procedures to gain approval for flying in the NAS(FAA Certificate of Authorization), and training(remote control piloting, UAV-specific instruction, FAA ground school and testing, FAA observer procedures, FAA medical Class 2 exam, and a private pilot's license). The relevance and need of all these to developing a UAV capability will be explained. While working through the necessary requirements above, we have also learned that we need to know how to handle extremely large and easily acquired data sets as well as to develop tools to orthorectify and mosaic individual UAV images for analysis.

Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Winters, C.; Maxwell, C.; Steele, C.

2008-12-01

187

Cooperative surveillance and pursuit using unmanned aerial vehicles and unattended ground sensors.  

PubMed

This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

2015-01-01

188

Cooperative Surveillance and Pursuit Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Unattended Ground Sensors  

PubMed Central

This paper considers the problem of path planning for a team of unmanned aerial vehicles performing surveillance near a friendly base. The unmanned aerial vehicles do not possess sensors with automated target recognition capability and, thus, rely on communicating with unattended ground sensors placed on roads to detect and image potential intruders. The problem is motivated by persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance and base defense missions. The problem is formulated and shown to be intractable. A heuristic algorithm to coordinate the unmanned aerial vehicles during surveillance and pursuit is presented. Revisit deadlines are used to schedule the vehicles' paths nominally. The algorithm uses detections from the sensors to predict intruders' locations and selects the vehicles' paths by minimizing a linear combination of missed deadlines and the probability of not intercepting intruders. An analysis of the algorithm's completeness and complexity is then provided. The effectiveness of the heuristic is illustrated through simulations in a variety of scenarios. PMID:25591168

Las Fargeas, Jonathan; Kabamba, Pierre; Girard, Anouck

2015-01-01

189

Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

2004-01-01

190

An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The water vapor sensor developed by Aerodyne Research, based on the optical absorption of light at {approximately}935 nm, has been successfully demonstrated on board the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Gulfstream-1 research aircraft during the Department of Energy's ARM Intensive Operations Period in August 1998. Data taken during this field campaign show excellent agreement with a chilled mirror and Lyman-alpha hygrometers and measurements confirm the ability to measure rapid, absolute water vapor fluctuations with a high degree of instrument stability and accuracy, with a noise level as low 10 ppmv (1 Hz measurement bandwidth). The construction of this small, lightweight sensor contains several unique elements which result in several significant advantages when compared to other techniques. First, the low power consumption Argon discharge lamp provides an optical beam at a fixed wavelength without a need for temperature or precision current control. The multi-pass absorption cell developed for this instrument provides a compact, low cost method that can survive deployment in the field. Fiber-optic cables, which are used to convey to light between the absorption cell, light source, and detection modules enable remote placement of the absorption cell from the opto-electronics module. Finally, the sensor does not use any moving parts which removes a significant source of potential malfunction. The result is an instrument which maintained its calibration throughout the field measurement campaign, and was not affected by high vibration and large uncontrolled temperature excursions. We believe that the development of an accurate, fast response water vapor monitor described in this report will open up new avenues of aerial-vehicle-based atmospheric research which have been relatively unexplored due to the lack of suitable low-cost, light-weight instrumentation.

Timothy A. Berkoff; Paul L. Kebabian; Robert A. McClatchy; Charles E. Kolb; Andrew Freedman

1998-12-01

191

Evaluation of Bare Ground on Rangelands using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Attention is currently being given to methods that assess the ecological condition of rangelands throughout the United States. There are a number of different indicators that assess ecological condition of rangelands. Bare Ground is being considered by a number of agencies and resource specialists as a lead indicator that can be evaluated over a broad area. Traditional methods of measuring bare ground rely on field technicians collecting data along a line transect or from a plot. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an alternative to collecting field data, can monitor a large area in a relative short period of time, and in many cases can enhance safety and time required to collect data. In this study, both fixed wing and helicopter UAVs were used to measure bare ground in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem. The data were collected with digital imagery and read using the image analysis software SamplePoint. The approach was tested over seven different plots and compared against traditional field methods to evaluate accuracy for assessing bare ground. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho in locations where there is very little disturbance by humans and the area is grazed only by wildlife. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins

2011-01-01

192

A Methodology for Deploying the Max-Sum Algorithm and a Case Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

A Methodology for Deploying the Max-Sum Algorithm and a Case Study on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles F. M the methodology is used to develop a system for disaster manage- ment in which a team of unmanned aerial vehicles, for problems related to situa- tional awareness. In these settings, unmanned autonomous vehicles are deployed

Southampton, University of

193

Abstract--In this paper, we present an collision avoidance algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) based on model  

E-print Network

Abstract-- In this paper, we present an collision avoidance algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicles in a head-on collision scenario using unmanned aerial vehicles. I. INTRODUCTION HE concept of a highly to avoid the impending collision at all cost. During this procedure, the unmanned vehicle must compute

Sastry, S. Shankar

194

Multi-disciplinary design optimization of subsonic fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles projected through 2025  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through this research, a robust aircraft design methodology is developed for analysis and optimization of the Air Vehicle (AV) segment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems. The analysis functionality of the AV design is integrated with a Genetic Algorithm (GA) to form an integrated Multi-disciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) methodology for optimal AV design synthesis. This research fills the gap in

John Frederick Gundlach IV

2004-01-01

195

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision Processes  

E-print Network

Wind-Energy based Path Planning For Electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Markov Decision wind-energy is one possible way to ex- tend flight duration for Unmanned Arial Vehicles. Wind-energy sources of wind energy available to exploit for this problem [5]: 1) Vertical air motion, such as thermal

Smith, Ryan N.

196

From Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which can operate autonomously in dynamic and complex operational environments is becoming increasingly more common. While the application domains in which they are currently used are still predominantly military in nature, in the future we can expect widespread usage in the civil and commercial sectors. In order to insert such vehicles into commercial

Mariusz Wzorek; Gianpaolo Conte; Piotr Rudol; Torsten Merz; Simone Duranti; Patrick Doherty

2006-01-01

197

Hovering flight and vertical landing control of a VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicle using optical flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a nonlinear controller for hovering flight and touchdown control for a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using inertial optical flow. The VTOL vehicle is assumed to be a rigid body, equipped with a minimum sensor suite (camera and IMU), manoeuvring over a textured flat target plane. Two different tasks are considered in this

Bruno Herisse; Francois-xavier Russotto; Tarek Hamel; Robert E. Mahony

2008-01-01

198

Integration of Mission Planning and Flight Scheduling for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the integration of on-line mission planning and flight scheduling for an unmanned aerial vehicle in military observation missions. Planning selects and orders the best subset of observations to be carried out and schedules the observations while accommodating time windows. The vehicle is subjected to speed, fuel supply and flight constraints in a uncertain and dynamic environment. The

Elodie Chanthery; Magali Barbier; Jean-Loup Farges

199

Object Detection and Avoidance Using Optical Techniques in Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles will require autonomous collision detection and avoidance capabilities in order to gain wide acceptance and usage in the National Airspace System. The collision detection and avoidance problem is primarily a motion estimation problem, relying on the accuracy of the sensing, processing, actuation and control algorithms onboard the vehicle. Computer vision is a growing field in robotics and

Andres E. Ortiz; Natasha N. Neogi

200

Decentralized linear time-varying model predictive control of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hierarchical MPC approach to stabilization and autonomous navigation of a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), under constraints on motor thrusts, angles and positions, and under collision avoidance constraints. Each vehicle is of quadcopter type and is stabilized by a local linear time-invariant (LTI) MPC controller at the lower level of the control hierarchy around commanded

Alberto Bemporad; Claudio Rocchi

2011-01-01

201

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Colozza, A.J. [NYMA Setar Inc., Brookpark, OH (United States); Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center

1994-12-31

202

Design of a GaAs/Ge Solar Array for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.; Bents, David J.; Colozza, Anthony J.

1995-01-01

203

Design of a GaAs/Ge solar array for unmanned aerial vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration airplane. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such aircraft, solar array generated electric power is a viable alternative to air-breathing engines. Development of such aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is currently building a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office. Expected completion of the plane is early 1995, with the airplane currently undergoing flight testing using battery power.

Scheiman, D.A.; Brinker, D.J.; Bents, D.J.; Colozza, A.J.

1995-03-01

204

Meteorological and Remote Sensing Applications of High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are maturing in performance and becoming available for routine use in environmental applications including weather reconnaissance and remote sensing. This paper presents a discussion of UAV characteristics and unique features compared with other measurement platforms. A summary of potential remote sensing applications is provided, along with details for four types of tropical cyclone missions. Capabilities of platforms developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program are reviewed, including the Altus, Perseus, and solar- powered Pathfinder, all of which have flown to over 57,000 ft (17 km). In many scientific missions, the science objectives drive the experimental design, thus defining the sensor payload, aircraft performance, and operational requirements. Some examples of science missions and the requisite UAV / payload system are given. A discussion of technology developments needed to fully mature UAV systems for routine operational use is included, along with remarks on future science and commercial UAV business opportunities.

Schoenung, S. M.; Wegener, S. S.

1999-01-01

205

Hardware Implementation of COTS Avionics System on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can serve as low cost and low risk platforms for flight testing in Aeronautics research. The NASA Exploration Aerial Vehicle (EAV) and Experimental Sensor-Controlled Aerial Vehicle (X-SCAV) UAVs were developed in support of control systems research at NASA Ames Research Center. The avionics hardware for both systems has been redesigned and updated, and the structure of the EAV has been further strengthened. Preliminary tests show the avionics operate properly in the new configuration. A linear model for the EAV also was estimated from flight data, and was verified in simulation. These modifications and results prepare the EAV and X-SCAV to be used in a wide variety of flight research projects.

Yeh, Yoo-Hsiu; Kumar, Parth; Ishihara, Abraham; Ippolito, Corey

2010-01-01

206

ON VISUAL REAL TIME MAPPING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the challenge of a real-time capable vision system in the task of trajectory and surface reconstruction by aerial image sequences. The goal is to present the design, methods and strategies of a real-time capable vision system solving the mapping task for secure navigation of small UAVs with a single camera. This includes the estimation process, map representation,

Richard Steffen

207

Ideas and Technology of Control Systems @RT 2011 CDC-ECC 2011 Control Design of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

of UAVs UAVs: Unmanned aerial vehicles of different size which may be used for monitoring and detection Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Roberto Tempo CNR-IEIIT Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Politecnico di Torino Without control UAVs do not fly! #12;Ideas and Technology of Control Systems @RT 2011 CDC-ECC 2011 CNR

Tempo, Roberto

208

Using iFMI spectral registration for video stabilization and motion detection by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), especially in the form of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) are useful tools for reconnaissance, surveillance, and general situation assessment in safety, security, and rescue missions. Many UAV have meanwhile good autonomous flight capabilities, especially by tracking pre-planned routes via GPS or for station-keeping. Here it is shown how the video stream from an UAV can be

Soren Schwertfeger; Andreas Birk; Heiko Bulow

2011-01-01

209

Feasibility of Turing-Style Tests for Autonomous Aerial Vehicle "Intelligence"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new approach is suggested to define and evaluate key metrics as to autonomous aerial vehicle performance. This approach entails the conceptual definition of a "Turing Test" for UAVs. Such a "UAV Turing test" would be conducted by means of mission simulations and/or tailored flight demonstrations of vehicles under the guidance of their autonomous system software. These autonomous vehicle mission simulations and flight demonstrations would also have to be benchmarked against missions "flown" with pilots/human-operators in the loop. In turn, scoring criteria for such testing could be based upon both quantitative mission success metrics (unique to each mission) and by turning to analog "handling quality" metrics similar to the well-known Cooper-Harper pilot ratings used for manned aircraft. Autonomous aerial vehicles would be considered to have successfully passed this "UAV Turing Test" if the aggregate mission success metrics and handling qualities for the autonomous aerial vehicle matched or exceeded the equivalent metrics for missions conducted with pilots/human-operators in the loop. Alternatively, an independent, knowledgeable observer could provide the "UAV Turing Test" ratings of whether a vehicle is autonomous or "piloted." This observer ideally would, in the more sophisticated mission simulations, also have the enhanced capability of being able to override the scripted mission scenario and instigate failure modes and change of flight profile/plans. If a majority of mission tasks are rated as "piloted" by the observer, when in reality the vehicle/simulation is fully- or semi- autonomously controlled, then the vehicle/simulation "passes" the "UAV Turing Test." In this regards, this second "UAV Turing Test" approach is more consistent with Turing s original "imitation game" proposal. The overall feasibility, and important considerations and limitations, of such an approach for judging/evaluating autonomous aerial vehicle "intelligence" will be discussed from a theoretical perspective.

Young, Larry A.

2007-01-01

210

Stability and Control Properties of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of considerable interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing concept has also been developed that has exhibited desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations and competition. This paper presents results from a wind tunnel investigation that sought to quantify stability and control properties for a family of vehicles using the aeroelastic design. The results indicate that the membrane wing does exhibit potential benefits that could be exploited to enhance the design of future flight vehicles.

Waszak, Martin R.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Ifju, Peter

2001-01-01

211

AVIATR - Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance A Titan Airplane Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments-2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector-AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel 'gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 $715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within a New Frontiers budget.

Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; LeMouelic, Stephane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Adamkovics, Mate; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

2011-01-01

212

From mission planning to flight control of unmanned aerial vehicles: Strategies and implementation tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews aspects of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) autonomy as suggested by the Autonomous Control Logic chart of the U.S. DoD UAV autonomy roadmap; levels of vehicle autonomy addressed through intelligent control practices and a hierarchical\\/intelligent control architecture are presented for UAVs. Basic modules of the control hierarchy and their enabling technologies are reviewed; of special interest, from an

George Vachtsevanos; Liang Tang; Graham Drozeski; Luis Gutierrez

2005-01-01

213

PATH PLANNING FOR UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES IN UNCERTAIN AND ADVERSARIAL ENVIRONMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract One of the main objectives when,planning paths for unmanned,aerial vehicles in adversarial environments is to arrive at the given target, while maximizing,the safety of the vehicles. If one has perfect infor- mation of the threats that will be encountered, a safe path can always be constructed by solving an optimization problem. If there are un- certainties in the information,

Myungsoo Jun

214

Vision-Aided Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have limited sensor suites and computational power. For reconnaissance tasks and to conserve energy, these systems need the ability to autonomously land at vantage points or enter buildings (ingress). But for autonomous navigation, information is needed to identify and guide the vehicle to the target. Vision algorithms can provide egomotion estimation and target detection using input from cameras that are easy to include in miniature systems.

Brockers, Roland; Ma, Jeremy C.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bouffard, Patrick

2012-01-01

215

Experimental Dependability Evaluation of a Fail-Bounded Jet Engine Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

conversions involving booleans. 1. Introduction Important development issues for future aircraft are to combine high safety requirements with low maintenance, development and production costs. This is especially true for applications such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The market for military UAVs

Karlsson, Johan

216

Texture and scale in object-based analysis of subdecimeter resolution unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution i...

217

Texture and Scale in Object-Based Analysis of Subdecimeter Resolution Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagery acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great potential for incorporation into natural resource monitoring protocols due to their ability to be deployed quickly and repeatedly and to fly at low altitudes. While the imagery may have high spatial resolution, the spectral resolution is low when lightweight off-the-shelf digital cameras are used, and the inclusion of texture measures can

Andrea S. Laliberte; Albert Rango

2009-01-01

218

Unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing for rangeland assessment, monitoring, and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rangeland comprises as much as 70% of the Earth’s land surface area. Much of this vast space is in very remote areas that are expensive and often impossible to access on the ground. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for rangeland management. UAVs have several advantages over satel...

219

An Intelligent Approach to Coordinated Control of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a novel architecture for the coordinated control of multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs ) and a differential game theoretical approach to formation control and collision avoidance. The hierarchical architecture features an upper level with global situation awareness and team mission planning, a middle level with local knowledge, formation control and obstacle avoidance, and a low level that

George Vachtsevanos; Liang Tang; Johan Reimann

2004-01-01

220

Development of a PWM precision spraying controller for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a new pulse width modulation (PWM) controller for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) precision sprayer for agriculture using a TL494 fix-frequency pulse width modulator together with a data acquisition board and developed software. The PWM controller was implemented through the guidan...

221

Control algorithm and flight simulation integration using the open control platform for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to exhibit increasing degrees of autonomy; heterogeneous control system software needs to be able to collaborate and reconfigure to varying mission conditions. Currently this ability is very limited due to inadequate software architectures on which the control systems are implemented. This paper describes an integration platform that adopts an open systems approach to

S. Kannan; C. Restrepo; I. Yavrucuk; L. Wills; D. Schrage; J. V. R. Prasad

1999-01-01

222

Rangeland resource assessment, monitoring, and management using unmanned aerial vehicle-based remote sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have rapidly been expanding recently. Thanks to military development many civil UAVs come via the defense sector. Although numerous UAVs can perform civilian tasks, the regulations imposed by FAA in the national airspace system and military e...

223

Complete pose determination for low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle using stereo vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-developed pose estimation scenario suitable for low altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed. By employing dual CCD cameras onboard, the instant pose of UAV can be determined without any use of expensive sensor like gyro. The unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is hereafter introduced to resolve the highly nonlinear system dynamics as well as the measurement process of the

Luke K. Wang; Shan-Chih Hsieh; E. C.-W. Hsueh; Fei-Bin Hsaio; Kou-Yuan Huang

2005-01-01

224

Multiple View Motion Estimation and Control for Landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multiple view algorithm for vision based landing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Our algorithm is based on our recent results in multiple view geom- etry which exploit the rank deciency of the so called multiple view matrix. We show how the use of multiple views signicantly improves motion and structure es- timation. We compare our algorithm to

Omid Shakernia; Rene Vidal; Courtney S. Sharp; Yi Ma; Shankar Sastry

225

Actuators Fault Diagnosis and Tolerant Control for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a fault detection and isolation (FDI) method coupled with a fault tolerant control system are developed in order to deal with control surface failures for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The failures considered are stuck control surfaces which occur during the aircraft manoeuvres: turn, velocity and slope variations. These faults are difficult to detect and to isolate.

Franois Bateman; Hassan Noura; Mustapha Ouladsine

2007-01-01

226

Backstepping control with exact 2-sliding mode estimation for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a backstepping controller using sliding mode estimation technique which aims to simplify the control procedure. This approach, applied to a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle, differs from standard backstepping in that the virtual control inputs are designed based on estimates of the previous virtual control inputs. This eliminates the need to take derivatives of the

Tarek Madani; Abdelaziz Benallegue

2007-01-01

227

INTEGRATION OF GPS\\/INS\\/VISION SENSORS TO NAVIGATE UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated GPS\\/INS\\/Vision navigation sy stem for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). A CCD (Charge- Coupled Device) video camera and laser rangefinder (LRF) based vision system, combined with inertial sensors, provides the information on the vertical and horizontal movements of the UAV (helicopter) relative to the ground, which is critical for the safety of UAV operations. Two Kalman

Jinling Wang; Matthew Garratt; Andrew Lambert; Jack Jianguo Wang; Songlai Hana; David Sinclair

228

Tactical information operations for autonomous teams of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of tactical information operations in autonomous teams of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). We discuss the special challenges presented by the autonomous UAV team model, and we present the self-sustaining, self-configuring dynamic network architecture we have developed to address these challenges. We further discuss actual fielded experiments in which elements of the architecture have been proven

Bhargav R. Bellur; Mark G. Lewis; Fred L. Templin

2002-01-01

229

A Multiagent Swarming System for Distributed Automatic Target Recognition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, automatic target recognition (ATR) has emerged as an essential image analysis tool to identify objects from temporally and spatially disjoint possibly noisy image data. For many current applications, ATR is performed by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that fly within a reconnaissance area to collect image data through sensors and upload the data to a central

Prithviraj Dasgupta

2008-01-01

230

Decentralised fault detection and diagnosis in navigation systems for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a technological phenomenon sweeping the world stage. Full autonomy implies that the guidance and navigation system employed must exhibit the highest level of integrity. This paper looks at the parity space fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) methods, and its applicability in fully autonomous guidance and navigation systems in a decentralised system architecture. Using the

S. M. Magrabi; P. W. Gibbens

2000-01-01

231

Effect of haptic feedback in a trajectory following task with an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the limited field of view of a camera, visual information may not be sufficient to control an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In particular when the camera is not pointing into the direction of motion, perception of environment constraints can be considerably difficult. The use of haptic feedback would provide tactile cues complementing the information from the visual channel.

T. M. Lam; Harmen Wigert Boschloo; Max Mulder; M. M. Van Paassen; Frans C. T. Van Der Helm

2004-01-01

232

Identification of Man-Made Regions in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Details work in our group on the use of low-level features for the identification of man-made regions in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. The feature sets that we have examined include classical statistical features such as the coefficient of variation in a window about a pixel, locally computed fractal dimension, and fractal dimension computed in the presence of wavelet boundaries.

Jeffrey L. Solka; David J. Marchette; B. C. Wallet; V. L. Irwin; George W. Rogers

1998-01-01

233

Dynamic Feedback Controller of Euler Angles and Wind Parameters Estimation for a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear dynamic model for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle is presented with a new vision of state parameter control which is based on Euler angles and open loop positions state observer. This method emphasizes on the control of roll, pitch and yaw angle rather than the translational motions of the UAV. For this reason the system has been presented

Abdellah Mokhtari; Abedelaziz Benallegue

2004-01-01

234

Localizing mobile RF targets using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles with heterogeneous sensing capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of locating a mobile radio frequency (RF) target using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with sensors with varying accuracies. We investigate the localization task performance as we vary (1) the configuration of multiple UAVs (sensor locations), (2) the type of sensors onboard the UAVs, and (3) the sensor sequence. We use the

Daniel Pack; George York; Gregory Toussaint

2005-01-01

235

Multiple View Motion Estimation and Control for Landing an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a multiple view algorithm for vision based landing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Our algorithm is based on our recent results in multiple view geometry which exploit the rank deficiency of the so called multiple view matrix. We show how the use of multiple views significantly improves motion and structure estimation. We compare our algorithm to our previous

Omid Shakerniat; René Vidal; Courtney S. Sharp; Yi Ma; Shankar Sastry

2002-01-01

236

Probabilistic Roadmap Based Path Planning for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of intelligent unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) research has shown rapid development in recent years and offers a great number of research challenges for artificial intelligence. For both military and civil applications, there is a desire to develop more sophisticated UAV platforms where the emphasis is placed on development of intelligent capabil-ities. Imagine a mission scenario where a

Per Olof Pettersson; Patrick Doherty

237

Robust feedback linearization and GH? controller for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a mixed robust feedback linearization with linear GH controller is applied to a non linear quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. An actuator saturation and constrain on state space output are introduced to analyse the worst case of control law design. The results show that the overall system becomes robust when weighting functions are chosen judiciously. Performance issues of

A. Mokhtaril; A. Benallegue; B. Daachi

2005-01-01

238

Sliding Mode Observer and Backstepping Control for a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new approach of the backstepping control running parallel with a sliding mode observer for a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle. The sliding mode observer works as an observer of the quadrotor velocities and estimator of the external disturbances such as wind and parameter uncertainties. The controller objective is to achieve good tracking of desired (x,y,z)

Tarek Madani; Abdelaziz Benallegue

2007-01-01

239

A Compact Guidance, Navigation, and Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flight Control System 20 (FCS20) is a compact, self-contained Guidance, Naviga- tion, and Control system that has recently been developed to enable advanced autonomous behavior in a wide range of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The FCS20 uses a floating point Digital Signal Processor (DSP) for high level serial processing, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for low level parallel

Henrik B. Christophersen; R. Wayne; James C. Neidhoefer; Adrian A. Koller; K. Kannan; Eric N. Johnson

2006-01-01

240

Using a genetic algorithm to develop rules to guide unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a remotely controlled plane with sensing devices that has the capability to fly over terrain in search of enemy activity. We investigate the use of a genetic algorithm to develop rules that guide the UAV by modeling the amount of uncertainty the UAV faces in terms of probability distributions over grid cells representing terrain.

John A. Marin; Robert Radtke; David Innis; Donald R. Barr; Alan C. Schultz

1999-01-01

241

Decentralised data fusion applied to a network of unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress made in the application of decentralised data fusion (DDF) algorithms to a network of heterogeneous sensors, mounted aboard a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is reported. The paper refers to work conducted as part of the Autonomous Navigation and Sensing Experimental Research programme; a collaborative demonstration programme undertaken by BAE Systems and the Australian Centre for Field

J. H. Sutcliffe; P. Riseborough; H. Durrant-Whyte

2002-01-01

242

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some

Yan Jin; Yan Liao; Ali A. Minai; Marios M. Polycarpou

2006-01-01

243

Modeling and Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling and experimental identification results for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are presented. The numerical values of the aerodynamic derivatives are computed via the Digital DATCOM software using the geometric parameters of the airplane. Flight test data are utilized to identify the stability and control derivatives of the UAV. The aerodynamic angles are estimated and used in conjunction with

Dongwon Jungand; Panagiotis Tsiotras

244

Fixed Frequency, Variable Amplitude (FiFVA) actuation systems for Micro Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) have gained a sig- nificant amount of research lately, with a number of universities and industry sponsors paving the way with micro flying robots to perform Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Missions. However, much of the work done in flapping wing MAVs till date has not shown performance improvements over their Vertical Take Off and Landing

Jayant Ratti; Emanuel Jones; George Vachtsevanos

2011-01-01

245

Identifying Contingency Requirements Using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: (1) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the

Robyn R. Lutz; Stacy Nelson; Ann Patterson-Hine; Chad R. Frost

246

ANALYSIS OF A FEASIBLE PULSED-POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

More Electric Aircraft technology enables the power supply of electric energy weapons such as high-power microwave and laser weapons. Aspects of electric power generation, energy storage, distribution and pulse-conditioning systems for the power supply of directed energy weapons in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle are addressed in this paper. A trend in aircraft design is to electrify more parts of the aircraft

L. Austrin; M. Torabzadeh-Tari; A. Larsson

247

The development of a mini unmanned aerial vehicle for target tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mini UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) system for target tracking. The mini UAV system can be divided into two parts: the onboard system and the GCS (Ground Control Station). The former implements the algorithm of autonomous flight. The latter monitors the flight conditions of the mini UAV and displays the video taken from the onboard opto-electronic detector.

Guoliang Yang; Wei Liu

2008-01-01

248

Vision-Based Following of Structures Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspecting and monitoring oil-gas pipelines, roads, bridges, canals are very important in ensuring the reliability and life expectancy of these civil systems. An autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can decrease the operational costs, expedite the monitoring process and be used in situations where a manned inspection is not possible. This paper addresses the problem of monitoring these systems using an

Sivakumar Rathinam; ZuWhan Kim; Raja Sengupta

2006-01-01

249

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-01-01

250

BACKGROUND IMAGE: PHOTODISC nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to  

E-print Network

to the Detection and Localization of Targets by a Network of UAVs and UGVs 1070-9932/06/$20.00©2006 IEEEIEEEBACKGROUND IMAGE: © PHOTODISC U nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to cover large areas searching for targets. Howev- er, sensors on UAVs are typically limited in their accuracy of localization

Pappas, George J.

251

A Low-Cost System for Indoor Motion Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

. System performance analysis is also proposed, ad- dressing optimization of detection area, accuracy constraints for reliable motion tracking of a miniature UAV. I. INTRODUCTION Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used as dedicated robotic platforms to illustrate and to test performance of new

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

On Resource Overbooking in an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dionisio de Niz, Lutz Wrage  

E-print Network

such a scenario in a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system with a camera that must detect objects Allocation Model) that maximizes the UAV system utility by explicitly taking into account the diminishing on our UAV system to clearly demonstrate its benefits. I. INTRODUCTION One of the key characteristics

Rowe, Anthony

253

Comparison of Cooperative Search Algorithms for Mobile RF Targets Using Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we compare two cooperative control algorithms for multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to search, detect, and locate multiple mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. We assume the UAVs are equipped with low-precision RF direction finding sensors with no ranging capability and the targets may emit signals randomly with variable duration. In the first algorithm the UAVs

George W. P. York; Daniel J. Pack; Jens Harder

254

Time-Critical Cooperative Path Following of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles over Time-Varying Networks  

E-print Network

UNMANNED aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming ubiquitous and have been playing an increasingly important role in military reconnaissance and strike operations, border-patrol missions, forest- fire detection are sequential auto-landing and coordinated ground-target suppression for multiple UAVs. The first refers

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

255

Control of unmanned aerial vehicles performing multiple target passive detection and tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in a previously proposed algorithm for trajectory optimization of autonomous aerial vehicles performing multiple target tracking are presented. The algorithm involves a variant of the moving horizon control approach, built on a partially observed Markov decision process (POMDP) model of the sensor-target system. To evaluate the effectiveness of the advances a simulation involving multiple UAVs and targets is performed.

Peter W. Sarunic; Robin J. Evans

2009-01-01

256

Control of unmanned aerial vehicles for passive detection and tracking of multiple emitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for trajectory optimization of autonomous aerial vehicles performing multiple target tracking is proposed. The problem is approached by formulating it as a partially observed Markov decision process (POMDP) and developing a moving-horizon solution taking into account short and long term costs. To evaluate the effectiveness of the approach a simulation involving multiple UAVs and targets is performed.

Peter W. Sarunic; Robin J. Evans; Bill Moran

2009-01-01

257

Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL\\/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g.,

Gloria L. Calhoun; Mark H. Draper; Michael F. Abernathy; Michael Patzek; Francisco Delgado

2005-01-01

258

A Multi-objective Approach for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time Windows  

E-print Network

advances in the area of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, for short), commonly known as drones, are opening of autonomy. A possible application of a team of UAVs, equipped with camera (referred to as camera-drones), is represented by a live sporting event filming, where the use of the camera-drones gives the audience

Boyer, Edmond

259

Exploring 3D Gesture Metaphors for Interaction with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

metaphors for control and communication with Un- manned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) such as the Parrot AR Drone bundled with the AR Drone. We also discuss the trade-offs in the technique design metrics based on results and constructive test-beds [1]. With the arrival of low-cost robotics such as the Parrot AR Drone and Roomba, we

LaViola Jr., Joseph J.

260

MAVwork : a framework for unified interfacing between micro aerial vehicles and visual controllers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debugging control software for Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAV) can be risky out of the simulator, especially with professional drones that might harm people around or result in a high bill after a crash. We have designed a framework that enables a software application to communicate with multiple MAVs from a single unified interface. In this way, visual controllers can be

Ignacio Mellado-Bataller; Jes'us Pestana; Miguel A. Olivares-Mendez; Pascual Campoy; Luis Mejias

2013-01-01

261

A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in

M. Funaki; S. Tanabe; A. Project

2007-01-01

262

DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES  

E-print Network

(emphasize reduced size and use of composite materials) (6) A single stage axial flow turbine design (6DESIGN OF SMALL SCALE GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS FOR UNMANNED-AERIAL VEHICLES (AERSP 597/497-K) SPRING 814 865 9871 cxc11@psu.edu Summary : The proposed course is a three-credit gas turbine design course

Camci, Cengiz

263

3-D Unitary ESPRIT: Accurate Attitude Estimation for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with a  

E-print Network

of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is crucial for their control and displacement. Errors in the attitude, proprioceptive sensors such as inertial measurement units (IMUs) are widely applied, but they are susceptible to inertial guidance error. With antenna arrays currently being installed in UAVs for communication

So, Hing-Cheung

264

A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or

Blake Almy Moffitt

2010-01-01

265

An autonomous aerial vehicle for unmanned security and surveillance operations: design and test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an electrically powered unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with wingspan of 2.5 m. A flight control system is constructed using small and light-weight components. The logical interconnection and schematic layout of the AFC (Automatic Flight Control) are presented. The UAV prototype has been successfully tested carrying a high resolution camera, and was able to acquire

G. Belloni; M. Feroli; A. Ficola; S. Pagnottelli; P. Valigi

2007-01-01

266

Survey on the novel hybrid aquatic-aerial amphibious aircraft: Aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquatic unmanned aerial vehicle (AquaUAV), a kind of vehicle that can operate both in the air and the water, has been regarded as a new breakthrough to broaden the application scenario of UAV. Wide application prospects in military and civil field are more than bright, therefore many institutions have focused on the development of such a vehicle. However, due to the significant difference of the physical properties between the air and the water, it is rather difficult to design a fully-featured AquaUAV. Until now, majority of partially-featured AquaUAVs have been developed and used to verify the feasibility of an aquatic-aerial vehicle. In the present work, we classify the current partially-featured AquaUAV into three categories from the scope of the whole UAV field, i.e., the seaplane UAV, the submarine-launched UAV, and the submersible UAV. Then the recent advancements and common characteristics of the three kinds of AquaUAVs are reviewed in detail respectively. Then the applications of bionics in the design of AquaUAV, the transition mode between the air and the water, the morphing wing structure for air-water adaptation, and the power source and the propulsion type are summarized and discussed. The tradeoff analyses for different transition methods between the air and the water are presented. Furthermore, it indicates that applying the bionics into the design and development of the AquaUAV will be essential and significant. Finally, the significant technical challenges for the AquaUAV to change from a conception to a practical prototype are indicated.

Yang, Xingbang; Wang, Tianmiao; Liang, Jianhong; Yao, Guocai; Liu, Miao

2015-04-01

267

George Vachtsevanos, Panos Antsaklis, Kimon Valavanis, "Modeling and Control of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Current Status and Future Directions," Chapter 9, Modeling and Control of Complex Systems, CRC  

E-print Network

of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles­ Current Status and Future Directions," Chapter 9, Modeling and Control of Complex of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles­ Current Status and Future Directions," Chapter 9, Modeling and Control of Complex of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles­ Current Status and Future Directions," Chapter 9, Modeling and Control of Complex

Antsaklis, Panos

268

Abstract--The unmanned aerial vehicle can be an efficient and economical solution to real-time surveillance of highway traffic.  

E-print Network

Abstract-- The unmanned aerial vehicle can be an efficient and economical solution to real aerial vehicle to the monitoring terminals in the office of the Michigan Department of Transportation and high throughput of the communication channel. I. INTRODUCTION nmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have

Dong, Liang

269

The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Chris. W. Johnson, DPhil; Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow, Scotland, UK.  

E-print Network

The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Chris. W. Johnson, DPhil; Department In April 2006, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle crashed near Nogales, Arizona. This incident is of interest Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) refers to the airborne component of the wider Unmanned Aircraft Systems

Johnson, Chris

270

From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle From Motion Planning to Control -A Navigation Framework  

E-print Network

From Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle From Motion Planning to Control - A Navigation Framework for an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle,giaco,pioru,g-torme,simdu,patdo}@ida.liu.se ABSTRACT The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) which can operate autonomously in dynamic and complex

Doherty, Patrick

271

M.J.H. Lum et al. / Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) 313 Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 15, Long Beach CA, February, 2007  

E-print Network

M.J.H. Lum et al. / Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) 313 Medicine Meets Virtual. All rights reserved Telesurgery Via Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with a Field Deployable Surgical on an inanimate model via wireless communication through an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The surgical tasks were

Rosen, Jacob

272

A genetic algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicle routing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic Algorithms (GAs) can efficiently produce high quality results for hard combinatorial real world problems such as the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP). Genetic Vehicle Representation (GVR), a recent approach to solving instances of the VRP with a GA, produces competitive or superior results to the standard benchmark problems. This work extends GVR research by presenting a more precise mathematical model

Matthew A. Russell; Gary B. Lamont

2005-01-01

273

Assessment of Photogrammetric Mapping Accuracy Based on Variation Flying Altitude Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry is the earliest technique used to collect data for topographic mapping. The recent development in aerial photogrammetry is the used of large format digital aerial camera for producing topographic map. The aerial photograph can be in the form of metric or non-metric imagery. The cost of mapping using aerial photogrammetry is very expensive. In certain application, there is a need to map small area with limited budget. Due to the development of technology, small format aerial photogrammetry technology has been introduced and offers many advantages. Currently, digital map can be extracted from digital aerial imagery of small format camera mounted on light weight platform such as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This study utilizes UAV system for large scale stream mapping. The first objective of this study is to investigate the use of light weight rotary-wing UAV for stream mapping based on different flying height. Aerial photograph were acquired at 60% forward lap and 30% sidelap specifications. Ground control points and check points were established using Total Station technique. The digital camera attached to the UAV was calibrated and the recovered camera calibration parameters were then used in the digital images processing. The second objective is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric output. In this study, the photogrammetric output such as stereomodel in three dimensional (3D), contour lines, digital elevation model (DEM) and orthophoto were produced from a small stream of 200m long and 10m width. The research output is evaluated for planimetry and vertical accuracy using root mean square error (RMSE). Based on the finding, sub-meter accuracy is achieved and the RMSE value decreases as the flying height increases. The difference is relatively small. Finally, this study shows that UAV is very useful platform for obtaining aerial photograph and subsequently used for photogrammetric mapping and other applications.

Udin, W. S.; Ahmad, A.

2014-02-01

274

Design and characterization of Hover Nano Aerial Vehicle (HNAV) propulsion system  

E-print Network

On October 4th 2005, DARPA released a request for proposals for a Nano-Air Vehicle (NAV) program. The program sought to develop an advanced urban reconnaissance vehicle. According the requirement imposed by DARPA, the NAV ...

Sato, Sho, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

275

Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for urban tree inventories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to standard aerial imagery, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) utilize recent technological advances to provide an affordable alternative for imagery acquisition. Increased value can be realized through clarity and detail providing higher resolution (2-5 cm) over traditional products. Many natural resource disciplines such as urban forestry will benefit from UAS. Tree inventories for risk assessment, biodiversity, planning, and design can be efficiently achieved with the UAS. Recent advances in photogrammetric processing have proved automated methods for three dimensional rendering of aerial imagery. Point clouds can be generated from images providing additional benefits. Association of spatial locational information within the point cloud can be used to produce elevation models i.e. digital elevation, digital terrain and digital surface. Taking advantage of this point cloud data, additional information such as tree heights can be obtained. Several software applications have been developed for LiDAR data which can be adapted to utilize UAS point clouds. This study examines solutions to provide tree inventory and heights from UAS imagery. Imagery taken with a micro-UAS was processed to produce a seamless orthorectified image. This image provided an accurate way to obtain a tree inventory within the study boundary. Utilizing several methods, tree height models were developed with variations in spatial accuracy. Model parameters were modified to offset spatial inconsistencies providing statistical equality of means. Statistical results (p = 0.756) with a level of significance (? = 0.01) between measured and modeled tree height means resulted with 82% of tree species obtaining accurate tree heights. Within this study, the UAS has proven to be an efficient tool for urban forestry providing a cost effective and reliable system to obtain remotely sensed data.

Ritter, Brian A.

276

Aerial Vehicle Surveys of other Planetary Atmospheres and Surfaces: Imaging, Remote-sensing, and Autonomy Technology Requirements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this paper is to review the anticipated imaging and remote-sensing technology requirements for aerial vehicle survey missions to other planetary bodies in our Solar system that can support in-atmosphere flight. In the not too distant future such planetary aerial vehicle (a.k.a. aerial explorers) exploration missions will become feasible. Imaging and remote-sensing observations will be a key objective for these missions. Accordingly, it is imperative that optimal solutions in terms of imaging acquisition and real-time autonomous analysis of image data sets be developed for such vehicles.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Gregory; Ippolito, Corey; Alena, Rick

2005-01-01

277

A safe flight algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military applications require unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) to travel in an unknown, hostile environment. Hence minimizing the damage of these UAVs is crucial to any mission. The objective of this paper is to develop control algorithms that help in keeping the UAV 'safe'. Safety implies that the UAVs are not damaged or destroyed during the mission. We present two algorithms

Sivakumar Rathinam; Raja Sengupta

2004-01-01

278

Visualization of ground target designation from an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common ground station (CGS) receives data from the joint surveillance and target attack radar system aircraft and from other airborne platforms. High-resolution imagery such as that provided by an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) carrying an IR and\\/or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor will be incorporated into an advanced imagery CGS operation. While this level of integration provides a wealth

Deborah J. Violette Pierce; John J. Santapietro

1998-01-01

279

Reactive Collision Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles using Doppler Radar  

E-print Network

obstacle detection sensors. Flight tests conducted by flying a mini UAV at an obstacle have confirmed the vehicle and target to detect obstacles. As the UAV is continually moving this is not considered free path through an obstacle field. 1 Introduction The ability to deploy UAVs across a multitude

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

280

Autonomous Orbit Coordination for Two Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

frame 1, 2 Vehicle 1, 2 2. INTRODUCTION Two UAVs are to coordinate their observation of a target au to establish the relative target position. The UAVs are commanded to orbit about the estimated position of detection. A stand-off geo-location process can be optimized by orienting the sensor ranges perpendicularly

Washington at Seattle, University of

281

Automatic Vehicle Trajectory Extraction for Traffic Analysis from Aerial Video Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to simultaneous detection and tracking of vehicles moving through an intersection in aerial images acquired by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Detailed analysis of spatial and temporal utilization of an intersection is an important step for its design evaluation and further traffic inspection. Traffic flow at intersections is typically very dynamic and requires continuous and accurate monitoring systems. Conventional traffic surveillance relies on a set of fixed cameras or other detectors, requiring a high density of the said devices in order to monitor the intersection in its entirety and to provide data in sufficient quality. Alternatively, a UAV can be converted to a very agile and responsive mobile sensing platform for data collection from such large scenes. However, manual vehicle annotation in aerial images would involve tremendous effort. In this paper, the proposed combination of vehicle detection and tracking aims to tackle the problem of automatic traffic analysis at an intersection from visual data. The presented method has been evaluated in several real-life scenarios.

Apeltauer, J.; Babinec, A.; Herman, D.; Apeltauer, T.

2015-03-01

282

Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite their lack of stereoscopy, insects infer distances to potential obstacles and other objects from image motion cues that result from their own motions in the environment. The concept of motion of texture in images as a source of motion cues is denoted generally as the concept of optic or optical flow. Computationally, a strategy based on optical flow is simpler than is stereoscopy for avoiding hazards and following terrain. Hence, this strategy offers the potential to design vision-based control computing subsystems that would be more compact, would weigh less, and would demand less power than would subsystems of equivalent capability based on a conventional stereoscopic approach.

Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

2005-01-01

283

Simulation and Flight Control of an Aeroelastic Fixed Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro aerial vehicles have been the subject of continued interest and development over the last several years. The majority of current vehicle concepts rely on rigid fixed wings or rotors. An alternate design based on an aeroelastic membrane wing has also been developed that exhibits desired characteristics in flight test demonstrations, competition, and in prior aerodynamics studies. This paper presents a simulation model and an assessment of flight control characteristics of the vehicle. Linear state space models of the vehicle associated with typical trimmed level flight conditions and which are suitable for control system design are presented as well. The simulation is used as the basis for the design of a measurement based nonlinear dynamic inversion control system and outer loop guidance system. The vehicle/controller system is the subject of ongoing investigations of autonomous and collaborative control schemes. The results indicate that the design represents a good basis for further development of the micro aerial vehicle for autonomous and collaborative controls research.

Waszak, Martin; Davidson, John B.; Ifju, Peter G.

2002-01-01

284

Monitoring agricultural crops using a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing has been identified as a key technology to allow near real-time detection and diagnosis of crop status at the field level. Although satellite based remote sensing techniques have already proven to be relevant for many requirements of crop inventory and monitoring, they might lack flexibility to support anomaly detection at specific moments over the growing season. Imagery taken from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are shown to be an effective alternative platform for crop monitoring, given their potential of high spatial and temporal resolution, and their high flexibility in image acquisition programming. In addition, several studies have shown that an increased spectral resolution as available from hyperspectral systems provide the opportunity to estimate biophysical properties like leaf-area-index (LAI), chlorophyll and leaf water content with improved accuracies. To investigate the opportunities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in operational crop monitoring, we have developed a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system (< 2 kg) suitable to be mounted on small UAVs. Its composed of an octocopter UAV-platform with a pushbroom spectrometer consisting of a spectrograph, an industrial camera functioning as frame grabber, storage device, and computer, a separate INS and finally a photogrammetric camera. The system is able to produce georeferenced and georectified hyperspectral data cubes in the 400-1000 nm spectral range at 10-50 cm resolution. The system is tested in a fertilization experiment for a potato crop on a 12 ha experimental field in the South of the Netherlands. In the experiment UAV-based hyperspectral images were acquired on a weekly basis together with field data on chlorophyll as indicator for the nitrogen situation of the crop and leaf area index (LAI) as indicator for biomass status. Initially, the quality aspects of the developed light-weight hyperspectral mapping system will presented with regard to its radiometric and geometric quality. Next we would like to present the relations between sensor derived spectral measurements and crop status variables for a time-series of measurements over the growing season. In addition, the spatial variation of crop characteristics within the field can be adopted for variable rate application of fertilizers within the field. The outcome of the experiments should guide the operational use of UAV based systems in precision agriculture systems.

Kooistra, Lammert; Suomalainen, Juha; Franke, Jappe; Bartholomeus, Harm; Mücher, Sander; Becker, Rolf

2014-05-01

285

An intelligent algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicle surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intelligent swarm-based guidance and path planning algorithm for the Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAV) provides the ability to efficiently carry out grid surveillance, taking into account specific UAV constraints such as maximum speed, maximum flight time and battery re-charging intervals to allow for continuous surveillance. The swarm-based flight planning is based on enhancements of distributed computing concepts that have been

Ashish Bhargave; Barry Ambrose; Freddie Lin; Manthos Kazantzidis

2007-01-01

286

First results for an image processing workflow for hyperspatial imagery acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Very high-resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have great potential for use in rangeland monitoring and assessment, because the imagery fills the gap between ground-based observations and remotely sensed imagery from aerial or satellite sensors. However, because UAV imagery is ofte...

287

A procedure for orthorectification of sub-decimeter resolution imagery obtained with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Digital aerial photography acquired with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has great value for resource management due to the flexibility and relatively low cost for image acquisition, and very high resolution imagery (5 cm) which allows for mapping bare soil and vegetation types, structure and patter...

288

An Examination of Drag Reduction Mechanisms in Marine Animals, with Potential Applications to Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous engineering research and development has documented the plausibility of applying biomimetic approaches to aerospace engineering. Past cooperation between the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) and NASA focused on the drag reduction qualities of the microscale dermal denticles of shark skin. This technology has subsequently been applied to submarines and aircraft. The present study aims to identify and document the three-dimensional geometry of additional macroscale morphologies that potentially confer drag reducing hydrodynamic qualities upon marine animals and which could be applied to enhance the range and endurance of Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Such morphologies have evolved over eons to maximize organismal energetic efficiency by reducing the energetic input required to maintain cruising speeds in the viscous marine environment. These drag reduction qualities are manifested in several groups of active marine animals commonly encountered by ongoing VIMS research programs: namely sharks, bony fishes such as tunas, and sea turtles. Through spatial data acquired by molding and digital imagery analysis of marine specimens provided by VIMS, NASA aims to construct scale models of these features and to test these potential drag reduction morphologies for application to aircraft design. This report addresses the efforts of VIMS and NASA personnel on this project between January and November 2001.

Musick, John A.; Patterson, Mark R.; Dowd, Wesley W.

2002-01-01

289

Mobile Stereo-Mapper a Portable Kit for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-cost portable light-weight mobile stereo-mapping system (MSMS) is under development in the GeoICT Lab, Geomatics Engineering program at York University. The MSMS is designed for remote operation on board unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for navigation and rapid collection of 3D spatial data. Pose estimation of the camera sensors is based on single frequency RTK-GPS, loosely coupled in a Kalman filter with MEMS-based IMU. The attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) calculates orientation from the gyro data, aided by accelerometer and magnetometer data to compensate for gyro drift. Two low-cost consumer digital cameras are calibrated and time-synchronized with the GPS/IMU to provide direct georeferenced stereo vision, while a video camera is used for navigation. Object coordinates are determined using rigorous photogrammetric solutions supported by direct georefencing algorithms for accurate pose estimation of the camera sensors. Before the MSMS is considered operational its sensor components and the integrated system itself has to undergo a rigorous calibration process to determine systematic errors and biases and to determine the relative geometry of the sensors. In this paper, the methods and results for system calibration, including camera, boresight and leverarm calibrations are presented. An overall accuracy assessment of the calibrated system is given using a 3D test field.

Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.; Lee, R.

2011-09-01

290

Vertical Lift Planetary Aerial Vehicles: Three Planetary Bodies and Four Conceptual Design Cases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Ames Research Center has been studying the feasibility of vertical lift aerial vehicles to support planetary science and exploration missions. Besides Earth, it appears that there are three planetary bodies within our solar system where vertical flight might not only be theoretically feasible, but would also have unique mission capabilities that no other platform (ground-based, aerial, or orbital) could provide. Several vertical lift vehicle configurations might be applicable for planetary science missions. This paper presents a few representative conceptual design cases and the design challenges inherent in their development. Finally, more detailed comments are directed to the issues inherent in developing a NASA Mars Scout mission employing the use of a Martian autonomous rotorcraft.

Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.

2001-01-01

291

On the Effect of Winglets on the Performance of Micro-Aerial-Vehicles Dr. Helen L. Reed  

E-print Network

#12;On the Effect of Winglets on the Performance of Micro-Aerial-Vehicles Dr. Helen L. Reed Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering helen.reed@asu.edu Jarmo Mönttinen Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

292

Flocking of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by LQR Control Osamah Saif1 and Isabelle Fantoni1 and Arturo Zavala-Rio2  

E-print Network

Flocking of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by LQR Control Osamah Saif1 and Isabelle Fantoni1 follow one UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), which is designated as a leader. A formation flight mission and Arturo Zavala-R´io2 Abstract-- In this paper, we address the control problem of multiple Unmanned Aerial

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Design of a nonlinear robust controller for a complete unmanned aerial vehicle mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) flight control systems must be capable of delivering the required performance while handling nonlinearities and uncertainties in the vehicle model, the atmosphere, and ambient wind. These factors necessitate the development of nonlinear flight control system design methods that can handle large nonlinearities and uncertainties. Variable approaches to the linear control of UAVs have been discussed in the recent literature. However, the development of a nonlinear robust autopilot has not been addressed to any significant degree. The development of a nonlinear autopilot based on robust control methods will be discussed in this dissertation. In this design technique, the nonlinear UAV model is not linearized. The control law is designed using the Hinfinity technique. This dissertation presents the results of an exploratory study to examine robust autopilot nonlinear design methods for the UAV and compare this new approach with existing PID, LQR, and linear Hinfinity techniques. Since the method must then be verified, its flight simulation will be done using MATLAB/SIMULINK. Verification, validation and robustness tests are documented at the end of this dissertation. The airplane examined is called the Hawkeye. It was designed and built by KU students in the fall of 2004. It is a small, 14 foot wingspan, remotely controlled airplane made from composite materials with a maximum takeoff weight of 90 lbs. It will be used in the future as a small UAV for research programs at KU. The mission includes take-off, climb, cruise, a one and a half circle accomplished in a level turn, and a return back to its original airfield accomplished by cruising back, descending, and completing an approach and landing. After take-off, the airplane is required to climb to 1,000 ft altitude, and then it travels 5,000 ft over the ground into the target area. It will then take some photos of that target using its camera. The complete mission for the UAV lasts about 180 seconds.

Sadraey, Mohammad Hashem

294

Transition Flight Simulation of Flapping-Wing Micro-Aerial Vehicle Using Aerodynamic Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes how to simulate the flight of a flapping-wing micro-aerial vehicle (MAV). It uses an aerodynamic database generated using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The database is composed of the time mean aerodynamic forces and moments generated at various flapping wing motions in various flight modes. Flight is simulated utilizing the database by interpolation. The procedure is applied to transition

Koji Isogai; Hiroyasu Kawabe

2010-01-01

295

Control system design for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicles using time-domain system identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the development of flight control system for rotorcraft-based unmanned aerial vehicle (RUAV). In this research, the linear time-invariant model valid for hover is sought. The system response data is acquired in carefully devised experiment procedure and then a linear time-invariant system model is obtained using the time-domain analysis method. The acquired model is used to design feedback

David Hyunchul Shim; Hyoun Jin Kim; Shankar Sastry

2000-01-01

296

In-flight tests of navigation and control system of unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, results of the flight-testing of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flight control system are presented. APC-4 “SkyGuide” autonomous navigation and control system, designed and developed by the research team of the Department of Avionics and Control at Rzeszów University of Technology, has been tested. Properties of this flight control system, as well as selected results of the

Andrzej Tomczyk

2003-01-01

297

Imaging from an unmanned aerial vehicle: agricultural surveillance and decision support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In September 2002, NASA’s solar-powered Pathfinder-Plus unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was used to conduct a proof-of-concept mission in US national airspace above the 1500ha plantation of the Kauai Coffee Company in Hawaii. While in national airspace, the transponder-equipped UAV was supervised by regional air traffic controllers and treated like a conventionally piloted aircraft. High resolution color and multispectral imaging payloads,

S. R Herwitz; L. F Johnson; S. E Dunagan; R. G Higgins; D. V Sullivan; J Zheng; B. M Lobitz; J. G Leung; B. A Gallmeyer; M Aoyagi; R. E Slye; J. A Brass

2004-01-01

298

Experimental Dependability Evaluation of a Fail-Bounded Jet Engine Control System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental evaluation of a prototype jet engine controller intended for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The controller is implemented with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware based on the Motorola MPC565 microcontroller. We investigate the impact of single event upsets (SEUs) by injecting single bit-flip faults into main memory and CPU registers via the Nexus on-chip debug interface of

Jonny Vinter; Olof Hannius; Torbjörn Norlander; Peter Folkesson; Johan Karlsson

2005-01-01

299

Towards Using Hybrid Automata for the Mission Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a methodology for the design of flight plans for rotary-wing unmanned aerial vehicles based on formal\\u000a verification. The methodology uses linear hybrid automata to model the aircraft which will be used to perform a given mission,\\u000a the flight plan that will be executed by that aircraft, the region where the flight will be performed and the meteorological

Conrado W. Seibel; Jean-marie Farines; José E. R. Cury

1997-01-01

300

Flexible shear-stress sensor skin and its application to unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear-stress information is of great interest for many fluidic dynamic monitoring\\/diagnostics application. To obtain such information on non-planar surfaces has long been a significant challenge. This paper describes the development of flexible shear-stress sensor skin and its application on the detection of leading edge flow separation for delta planform unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The sensor skin contains a 1-D array

Yong Xu; Fukang Jiang; Scott Newbern; Adam Huang; Chih-Ming Ho; Yu-Chong Tai

2003-01-01

301

Fuzzy logic based closed-loop strapdown attitude system for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a fuzzy logic based closed-loop strapdown attitude reference system (SARS) algorithm, integrated filtering estimator for determining attitude reference, for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) using low-cost solid-state inertial sensors. The SARS for this research consists of three single-axis rate gyros in conjunction with two single-axis accelerometers. For the solution scheme fuzzy modules (rules and reasoning)

Sung Kyung Hong

2003-01-01

302

Words at the right time: Real-time dialogues with the witas unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The WITAS project addresses the design of an intelligent, autonomous UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle), in our case a helicopter.\\u000a Its dialogue-system subprojects address the design of a deliberative system for natural-language and graphical dialogue with\\u000a that robotic UAV. This raises new issues both for dialogue and for reasoning in real time. The following topics have been\\u000a particularly important for us

Erik Sandewall; Patrick Doherty; Oliver Lemon; Stanley Peters

2003-01-01

303

Cognitive Task Analysis for Developing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Wilderness Search Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilderness search and rescue (WiSAR) requires thousands of hours of search over large and complex terrains. Mini-UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) may dramatically improve WiSAR search efficiency. Early field trials in UAV-enabled WiSAR indicated a need to improve the human-UAV interaction, the coordination between the UAV and ground search resources, and the UAV technology. A cognitive task analysis was conducted to

Julie A. Adams; Curtis M. Humphrey; Michael A. Goodrich; Joseph L. Cooper; Bryan S. Morse; Cameron Engh; Nathan Rasmussen

2009-01-01

304

Synthesis and Hardware Implementation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Automatic Landing System Utilizing Quantitative Feedback Theory  

E-print Network

operations at the Riverside Test Range. iv NOMENCLATURE GPS Global Positioning System IMU Inertial Measurement Unit QFT Quantitative Feedback Theory UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle SISO Single-input single-output MIMO Multiple-input multiple-output MAV Micro air... in potentially different environmental conditions. Additional challenges are introduced when landing light weight unmanned air ve- hicles (UAVs). Accurate models are not always available, because traditional design methods do not generally scale down reliably...

Woodbury, Timothy Daniel

2014-07-08

305

AKSED: adaptive knowledge-based system for event detection using collaborative unmanned aerial vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advances in sensor technology and image processing have made it possible to equip unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with economical, high-resolution, energy-efficient sensors. Despite the improvements, current UAVs lack autonomous and collaborative operation capabilities, due to limited bandwidth and limited on-board image processing abilities. The situation, however, is changing. In the next generation of UAVs, much image processing can be carried

X. Sean Wang; Byung Suk Lee; Firooz Sadjadi

2006-01-01

306

Use of Acoustic Wind Profilers for Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Flight Test Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sonic detection and ranging (SODAR) systems provide crucial information to meteorologists for advising uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) flight crews and mission directors on historical, current, and forecasted wind and turbulence conditions. The SODAR system provided advanced warning of increasing surface winds for an X-38 flight on February 6, 1999. The SODAR system has also provided important postflight data for X-38 engineers to review the performance of the parafoil in the presence of strong wind shears near the surface at landing.

Donnohue, Casey J.; Underwood, Ken; Bellue, Dan G.

2001-01-01

307

Human Systems Integration and Automation Issues in Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this report is to identify Human System Integration (HSI) and automation issues that contribute to improved effectiveness and efficiency in the operation of U.S. military Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (SUAVs). HSI issues relevant to SUAV operations are reviewed and observations from field trials are summarized. Short-term improvements are suggested research issues are identified and an overview is provided of automation technologies applicable to future SUAV design.

McCauley, Michael E.; Matsangas, Panagiotis

2004-01-01

308

Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Industry/NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

1996-01-01

309

Feature and Pose Constrained Visual Aided Inertial Navigation for Computationally Constrained Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Feature and Pose Constrained Extended Kalman Filter (FPC-EKF) is developed for highly dynamic computationally constrained micro aerial vehicles. Vehicle localization is achieved using only a low performance inertial measurement unit and a single camera. The FPC-EKF framework augments the vehicle's state with both previous vehicle poses and critical environmental features, including vertical edges. This filter framework efficiently incorporates measurements from hundreds of opportunistic visual features to constrain the motion estimate, while allowing navigating and sustained tracking with respect to a few persistent features. In addition, vertical features in the environment are opportunistically used to provide global attitude references. Accurate pose estimation is demonstrated on a sequence including fast traversing, where visual features enter and exit the field-of-view quickly, as well as hover and ingress maneuvers where drift free navigation is achieved with respect to the environment.

Williams, Brian; Hudson, Nicolas; Tweddle, Brent; Brockers, Roland; Matthies, Larry

2011-01-01

310

Robust vehicle detection in aerial images based on salient region selection and superpixel classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For detecting vehicles in large scale aerial images we first used a non-parametric method proposed recently by Rosin to define the regions of interest, where the vehicles appear with dense edges. The saliency map is a sum of distance transforms (DT) of a set of edges maps, which are obtained by a threshold decomposition of the gradient image with a set of thresholds. A binary mask for highlighting the regions of interest is then obtained by a moment-preserving thresholding of the normalized saliency map. Secondly, the regions of interest were over-segmented by the SLIC superpixels proposed recently by Achanta et al. to cluster pixels into the color constancy sub-regions. In the aerial images of 11.2 cm/pixel resolution, the vehicles in general do not exceed 20 x 40 pixels. We introduced a size constraint to guarantee no superpixels exceed the size of a vehicle. The superpixels were then classified to vehicle or non-vehicle by the Support Vector Machine (SVM), in which the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features and the Linear Binary Pattern (LBP) texture features were used. Both features were extracted at two scales with two size patches. The small patches capture local structures and the larger patches include the neighborhood information. Preliminary results show a significant gain in the detection. The vehicles were detected with a dense concentration of the vehicle-class superpixels. Even dark color cars were successfully detected. A validation process will follow to reduce the presence of isolated false alarms in the background.

Sahli, Samir; Duval, Pierre-Luc; Sheng, Yunlong; Lavigne, Daniel A.

2011-05-01

311

Hydrology With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Albert Rango, USDA-ARS-Jornada Experimental Range, Las Cruces, NM (alrango@nmsu.edu)  

E-print Network

Hydrology With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) Albert Rango, USDA-ARS-Jornada Experimental Range (approx. 100 years), has over 6,000 aerial photos from 1936-present and numerous satellite images, such as

312

Collaborative Exploration with a Micro Aerial Vehicle: A Novel Interaction Method for Controlling a MAV with a Hand-Held Device  

E-print Network

In order to collaboratively explore an environment with a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV), an operator needs a mobile interface, which can support the operator’s divided attention. To this end, we developed the Micro Aerial ...

Pitman, David

2012-01-01

313

The Potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Large Scale Mapping of Coastal Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many countries in the tropical region are covered with cloud for most of the time, hence, it is difficult to get clear images especially from high resolution satellite imagery. Aerial photogrammetry can be used but most of the time the cloud problem still exists. Today, this problem could be solved using a system known as unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) where the aerial images can be acquired at low altitude and the system can fly under the cloud. The UAV system could be used in various applications including mapping coastal area. The UAV system is equipped with an autopilot system and automatic method known as autonomous flying that can be utilized for data acquisition. To achieve high resolution imagery, a compact digital camera of high resolution was used to acquire the aerial images at an altitude. In this study, the UAV system was employed to acquire aerial images of a coastal simulation model at low altitude. From the aerial images, photogrammetric image processing was executed to produce photogrammetric outputs such a digital elevation model (DEM), contour line and orthophoto. In this study, ground control point (GCP) and check point (CP) were established using conventional ground surveying method (i.e total station). The GCP is used for exterior orientation in photogrammetric processes and CP for accuracy assessment based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). From this study, it was found that the UAV system can be used for large scale mapping of coastal simulation model with accuracy at millimeter level. It is anticipated that the same system could be used for large scale mapping of real coastal area and produces good accuracy. Finally, the UAV system has great potential to be used for various applications that require accurate results or products at limited time and less man power.

Darwin, N.; Ahmad, A.; Zainon, O.

2014-02-01

314

Reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

315

Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grant Program  

SciTech Connect

Project Description: Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants The Propane Vehicle Demonstration Grants was established to demonstrate the benefits of new propane equipment. The US Department of Energy, the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) and the Propane Vehicle Council (PVC) partnered in this program. The project impacted ten different states, 179 vehicles, and 15 new propane fueling facilities. Based on estimates provided, this project generated a minimum of 1,441,000 new gallons of propane sold for the vehicle market annually. Additionally, two new off-road engines were brought to the market. Projects originally funded under this project were the City of Portland, Colorado, Kansas City, Impco Technologies, Jasper Engines, Maricopa County, New Jersey State, Port of Houston, Salt Lake City Newspaper, Suburban Propane, Mutual Liquid Propane and Ted Johnson.

Jack Mallinger

2004-08-27

316

Embedded estimation of fault parameters in an unmanned aerial vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a model-based approach for estimating fault conditions in an aircraft. We formulate fault estimation as a convex optimization problem, where estimates are obtained by solving a constrained quadratic program (QP). A moving horizon framework is used to enable recursive implementation of the constrained QP of fixed size. The estimation scheme takes into account a priori

Sikandar Samar; Dimitry Gorinevsky; Stephen P. Boyd

2006-01-01

317

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one electric or hybrid van and four electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

1992-05-01

318

Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program  

SciTech Connect

Kansas State University, with funding support from federal, state, public, and private companies, is participating in the Department of Energy's Electric Vehicle Site Operator Program. Through participation is this program, Kansas State is demonstrating, testing, and evaluating electric or hybrid vehicle technology. This participation will provide organizations the opportunity to examine the latest EHV prototypes under actual operating conditions. KSU proposes to purchase one (1) electric or hybrid van and four (4) electric cars during the first two years of this five year program. KSU has purchased one G-Van built by Conceptor Industries, Toronto, Canada and has initiated a procurement order to purchase two (2) Soleq 1992 Ford EVcort stationwagons.

Not Available

1992-01-01

319

The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm

Frederick G. Harmon; Andrew A. Frank; Sanjay S. Joshi

2005-01-01

320

Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected

Patrick Joseph Ford

2003-01-01

321

Visualization of ground target designation from an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common ground station (CGS) receives data from the joint surveillance and target attack radar system aircraft and from other airborne platforms. High-resolution imagery such as that provided by an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) carrying an IR and/or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor will be incorporated into an advanced imagery CGS operation. While this level of integration provides a wealth of valuable information, it also increase the complexity of planning, assessment and exploitation which in turn dictates flexible simulation tools for mission rehearsal and operator training. MITRE has developed a ModSAF-driven model for a UAV equipped with a moving target indicator (MTI) radar for wide-area surveillance, and a battlefield combat identification system for positive identification of friendly forces. The imaging functions are performed by integrating the UAV model with visualization software in order to render the sensor's view in real-time. This model forms the basis for a multisensor CGS simulation controls imaging task assignments which taken place when an MTI track is selected for imaging by means of a mouse click entry on an active MTI display. At that time, the UAV is commanded to fly an automatically determined trajectory in order to align MTI display. At that time, the UAV is commanded to fly an automatically determined trajectory in order to align itself for the imaging task. A beam footprint whose position, size and shape is determined by the sensor position, attitude, and field-of-view appears on the display as an indication of the relationship of the image display to the terrain in the operational scenario. A 3D visualization of the designated target area then takes place on a separate display.

Violette Pierce, Deborah J.; Santapietro, John J.

1998-08-01

322

Visualization of ground target designation from an unmanned aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

The Common Ground Station (CGS) receives data from the Joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS) aircraft and from other airborne platforms. High-resolution imagery such as that provided by an unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) carrying an infrared (IR) and/or synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor will be incorporated into an Advanced Imagery CGS (AI CGS) operation. While this level of integration provides a wealth of valuable information, it also increases the complexity of planning, assessment and exploitation which in turn dictates flexible simulation tools for mission rehearsal and operator training. MITRE has developed a ModSAF-driven model for a UAV equipped with a moving target indicator (MTI) radar for wide-area surveillance, and a Battlefield Combat Identification System (BCIS) for positive identification of friendly forces. The imaging functions are performed by integrating the UAV model with visualization software in order to render the sensor’s view in real-time. This model forms the basis for a multisensor CGS simulation (MSCGS) which consists of the multisensor UAV combined with a UAV Control Station (UAV CS). The UAV CS controls imaging task assignments which take place when an MTI track is selected for imaging by means of a mouse click entry on an active MTI display. At that time, the UAV is commanded to fly an automatically determined trajectory in order to align itself for the imaging task. A beam footprint whose position, size and shape is determined by the sensor position, attitude, and field-of-view appears on the display as an indication of the relationship of the image display to the terrain in the operational scenario. A three-dimensional visualization of the designated target area then takes place on a separate display.

Deborah J. Violette Pierce; John J. Santapietro

1998-01-01

323

Using advanced manufacturing to produce unmanned aerial vehicles: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a feasibility study to explore the impact of advanced manufacturing on the production and maintenance of a 3D printed, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in theatre. Specifically, this report focuses on fused deposition modeling (FDM), the selective deposition of a molten thermoplastic. FDM is already a forward deployed technology, primarily used for printing custom tools and replacement parts. The authors ask if it is feasible to expand the printers' capacity to produce aerial platforms; the reduction in logistics and labor could significantly decrease costs per unit and enable far more platform customization and specialized deployment scenarios than are available in existing aircraft. The University of Virginia and The MITRE Corporation designed and built a prototype, 3D printed UAV for use as an aerial sensor platform. This report • Discusses the printed aerial platform, summarizes the design process, and compares printing methods • Describes the benefits and limitations to selecting FDM printers as the technology both for deployment as well as UAV design • Concludes with the current state and future expectations for FDM printing technologies relevant to UAV production. Our findings suggest that although 3D printing is not yet entirely field-ready, many of its advantages can already be realized.

Easter, Steven; Turman, Jonathan; Sheffler, David; Balazs, Michael; Rotner, Jonathan

2013-05-01

324

Small unmanned aerial vehicles for aeromagnetic surveys and their flights in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed small computer-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, Ant-Plane) using parts and technology designed for model airplanes. These UAVs have a maximum flight range of 300-500 km. We planned aeromagnetic and aerial photographic surveys using the UAVs around Bransfield Basin, Antarctica, beginning from King George Island. However, we were unable to complete these flights due to unsuitable weather conditions and flight restrictions. Successful flights were subsequently conducted from Livingston Island to Deception Island in December 2011. This flight covered 302.4 km in 3:07:08, providing aeromagnetic and aerial photographic data from an altitude of 780 m over an area of 9 × 18 km around the northern region of Deception Island. The resulting magnetic anomaly map of Deception Island displayed higher resolution than the marine anomaly maps published already. The flight to South Bay in Livingston Island successfully captured aerial photographs that could be used for assessment of glacial and sea-ice conditions. It is unclear whether the cost-effectiveness of the airborne survey by UAV is superior to that of manned flight. Nonetheless, Ant-Plane 6-3 proved to be highly cost-effective for the Deception Island flight, considering the long downtime of the airplane in the Antarctic storm zone.

Funaki, Minoru; Higashino, Shin-Ichiro; Sakanaka, Shinya; Iwata, Naoyoshi; Nakamura, Norihiro; Hirasawa, Naohiko; Obara, Noriaki; Kuwabara, Mikio

2014-12-01

325

Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) to capture micro-topography of Antarctic moss beds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mosses, the dominant flora of East Antarctica, show evidence of drying in recent decades, likely due to the regional effects of climate change. Given the relatively small area that such moss beds occupy, new tools are needed to map and monitor these fragile ecosystems in sufficient detail. In this study, we collected low altitude aerial photography with a small multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Structure from Motion (SfM) computer vision techniques were applied to derive ultra-high resolution 3D models from multi-view aerial photography. A 2 cm digital surface model (DSM) and 1 cm orthophoto mosaic were derived from the 3D model and aerial photographs, respectively. The geometric accuracy of the orthophoto and DSM was 4 cm. A weighted contributing upstream area was derived with the D-infinity algorithm, based on the DSM and a snow cover map derived from the orthophoto. The contributing upstream area was used as a proxy for water availability from snowmelt, one of the key environmental drivers of moss health. A Monte Carlo simulation with 300 realisations was implemented to model the impact of error in the DSM on runoff direction. Significant correlations were found between these simulated water availability values and field measurements of moss health and water content. In the future ultra-high spatial resolution DSMs acquired with a UAV could thus be used to determine the impact of changing snow cover on the health and spatial distribution of polar vegetation non-destructively.

Lucieer, Arko; Turner, Darren; King, Diana H.; Robinson, Sharon A.

2014-04-01

326

Challenges in collecting hyperspectral imagery of coastal waters using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne multi-band remote sensing is an important tool for many aquatic applications; and the increased spectral information from hyperspectral sensors may increase the utility of coastal surveys. Recent technological advances allow Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be used as alternatives or complements to manned aircraft or in situ observing platforms, and promise significant advantages for field studies. These include the ability to conduct programmed flight plans, prolonged and coordinated surveys, and agile flight operations under difficult conditions such as measurements made at low altitudes. Hyperspectral imagery collected from UAVs should allow the increased differentiation of water column or shallow benthic communities at relatively small spatial scales. However, the analysis of hyperspectral imagery from airborne platforms over shallow coastal waters differs from that used for terrestrial or oligotrophic ocean color imagery, and the operational constraints and considerations for the collection of such imagery from autonomous platforms also differ from terrestrial surveys using manned aircraft. Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery of shallow seagrass and coral environments in the Florida Keys were collected with various sensor systems mounted on manned and unmanned aircrafts in May 2012, October 2012, and May 2013. The imaging systems deployed on UAVs included NovaSol's Selectable Hyperspectral Airborne Remote-sensing Kit (SHARK), a Tetracam multispectral imaging system, and the Sunflower hyperspectal imager from Galileo Group, Inc. The UAVs carrying these systems were Xtreme Aerial Concepts' Vision-II Rotorcraft UAV, MLB Company's Bat-4 UAV, and NASA's SIERRA UAV, respectively. Additionally, the Galileo Group's manned aircraft also surveyed the areas with their AISA Eagle hyperspectral imaging system. For both manned and autonomous flights, cloud cover and sun glint (solar and viewing angles) were dominant constraints on retrieval of quantitatively useful remote sensing reflectance from airborne imagery. Measurements collected near the water's surface or from adjacent shoreline areas are being used to refine the spectral corrections or assess the validity of the hyperspectral imagery. The imagery collected corroborates the importance of validation measurements, sensor selection, and radiative transfer models for the interpretation of UAV based imagery. The fieldwork and subsequent analysis show some of the technical challenges that exist for radiometric and atmospheric corrections, and the use of UAVs for coastal research.

English, D. C.; Herwitz, S.; Hu, C.; Carlson, P. R., Jr.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Yates, K. K.; Ramsewak, D.

2013-12-01

327

a Marked Point Process Model for Vehicle Detection in Aerial LIDAR Point Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an automated method for vehicle detection in LiDAR point clouds of crowded urban areas collected from an aerial platform. We assume that the input cloud is unordered, but it contains additional intensity and return number information which are jointly exploited by the proposed solution. Firstly, the 3-D point set is segmented into ground, vehicle, building roof, vegetation and clutter classes. Then the points with the corresponding class labels and intensity values are projected to the ground plane, where the optimal vehicle configuration is described by a Marked Point Process (MPP) model of 2-D rectangles. Finally, the Multiple Birth and Death algorithm is utilized to find the configuration with the highest confidence.

Börcs, A.; Benedek, C.

2012-07-01

328

Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

2003-01-01

329

Control Laws For The Tele Operation Of An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Known As An X4-flyer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control design for the teleoperation of a miniature unmanned aerial vehicle known as an X4-flyer. A simple dynamic nonlinear model for the vehicle, valid for quasi-stationary flight conditions, is derived as a basis for the control design. An attitude control based on information issued from an inertial measurement unit is designed. In order to

Nicolas Guenard; Tarek Hamel; Laurent Eck

2006-01-01

330

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosytstems  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2005-09-01

331

Comparison of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platforms for Assessing Vegetation Cover in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quick and safe method for monitoring biotic resources was evaluated. Vegetation cover and the amount of bare ground are important factors in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems and assessment of rangeland health. Methods that improve speed and cost efficiency could greatly improve how biotic resources are monitored on western lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species (including sage grouse and pygmy rabbit). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluations. In this project, two UAV platforms, fixed wing and helicopter, were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate percent cover for six different vegetation types (shrub, dead shrub, grass, forb, litter, and bare ground) and (2) locate sage grouse using representative decoys. The field plots were located on the Idaho National Engineering (INL) site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetation cover. A software program called SamplePoint was used along with visual inspection to evaluate percent cover for the six cover types. Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy. The comparison of fixed-wing and helicopter UAV technology against field estimates shows good agreement for the measurement of bare ground. This study shows that if a high degree of detail and data accuracy is desired, then a helicopter UAV may be a good platform to use. If the data collection objective is to assess broad-scale landscape level changes, then the collection of imagery with a fixed-wing system is probably more appropriate.

Robert P. Breckenridge; Maxine Dakins; Stephen Bunting; Jerry Harbour; Sera White

2011-09-01

332

An Event-Driven Software Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Cooperatively Locate Mobile Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s state-of-the-art, real-time distributed systems require sophisticated software engineering techniques to support a\\u000a diverse set of mission requirements. This chapter discusses an event-driven approach to the design of such systems in the\\u000a context of a fully-functional search and localization application intended for unmanned aerial vehicles. Here, the discussion\\u000a focuses on the basic design principles that form the foundation of the

Dimitri Zarzhitsky; Marc Schlegel; Andreas Decker; Daniel Pack

333

Modeling and optimization of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles system architecture alternatives.  

PubMed

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

Qin, Dongliang; Li, Zhifei; Yang, Feng; Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

2014-01-01

334

Transition Flight Simulation of Flapping-Wing Micro-Aerial Vehicle Using Aerodynamic Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes how to simulate the flight of a flapping-wing micro-aerial vehicle (MAV). It uses an aerodynamic database generated using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The database is composed of the time mean aerodynamic forces and moments generated at various flapping wing motions in various flight modes. Flight is simulated utilizing the database by interpolation. The procedure is applied to transition flight of a dragonfly-type MAV with two-pairs of resonance-type flapping wings. The present MAV attains the mission of hovering, transition and cruising flights successfully with stable attitude.

Isogai, Koji; Kawabe, Hiroyasu

335

Modeling and Optimization of Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles System Architecture Alternatives  

PubMed Central

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) systems have already been used in civilian activities, although very limitedly. Confronted different types of tasks, multi UAVs usually need to be coordinated. This can be extracted as a multi UAVs system architecture problem. Based on the general system architecture problem, a specific description of the multi UAVs system architecture problem is presented. Then the corresponding optimization problem and an efficient genetic algorithm with a refined crossover operator (GA-RX) is proposed to accomplish the architecting process iteratively in the rest of this paper. The availability and effectiveness of overall method is validated using 2 simulations based on 2 different scenarios. PMID:25140328

Wang, Weiping; He, Lei

2014-01-01

336

Moments of Inertia - Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

Haro, Helida C.

2010-01-01

337

Moments of Inertia: Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this research effort is to determine the most appropriate, cost efficient, and effective method to utilize for finding moments of inertia for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone (DROID). A moment is a measure of the body's tendency to turn about its center of gravity (CG) and inertia is the resistance of a body to changes in its momentum. Therefore, the moment of inertia (MOI) is a body's resistance to change in rotation about its CG. The inertial characteristics of an UAV have direct consequences on aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, and control. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the precise inertial characteristics of the DROID.

Haro, Helida C.

2010-01-01

338

Brief Communication: The use of an unmanned aerial vehicle in a rockfall emergency scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in civilian/commercial contexts are becoming increasingly common, as well as for applications concerning anthropic and natural disasters. In this paper, we present the first results of a research project aimed at defining a possible methodology for the use of micro-UAVs in emergency scenarios relevant to rockfall phenomena. To develop and support the method presented herein, the results relevant to a rockfall emergency occurred on 7 March 2014 in the San Germano municipality (north-western Italy) are presented and discussed.

Giordan, D.; Manconi, A.; Facello, A.; Baldo, M.; dell'Anese, F.; Allasia, P.; Dutto, F.

2015-01-01

339

An Analysis of Fuel Cell Options for an All-electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to assess the performance characteristics of both PEM and SOFC-based fuel cell systems for an all-electric high altitude, long endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Primary and hybrid systems were considered. Fuel options include methane, hydrogen, and jet fuel. Excel-based models were used to calculate component mass as a function of power level and mission duration. Total system mass and stored volume as a function of mission duration for an aircraft operating at 65 kft altitude were determined and compared.

Kohout, Lisa L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

2007-01-01

340

Time-critical cooperative path-following control of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the problem of steering a fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) along desired 3D spatial paths while meeting stringent relative temporal constraints. A representative example is the challenging mission scenario where the UAVs are tasked to cooperatively execute collision-free maneuvers and arrive at their final destinations at the same time, or at different times so as to meet a desired inter-vehicle schedule. In the proposed framework, the UAVs are assigned nominal spatial paths and speed profiles along those, and then the vehicles are requested to execute cooperative path following, rather than "open-loop" trajectory-tracking maneuvers. This strategy yields robust behavior against external disturbances by allowing the UAVs to negotiate their speeds along the paths in response to information exchanged over a supporting inter-vehicle communications network. The proposed approach addresses explicitly the situation where each vehicle transmits coordination-relevant information to only a subset of the other vehicles, as determined by the time-varying communications topology. Furthermore, the thesis considers the case where the graph that captures the underlying communications topology is disconnected during some interval of time or even fails to be connected at all times. Conditions are given under which the complete time-critical cooperative path-following closed-loop system is stable and yields convergence of a conveniently defined cooperation error to a neighborhood of the origin. The thesis also derives lower bounds on the convergence rate of the coordination dynamics as a function of the quality of service of the supporting network, and proposes a coordination algorithm to improve the rate of convergence of the coordination dynamics in low-connectivity scenarios. Moreover, motivated by the exchange of information over networks with finite-rate communication links, the effect of quantization on vehicle coordination is also analyzed. Simulation and flight-test results verify the theoretical findings and demonstrate the efficacy of the multi-vehicle cooperative control framework adopted in this thesis.

Xargay Mata, Enric

341

Conceptual Design of a Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with 24-HR Endurance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a conceptual design study for a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is able to carry a 25-lb science payload for 24 hr and is able to land and take off at elevations as high as 15,000 ft without human intervention. In addition to the science payload, this vehicle must be able to carry a satellite communication system, and the vehicle must be able to be transported in a standard full-size pickup truck and assembled by only two operators. This project started with a brainstorming phase to devise possible vehicle configurations that might satisfy the requirements. A down select was performed to select a near-term solution and two advanced vehicle concepts that are better suited to the intent of the mission. Sensitivity analyses were also performed on the requirements and the technology levels to obtain a better understanding of the design space. This study found that within the study assumptions the mission is feasible; the selected concepts are recommended for further development.

Fredericks, William J.

2010-01-01

342

Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition.

Room, M. H. M.; Ahmad, A.

2014-02-01

343

Transition aerodynamics for 20-percent-scale VTOL unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted in the Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to establish a transition data base for an unmanned aerial vehicle utilizing a powered-lift ejector system and to evaluate alterations to the ejector system for improved vehicle performance. The model used in this investigation was a 20-percent-scale, blended-body, arrow-wing configuration with integrated twin rectangular ejectors. The test was conducted from hover through transition conditions with variations in angle of attack, angle of sideslip, free-stream dynamic pressure, nozzle pressure ratio, and model ground height. Force and moment data along with extensive surface pressure data were obtained. A laser velocimeter technique for measuring inlet flow velocities was demonstrated at a single flow condition, and also a low order panel method was successfully used to numerically simulate the ejector inlet flow.

Kjerstad, Kevin J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.

1993-01-01

344

Power line field sensing to support autonomous navigation of small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous navigation around power lines in a complex urban environment is a critical challenge facing small unmanned aerial vehicles (SUAVs). As part of an ongoing development of an electric and magnetic field sensor system designed to provide SUAVs with the capability to sense and avoid power transmission and distribution lines by monitoring their electric and magnetic field signatures, we have performed field measurements and analysis of power-line signals. We discuss the nature of the power line signatures to be detected, and optimal strategies for detecting these signals amid SUAV platform noise and environmental interference. Based on an analysis of measured power line signals and vehicle noise, we have found that, under certain circumstances, power line harmonics can be detected at greater range than the fundamental. We explain this phenomenon by combining a model of power line signal nonlinearity with the quasi-static electric and magnetic signatures of multiphase power lines.

Matthews, John; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit

2013-06-01

345

Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is to develop the enabling materials technology for the clean, high-efficiency diesel truck engines of the future. The development of cleaner, higher-efficiency diesel engines imposes greater mechanical, thermal, and tribological demands on materials of construction. Often the enabling technology for a new engine component is the material from which the part can be made. The Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program is a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE), and the diesel engine companies in the United States, materials suppliers, national laboratories, and universities. A comprehensive research and development program has been developed to meet the enabling materials requirements for the diesel engines of the future. Advanced materials, including high-temperature metal alloys, intermetallics, cermets, ceramics, amorphous materials, metal- and ceramic-matrix composites, and coatings, are investigated for critical engine applications.

Diamond, S.; Johnson, D.R.

1999-04-26

346

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Assessment of Controllability of Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last several years, we have developed unique types of micro air vehicles that utilize flexible structures and extensible covering materials. These MAVs can be operated with maximum dimensions as small as 6 inches and carry reasonable payloads, such as video cameras and transmitters. We recently demonstrated the potential of these vehicles by winning the Fourth International Micro Air Vehicle Competition, held at Ft. Huachucha, Arizona in May 2000. The pilots report that these vehicles have unusually smooth flying characteristics and are relatively easy to fly, both in the standard RC mode and "through the camera" when at greater distances. In comparison, they find that similar sized vehicles with more conventional rigid construction require much more input from the pilot just to maintain control. To make these subjective observations more quantitative, we have devised a system that can conveniently record a complete history of all the RC transmitter stick movements during a flight. Post-flight processing of the stick movement data allows for direct comparisons between different types of MAVs when flown by the same pilot, and also comparisons between pilots. Eventually, practical micro air vehicles will be autonomously controlled, but we feel that the smoothest flying and easiest to fly embodiments will also be the most successful in the long run. Comparisons between several types of micro air vehicles will be presented, along with interpretations of the data.

Jenkins, David A.; Ifju, Peter G.; Abdulrahim, Mujahid; Olipra, Scott

2002-01-01

347

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: a dugong case study.  

PubMed

Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species' habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km(2) area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as 'certain' (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

2013-01-01

348

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for Surveying Marine Fauna: A Dugong Case Study  

PubMed Central

Aerial surveys of marine mammals are routinely conducted to assess and monitor species’ habitat use and population status. In Australia, dugongs (Dugong dugon) are regularly surveyed and long-term datasets have formed the basis for defining habitat of high conservation value and risk assessments of human impacts. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) may facilitate more accurate, human-risk free, and cheaper aerial surveys. We undertook the first Australian UAV survey trial in Shark Bay, western Australia. We conducted seven flights of the ScanEagle UAV, mounted with a digital SLR camera payload. During each flight, ten transects covering a 1.3 km2 area frequently used by dugongs, were flown at 500, 750 and 1000 ft. Image (photograph) capture was controlled via the Ground Control Station and the capture rate was scheduled to achieve a prescribed 10% overlap between images along transect lines. Images were manually reviewed post hoc for animals and scored according to sun glitter, Beaufort Sea state and turbidity. We captured 6243 images, 627 containing dugongs. We also identified whales, dolphins, turtles and a range of other fauna. Of all possible dugong sightings, 95% (CI = 90%, 98%) were subjectively classed as ‘certain’ (unmistakably dugongs). Neither our dugong sighting rate, nor our ability to identify dugongs with certainty, were affected by UAV altitude. Turbidity was the only environmental variable significantly affecting the dugong sighting rate. Our results suggest that UAV systems may not be limited by sea state conditions in the same manner as sightings from manned surveys. The overlap between images proved valuable for detecting animals that were masked by sun glitter in the corners of images, and identifying animals initially captured at awkward body angles. This initial trial of a basic camera system has successfully demonstrated that the ScanEagle UAV has great potential as a tool for marine mammal aerial surveys. PMID:24223967

Hodgson, Amanda; Kelly, Natalie; Peel, David

2013-01-01

349

Neural-network-based navigation and control of unmanned aerial vehicles for detecting unintended emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are versatile aircraft with many applications, including the potential for use to detect unintended electromagnetic emissions from electronic devices. A particular area of recent interest has been helicopter unmanned aerial vehicles. Because of the nature of these helicopters' dynamics, high-performance controller design for them presents a challenge. This paper introduces an optimal controller design via output feedback control for trajectory tracking of a helicopter UAV using a neural network (NN). The output-feedback control system utilizes the backstepping methodology, employing kinematic, virtual, and dynamic controllers and an observer. Optimal tracking is accomplished with a single NN utilized for cost function approximation. The controller positions the helicopter, which is equipped with an antenna, such that the antenna can detect unintended emissions. The overall closed-loop system stability with the proposed controller is demonstrated by using Lyapunov analysis. Finally, results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design for positioning the helicopter for unintended emissions detection.

Zargarzadeh, H.; Nodland, David; Thotla, V.; Jagannathan, S.; Agarwal, S.

2012-06-01

350

Sensor-driven area coverage for an autonomous fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

Area coverage with an onboard sensor is an important task for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with many applications. Autonomous fixed-wing UAVs are more appropriate for larger scale area surveying since they can cover ground more quickly. However, their non-holonomic dynamics and susceptibility to disturbances make sensor coverage a challenging task. Most previous approaches to area coverage planning are offline and assume that the UAV can follow the planned trajectory exactly. In this paper, this restriction is removed as the aircraft maintains a coverage map based on its actual pose trajectory and makes control decisions based on that map. The aircraft is able to plan paths in situ based on sensor data and an accurate model of the on-board camera used for coverage. An information theoretic approach is used that selects desired headings that maximize the expected information gain over the coverage map. In addition, the branch entropy concept previously developed for autonomous underwater vehicles is extended to UAVs and ensures that the vehicle is able to achieve its global coverage mission. The coverage map over the workspace uses the projective camera model and compares the expected area of the target on the ground and the actual area covered on the ground by each pixel in the image. The camera is mounted on a two-axis gimbal and can either be stabilized or optimized for maximal coverage. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation results and real hardware implementation on a fixed-wing UAV show the effectiveness of the approach. By including the already developed automatic takeoff and landing capabilities, we now have a fully automated and robust platform for performing aerial imagery surveys. PMID:25137689

Paull, Liam; Thibault, Carl; Nagaty, Amr; Seto, Mae; Li, Howard

2014-09-01

351

International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Vol. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland  

E-print Network

. XXXVIII-1/C22 UAV-g 2011, Conference on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in Geomatics, Zurich, Switzerland DIRECT. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Motivation Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are frequently used as measuring

Schindler, Konrad

352

A Possibility of the Aeromagnetic Survey by a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Ant-Plane  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic surveys by helicopters and airplanes are a useful technique to estimate the geological structure under the ice sheets in Antarctica. However, it is not easy to employ this due to the transportation of the planes, logistic supports, security, and financial problems. Members of Ant-Plane Project have investigated the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, Ant-Plane) for the solution of the problems. Recently the aeromagnetic survey is verified by a model airplane navigated by GPS and a magneto-resistant (MR) magnetometer. The airplane (Ant-Plane) consists of 2m wing length, 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 15kg including 2 litter fuels, the MR magnetometer, a video camera and an emergency parachute. The speed is 130 km/h and maximum height is 2000m. The magnetometer system consists of a 3- component MR magnetometer, GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, number of satellite and time are recorded in every second during 3 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown heading of the plane. November 2003 we succeeded the magnetic survey by the Ant-Plane at the slope of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. The plane rotated 9 times along the programmed route of about 4x1 km, total flight distance of 80 km, keeping the altitude of 700 m. Consequently we obtained almost similar field variation on the route. The maximum deviation of each course was less than 100 m. Therefore, we concluded that the aeromagnetic survey in the relatively large anomaly areas can be performed by Ant-Plane with the MR magnetometer system. Finally the plane flew up 1400m with a video camera to take the photo of active volcano Sakurajima (1117m). It succeeded to take photos of craters through steam from the volcano.

Funaki, M.

2004-12-01

353

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation's transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

1994-08-01

354

AVIATR—Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. A Titan airplane mission concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a mission concept for a stand-alone Titan airplane mission: Aerial Vehicle for In-situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance (AVIATR). With independent delivery and direct-to-Earth communications, AVIATR could contribute to Titan science either alone or as part of a sustained Titan Exploration Program. As a focused mission, AVIATR as we have envisioned it would concentrate on the science that an airplane can do best: exploration of Titan's global diversity. We focus on surface geology/hydrology and lower-atmospheric structure and dynamics. With a carefully chosen set of seven instruments—2 near-IR cameras, 1 near-IR spectrometer, a RADAR altimeter, an atmospheric structure suite, a haze sensor, and a raindrop detector—AVIATR could accomplish a significant subset of the scientific objectives of the aerial element of flagship studies. The AVIATR spacecraft stack is composed of a Space Vehicle (SV) for cruise, an Entry Vehicle (EV) for entry and descent, and the Air Vehicle (AV) to fly in Titan's atmosphere. Using an Earth-Jupiter gravity assist trajectory delivers the spacecraft to Titan in 7.5 years, after which the AVIATR AV would operate for a 1-Earth-year nominal mission. We propose a novel `gravity battery' climb-then-glide strategy to store energy for optimal use during telecommunications sessions. We would optimize our science by using the flexibility of the airplane platform, generating context data and stereo pairs by flying and banking the AV instead of using gimbaled cameras. AVIATR would climb up to 14 km altitude and descend down to 3.5 km altitude once per Earth day, allowing for repeated atmospheric structure and wind measurements all over the globe. An initial Team-X run at JPL priced the AVIATR mission at FY10 715M based on the rules stipulated in the recent Discovery announcement of opportunity. Hence we find that a standalone Titan airplane mission can achieve important science building on Cassini's discoveries and can likely do so within a New Frontiers budget.

Barnes, Jason W.; Lemke, Lawrence; Foch, Rick; McKay, Christopher P.; Beyer, Ross A.; Radebaugh, Jani; Atkinson, David H.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Gundlach, Jay; Giannini, Francesco; Bain, Sean; Flasar, F. Michael; Hurford, Terry; Anderson, Carrie M.; Merrison, Jon; Ádámkovics, Máté; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Mitchell, Jonathan; Burr, Devon M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Schaller, Emily; Friedson, A. James; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Coradini, Angioletta; Adriani, Alberto; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Malaska, Michael J.; Morabito, David; Reh, Kim

2012-03-01

355

Fuzzy Logic Based Approach to Design of Flight Control and Navigation Tasks for Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based autonomous navigation controller for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). Three fuzzy\\u000a logic modules are developed under the main navigation system for the control of the altitude, the speed, and the heading,\\u000a through which the global position (latitude–longitude) of the air vehicle is controlled. A SID (Standard Instrument Departure)\\u000a and TACAN (Tactical Air Navigation) approach

Sefer Kurnaz; Omer Cetin; Okyay Kaynak

2009-01-01

356

Atmospheric Mining in the Outer Solar System:. [Aerial Vehicle Reconnaissance and Exploration Options  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as Helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and hydrogen (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses were undertaken to investigate resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. This included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. Additional supporting analyses were conducted to illuminate vehicle sizing and orbital transportation issues. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional gases, the potential for fueling small and large fleets of additional exploration and exploitation vehicles exists. Additional aerospacecraft or other aerial vehicles (UAVs, balloons, rockets, etc.) could fly through the outer planet atmospheres, for global weather observations, localized storm or other disturbance investigations, wind speed measurements, polar observations, etc. Deep-diving aircraft (built with the strength to withstand many atmospheres of pressure) powered by the excess hydrogen or helium 4 may be designed to probe the higher density regions of the gas giants. Outer planet atmospheric properties, atmospheric storm data, and mission planning for future outer planet UAVs are presented.

Palaszewski, Bryan A.

2014-01-01

357

Automation Reliability in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control: A Reliance-Compliance Model of Automation Dependence in High Workload  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Two experiments were conducted in which participants navigated a simu- lated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through a series of mission legs while searching for targets and monitoring system parameters. The goal of the study was to highlight the qualitatively different effects of automation false alarms and misses as they relate to operator compliance and reliance, respectively. Background: Background data

Stephen R. Dixon; Christopher D. Wickens

2006-01-01

358

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor/Systems for In-Flight Wing Shape Monitoring of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation describing an in-flight wing shape measurement system based on fiber bragg grating sensors for use in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is shown. The topics include: 1) MOtivation; 2) Objective; 3) Background; 4) System Design; 5) Ground Testing; 6) Future Work; and 7) Conclusions

Parker, Allen; Richards, Lance; Ko, William; Piazza, Anthony; Tran, Van

2006-01-01

359

Comparative study on time-varying target localization methods using multiple unmanned aerial vehicles: Kalman estimation and triangulation techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we evaluate two different methods to search, detect, and locate mobile radio frequency (RF) targets using multiple cooperative unmanned aerial vehicles (VAVs). The primary difference between the two methods is the target localization technique used: the Kalman estimation technique and the triangulation technique. We compare the two methods on the basis of the total task completion time

George York; Daniel Pack

2005-01-01

360

Modeling and inverse controller design for an unmanned aerial vehicle based on the self-organizing map  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a self-organizing map (SOM)-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only

Jeongho Cho; José Carlos Príncipe; Deniz Erdogmus; Mark A. Motter

2006-01-01

361

Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in a Swarm of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the performance of several ad hoc routing protocols in the context of a swarm of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). It has been proposed that a wireless network where nodes have on average 5.1774 log n neighbors, where n is the total number of network nodes, has a high probability of having no partitions. By decreasing transmission

M. T. Hyland; Barry E. Mullins; Rusty O. Baldwin; Michael A. Temple

2007-01-01

362

Communication and Distributed Control in Multi-Agent Systems: Preliminary Model of Micro-unmanned Aerial Vehicle (MAV) Swarms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses on the use of Multi-Agent Systems for modelling of Micro- unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) in a distributed control task. The task regards a search scenario in the context of security and urban counter-terrorism. In the simulation developed, a swarm composed by four autonomous MAVs, driven by a neural network controller, has to approach a target placed somewhere

Fabio Ruini

363

Hyperspectral imaging from a light-weight (up to 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicle platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2009 the Idaho National Lab (INL) has been developing advanced remote sensing capabilities that combine increasingly sophisticated miniaturized sensors with relatively affordable, light weight (under 75 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV-based hyperspectral sensing capabilities have been routinely refined via flight tests conducted at INL's UAV Runway Research Park in southeastern Idaho, and at the Orchard Training Area in central Idaho. Idaho State University (ISU) Boise Center Aerospace Lab (BCAL) has provided field data collection and image processing support to target ground versus aerial data comparisons, assess spectral and geometric data accuracy and determine classification algorithms appropriate for vegetation management applications. We report instrumentation, sensor and image validation results, optimal flight parameters, and methods for improving the geometric accuracies of the datasets. We also assess the accuracy of narrowband vegetation indices and shrub cover estimates derived from the imagery. Preliminary results indicate that the UAV-based hyperspectral imaging system has potential to bridge the gap between costly in-situ data collections, coarse resolution satellite data collections, or infrequent and costly manned hyperspectral data collections. Furthermore, new areas of research may be possible with this UAV platform by providing an affordable, on-demand platform that can rapidly collect transect data and stay on station for hours.

Mitchell, J.; Hruska, R.; Anderson, M.; Glenn, N. F.

2011-12-01

364

Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

2003-01-01

365

Design of an air sampler for a small unmanned aerial vehicle.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of a nuclear accident or malevolent act, it is of paramount importance to have the capability to monitor airborne radioactive substances by collecting air samples. For potentially dangerous missions, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK) has developed an air sampler to be used on a small unmanned aerial vehicle. When a Petrianov or Fluoropore filter is used in the sampler and the air velocity is 71 km h(-1), the air flow rate through the filter is 0.73 m(3) h(-1) or 0.23 m(3) h(-1), respectively. The present article introduces the developed air sampler using fluid dynamic simulations and wind tunnel data. The operation of the system was validated by collecting airborne radioactive aerosols from air. PMID:19091809

Peräjärvi, K; Lehtinen, J; Pöllänen, R; Toivonen, H

2008-01-01

366

Implementation of an Onboard Visual Tracking System with Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)  

E-print Network

This paper presents a visual tracking system that is capable or running real time on-board a small UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). The tracking system is computationally efficient and invariant to lighting changes and rotation of the object or the camera. Detection and tracking is autonomously carried out on the payload computer and there are two different methods for creation of the image patches. The first method starts detecting and tracking using a stored image patch created prior to flight with previous flight data. The second method allows the operator on the ground to select the interest object for the UAV to track. The tracking system is capable of re-detecting the object of interest in the events of tracking failure. Performance of the tracking system was verified both in the lab and during actual flights of the UAV. Results show that the system can run on-board and track a diverse set of objects in real time.

Qadir, Ashraf; Neubert, Jeremiah

2012-01-01

367

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

368

Optimal Beamforming and Performance Analysis of Wireless Relay Networks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate a wireless communication system employing a multi-antenna unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as the relay to improve the connectivity between the base station (BS) and the receive node (RN), where the BS-UAV link undergoes the correlated Rician fading while the UAV-RN link follows the correlated Rayleigh fading with large scale path loss. By assuming that the amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol is adopted at UAV, we first propose an optimal beamforming (BF) scheme to maximize the mutual information of the UAV-assisted dual-hop relay network, by calculating the BF weight vectors and the power allocation coefficient. Then, we derive the analytical expressions for the outage probability (OP) and the ergodic capacity (EC) of the relay network to evaluate the system performance conveniently. Finally, computer simulation results are provided to demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the proposed scheme as well as the performance analysis.

Ouyang, Jian; Lin, Min

2015-03-01

369

Simulation study of unmanned aerial vehicle communication networks addressing bandwidth disruptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used for numerous applications. UAVs can directly connect to ground stations or satellites to transfer data. Multiple UAVs can communicate and cooperate with each other and then construct an ad-hoc network. Multi-UAV systems have the potential to provide reliable and timely services for end users in addition to satellite networks. In this paper, we conduct a simulation study for evaluating the network performance of multi-UAV systems and satellite networks using the ns-2 networking simulation tool. Our simulation results show that UAV communication networks can achieve better network performance than satellite networks and with a lower cost and increased timeliness. We also investigate security resiliency of UAV networks. As a case study, we simulate false data injection attacks against UAV communication networks in ns-2 and demonstrate the impact of false data injection attacks on network performance.

Wei, Sixiao; Ge, Linqiang; Yu, Wei; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Lu, Chao

2014-06-01

370

Mathematical model of unmanned aerial vehicle used for endurance autonomous monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper purpose is to present some aspects regarding the control system of unmanned aerial vehicle - UAV, used to local observations, surveillance and monitoring interest area. The calculus methodology allows a numerical simulation of UAV evolution in bad atmospheric conditions by using nonlinear model, as well as a linear one for obtaining guidance command. The UAV model which will be presented has six DOF (degrees of freedom), and autonomous control system. This theoretical development allows us to build stability matrix, command matrix and control matrix and finally to analyse the stability of autonomous UAV flight. A robust guidance system, based on uncoupled state will be evaluated for different fly conditions and the results will be presented. The flight parameters and guidance will be analysed.

Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Chelaru, Adrian

2014-12-01

371

Identifying Contingency Requirements using Obstacle Analysis on an Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes experience using Obstacle Analysis to identify contingency requirements on an unpiloted aerial vehicle. A contingency is an operational anomaly, and may or may not involve component failure. The challenges to this effort were: ( I ) rapid evolution of the system while operational, (2) incremental autonomy as capabilities were transferred from ground control to software control and (3) the eventual safety-criticality of such systems as they begin to fly over populated areas. The results reported here are preliminary but show that Obstacle Analysis helped (1) identify new contingencies that appeared as autonomy increased; (2) identify new alternatives for handling both previously known and new contingencies; and (3) investigate the continued validity of existing software requirements for contingency handling. Since many mobile, intelligent systems are built using a development process that poses the same challenges, the results appear to have applicability to other similar systems.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Nelson, Stacy; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Frost, Chad R.; Tal, Doron

2005-01-01

372

The Development of a Force Balance for Testing Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to create a six degree of freedom balance that could produce meaningful data for micro aerial vehicles. Research was conducted to investigate the common balance configurations, and the strengths and weaknesses of each configuration were used to select the most appropriate design. The limitations of available fabrication facilities, the desired level of performance and the end user of the balance were all considered to finalize the design. The balance and data acquisition system were fabricated over a period of several months, and unforeseen design issues were handled forthwith. Rigorous calibration and testing processes were conducted. The results of the calibration and testing processes were analyzed and documented. The performance of the balance was determined to be less than traditionally recommended, but was acceptable due to the small magnitude of the loads. Further testing is recommended to determine if performance improves as the balance settles.

King, Michael Christopher

373

Observing Entrainment Processes Using a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle: A Feasibility Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement flights with the meteorological mini aerial vehicle (MAV) were performed in spring 2011 to assess the capability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to measure the structure of the transition zone between the convective boundary layer and the stably stratified free atmosphere. The campaign took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg/Richard-Aßmann-Observatory of the German Meteorological Service. Besides the MAV flights, observations were made from a 12-m and a 99-m tower, a sodar, two ceilometers, radiosondes, and a tethered balloon with sensor packages at six different levels. MAV measurements were intentionally combined with remote sensing systems. The height range of the entrainment zone as well as its diurnal cycle were provided by the remote sensing instruments. The UAV provided the high-resolution in situ data of temperature and wind for the study of turbulent processes. It is shown that the MAV is able to maintain constant altitude with very small deviations—a pre-requisite to study processes inside the often quite thin entrainment zone and that MAV high-resolution wind and temperature measurements allow for very detailed studies of the fine structure of the atmosphere and thus for the identification of quite local and/or short-duration processes such as overshooting thermals or downward intrusions of warm air. Spatial series measured by the MAV during horizontal flights show turbulent exchange of heat in short turbulent bursts at heights close to and within the entrainment zone. Scaled vertical profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature variance, and sensible heat flux confirm the general shape found by previous measurements and numerical studies.

Martin, Sabrina; Beyrich, Frank; Bange, Jens

2014-03-01

374

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) for Surveillance and Remote Sensor Delivery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) will be developed for tracking individuals, locating terrorist threats, and delivering remote sensors, for surveillance and chemical/biological agent detection. The tasks are: (1) Develop robust MAV platform capable of carrying sensor payload. (2) Develop fully autonomous capabilities for delivery of sensors to remote and distant locations. The current capabilities and accomplishments are: (1) Operational electric (inaudible) 6-inch MAVs with novel flexible wing, providing superior aerodynamic efficiency and control. (2) Vision-based flight stability and control (from on-board cameras).

Ifju, Peter

2002-01-01

375

Aerial Explorers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents recent results from a mission architecture study of planetary aerial explorers. In this study, several mission scenarios were developed in simulation and evaluated on success in meeting mission goals. This aerial explorer mission architecture study is unique in comparison with previous Mars airplane research activities. The study examines how aerial vehicles can find and gain access to otherwise inaccessible terrain features of interest. The aerial explorer also engages in a high-level of (indirect) surface interaction, despite not typically being able to takeoff and land or to engage in multiple flights/sorties. To achieve this goal, a new mission paradigm is proposed: aerial explorers should be considered as an additional element in the overall Entry, Descent, Landing System (EDLS) process. Further, aerial vehicles should be considered primarily as carrier/utility platforms whose purpose is to deliver air-deployed sensors and robotic devices, or symbiotes, to those high-value terrain features of interest.

Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey

2005-01-01

376

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Composite Materials for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will discuss the development of the University of Florida's Micro Air Vehicle concept. A series of flexible wing based aircraft that possess highly desirable flight characteristics were developed. Since computational methods to accurately model flight at the low Reynolds numbers associated with this scale are still under development, our effort has relied heavily on trial and error. Hence a time efficient method was developed to rapidly produce prototype designs. The airframe and wings are fabricated using a unique process that incorporates carbon fiber composite construction. Prototypes can be fabricated in around five man-hours, allowing many design revisions to be tested in a short period of time. The resulting aircraft are far more durable, yet lighter, than their conventional counterparts. This process allows for thorough testing of each design in order to determine what changes were required on the next prototype. The use of carbon fiber allows for wing flexibility without sacrificing durability. The construction methods developed for this project were the enabling technology that allowed us to implement our designs. The resulting aircraft were the winning entries in the International Micro Air Vehicle Competition for the past two years. Details of the construction method are provided in this paper along with a background on our flexible wing concept.

Ifju, Peter G.; Ettinger, Scott; Jenkins, David; Martinez, Luis

2002-01-01

377

Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

2012-01-01

378

Small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) real-time intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) using onboard pre-processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being used in-theater to provide low-cost, low-profile aerial reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities. However, inherent platform limitations on size, weight, and power restrict the ability to provide sensors and communications which can present high-resolution imagery to the end-user. This paper discusses methods to alleviate this restriction by performing on-board pre-processing of high resolution images and downlinking the post-processed imagery. This has the added benefit of reducing the workload for a warfighter who is already heavily taxed by other duties.

Stevens, Rick C.; Sadjadi, Firooz A.; Braegelmann, Jacob R.; Cordes, Aaron M.; Nelson, Ryan L.

2008-04-01

379

Balancing search and target response in cooperative unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) teams.  

PubMed

This paper considers a heterogeneous team of cooperating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) drawn from several distinct classes and engaged in a search and action mission over a spatially extended battlefield with targets of several types. During the mission, the UAVs seek to confirm and verifiably destroy suspected targets and discover, confirm, and verifiably destroy unknown targets. The locations of some (or all) targets are unknown a priori, requiring them to be located using cooperative search. In addition, the tasks to be performed at each target location by the team of cooperative UAVs need to be coordinated. The tasks must, therefore, be allocated to UAVs in real time as they arise, while ensuring that appropriate vehicles are assigned to each task. Each class of UAVs has its own sensing and attack capabilities, so the need for appropriate assignment is paramount. In this paper, an extensive dynamic model that captures the stochastic nature of the cooperative search and task assignment problems is developed, and algorithms for achieving a high level of performance are designed. The paper focuses on investigating the value of predictive task assignment as a function of the number of unknown targets and number of UAVs. In particular, it is shown that there is a tradeoff between search and task response in the context of prediction. Based on the results, a hybrid algorithm for switching the use of prediction is proposed, which balances the search and task response. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:16761811

Jin, Yan; Liao, Yan; Minai, Ali A; Polycarpou, Marios M

2006-06-01

380

Outline of a small unmanned aerial vehicle (Ant-Plane) designed for Antarctic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Ant-Plane project for summertime scientific research and logistics in the coastal region of Antarctica, we developed six types of small autonomous UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles, similar to drones; we term these vehicles ‘Ant-Planes’) based on four types of airframe. In test flights, Ant-Plane 2 cruised within 20 m accuracy along a straight course during calm weather at Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. During a period of strong winds (22 m/s) at Mt. Chokai, Akita Prefecture, Japan, Ant-Plane 2 maintained its course during a straight flight but deviated when turning leeward. An onboard 3-axis magneto-resistant magnetometer (400 g) recorded variations in the magnetic field to an accuracy of 10 nT during periods of calm wind, but strong magnetic noise was observed during high winds, especially head winds. Ant-Plane 4-1 achieved a continuous flight of 500 km, with a maximum flight altitude of 5690 m. The Ant-Plane can be used for various types of Antarctic research as a basic platform for airborne surveys, but further development of the techniques employed in takeoff and landing are required, as well as ready adjustment of the engine and the development of small onboard instruments with greater reliability.

Funaki, Minoru; Hirasawa, Naohiko; the Ant-Plane Group

381

Sitting in the Pilot's Seat; Optimizing Human-Systems Interfaces for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the pilot-machine interfaces (the forward viewing camera display) for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle called the DROID (Dryden Remotely Operated Integrated Drone) will be analyzed for optimization. The goal is to create a visual display for the pilot that as closely resembles an out-the-window view as possible. There are currently no standard guidelines for designing pilot-machine interfaces for UAVs. Typically, UAV camera views have a narrow field, which limits the situational awareness (SA) of the pilot. Also, at this time, pilot-UAV interfaces often use displays that have a diagonal length of around 20". Using a small display may result in a distorted and disproportional view for UAV pilots. Making use of a larger display and a camera lens with a wider field of view may minimize the occurrences of pilot error associated with the inability to see "out the window" as in a manned airplane. It is predicted that the pilot will have a less distorted view of the DROID s surroundings, quicker response times and more stable vehicle control. If the experimental results validate this concept, other UAV pilot-machine interfaces will be improved with this design methodology.

Queen, Steven M.; Sanner, Kurt Gregory

2011-01-01

382

Cost and effectiveness analysis on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) use at border security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drones and Remotely Piloted Vehicles are types of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. UAVs began to be used with the war of Vietnam, they had a great interest when Israel used them in Bekaa Valley Operations of 1982. UAVs have been used by different countries with different aims with the help of emerging technology and investments. In this article, in the context of areas of UAV usage in national security, benefits and disadvantages of UAVs are put forward. Particularly, it has been evaluated on the basis of cost-effectiveness by focusing the use of UAV in the border security. UAVs have been studied by taking cost analysis, procurement and operational costs into consideration. Analysis of effectiveness has been done with illegal passages of people and drugs from flight times of UAVs. Although the procurement cost of the medium-level UAVs is low, its operational costs are high. For this reason, the idea of less costly alternative systems have been revealed for the border security. As the costs are reduced to acceptable level involving national security and border security in future with high-technology products in their structure, it will continue to be used in an increasing proportion.

Yilmaz, Bahad?r.

2013-06-01

383

Modeling and control for heave dynamics of a flexible wing micro aerial vehicle distributed parameter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much research has been motivated by the idea of biologically-inspired flight. It is a conjecture of the United States Air Force that incorporating characteristics of biological flight into air vehicles will significantly improve the maneuverability and performance of modern aircraft. Although there are studies which involve the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, modeling, and control of flexible wing micro aerial vehicles (MAVs), issues of control and vehicular modeling as a whole are largely unexplored. Modeling with such dynamics lends itself to systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) with nonlinearities, and limited control theory is available for such systems. In this work, a multiple component structure consisting of two Euler-Bernoulli beams connected to a rigid mass is used to model the heave dynamics of an aeroelastic wing MAV, which is acted upon by a nonlinear aerodynamic lift force. We seek to employ tools from distributed parameter modeling and linear control theory in an effort to achieve agile flight potential of flexible, morphable wing MAV airframes. Theoretical analysis of the model is conducted, which includes generating solutions to the eigenvalue problem for the system and determining well-posedness and the attainment of a C 0-semigroup for the linearly approximated model. In order to test the model's ability to track to a desired state and to gain insight into optimal morphing trajectories, two control objectives are employed on the model: target state tracking and morphing trajectory over time.

Kuhn, Lisa M.

2011-07-01

384

Fault tolerant attitude sensing and force feedback control for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two aspects of an unmanned aerial vehicle are studied in this work. One is fault tolerant attitude determination and the other is to provide force feedback to the joy-stick of the UAV so as to prevent faulty inputs from the pilot. Determination of attitude plays an important role in control of aerial vehicles. One way of defining the attitude is through Euler angles. These angles can be determined based on the measurements of the projections of the gravity and earth magnetic fields on the three body axes of the vehicle. Attitude determination in unmanned aerial vehicles poses additional challenges due to limitations of space, payload, power and cost. Therefore it provides for almost no room for any bulky sensors or extra sensor hardware for backup and as such leaves no room for sensor fault issues either. In the face of these limitations, this study proposes a fault tolerant computing of Euler angles by utilizing multiple different computation methods, with each method utilizing a different subset of the available sensor measurement data. Twenty-five such methods have been presented in this document. The capability of computing the Euler angles in multiple ways provides a diversified redundancy required for fault tolerance. The proposed approach can identify certain sets of sensor failures and even separate the reference fields from the disturbances. A bank-to-turn maneuver of the NASA GTM UAV is used to demonstrate the fault tolerance provided by the proposed method as well as to demonstrate the method of determining the correct Euler angles despite interferences by inertial acceleration disturbances. Attitude computation is essential for stability. But as of today most UAVs are commanded remotely by human pilots. While basic stability control is entrusted to machine or the on-board automatic controller, overall guidance is usually with humans. It is therefore the pilot who sets the command/references through a joy-stick. While this is a good compromise between complete automation and complete human control, it still poses some unique challenges. Pilots of manned aircraft are present inside the cockpit of the aircraft they fly and thus have a better feel of the flying environment and also the limitations of the flight. The same might not be true for UAV pilots stationed on the ground. A major handicap is that visual feedback is the only one available for the UAV pilot. An additional parameter like force feedback on the remote control joy-stick can help the UAV pilot to physically feel the limitation of the safe flight envelope. This can make the flying itself easier and safer. A method proposed here is to design a joy-stick assembly with an additional actuator. This actuator is controlled so as to generate a force feedback on the joy-stick. The control developed for this system is such that the actuator allows free movement for the pilot as long as the UAV is within the safe flight envelope. On the other hand, if it is outside this safe range, the actuator opposes the pilot's applied torque and prevents him/her from giving erroneous commands to the UAV.

Jagadish, Chirag

385

Think City Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program  

SciTech Connect

The THINK city Electric Vehicle (EV) Demonstration Program Project, initiated late 2001, has been successfully completed as of April 2005. US. Partners include Federal, State and Municipal agencies as well as commercial partners. Phase I, consisting of placement of the vehicles in demonstration programs, was completed in 2002. Phase II, the monitoring of these programs was completed in 2004. Phase III, the decommissioning and/or exporting of vehicles concluded in 2005. Phase I--the Program successfully assigned 192 EV's with customers (including Hertz) in the state of California, 109 in New York (including loaner and demo vehicles), 16 in Georgia, 7 to customers outside of the US and 52 in Ford's internal operations in Dearborn Michigan for a total of 376 vehicles. The Program was the largest operating Urban EV Demonstration Project in the United States. Phase II--the monitoring of the operational fleet was ongoing and completed in 2004, and all vehicles were returned throughout 2004 and 2005. The Department of Energy (DOE) was involved with the monitoring of the New York Power Authority/THINK Clean Commute Program units through partnership with Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (ETEC), which filed separate reports to DOE. The remainder of the field fleet was monitored through Ford's internal operations. Vehicles were retired from lease operation throughout the program for various operator reasons. Some of the vehicles were involved in re-leasing operations. At the end of the program, 376 vehicles had been involved, 372 of which were available for customer use while 4 were engineering prototype and study vehicles. Phase III--decommissioning and/or export of vehicles. In accordance with the NHTSA requirement, City vehicles could not remain in the United States past their three-year allowed program timeframe. At the end of leases, City vehicles have been decommissioned and/or exported to KamKorp in Norway.

Ford Motor Company

2005-03-01

386

D Modelling and Accuracy Assessment of Granite Quarry Using Unmmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are automated systems whose main characteristic is that can be remotely piloted. This property is especially interesting in those civil engineering works in which the accuracy of the model is not reachable by common aerial or satellite systems, there is a difficult accessibility to the infrastructure due to location and geometry aspects, and the economic resources are limited. This paper aims to show the research, development and application of a UAV that will generate georeferenced spatial information at low cost, high quality, and high availability. In particular, a 3D modelling and accuracy assessment of granite quarry using UAV is applied. With regard to the image-based modelling pipeline, an automatic approach supported by open source tools is performed. The process encloses the well-known image-based modelling steps: calibration, extraction and matching of features; relative and absolute orientation of images and point cloud and surface generation. Beside this, an assessment of the final model accuracy is carried out by means of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), imaging total station (ITS) and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in order to ensure its validity. This step follows a twofold approach: (i) firstly, using singular check points to provide a dimensional control of the model and (ii) secondly, analyzing the level of agreement between the realitybased 3D model obtained from UAV and the generated with TLS. The main goal is to establish and validate an image-based modelling workflow using UAV technology which can be applied in the surveying and monitoring of different quarries.

González-Aguilera, D.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Mancera-Taboada, J.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; Gozalo-Sanz, I.; Arias-Perez, B.

2012-07-01

387

Configuration and Specifications of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) for Early Site Specific Weed Management  

PubMed Central

A new aerial platform has risen recently for image acquisition, the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This article describes the technical specifications and configuration of a UAV used to capture remote images for early season site- specific weed management (ESSWM). Image spatial and spectral properties required for weed seedling discrimination were also evaluated. Two different sensors, a still visible camera and a six-band multispectral camera, and three flight altitudes (30, 60 and 100 m) were tested over a naturally infested sunflower field. The main phases of the UAV workflow were the following: 1) mission planning, 2) UAV flight and image acquisition, and 3) image pre-processing. Three different aspects were needed to plan the route: flight area, camera specifications and UAV tasks. The pre-processing phase included the correct alignment of the six bands of the multispectral imagery and the orthorectification and mosaicking of the individual images captured in each flight. The image pixel size, area covered by each image and flight timing were very sensitive to flight altitude. At a lower altitude, the UAV captured images of finer spatial resolution, although the number of images needed to cover the whole field may be a limiting factor due to the energy required for a greater flight length and computational requirements for the further mosaicking process. Spectral differences between weeds, crop and bare soil were significant in the vegetation indices studied (Excess Green Index, Normalised Green-Red Difference Index and Normalised Difference Vegetation Index), mainly at a 30 m altitude. However, greater spectral separability was obtained between vegetation and bare soil with the index NDVI. These results suggest that an agreement among spectral and spatial resolutions is needed to optimise the flight mission according to every agronomical objective as affected by the size of the smaller object to be discriminated (weed plants or weed patches). PMID:23483997

Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; López-Granados, Francisca; De Castro, Ana Isabel; Peña-Barragán, José Manuel

2013-01-01

388

Mapping Crop Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Precision Agriculture Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing system mounted on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) could provide a complementary means to the conventional satellite and aerial remote sensing solutions especially for the applications of precision agriculture. UAV remote sensing offers a great flexibility to quickly acquire field data in sufficient spatial and spectral resolution at low cost. However a major problem of UAV is the high instability due to the low-end equipments and difficult environment situation, and this leads to image sensor being mostly operated under a highly uncertain configuration. Thus UAV images exhibit considerable derivation in spatial orientation, large geometric and spectral distortion, and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To achieve the objectives of agricultural mapping from UAV, we apply a micro-helicopter UAV with a multiple spectral camera mounted and develop a framework to process UAV images. A very important processing is to generate mosaic image which can be aligned with maps for later GIS integration. With appropriate geometric calibration applied, we first decompose a homography of consecutive image pairs into a rotational component and a simple perspective component, and apply a linear interpolation to the angle of the rotational component, followed by a linear matrix interpolation operator to the perspective component, and this results in an equivalent transformation but ensures a smooth evolution between two images. Lastly to demonstrate the potential of UAV images to precision agriculture application, we perform spectral processing to derive vegetation indices (VIs) maps of crop, and also show the comparison with satellite imagery. Through this paper, we demonstrate that it is highly feasible to generate quantitative mapping products such as crop stress maps from UAV images, and suggest that UAV remote sensing is very valuable for the applications of precision agriculture.

Guo, T.; Kujirai, T.; Watanabe, T.

2012-07-01

389

Design of a four rotor unmanned aerial vehicle capable of sustaining zero-roll and zero-pitch flight using vector thrusting  

E-print Network

In recent decades, remote controlled airplanes and helicopters equipped with video cameras have been used by the movie industry, photographers, and for surveillance. The military deploys these unmanned aerial vehicles ...

Hilton, Danny Charles

2005-01-01

390

A study of large scale gust generation in a small scale atmospheric wind tunnel with applications to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer can always benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the atmospheric boundary layer turbulence at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an "atmospheric wind tunnel" is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including Micro Aerial Vehicle(MAV) development, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicle design, and the study of bird and insect flight, to name just a few. The small scale of MAVs provide the somewhat unique capability of full scale Reynolds number testing in a wind tunnel. However, that same small scale creates interactions under real world flight conditions, atmospheric gusts for example, that lead to a need for testing under more complex flows than the standard uniform flow found in most wind tunnels. It is for these reasons that MAVs are used as the initial testing application for the atmospheric gust tunnel. An analytical model for both discrete gusts and a continuous spectrum of gusts is examined. Then, methods for generating gusts in agreement with that model are investigated. Previously used methods are reviewed and a gust generation apparatus is designed. Expected turbulence and gust characteristics of this apparatus are compared with atmospheric data. The construction of an active "gust generator" for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to weather ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using the surface oil flow visualization technique.

Roadman, Jason Markos

391

Out-of-Order Sigma-Point Kalman Filtering for Target Localization Using Cooperating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter outlines our research efforts toward developing a cooperative target localization method based on multiple autonomous\\u000a unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that are outfitted with heterogeneous sensors. The current focus of the research includes\\u000a (1) optimizing the UAV trajectories to place them at desired locations at desired times to capture target locations, (2) cooperative\\u000a sensor scheduling, and (3) intelligent fusing

Gregory L. Plett; Dimitri Zarzhitsky; Daniel J. Pack

392

Design and Attitude Control of a Quad-Rotor Tail-Sitter Vertical Takeoff and Landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the development of a quad-rotor tail-sitter unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) that is composed of quad rotors and a fixed wing. The developed UAV can hover like a quad-rotor helicopter and can fly long distance like a fixed-wing airplane. The main wing of the developed UAV is taken from a commercially available radio-controlled airplane and other

Atsushi Oosedo; Atsushi Konno; Takaaki Matsumoto; Kenta Go; Koji Masuko; Masaru Uchiyama

2012-01-01

393

Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian.

M. Funaki; P. Milligan

2006-01-01

394

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

SciTech Connect

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-01-29

395

Simultaneous observations of aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions with three stacked unmanned aerial vehicles.  

PubMed

Aerosol impacts on climate change are still poorly understood, in part, because the few observations and methods for detecting their effects are not well established. For the first time, the enhancement in cloud albedo is directly measured on a cloud-by-cloud basis and linked to increasing aerosol concentrations by using multiple autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles to simultaneously observe the cloud microphysics, vertical aerosol distribution, and associated solar radiative fluxes. In the presence of long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic pollution, the trade cumuli have higher droplet concentrations and are on average brighter. Our observations suggest a higher sensitivity of radiative forcing by trade cumuli to increases in cloud droplet concentrations than previously reported owing to a constrained droplet radius such that increases in droplet concentrations also increase cloud liquid water content. This aerosol-cloud forcing efficiency is as much as -60 W m(-2) per 100% percent cloud fraction for a doubling of droplet concentrations and associated increase of liquid water content. Finally, we develop a strategy for detecting aerosol-cloud interactions based on a nondimensional scaling analysis that relates the contribution of single clouds to albedo measurements and illustrates the significance of characterizing cloud morphology in resolving radiometric measurements. This study demonstrates that aerosol-cloud-albedo interactions can be directly observed by simultaneous observations below, in, and above the clouds. PMID:18499803

Roberts, G C; Ramana, M V; Corrigan, C; Kim, D; Ramanathan, V

2008-05-27

396

Thermal Analysis on Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Tank on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal analyses are performed on the liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank designed for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) powered by solar arrays and a regenerative proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. A 14-day cruise mission at a 65,000 ft altitude is considered. Thermal analysis provides the thermal loads on the tank system and the boiling-off rates of LH2. Different approaches are being considered to minimize the boiling-off rates of the LH2. It includes an evacuated multilayer insulation (MLI) versus aerogel insulation on the LH2 tank and aluminum versus stainless steel spacer rings between the inner and outer tank. The resulting boil-off rates of LH2 provided by the one-dimensional model and three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) on the tank system are presented and compared to validate the results of the three-dimensional FEA. It concludes that heat flux through penetrations by conduction is as significant as that through insulation around the tank. The tank system with MLI insulation and stainless steel spacer rings result in the lowest boiling-off rate of LH2.

Wang, Xiao-Yen; Harpster, George; Hunter, James

2007-01-01

397

Development of a small unmanned aerial vehicle for thermodynamic and trace gas concentration measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study will demonstrate novel measurements of in-situ trace gas concentrations and thermodynamics sampled on-board an instrumented Skywalker Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remotely piloted flights were conducted at in Manchester, UK, with the Skywalker equipped with an adapted Vaisala electrochemical cell ozonesonde measuring O3 concentrations at 0.5 Hz, and a RS92-KE radiosonde measuring pressure, temperature and humidity. Small local and temporal 3D gradients were observed corresponding to changes attributable to micrometeorology and local chemistry with changes to airmass background noted by back trajectory analysis. The ability to sample subtle variability over a localised 3D frame, such as enabled by the techniques demonstrated in this study, highlights the important and novel capabilities of UAVs to rapidly characterise local area micrometeorology and chemistry, as well as area-emissions, and fence-line inputs. By comparing to ground-based in situ measurement, and taking into account local meteorological conditions, it was found that the UAV measured concentrations were a reliable indicator of background concentrations at the urban scale whilst revealing additional local variability important for air quality monitoring and related policy obligations.

Illingworth, Samuel; Allen, Grant; Percival, Carl; Gallagher, Martin; Ricketts, Hugo; Hollingsworth, Peter; Hayes, Harry; Roberts, Gareth; Ladosz, Pawel; Crawley, David

2014-05-01

398

Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D) trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

Zhai, Ruiyong; Zhou, Zhaoying; Zhang, Wendong; Sang, Shengbo; Li, Pengwei

2014-03-01

399

Detecting pruning of individual stems using Airborne Laser Scanning data captured from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern forest management involves implementing optimal pruning regimes. These regimes aim to achieve the highest quality timber in the shortest possible rotation period. Although a valuable addition to forest management activities, tracking the application of these treatments in the field to ensure best practice management is not economically viable. This paper describes the use of Airborne Laser Scanner (ALS) data to track the rate of pruning in a Eucalyptus globulus stand. Data is obtained from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and we describe automated processing routines that provide a cost-effective alternative to field sampling. We manually prune a 500 m2 plot to 2.5 m above the ground at rates of between 160 and 660 stems/ha. Utilising the high density ALS data, we first derived crown base height (CBH) with an RMSE of 0.60 m at each stage of pruning. Variability in the measurement of CBH resulted in both false positive (mean rate of 11%) and false negative detection (3.5%), however, detected rates of pruning of between 96% and 125% of the actual rate of pruning were achieved. The successful automated detection of pruning within this study highlights the suitability of UAV laser scanning as a cost-effective tool for monitoring forest management activities.

Wallace, Luke; Watson, Christopher; Lucieer, Arko

2014-08-01

400

Factors influencing efficiency of laser wireless power transmission system for micro unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro unmanned aerial vehicle, mostly powered by electricity, plays an important role in many military and civil applications, e.g. military detection, communication relay et al. But restricted endurance ability severely limits its applications. To solve the problem, laser wireless power transmission system is proposed. However, overall efficiency of the system is quite low. This paper describes basic structure of laser wireless power transmission system and its working process. The system consists of two major modules: a high power laser source transmitting energy and a photovoltaic receiver converting optical energy into electricity. Then factors influencing efficiency of the system are analyzed. It suggests that electro-optical efficiency of laser, atmospheric impact on laser beam and photo-electric efficiency of photovoltaic receiver play significant role in overall efficiency of the system. Atmospheric impact on laser beam mostly derived from refraction, absorption, scattering and turbulence effects, leads to drop in energy and quality of laser beam. Efficiency of photovoltaic receiver is affected by photovoltaic materials. In addition, matching degree between intensity distribution of laser beam and layout of photovoltaic receiver also obviously influence efficiency of photovoltaic receiver. Experiment results suggest that under non-uniform laser beam illumination, efficiency of photovoltaic receiver mostly depends on layout of photovoltaic receiver. Through optimizing the layout of photovoltaic receiver based on intensity distribution of laser beam, output power is significantly improved. The analysis may help to take corresponding measures to alleviate negative effects of these factors and improve performance of laser wireless power transmission system.

Liu, Xiaoguang; Hua, Wenshen; Liu, Xun

2014-12-01

401

Assessment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Imagery for Quantitative Monitoring of Wheat Crop in Small Plots  

PubMed Central

This paper outlines how light Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) can be used in remote sensing for precision farming. It focuses on the combination of simple digital photographic cameras with spectral filters, designed to provide multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared domains. In 2005, these instruments were fitted to powered glider and parachute, and flown at six dates staggered over the crop season. We monitored ten varieties of wheat, grown in trial micro-plots in the South-West of France. For each date, we acquired multiple views in four spectral bands corresponding to blue, green, red, and near-infrared. We then performed accurate corrections of image vignetting, geometric distortions, and radiometric bidirectional effects. Afterwards, we derived for each experimental micro-plot several vegetation indexes relevant for vegetation analyses. Finally, we sought relationships between these indexes and field-measured biophysical parameters, both generic and date-specific. Therefore, we established a robust and stable generic relationship between, in one hand, leaf area index and NDVI and, in the other hand, nitrogen uptake and GNDVI. Due to a high amount of noise in the data, it was not possible to obtain a more accurate model for each date independently. A validation protocol showed that we could expect a precision level of 15% in the biophysical parameters estimation while using these relationships.

Lelong, Camille C. D.; Burger, Philippe; Jubelin, Guillaume; Roux, Bruno; Labbé, Sylvain; Baret, Frédéric

2008-01-01

402

A Water Vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR Design for Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This system study proposes the deployment of a water vapor Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) system on an Altair unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform. The Altair offers improved payload weight and volume performance, and longer total flight time as compared to other commercial UAV's. This study has generated a preliminary design for an Altair based water vapor DIAL system. The design includes a proposed DIAL schematic, a review of mechanical challenges such as temperature and humidity stresses on UAV deployed DIAL systems, an assessment of the available capacity for additional instrumentation (based on the proposed design), and an overview of possible weight and volume improvements associated with the use of customized electronic and computer hardware, and through the integration of advanced fiber-optic and laser products. The results of the study show that less than 17% of the available weight, less than 19% of the volume capacity, and approximately 11% of the electrical capacity is utilized by the proposed water vapor DIAL system on the Altair UAV.

DeYoung, Russell J.; Mead, Patricia F.

2004-01-01

403

Convolutional Neural Network-based Vision Systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obstacle detection and avoidance for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task, requiring processing speed and accuracy. Although a number of sensor solutions are available for this task, optical sensors are particularly suited being cheap, light-weight and long range. Stereoscopic systems with 2 cameras can be calibrated and used to perform localization of detected features in 3D space, allowing a model of the environment in front of the UAV to be constructed. Stereoscopic methods can, however, be computationally intensive and prone to mismatches which further increases the computational burden of a potential system. This thesis proposes a new approach to horizon detection based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and uses knowledge of the sky, ground and horizon to simplify the search for potential obstacles to the horizon and sky region of an image. An edge feature based approach followed by stereo correspondence is then applied to detect and triangulate the location of potential obstacles, producing a 3D model as the system output which can be used by an obstacle avoidance algorithm to navigate the UAV.

Verbickas, Rytis

404

Synthetic vision system for improving unmanned aerial vehicle operator situation awareness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate (AFRL/HE) supports research addressing human factors associated with Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operator control stations. Recent research, in collaboration with Rapid Imaging Software, Inc., has focused on determining the value of combining synthetic vision data with live camera video presented on a UAV control station display. Information is constructed from databases (e.g., terrain, cultural features, pre-mission plan, etc.), as well as numerous information updates via networked communication with other sources (e.g., weather, intel). This information is overlaid conformal, in real time, onto the dynamic camera video image display presented to operators. Synthetic vision overlay technology is expected to improve operator situation awareness by highlighting key spatial information elements of interest directly onto the video image, such as threat locations, expected locations of targets, landmarks, emergency airfields, etc. Also, it may help maintain an operator"s situation awareness during periods of video datalink degradation/dropout and when operating in conditions of poor visibility. Additionally, this technology may serve as an intuitive means of distributed communications between geographically separated users. This paper discusses the tailoring of synthetic overlay technology for several UAV applications. Pertinent human factors issues are detailed, as well as the usability, simulation, and flight test evaluations required to determine how best to combine synthetic visual data with live camera video presented on a ground control station display and validate that a synthetic vision system is beneficial for UAV applications.

Calhoun, Gloria L.; Draper, Mark H.; Abernathy, Michael F.; Patzek, Michael; Delgado, Francisco

2005-05-01

405

Portable ammonia-borane-based H2 power-pack for unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An advanced ammonia borane (AB)-based H2 power-pack is designed to continually drive an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for 57 min using a 200-We polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In a flight test with the UAV platform integrated with the developed power-pack, pure hydrogen with an average flow rate of 3.8 L(H2) min-1 is generated by autothermal H2-release from AB with tetraethylene glycol dimethylether (T4EGDE) as a promoter. During take-off, a hybridized power management system (PMS) consisting of the fuel cell and an auxiliary lithium-ion battery supplies 500 We at full power simultaneously, while the fuel cell alone provides 150-200 We and further recharges the auxiliary battery upon cruising. Gaseous byproducts identified by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy during AB dehydrogenation are sequestrated using a mixed absorbent in an H2 purification system. In addition, a real-time monitoring system is employed to determine the remaining filter capacity of the purifier at a ground control system for rapidly responding unpredictable circumstances during flight. Separate experiments are conducted to screen potential materials and methods for enhancing filter capacity in the current H2 refining system. A prospective reactor concept for long-term fuel cell applications is proposed based on the results.

Seo, Jung-Eun; Kim, Yujong; Kim, Yongmin; Kim, Kibeom; Lee, Jin Hee; Lee, Dae Hyung; Kim, Yeongcheon; Shin, Seock Jae; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Sung-Yug; Kim, Taegyu; Yoon, Chang Won; Nam, Suk Woo

2014-05-01

406

Internal air flow analysis of a bladeless micro aerial vehicle hemisphere body using computational fluid dynamic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explain the analysis of internal air flow velocity of a bladeless vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) hemisphere body. In mechanical design, before produce a prototype model, several analyses should be done to ensure the product's effectiveness and efficiency. There are two types of analysis method can be done in mechanical design; mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic. In this analysis, I used computational fluid dynamic (CFD) by using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. The idea came through to overcome the problem of ordinary quadrotor UAV which has larger size due to using four rotors and the propellers are exposed to environment. The bladeless MAV body is designed to protect all electronic parts, which means it can be used in rainy condition. It also has been made to increase the thrust produced by the ducted propeller compare to exposed propeller. From the analysis result, the air flow velocity at the ducted area increased to twice the inlet air. This means that the duct contribute to the increasing of air velocity.

Othman, M. N. K.; Zuradzman, M. Razlan; Hazry, D.; Khairunizam, Wan; Shahriman, A. B.; Yaacob, S.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hussain, Abadalsalam T.

2014-12-01

407

Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

2014-01-01

408

Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

409

Scaling forest phenology from trees to the landscape using an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation phenology monitoring has yielded a decades-long archive documenting the impacts of global change on the biosphere. However, the coarse spatial resolution of remote sensing obscures the organismic level processes driving phenology, while point measurements on the ground limit the extent of observation. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enable low altitude remote sensing at higher spatial and temporal resolution than available from space borne platforms, and have the potential to elucidate the links between organism scale processes and landscape scale analyses of terrestrial phenology. This project demonstrates the use of a low cost multirotor UAV, equipped with a consumer grade digital camera, for observation of deciduous forest phenology and comparison to ground- and tower-based data as well as remote sensing. The UAV was flown approximately every five days during the spring green-up period in 2013, to obtain aerial photography over an area encompassing a 250m resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) pixel at Harvard Forest in central Massachusetts, USA. The imagery was georeferenced and tree crowns were identified using a detailed species map of the study area. Image processing routines were used to extract canopy 'greenness' time series, which were used to calculate phenology transition dates corresponding to early, middle, and late stages of spring green-up for the dominant canopy trees. Aggregated species level phenology estimates from the UAV data, including the mean and variance of phenology transition dates within species in the study area, were compared to model predictions based on visual assessment of a smaller sample size of individual trees, indicating the extent to which limited ground observations represent the larger landscape. At an intermediate scale, the UAV data was compared to data from repeat digital photography, integrating over larger portions of canopy within and near the study area, as a validation step and to see how well tower-based approaches characterize the surrounding landscape. Finally, UAV data was compared to MODIS data to determine how tree crowns within a remote sensing pixel combine to create the aggregate landscape phenology measured by remote sensing, using an area weighted average of the phenology of all dominant crowns.

Klosterman, S.; Melaas, E. K.; Martinez, A.; Richardson, A. D.

2013-12-01

410

Carlsbad Area Office vehicle safety program  

SciTech Connect

The Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) Vehicle Safety Program (VSP) establishes the minimum requirements for CAO personnel to safely operate government vehicles and provides direction to effectively reduce the number of vehicle accidents, reduce the severity of vehicle accidents, and minimize vehicular property damage. This Program covers the operations of Government Services Administration (GSA) vehicles, rental or leased vehicles, and special purpose vehicles used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the performance of work. Additionally, this Program encourages CAO employees to use safe driving habits while operating their privately owned vehicles, motorcycles, or bicycles, or, as pedestrians, to be aware of the hazards associated with traffic in and around CAO facilities. Vehicle safety is a shared responsibility in this organization. At anytime a CAO employee witnesses an unsafe act relating to the operation of a motor vehicle, it is their responsibility to notify their Team Leader (TL) or Assistant Manager (AM), or contact the CAO Safety and Occupational Health Manager (SOHM). Employees are encouraged to participate in the Carlsbad Area Office Federal Employees Safety Committee (FESC) activities and goals in order to address vehicle safety concerns. The FESC is designed to be a forum for all federal employees to improve the health and safety of the organization. The VSP is an effective method of ensuring the health and safety of CAO employees during the operation of government vehicles. The human resources of the CAO are the most valuable assets of this organization and any lost manhours are difficult to replace. Safe driving habits and defensive driving methods should always be practiced to preserve the health and safety of all employees.

NONE

1996-12-01

411

Miniature hexaferrite axial-mode helical antenna for unmanned aerial vehicle applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hexaferrite, axial-mode helical antenna is proposed to provide reliable communication for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. The conventional axial-mode helical antenna uses an air core or low dielectric material, resulting in large antenna size. To increase the miniaturization factor, n = (microrepsilonr0.5, a Co2Z hexaferrite-glass composite was used as an antenna core. The material properties of ferrite and antenna design were studied to yield the best antenna performance. Axial-mode helical antennas were designed and simulated as well as experimentally fabricated. The 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was performed to design a hexaferrite helical antenna and confirm the axial-mode operation at 2.44 GHz with gain of 2.0 dBi. The designed hexaferrite helical antenna showed 82% volume reduction and good impedance matching compared to the air-core antenna. The axial-mode hexaferrite antenna was fabricated based on the designed structure and characterized in an anechoic chamber. The maximum gain of 0.541 dBi was measured with a pitch angle of 10° at 2.39 GHz. Finally, a two-element axial-mode antenna array was designed based on the miniature hexaferrite antenna to further improve antenna gain. Maximum gain of 4.5 dBi at 2.43 GHz was simulated for the antenna array. Therefore, high gain and a miniature antenna can be achieved with the combination of Co2Z hexaferrite-glass composite and antenna design technology.

Neveu, Nicholas James

412

A generic approach for photogrammetric survey using a six-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses a rapid production of slope mapping using multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The objective of this study is to determine the accuracy of the photogrammetric results based on novel method of multi-rotor UAV images as well as to analyze the slope error distribution that are obtained from the UAV images. This study only concentrates on multi-rotor UAV which also known as Hexacopter. An operator can control the speed of multi-rotor UAV during flight mission. Several ground control points and checkpoints were established using Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK- GPS) at the slope area. Ground control points were used in exterior orientation during image processing in sequence to transform image coordinates into local coordinate system. Checkpoints were established at the slope area for accuracy assessment. A digital camera, Sony NEX-5N was used for image acquisition of slope area from UAV platforms. The digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. All acquired images went through photogrammetric processing including interior orientation, exterior orientation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Photogrammetric results such as digital elevation model, and digital orthophoto including slope map were assessed. UAV is able to acquire data within short period of time with low budget compared to the previous methods such as satellite images and airborne laser scanner. Analysis on slope analysis and error distribution analysis are discussed in this paper to determine the quality of slope map in the area of interest. In summary, multi-rotor UAV is suited in slope mapping studies.

Tahar, K. N.; Ahmad, A.; Akib, W. A. A. W. M.; Mohd, W. M. N. W.

2014-02-01

413

Fusing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Imagery with High Resolution Hydrologic Modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After decades of development and applications, high resolution hydrologic models are now common tools in research and increasingly used in practice. More recently, high resolution imagery from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that provide information on land surface properties have become available for civilian applications. Fusing the two approaches promises to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in terms of hydrologic modeling capabilities. This combination will also challenge assumptions on model processes, parameterizations and scale as land surface characteristics (~0.1 to 1 m) may now surpass traditional model resolutions (~10 to 100 m). Ultimately, predictions from high resolution hydrologic models need to be consistent with the observational data that can be collected from UAVs. This talk will describe our efforts to develop, utilize and test the impact of UAV-derived topographic and vegetation fields on the simulation of two small watersheds in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts at the Santa Rita Experimental Range (Green Valley, AZ) and the Jornada Experimental Range (Las Cruces, NM). High resolution digital terrain models, image orthomosaics and vegetation species classification were obtained from a fixed wing airplane and a rotary wing helicopter, and compared to coarser analyses and products, including Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). We focus the discussion on the relative improvements achieved with UAV-derived fields in terms of terrain-hydrologic-vegetation analyses and summer season simulations using the TIN-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) model. Model simulations are evaluated at each site with respect to a high-resolution sensor network consisting of six rain gauges, forty soil moisture and temperature profiles, four channel runoff flumes, a cosmic-ray soil moisture sensor and an eddy covariance tower over multiple summer periods. We also discuss prospects for the fusion of high resolution models with novel observations from UAVs, including synthetic aperture radar and multispectral imagery.

Vivoni, E. R.; Pierini, N.; Schreiner-McGraw, A.; Anderson, C.; Saripalli, S.; Rango, A.

2013-12-01

414

H-infinity output-feedback control: Application to unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents new necessary and sufficient conditions for static output-feedback control of linear time-invariant systems using the H-Infinity approach. Simplified conditions are derived which only require the solution of two coupled matrix design equations. It is shown that the static output-feedback H-Infinity solution does not generally yield a well-defined saddle point for the zero sum differential game; conditions are given under which it does. This work presents a simplified parameterization of all H-Infinity static state-feedback controllers in terms of a single algebraic Riccati equation and a free parameter matrix. As a special case, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of an H-Infinity static output feedback gain are given. This work also proposes three numerically efficient solution algorithms for the coupled design equations to determine the static output-feedback gain. In two of the algorithms an initial stabilizing gain is not needed. Correctness of these algorithms is proved. These algorithms also give flexibility to relatively weight control input and system performance. Application to Unmanned Aerial Vehicle exemplifies the power of the theory developed. This work give a procedure for designing compensators of specified structure for shaping the closed loop response that uses H-infinity output-feedback design techniques. The method developed takes advantage of the wealth of experience in aerospace control design. This work also presents the implementation of L2 Gain Bounded Static Output-Feedback control on Electromechanical Systems. Finally some future applications are explored including wireless networks.

Gadewadikar, Jyotirmay

415

A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy ? < 5 cm and attitude accuracy ? < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

2013-08-01

416

Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program

University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

417

Three-dimensional imaging applications in Earth Sciences using video data acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For three dimensional (3D) aerial images, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are cheaper to operate and easier to fly than the typical manned craft mounted with a laser scanner. This project explores the feasibility of using 2D video images acquired with a UAV and transforming them into 3D point clouds. The Aeryon Scout -- a quad-copter micro UAV -- flew two missions: the first at York University Keele campus and the second at the Canadian Wollastonite Mine Property. Neptec's ViDAR software was used to extract 3D information from the 2D video using structure from motion. The resulting point clouds were sparsely populated, yet captured vegetation well. They were used successfully to measure fracture orientation in rock walls. Any improvement in the video resolution would cascade through the processing and improve the overall results.

McLeod, Tara

418

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

Robert P. Breckenridge

2006-04-01

419

Application of active flow control technology in an unmanned aerial vehicle  

E-print Network

A low speed wind tunnel experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the leading edge pulsed blowing and the trailing edge jet blowing/ Gurney flap on the improvement of aerodynamic performance of an unmanned aerial...

Gaurav,

2009-05-15

420

Point Cloud Generation from Aerial Image Data Acquired by a Quadrocopter Type Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and a Digital Still Camera  

PubMed Central

The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems’ SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft®’s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

2012-01-01

421

Point cloud generation from aerial image data acquired by a quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle and a digital still camera.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to develop and investigate methods for point cloud generation by image matching using aerial image data collected by quadrocopter type micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imaging systems. Automatic generation of high-quality, dense point clouds from digital images by image matching is a recent, cutting-edge step forward in digital photogrammetric technology. The major components of the system for point cloud generation are a UAV imaging system, an image data collection process using high image overlaps, and post-processing with image orientation and point cloud generation. Two post-processing approaches were developed: one of the methods is based on Bae Systems' SOCET SET classical commercial photogrammetric software and another is built using Microsoft(®)'s Photosynth™ service available in the Internet. Empirical testing was carried out in two test areas. Photosynth processing showed that it is possible to orient the images and generate point clouds fully automatically without any a priori orientation information or interactive work. The photogrammetric processing line provided dense and accurate point clouds that followed the theoretical principles of photogrammetry, but also some artifacts were detected. The point clouds from the Photosynth processing were sparser and noisier, which is to a large extent due to the fact that the method is not optimized for dense point cloud generation. Careful photogrammetric processing with self-calibration is required to achieve the highest accuracy. Our results demonstrate the high performance potential of the approach and that with rigorous processing it is possible to reach results that are consistent with theory. We also point out several further research topics. Based on theoretical and empirical results, we give recommendations for properties of imaging sensor, data collection and processing of UAV image data to ensure accurate point cloud generation. PMID:22368479

Rosnell, Tomi; Honkavaara, Eija

2012-01-01

422

State estimation for autopilot control of small unmanned aerial vehicles in windy conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) both in the military and civil realms is growing. This is largely due to the proliferation of inexpensive sensors and the increase in capability of small computers that has stemmed from the personal electronic device market. Methods for performing accurate state estimation for large scale aircraft have been well known and understood for decades, which usually involve a complex array of expensive high accuracy sensors. Performing accurate state estimation for small unmanned aircraft is a newer area of study and often involves adapting known state estimation methods to small UAVs. State estimation for small UAVs can be more difficult than state estimation for larger UAVs due to small UAVs employing limited sensor suites due to cost, and the fact that small UAVs are more susceptible to wind than large aircraft. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the ability of existing methods of state estimation for small UAVs to accurately capture the states of the aircraft that are necessary for autopilot control of the aircraft in a Dryden wind field. The research begins by showing which aircraft states are necessary for autopilot control in Dryden wind. Then two state estimation methods that employ only accelerometer, gyro, and GPS measurements are introduced. The first method uses assumptions on aircraft motion to directly solve for attitude information and smooth GPS data, while the second method integrates sensor data to propagate estimates between GPS measurements and then corrects those estimates with GPS information. The performance of both methods is analyzed with and without Dryden wind, in straight and level flight, in a coordinated turn, and in a wings level ascent. It is shown that in zero wind, the first method produces significant steady state attitude errors in both a coordinated turn and in a wings level ascent. In Dryden wind, it produces large noise on the estimates for its attitude states, and has a non-zero mean error that increases when gyro bias is increased. The second method is shown to not exhibit any steady state error in the tested scenarios that is inherent to its design. The second method can correct for attitude errors that arise from both integration error and gyro bias states, but it suffers from lack of attitude error observability. The attitude errors are shown to be more observable in wind, but increased integration error in wind outweighs the increase in attitude corrections that such increased observability brings, resulting in larger attitude errors in wind. Overall, this work highlights many technical deficiencies of both of these methods of state estimation that could be improved upon in the future to enhance state estimation for small UAVs in windy conditions.

Poorman, David Paul

423

Closing Scale Gaps in Ecological Research using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: a meta-data synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of remote sensing for ecological purposes leaves a growing consensus that a spatial and temporal ';gap' exists between field studies and conventional remote sensing techniques. Field studies bring a sharper resolution than remote sensing techniques, but without overwhelming manpower cannot hope to cover the same amount of area. In addition, while remote sensing techniques cover large amounts of land, remote sensing contains a tradeoff between resolution and regularity, as frequent updates are possible only at coarse spatial resolution. The rapid improvement in UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology offers the potential to fill this ';gap' in data collection, and thereby provide new ecological insights. UAVs offer the ability to collect data at both higher spatial and temporal resolutions than satellites or manned aircraft (and at a much cheaper cost), while covering much larger areas more frequently than the field ecologist. We identify this gap by examining the spatial and temporal resolutions and coverages of a representative sample of recent remote sensing and field-based ecological studies. We randomly sampled the titles of 200 studies published during the last 3 years from 20 high-impact ecology journals, and extracted resolution and extent information from their Methods sections. Of these studies, slightly over 100 provide adequate information for our analysis. We analyze the gap in two-dimensional space. Along the X-axis, we define the temporal components as a vector where the temporal frequency of the study defines the minimum X value for each observation (study), and the temporal duration defines the maximum value. On the Y-axis, the study spatial resolution defines the minimum value while the total spatial extent defines the maximum value. In the manner, each study is represented as an irregular two-dimensional polygon. We divide the plot area into discrete grid cells and sum the number of polygons intersecting each cell, representing field studies in red and remote sensing studies in blue. The gap consists of the dark areas of the domain, and we define its boundaries as the contour where coverage is <5% of sampled studies. We then plot, in green, the spatial and temporal scales of several recently published and unpublished UAV studies over the completed graph. This determines how effectively UAVs can close the gap, based on their ability to regularly collect higher resolution data than remote sensing, and in their ability to collect continuous data over larger plots of land than conventional field work. Since the use of this technology is still in its earliest stages in ecology, the possibilities to use UAVs to collect data at higher frequency, over longer time scales, and over greater extent will grow as costs falls, and ecologists adopt the technology.

Grossman, R. H.; Guan, K.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.; Dandois, J. P.

2013-12-01

424

Sensor Fusion Based Fault-Tolerant Attitude Estimation Solutions for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Navigation-grade inertial sensors are often too expensive and too heavy for use in most Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) systems. Low-cost Micro-Electrical-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors provide an attractive alternative, but currently do not provide an adequate navigation solution alone due to the presence of sensor bias. Toward addressing this problem, this research focuses on the development and experimental evaluation of sensor fusion algorithms to combine partially redundant information from low-cost sensor to achieve accurate SUAV attitude estimation. To conduct this research, several sets of SUAVs flight data that include measurements from a low-cost MEMS based Inertial Measurement Unit, a Global Positioning System receiver, and a set of low-grade tri-axial magnetometers are used to evaluate a variety of algorithms. In order to provide a baseline for performance evaluation, attitude measurements obtained directly with a high-quality mechanical vertical gyroscope are used as an independent attitude 'truth'. In addition, as a part of this project, a custom SUAV avionics system was developed to provide a platform for fault-tolerant flight control research. The overall goal of this research is to provide high-accuracy attitude estimation during nominal sensor performance conditions and in the event of sensors failures, while using only low-cost components. To achieve this goal, this study is carried out in three phases. The specific aim of the first phase is to obtain high-accuracy under nominal sensor conditions. During this phase, two different nonlinear Kalman filtering methods are applied to various sensor fusion formulations and evaluated with respect to estimation accuracy over diverse sets of flight data. Next, during the second phase, sensor fusion based calibration techniques are explored to further enhance estimation accuracy. Finally, the third phase of the study considers the design of a sensor fusion attitude estimation architecture that rejects sensor failures and supports a graceful loss of performance in the event of sensor failures. This algorithm is based on a nonlinear information filter and features a novel Failure Detection, Identification, and Accommodation (FDIA) approach. During this phase, it is shown that the sensor fusion algorithm handles both abruptly occurring large magnitude sensor failures, as well as gradually growing small magnitude sensor failures.

Gross, Jason Nicholas

425

Spatial distribution of water stress and evapotranspiration estimates using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation of spatial distribution of evapotranspiration poses a particular challenge in quantitative hydrology. Conventional methods provide punctual measurements of evapotranspiration rates which may be transformed into aggregated mean values by extrapolation or the application of empirical models. The influence of spatial structures (heterogeneity of the landscape) in relevant small spatial scales is captured insufficiently by these methods. Modern optical remote sensors aboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) provide the basis for the generation of high spatial resolution data. Spectral data in the optical, near infrared and thermal infrared domain will be used as input into a surface energy balance (SEB) model to produce evapotranspiration maps. The spectral properties of vegetation are of particular importance for the calculation, since plants are the link between soil and atmosphere and thus have major impact on evapotranspiration rates of land surfaces. First estimates of plant status and indicators of transpiration behavior will be obtained by applying and combining water stress parameters of different wavelengths. As opposed to satellite data, time-series of self-determined spatial and temporal resolution may be created by varying flight altitude and turnaround times. Thus it is possible to analyze the influence of landscape structures, as well as the chronological development of the observed parameters. Located at the interface between hydrology and remote sensing this work utilizes an innovative remote sensing platform to gain distributed spectral information. This information will be used to visualize evapotranspiration patterns in hydrological heterogeneous areas. Particular attention will be paid to the analysis of transition zones of varying water supply and under the influence of selected environmental parameters (e.g. soil moisture, depth of GW-table). To reach that goal it is essential to generate a robust processing chain, involving all necessary processing steps. These include camera calibration, geometric and radiometric correction of the image data, as well as automatic image stitching at different scales. Effects of atmospheric aerosols on the spectral information of the surface have to be considered and, if necessary, corrected for the application of a SEB model. Data collection is conducted at several ZALF research sites in NE-Germany.

Rauneker, P.; Lischeid, G.

2012-04-01

426

Application of high resolution images from unmanned aerial vehicles for hydrology and rangeland science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem in many natural resource disciplines is the lack of high-enough spatial resolution images that can be used for monitoring and modeling purposes. Advances have been made in the utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in hydrology and rangeland science. By utilizing low flight altitudes and velocities, UAVs are able to produce high resolution (5 cm) images as well as stereo coverage (with 75% forward overlap and 40% sidelap) to extract digital elevation models (DEM). Another advantage of flying at low altitude is that the potential problems of atmospheric haze obscuration are eliminated. Both small fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft have been used in our experiments over two rangeland areas in the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico and the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. The fixed-wing UAV has a digital camera in the wing and six-band multispectral camera in the nose, while the rotary-wing UAV carries a digital camera as payload. Because we have been acquiring imagery for several years, there are now > 31,000 photos at one of the study sites, and 177 mosaics over rangeland areas have been constructed. Using the DEM obtained from the imagery we have determined the actual catchment areas of three watersheds and compared these to previous estimates. At one site, the UAV-derived watershed area is 4.67 ha which is 22% smaller compared to a manual survey using a GPS unit obtained several years ago. This difference can be significant in constructing a watershed model of the site. From a vegetation species classification, we also determined that two of the shrub types in this small watershed(mesquite and creosote with 6.47 % and 5.82% cover, respectively) grow in similar locations(flat upland areas with deep soils), whereas the most predominant shrub(mariola with 11.9% cover) inhabits hillslopes near stream channels(with steep shallow soils). The positioning of these individual shrubs throughout the catchment using UAV image classifications is required as input to detailed watershed modeling There are multiple advantages to UAVs for use in hydrology and rangeland science, including that coverage is less expensive while just as accurate as conventional ground measurements. The UAV guidance systems can also guarantee returning to the same location for change detection analysis. UAV capabilities also have advantages over manned aircraft because they are safer, less expensive, and can respond in a timelier manner to new flight requests. As a result, the use of UAVs for watershed and rangeland monitoring and modeling is a rapidly expanding civil application in natural resources.

Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Anderson, C. A.; Perini, N. A.; Saripalli, S.; Laliberte, A.

2012-12-01

427

Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems  

SciTech Connect

Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be feasible and can collect imagery for very large areas in a short period of time. It was accurate for bare ground and grasses. Both UAV systems have limitations, but these will be reduced as the technology advances. In both cases, the UAV systems collected data at a much faster rate than possible on the ground. The study concluded that improvements in automating the image processing efforts would greatly improve use of the technology. In the near future, UAV technology may revolutionize rangeland monitoring in the same way Global Positioning Systems have affected navigation while conducting field activities.

Robert Paul Breckenridge

2007-05-01

428

Design and integration of vision based sensors for unmanned aerial vehicles navigation and guidance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a novel Navigation and Guidance System (NGS) for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) based on Vision Based Navigation (VBN) and other avionics sensors. The main objective of our research is to design a lowcost and low-weight/volume NGS capable of providing the required level of performance in all flight phases of modern small- to medium-size UAVs, with a special focus on automated precision approach and landing, where VBN techniques can be fully exploited in a multisensory integrated architecture. Various existing techniques for VBN are compared and the Appearance-based Navigation (ABN) approach is selected for implementation. Feature extraction and optical flow techniques are employed to estimate flight parameters such as roll angle, pitch angle, deviation from the runway and body rates. Additionally, we address the possible synergies between VBN, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and MEMS-IMU (Micro-Electromechanical System Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors and also the use of Aircraft Dynamics Models (ADMs) to provide additional information suitable to compensate for the shortcomings of VBN sensors in high-dynamics attitude determination tasks. An Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is developed to fuse the information provided by the different sensors and to provide estimates of position, velocity and attitude of the platform in real-time. Two different integrated navigation system architectures are implemented. The first uses VBN at 20 Hz and GPS at 1 Hz to augment the MEMS-IMU running at 100 Hz. The second mode also includes the ADM (computations performed at 100 Hz) to provide augmentation of the attitude channel. Simulation of these two modes is performed in a significant portion of the Aerosonde UAV operational flight envelope and performing a variety of representative manoeuvres (i.e., straight climb, level turning, turning descent and climb, straight descent, etc.). Simulation of the first integrated navigation system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU) shows that the integrated system can reach position, velocity and attitude accuracies compatible with CAT-II precision approach requirements. Simulation of the second system architecture (VBN/GPS/IMU/ADM) shows promising results since the achieved attitude accuracy is higher using the ADM/VBS/IMU than using VBS/IMU only. However, due to rapid divergence of the ADM virtual sensor, there is a need for a frequent re-initialisation of the ADM data module, which is strongly dependent on the UAV flight dynamics and the specific manoeuvring transitions performed. Finally, the output provided by the VBN and integrated navigation sensor systems is used to design a flight control system using a hybrid Fuzzy Logic and Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller for the Aerosonde UAV.

Sabatini, Roberto; Bartel, Celia; Kaharkar, Anish; Shaid, Tesheen

2012-04-01

429

Vision-based state estimation for uninhabited aerial vehicles using the coplanarity constraint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and evaluated a vision-based state estimation algorithm for uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) using the implicit extended Kalman filter (IEKF) and the coplanarity constraint (also known as the epipolar or essential constraint). The coplanarity constraint, a well-known property in the structure from motion (SFM) field, has advantages for this application in that the feature point locations in three dimensional space do not have to be known and tracked and that feature points can be discarded and acquired as necessary. This reduces the computational load which is important for real time applications such as aircraft control. Advantages of the IEKF are that, in principle, the current estimate uses all previous information, not just the current observations, and that the estimate will propagate forward in an orderly fashion in the case of interrupted or reduced measurements. The dynamics of the aircraft are included in the process model which improves the observability of the states and resolves the SFM scale factor ambiguity. The algorithm was implemented in a numerical simulation and exhibited divergence problems in the presence of measurement noise. These effects were particularly evident in the velocity estimates. The problems were eliminated by zeroing out the small velocity dependent terms in the measurement matrix. The algorithm was exercised in a Monte Carlo fashion and found to be robust to errors in the process model and to measurement noise. Sensitivities to filter and focal plane implementation parameters including camera depression angle, field of view, measurement interval, and feature point location and number were also assessed. The modified estimator was then employed in a closed loop UAV simulation to provide feedback to a simple autopilot. The simulation demonstrated that the state estimates provided were sufficiently accurate to allow control of the UAV through successful waypoint navigation. This simulation used feature points generated at random locations in the field of view. A second closed loop simulation was successfully run using synthetic imagery from the University of Florida's vision laboratory and a Lucas-Kanade feature point tracking algorithm.

Webb, Thomas Philip

2007-12-01

430

Detection and classification of channel bedforms observed using the visual-light camera mounted to the unmanned aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution aerial photographs and the resulting orthophoto images, obtained using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), may offer spatial resolution of 3 cm/px, exceeding the available resolution of remote sensing satellites. Such an unprecedentedly small size of the grid is very useful in fluvial geomorphology, in particular in investigations of small or moderate bedforms. These underwater landforms form spatially complex patterns which are difficult to observe and detect in the field, especially in the considerably long river channels. Since November 2012 we have performed a series of the UAV flights targeted at four rivers in the K?odzko County (SW Poland). These rivers are: Nysa K?odzka, Bia?a L?decka, Bystrzyca Dusznicka and ?cinawka. We have limited our research flights to small fragments of these rivers, and we have gathered aerial photographs taken using the visual-light camera during all seasons. Although visual-light cameras have a limited ability to penetrate underwater features, we have found that at certain environmental conditions (e.g. autumn, low flow, highly transparent water, low albedo), it is possible to record a significant signal of the underwater channel bedforms. Such orthophoto images have been processed to numerically detect and classify the aforementioned landforms. The work serves as a feasibility study, the aim of which is to present that UAV-acquired photographs, even taken using the visual-light cameras, may be used to infer the spatial setting of channel bedforms.

?lopek, Jacek; Wieczorek, Ma?gorzata; Migo?, Piotr; Kasprzak, Marek; Jeziorska, Justyna; Witek, Matylda; Spallek, Waldemar; Niedzielski, Tomasz

2014-05-01

431

Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is taking longer than expected to realize the immense potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs)for civil applications due to the complexity of regulations being developed by the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) that can be applied to both manned and unmanned flight in the National Airspace System (NAS). As a result, FAA has required that for all UAV flights in the NAS, an external pilot must maintain line-of-sight contact with the UAV. Properly trained observers must also be present to assist the external pilot in collision avoidance. Additionally, in order to fly in the NAS, formal approval must be requested from FAA through application for a Certificate of Authorization (COA for government applicants or a Special Airworthiness Certificate (SAC) in the experimental category for non-government applicants. Flight crews of UAVs must pass exams also required for manned airplane pilots. Although flight crews for UAVs are not required to become manned airplane pilots, UAV flight missions are much more efficient if one or two of the UAV flight crew are also manned aircraft pilots so they can serve as the UAV mission commander. Our group has performed numerous UAV flights within the Jornada Experimental Range in southern New Mexico. Two developments with Jornada UAVs can be recommended to other UAV operators that would increase flight time experience and study areas covered by UAV images. First, do not overlook the possibility of obtaining permission to fly in Restricted Military Airspace (RMA). At the Jornada, our airspace is approximately 50% NAS and 50% RMA. With experiments ongoing in both types of airspace, we can fly in both areas and continue to increase UAV flights. Second, we have developed an air- and-ground vehicle approach for long distance, continuous pilot transport that always maintains line-of-sight requirements. This allows flying several target areas on a single mission and increasing the number of acquired UAV images - over 90,000 UAV images have now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

2013-12-01

432

Decentralized Cooperative Aerial Surveillance Using Fixed-Wing Miniature UAVs Teams of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) can cooperate when their common objectives are defined and each vehicle has the information needed to cooperate, even when there are communications difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous applications require aerial surveil- lance. Civilian applications include monitoring forest fires, oil fields, and pipelines and tracking wildlife. Applications to homeland security include border patrol and monitoring the perimeter of nuclear power plants. Military applications are numerous. The current approach to these applications is to use a single manned vehicle for surveillance. However, manned vehicles are typically large and

Randal W. Beard; Timothy W. McLain; Derek B. Nelson; Derek Kingston; David Johanson

433

Methods for In-Flight Wing Shape Predictions of Highly Flexible Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Formulation of Ko Displacement Theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ko displacement theory is formulated for a cantilever tubular wing spar under bending, torsion, and combined bending and torsion loading. The Ko displacement equations are expressed in terms of strains measured at multiple sensing stations equally spaced on the surface of the wing spar. The bending and distortion strain data can then be input to the displacement equations to calculate slopes, deflections, and cross-sectional twist angles of the wing spar at the strain-sensing stations for generating the deformed shapes of flexible aircraft wing spars. The displacement equations have been successfully validated for accuracy by finite-element analysis. The Ko displacement theory that has been formulated could also be applied to calculate the deformed shape of simple and tapered beams, plates, and tapered cantilever wing boxes. The Ko displacement theory and associated strain-sensing system (such as fiber optic sensors) form a powerful tool for in-flight deformation monitoring of flexible wings and tails, such as those often employed on unmanned aerial vehicles. Ultimately, the calculated displacement data can be visually displayed in real time to the ground-based pilot for monitoring the deformed shape of unmanned aerial vehicles during flight.

Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

2010-01-01

434

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program currently includes thirteen sites located in diverse geographic, metrological,and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a fourteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies. (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator's business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. These considerations are identified below for each Program Status entry. This second quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters.

Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

1994-08-01

435

A Small Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, Ant-Plane 4, for aeromagnetic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are expected to use in Antarctica for geophysical research due to economy and safety operations. We have developed the technology of small UAVwith autonomous navigation referred to GPS and onboard magnetometer, meteorolgical devices and digital camera under the Ant-Plane project. The UAV focuses on operation for use in the summer season at coastal area in Antarctica; higher temperature than -15C under calm wind. In case of Ant-Plane 4, it can fly continuously more than 500 km, probably more than 1000 km, although the flight in Antarcitca has not succeeded The UAV of FRP is pusher type drone consisting of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 86cc gasoline engine (7.2 HP) navigated. The maximum takeoff weight is 25kg including 1kg of payload. Cruising distance 500 km at speed of 130 km/h using 10 litter of fuel. The UAV is controlled by radio telemeter within 5km from a ground station and autonomous navigation referred to GPS latitude and longitude, pitot tube speed and barometer altitude. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto-resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time are recorded every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. We succeeded in long distant flight to 500km with magnetometer by Ant-Plane 4 collaborated with Geoscience Australia, in March 2006. The survey was performed in the area 10kmx10km at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW direction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were stored in the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The resolution of magnetic field decreased to 30nT, when the plane flew to the tail wind. However, it is worse against the head wind. Obtained anomaly pattern was compared with the magnetic anomaly pattern published by Geoscience Australia. Both patterns were essentially consistent, although a part of pattern in the head wind flights was not resemble. Ant-Plane 4 flew up to 5700 m in altitude with aerosol counter, thermometer and hygrometer at northern part of Japan. A drastic change of temperature, humidity and particle number was observed at the inversion layer of atmosphere. Consequently we conclude that the small drone Ant-Plane 4 can be used for geophysical research. We are making effort to develop Ant-Plane for more simple assemblage and more easy operation.

Funaki, M.; Tanabe, S.; Project, A.

2007-05-01

436

Near-vent measurements of volcanic gases and aerosols with multiple small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic phenomena occurring on the earth's surface and in the atmosphere are almost always distributed over a volume or area that changes progressively over time (e.g., explosive eruption plumes, lava flows, floods, toxic materials releases, wildfires). 'Snapshot' views of such phenomena traditionally capture a small part of the area or volume of the event in successive time slices. Such time series are fundamentally limited in providing accurate boundary conditions for models of such processes, or even to create descriptions or observations at spatial scales relevant to the characteristic dimensions of the process. High spatial resolution (e.g., ~1-3m/pixel) imaging views of such spatially extended phenomena that capture the entire extent of the event are not usually possible with a single low altitude aircraft, for instance. Synoptic satellite and high altitude airborne views are often at spatial resolutions that an order of magnitude coarser. Airborne in situ sampling faces a similar problem in that point measurements are acquired along a flight line in a time-series. Source conditions changing at timescales shorter than an airborne sortie interval (typical for most dynamic phenomena) render such flight line observations incomplete. The ability to capture hi-spatial resolution, synchronous, full volume or area data over dynamically evolving (possibly hazardous) features (e.g., volcanic plumes, air pollution layers, oil slicks, wildfires) requires a distributed 2D or 3D mesh of observation platforms. Small (e.g., <25kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are an emerging technology that can provide distributed formations or networks of observation platforms that can be dynamically reconfigured to encompass areas or volumes of interest for imaging or other kinds of in situ observations (e.g., SO2 or CO2 sampling of volcanic gas emissions). Such data are crucial for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed concentration retrievals (e.g., from multi/hyperspectral imaging platforms) or for transport modeling based on data from such platforms. For instance, for volcanic plumes, in situ cal/val data are rare to non-existent. Nevertheless, such data were in high demand during the airborne volcanic ash crisis that shut down European airspace for weeks at a time after the early 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland. Particularly for low altitude applications, small UAVs, such as the Aerovironment-built Dragon Eye (~2.5kg gross weight) or its equivalent, with small payloads (e.g., 0.5-1kg), can be economically deployed in formations or 'swarms' to provide simultaneous multiple observations over an areally or volumetrically distributed temporally evolving feature, such as a lava flow or a volcanic plume. We discuss our recent experiences and challenges in the use of such small platforms, the challenges in providing low mass sensors for such aircraft, and future applications for self-organizing airborne sensor networks. This work was carried out, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.

Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Schumann, J. M.

2013-12-01

437

Scaled high angle research vehicle SHARV) program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flight test research program employing a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) within high angle of attack range has commenced at the Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering of Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. The initial flights of the scaled model of the “Bielik” aircraft were made with the aim to correlate RPV and full?scale flight stall and departure and spin

M. Szender

2004-01-01

438

Detecting Faults in Southern California using Computer-Vision Techniques and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response. In Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images, faults are revealed as linear discontinuities. Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. During the summer of 2013, the NASA-JPL DEVELOP California Disasters team contributed to the development of a method to expedite fault detection in California using remote-sensing technology. The team utilized InSAR images created from polarimetric L-band data from NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) project. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. We tested and refined an edge-detection algorithm under development through NASA's Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) project. To optimize the algorithm we used both UAVSAR interferograms and synthetic interferograms generated through Disloc, a web-based modeling program available through NASA's QuakeSim project. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems. Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. E-DECIDER partners that will use the edge-detection code include the California Earthquake Clearinghouse and the US Department of Homeland Security through delivery of products using the Unified Incident Command and Decision Support (UICDS) service. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes. Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can be paired with infrastructure overlays, allowing emergency response teams to identify sites that may have been exposed to damage. The faults will also be incorporated into a database for future integration into fault models and earthquake simulations, improving future earthquake hazard assessment. As new faults are mapped, they will further understanding of the complex fault systems and earthquake hazards within the seismically dynamic state of California.

Barba, M.; Rains, C.; von Dassow, W.; Parker, J. W.; Glasscoe, M. T.

2013-12-01

439

Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operator Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies; (2) development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use; (3) increasing public awareness and acceptance of EV's. The 14 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. The topics of this report include participants' experience with EV operation; an appraisal of the overall current status of EV's for transportation; program management; and a program experience overview, the result of analyzing Site Operator inputs, provides an insight into the variables that can affect electric vehicle performance and operating cost.

Kiser, D. M.; Warren, J. F.

1994-03-01

440

The U.S. Army's VehicleThe U.S. Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP):Intelligence Program (AVIP)  

E-print Network

The U.S. Army's VehicleThe U.S. Army's Vehicle Intelligence Program (AVIP):Intelligence Program-5000 USA Phone: (810) 574-7413 Fax: (810) 574-6996 E-mail: GorsichD@tacom.army.mil IV2001 IEEE Intelligent;Vehicle IntelligenceVehicle Intelligence VI provides new driving functionalities, and enhances existing

441

A Study of the Effects of Large Scale Gust Generation in a Small Scale Atmospheric Wind Tunnel: Application to Micro Aerial Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern technology operating in the atmospheric boundary layer could benefit from more accurate wind tunnel testing. While scaled atmospheric boundary layer tunnels have been well developed, tunnels replicating portions of the turbulence of the atmospheric boundary layer at full scale are a comparatively new concept. Testing at full-scale Reynolds numbers with full-scale turbulence in an ``atmospheric wind tunnel'' is sought. Many programs could utilize such a tool including that of Micro Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) and other unmanned aircraft, the wind energy industry, fuel efficient vehicles, and the study of bird and insect fight. The construction of an active ``gust generator'' for a new atmospheric tunnel is reviewed and the turbulence it generates is measured utilizing single and cross hot wires. Results from this grid are compared to atmospheric turbulence and it is shown that various gust strengths can be produced corresponding to days ranging from calm to quite gusty. An initial test is performed in the atmospheric wind tunnel whereby the effects of various turbulence conditions on transition and separation on the upper surface of a MAV wing is investigated using oil flow visualization.

Roadman, Jason; Mohseni, Kamran

2009-11-01

442

A Fluid Dynamic Based Coordination of a Wireless Sensor Network of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: 3-D Simulation and Wireless Communication Characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid dynamic algorithm based on smoothed par- ticle hydrodynamics (SPH) is proposed for coordination of a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in a wireless sensor network. SPH is a Lagrangian particle method typically used to model com- pressible and quasi-incompressible fluid flows. In this study, SPH is used to develop a decentralized controller for a swarm of fixed-

Apratim Shaw; Kamran Mohseni

2011-01-01

443

Developing a Control Architecture for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Search and Localize RF Time-Varying Mobile Targets: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control architecture that allows multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to cooperatively detect mobile RF (Radio Frequency) emitting ground targets. The architecture is developed under the premise that UAVs are controlled as a distributed system. The distributed system-based technique maximizes the search and detection capabilities of multiple UAVs. We use a hybrid approach that combines

Daniel J. Pack; George W. P. York

2005-01-01

444

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Good Tool for Aerospace Engineering Education and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerospace engineering is a vehicle-oriented discipline, which commonly incorporates a very wide variety of curricular subjects but with a hands -on training as an ultimate goal of education and research for the young students. The aerospace engineering education starts as a system approach, which shall, at least, include the design, manufacturing and maintenance of aerospace vehicles. It is essential to

Fei-Bin HSIAO; Ying-Chih LAI; Meng-Tse LEE; Tsong-Liang LIU; Woei-Leong CHAN; Sheng-Yen HSIEH; Chun-Chih CHEN

2005-01-01

445

Development and integration of a solar powered unmanned aerial vehicle and a wireless sensor network to monitor greenhouse gases.  

PubMed

Measuring gases for environmental monitoring is a demanding task that requires long periods of observation and large numbers of sensors. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) currently represent the best alternative to monitor large, remote, and difficult access areas, as these technologies have the possibility of carrying specialized gas sensing systems. This paper presents the development and integration of a WSN and an UAV powered by solar energy in order to enhance their functionality and broader their applications. A gas sensing system implementing nanostructured metal oxide (MOX) and non-dispersive infrared sensors was developed to measure concentrations of CH4 and CO2. Laboratory, bench and field testing results demonstrate the capability of UAV to capture, analyze and geo-locate a gas sample during flight operations. The field testing integrated ground sensor nodes and the UAV to measure CO2 concentration at ground and low aerial altitudes, simultaneously. Data collected during the mission was transmitted in real time to a central node for analysis and 3D mapping of the target gas. The results highlights the accomplishment of the first flight mission of a solar powered UAV equipped with a CO2 sensing system integrated with a WSN. The system provides an effective 3D monitoring and can be used in a wide range of environmental applications such as agriculture, bushfires, mining studies, zoology and botanical studies using a ubiquitous low cost technology. PMID:25679312

Malaver, Alexander; Motta, Nunzio; Corke, Peter; Gonzalez, Felipe

2015-01-01

446

VEEP - Vehicle Economy, Emissions, and Performance program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

VEEP is a general-purpose discrete event simulation program being developed to study the performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions of a vehicle modeled as a collection of its separate components. It is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5. The purpose of this paper is to present the design methodology, describe the simulation model and its components, and summarize the preliminary results. Topics include chief programmer team concepts, the SDDL design language, program portability, user-oriented design, the program's user command syntax, the simulation procedure, and model validation.

Heimburger, D. A.; Metcalfe, M. A.

1977-01-01

447

Modeling and Inverse Controller Design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on the Self-Organizing Map  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The next generation of aircraft will have dynamics that vary considerably over the operating regime. A single controller will have difficulty to meet the design specifications. In this paper, a SOM-based local linear modeling scheme of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is developed to design a set of inverse controllers. The SOM selects the operating regime depending only on the embedded output space information and avoids normalization of the input data. Each local linear model is associated with a linear controller, which is easy to design. Switching of the controllers is done synchronously with the active local linear model that tracks the different operating conditions. The proposed multiple modeling and control strategy has been successfully tested in a simulator that models the LoFLYTE UAV.

Cho, Jeongho; Principe, Jose C.; Erdogmus, Deniz; Motter, Mark A.

2005-01-01

448

An improved artificial bee colony algorithm based on balance-evolution strategy for unmanned combat aerial vehicle path planning.  

PubMed

Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

Li, Bai; Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

2014-01-01

449

Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

2009-01-01

450

Development and Implementation of a Hardware In-the-Loop Test Bed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Algorithms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful prediction and management of battery life using prognostic algorithms through ground and flight tests is important for performance evaluation of electrical systems. This paper details the design of test beds suitable for replicating loading profiles that would be encountered in deployed electrical systems. The test bed data will be used to develop and validate prognostic algorithms for predicting battery discharge time and battery failure time. Online battery prognostic algorithms will enable health management strategies. The platform used for algorithm demonstration is the EDGE 540T electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The fully designed test beds developed and detailed in this paper can be used to conduct battery life tests by controlling current and recording voltage and temperature to develop a model that makes a prediction of end-of-charge and end-of-life of the system based on rapid state of health (SOH) assessment.

Nyangweso, Emmanuel; Bole, Brian

2014-01-01

451

Multi-Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Cooperative Fault Detection Employing Differential Global Positioning (DGPS), Inertial and Vision Sensors  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a method to increase the reliability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) sensor Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) in a multi-UAV context. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) and inertial sensors are used for sensor FDI in each UAV. The method uses additional position estimations that augment individual UAV FDI system. These additional estimations are obtained using images from the same planar scene taken from two different UAVs. Since accuracy and noise level of the estimation depends on several factors, dynamic replanning of the multi-UAV team can be used to obtain a better estimation in case of faults caused by slow growing errors of absolute position estimation that cannot be detected by using local FDI in the UAVs. Experimental results with data from two real UAVs are also presented. PMID:22400008

Heredia, Guillermo; Caballero, Fernando; Maza, Iván; Merino, Luis; Viguria, Antidio; Ollero, Aníbal

2009-01-01

452

Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Tang, Hui

2014-12-01

453

An Improved Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm Based on Balance-Evolution Strategy for Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle Path Planning  

PubMed Central

Unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs) have been of great interest to military organizations throughout the world due to their outstanding capabilities to operate in dangerous or hazardous environments. UCAV path planning aims to obtain an optimal flight route with the threats and constraints in the combat field well considered. In this work, a novel artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm improved by a balance-evolution strategy (BES) is applied in this optimization scheme. In this new algorithm, convergence information during the iteration is fully utilized to manipulate the exploration/exploitation accuracy and to pursue a balance between local exploitation and global exploration capabilities. Simulation results confirm that BE-ABC algorithm is more competent for the UCAV path planning scheme than the conventional ABC algorithm and two other state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms. PMID:24790555

Gong, Li-gang; Yang, Wen-lun

2014-01-01

454

Piezo-stack vortex generators for boundary layer control of a delta wing micro-aerial vehicle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an idea for the control of flow separation over solid surfaces by piezo-stack vortex generators. The vortex generators are small vibrating plates attached to the delta wing surface. A model of the micro-aerial vehicle (MAV) controlled by vortex piezo-generators is presented. The vortex generators are applied to produce the appropriate aerodynamical forces and moments controlling the flight of the aircraft. The efficiency of the vortex generators is proved by the wind tunnel test results. The oscillatory added lift and drag coefficients versus angle of attack are presented. The optimal vortex generator amplitude and frequency are investigated. Boundary layer control (BLC) for delta wing micro-aircraft increases the manoeuvrability and performance of the MAV.

Mystkowski, Arkadiusz

2013-11-01

455

DEPENDENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE EMISSIONS ON VEHICLE LOAD: RESULTS FROM THE GTRP INSTRUMENTED VEHICLE PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation discussed the dependence of nitric oxide (NO) emissions on vehicle load, bases on results from an instrumented-vehicle program. The accuracy and feasibility of modal emissions models depend on algorithms to allocate vehicle emissions based on a vehicle operation...

456

System design of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for marine environmental sensing  

E-print Network

Technological improvements over the past decade have led to the widespread use of autonomous surface and underwater vehicles for data collection in marine environmental sensing and modeling in coastal environments. However, ...

Leighton, Joshua (Joshua C.)

2013-01-01

457

Determination of the effectiveness of commercial-off-the-shelf radar in the cuing of unmanned aerial vehicle pan-tilt-zoom camera systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the use of low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radar in support of the cuing of pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) optical payload systems. Cancellation of the U.S. Navy's vertical take off and landing (VTOL) unmanned aerial vehicle (VTUAV) program left the Navy without a UAV with radar sensor capability. Using a UAV PTZ optical payload and a COTS radar, this study collected specific time difference measurements between PTZ optical payload searches without radar cuing and searches with radar cuing. In every test run conducted, searches with radar cuing reduced PTZ optical payload detection time. The study showed that a low-cost COTS radar mounted on a small UAV can meet some of the radar requirements lost with cancellation of the VTUAV program. The study results could have a direct impact on myriad of U.S. Navy and other U.S. government surveillance requirements, especially the monitoring of U.S. coastal waters in support of homeland security goals and objectives.

Ford, Patrick Joseph

458

Pheromone-based coordination strategy to static sensors on the ground and unmanned aerial vehicles carried sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current trend that is gaining strength in the wireless sensor network area is the use of heterogeneous sensor nodes in one coordinated overall network, needed to fulfill the requirements of sophisticated emerging applications, such as area surveillance systems. One of the main concerns when developing such sensor networks is how to provide coordination among the heterogeneous nodes, in order to enable them to efficiently respond the user needs. This study presents an investigation of strategies to coordinate a set of static sensor nodes on the ground cooperating with wirelessly connected Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying a variety of sensors, in order to provide efficient surveillance over an area of interest. The sensor nodes on the ground are set to issue alarms on the occurrence of a given event of interest, e.g. entrance of a non-authorized vehicle in the area, while the UAVs receive the issued alarms and have to decide which of them is the most suitable to handle the issued alarm. A bio-inspired coordination strategy based on the concept of pheromones is presented. As a complement of this strategy, a utility-based decision making approach is proposed.

Pignaton de Freitas, Edison; Heimfarth, Tales; Pereira, Carlos Eduardo; Morado Ferreira, Armando; Rech Wagner, Flávio; Larsson, Tony

2010-04-01

459

PSU TOYOTA ELECTRIC VEHICLE PROGRAM POLICY JULY 2010  

E-print Network

PSU ­ TOYOTA ELECTRIC VEHICLE PROGRAM POLICY JULY 2010 Purpose: The University State University ­ Toyota Electric Vehicle Program under which Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. (Toyota) will license to University certain Toyota brand plug in Prius motor vehicles as described in Exhibit

Bertini, Robert L.

460

An algorithm of real-time vehicle detection with low altitude aerial video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the conflict between vehicle and road is becoming increasingly serious, how to implement advanced technology to obtain traffic information fast and accurately becomes a key point to upgrade the level of transportation management and services. It is an important expansion of conventional technology that the dynamic traffic information is obtained rapidly by the low-altitude aircraft. It is low cost and suitable for collecting a wide range of traffic information. This paper use low-altitude airship as the platform, and several sensors(such as GPS,CCD, video encoder and COFDM wireless transmission equipment) are integrated into the aircraft compose a low altitude remote sensing platform to obtain the high-definition traffic video data. This paper aim at the video proposed a vehicle detection method in the complex and varying background. This method is capable of detecting moving and static vehicles accurately on the road in real time without any supplementary information.

Wang, Wenlong; Tang, Luliang; Li, Qingquan

2010-11-01

461

An algorithm of real-time vehicle detection with low altitude aerial video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the conflict between vehicle and road is becoming increasingly serious, how to implement advanced technology to obtain traffic information fast and accurately becomes a key point to upgrade the level of transportation management and services. It is an important expansion of conventional technology that the dynamic traffic information is obtained rapidly by the low-altitude aircraft. It is low cost and suitable for collecting a wide range of traffic information. This paper use low-altitude airship as the platform, and several sensors(such as GPS,CCD, video encoder and COFDM wireless transmission equipment) are integrated into the aircraft compose a low altitude remote sensing platform to obtain the high-definition traffic video data. This paper aim at the video proposed a vehicle detection method in the complex and varying background. This method is capable of detecting moving and static vehicles accurately on the road in real time without any supplementary information.

Wang, Wenlong; Tang, Luliang; Li, Qingquan

2009-09-01

462

Aerial robotic data acquisition system  

SciTech Connect

A small, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with sensors for physical and chemical measurements of remote environments, is described. A miniature helicopter airframe is used as a platform for sensor testing and development. The sensor output is integrated with the flight control system for real-time, interactive, data acquisition and analysis. Pre-programmed flight missions will be flown with several sensors to demonstrate the cost-effective surveillance capabilities of this new technology.

Hofstetter, K.J.; Hayes, D.W.; Pendergast, M.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Corban, J.E. [Guided Systems Technologies, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1993-12-31

463

Ansaldo programs on fuel cell vehicles  

SciTech Connect

The growth in traffic and the importance of maintaining a stable ecology at the global scale, particularly with regard to atmospheric pollution, raises the necessity to realize a new generation of vehicles which are more efficient, more economical and compatible with the environment. At European level, the Car of Tomorrow task force has identified fuel cells as a promising alternative propulsion system. Ansaldo Ricerche has been involved in the development of fuel cell vehicles since the early nineties. Current ongoing programs relates to: (1) Fuel cell bus demonstrator (EQHEPP BUS) Test in 1996 (2) Fuel cell boat demonstrator (EQHHPP BOAT) Test in 1997 (3) Fuel cell passenger car prototype (FEVER) Test in 1997 (4) 2nd generation Fuel cell bus (FCBUS) 1996-1999 (5) 2nd generation Fuel cell passenger car (HYDRO-GEN) 1996-1999.

Marcenaro, B.G.; Federici, F. [Ansaldo Ricerche Srl, Genova (Italy)

1996-12-31

464

myCopter Enabling Technologies for Personal Aerial Transportation Systems  

E-print Network

Transport System PAV Personal Aerial Vehicle PPL Private pilot license UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle 1 towards a Personal Aerial Transportation System, in which vehicles would also have vertical spaceCopter project aims to provide a basis for a transportation system based on Per- sonal Aerial Vehicles

465

Measuring Sunflower Nitrogen Status from AN Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based System and AN on the Ground Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The md4-200 Microdrones is an UAV which can be programmed to follow a route defined by several way-points and actions. The ground-based device was a Pacific Vision, Inc. multispectral radiometer. Four images with both systems were taken during the crop season and an index related with nitrogen crop status was calculated from them and compared in a sunflower field that had four irrigation treatments and eight nitrogen application rates, resulting in 32 plots of 7 m by 3.4 m, with a plant density of 7.1 plants m-2. Calculated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from both measurement systems was a good indicator of nitrogen applied, but the UAV-based system provided a better estimate than ground-based system because in the first system was possible to eliminate the soil and shadows for calculating the index..

Agüera, F.; Carvajal, F.; Pérez, M.

2011-09-01

466

Vision based control for micro aerial vehicles : Application to sense and avoid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a collision avoidance approach based on omnidirectional cameras that does not require the estimation of range between two platforms to resolve a collision encounter. Our method achieves minimum separation between the two vehicles involved by maximising the view-angle given by the omnidirectional sensor. Only visual information is used to achieve avoidance under a bearing- only visual servoing

Luis Mejias; Ivan F. Mondragon Bernal; Pascual Campoy

2013-01-01

467

Adaptive tracking control of underactuated quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicles via backstepping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers about the control problem for an underactuated quadrotor UAV system with model parameter uncertainty. Backstepping based techniques are utilized to design a nonlinear adaptive controller which can compensate for the mass uncertainty of the vehicle. Lyapunov based stability analysis shows that the proposed control design yields asymptotic tracking for the UAV's motion in x, y, z direction

Mu Huang; Bin Xian; Chen Diao; Kaiyan Yang; Yu Feng

2010-01-01

468

Modeling a Prototype Optical Collision Avoidance Sensor For Unmanned Aerial Vehicles  

E-print Network

- NRC, Ottawa, ON. Canada Abstract--Sense and avoid systems for civilian unmanned air vehicles (UAVs the task with attractive performance specifications. Key requirements include long-range detection (up modules equipped with local processing. Availability of a fly- by-wire helicopter configured as a UAV

Hornsey, Richard

469

Trajectory Planning and Re-planning Strategies Applied to a Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

E-print Network

vehicles (UAVs) that has been considered for the trajectory planning problem. However, most of the existing-testing the approach through an experimental application to a cutting-edge quadrotor helicopter UAV. The Note re-planning in the presence of actuator faults, fault detection and diagnosis problem is also

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

470

The Impact of Intelligent Aiding for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Schedule Management  

E-print Network

There is increasing interest in designing systems such that the current many-to-one ratio of operators to unmanned vehicles (UVs) can be inverted. Instead of lower-level tasks performed by today’s UV teams, the sole operator ...

Cummings, M. L.

2007-01-01

471

Hybrid formation control of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Ali Karimoddini a,b  

E-print Network

con- trol in particular, provide a framework for analysis and design of the team behavior of several, we have utilized the properties of multi-affine vector fields over the polar partitioned space autonomous vehicles. A team of ro- bots, taking a cooperative structure, is more robust against the fail

Benmei, Chen

472

Terminal configured vehicle program: Test facilities guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminal configured vehicle (TCV) program was established to conduct research and to develop and evaluate aircraft and flight management system technology concepts that will benefit conventional take off and landing operations in the terminal area. Emphasis is placed on the development of operating methods for the highly automated environment anticipated in the future. The program involves analyses, simulation, and flight experiments. Flight experiments are conducted using a modified Boeing 737 airplane equipped with highly flexible display and control equipment and an aft flight deck for research purposes. The experimental systems of the Boeing 737 are described including the flight control computer systems, the navigation/guidance system, the control and command panel, and the electronic display system. The ground based facilities used in the program are described including the visual motion simulator, the fixed base simulator, the verification and validation laboratory, and the radio frequency anechoic facility.

1980-01-01

473

The reusable launch vehicle technology program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's launch systems have major shortcomings that will increase in significance in the future, and thus are principal drivers for seeking major improvements in space transportation. They are too costly; insufficiently reliable, safe, and operable; and increasingly losing market share to international competition. For the United States to continue its leadership in the human exploration and wide ranging utilization of space, the first order of business must be to achieve low cost, reliable transportatin to Earth orbit. NASA's Access to Space Study, in 1993, recommended the development of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) rocket vehicle as an Agency goal. The goal of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) technology program is to mature the technologies essential for a next-generation reusable launch system capable of reliably serving National space transportation needs at substantially reduced costs. The primary objectives of the RLV technology program are to (1) mature the technologies required for the next-generation system, (2) demonstrate the capability to achieve low development and operational cost, and rapid launch turnaround times and (3) reduce business and technical risks to encourage significant private investment in the commercial development and operation of the next-generation system. Developing and demonstrating the technologies required for a Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) rocket is a focus of the program becuase past studies indicate that it has the best potential for achieving the lowest space access cost while acting as an RLV technology driver (since it also encompasses the technology requirements of reusable rocket vehicles in general).

Cook, S.

474

HIERARCHICAL CONTROL SYSTEM SYNTHESIS FOR ROTORCRAFT-BASED UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the development of multiple number of Unmanned Arial Vehicle (UAV) system as a part of BErkeley AeRobot (BEAR) project, highlighting the recent achievements in the design and implementation of rotorcraft-based UAV (RUAV) control system. Based on the experimental flight data, linear system model valid near hover condition is found by applying time-domain numerical methods to experimental flight

David Hyunchul Shim; Hyoun Jin Kirn; Shankar Sastry

475

Flexible Wing Base Micro Aerial Vehicles: Towards Flight Autonomy: Vision-Based Horizon Detection for Micro Air Vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently substantial progress has been made towards design building and testifying remotely piloted Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs). This progress in overcoming the aerodynamic obstacles to flight at very small scales has, unfortunately, not been matched by similar progress in autonomous MAV flight. Thus, we propose a robust, vision-based horizon detection algorithm as the first step towards autonomous MAVs. In this paper, we first motivate the use of computer vision for the horizon detection task by examining the flight of birds (biological MAVs) and considering other practical factors. We then describe our vision-based horizon detection algorithm, which has been demonstrated at 30 Hz with over 99.9% correct horizon identification, over terrain that includes roads, buildings large and small, meadows, wooded areas, and a lake. We conclude with some sample horizon detection results and preview a companion paper, where the work discussed here forms the core of a complete autonomous flight stability system.

Nechyba, Michael C.; Ettinger, Scott M.; Ifju, Peter G.; Wazak, Martin

2002-01-01